Chapter

Statistical Appendix

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
October 2015
Share
  • ShareShare
Show Summary Details

Unless otherwise noted, data and projections presented in this Regional Economic Outlook are IMF staff estimates as of 18 September, 2015, consistent with the projections underlying the October 2015 World Economic Outlook.

The data and projections cover 45 sub-Saharan African countries in the IMF’s African Department. Data definitions follow established international statistical methodologies to the extent possible. However, in some cases, data limitations limit comparability across countries.

Country Groupings

As in previous Regional Economic Outlooks, countries are aggregated into four nonoverlapping groups: oil exporters, middle-income, low-income, and fragile countries (see statistical tables). The membership of these groups reflects the most recent data on per capita gross national income (averaged over three years) and the 2013 International Development Association Resource Allocation Index (IRAI).

  • The eight oil exporters are countries where net oil exports make up 30 percent or more of total exports. Except for Angola, Nigeria, and South Sudan, they belong to the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). Oil exporters are classified as such even if they would otherwise qualify for another group.
  • The 12 middle-income countries not classified as oil exporters or fragile countries had per capita gross national income in the years 2012–14 of more than US$1,045.00 (World Bank using the Atlas method).
  • The 10 low-income countries not classified as oil exporters or fragile countries had average per capita gross national income in the years 2012–14 equal to or lower than US$1,045.00 (World Bank, Atlas method) and IRAI scores higher than 3.2.
  • The 15 fragile countries not classified as oil exporters had IRAI scores of 3.2 or less.
  • The membership of sub-Saharan African countries in the major regional cooperation bodies is shown on page 78: CFA franc zone, comprising the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) and CEMAC; the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA); the East Africa Community (EAC-5); the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS); the Southern African Development Community (SADC); and the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU). EAC-5 aggregates include data for Rwanda and Burundi, which joined the group only in 2007.

Methods of Aggregation

In Tables SA1SA3, SA6SA7, SA13, SA15SA16, and SA22SA23, country group composites are calculated as the arithmetic average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of total group GDP. The source of purchasing power parity weights is the World Economic Outlook (WEO) database.

In Tables SA8SA12, SA17SA21, and SA24SA26, country group composites are calculated as the arithmetic average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP in U.S. dollars at market exchange rates as a share of total group GDP.

In Tables SA4SA5 and SA14, country group composites are calculated as the geometric average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of total group GDP. The source of purchasing power parity weights is the WEO database.

In Tables SA27SA28, country group composites are calculated as the unweighted arithmetic average of data for individual countries.

Sub-Saharan Africa: Member Countries of Regional Groupings
The West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)Economic and Monetary Community of Central African States (CEMAC)Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)East Africa Community (EAC-5)Southern African Development Community (SADC)Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU)Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
BeninCameroonBurundiBurundiAngolaBotswanaBenin
Burkina FasoCentral AfricanComorosKenyaBotswanaLesothoBurkina Faso
Côte d’IvoireRepublicCongo, DemocraticRwandaCongo, DemocraticNamibiaCabo Verde
Guinea-BissauChadRepublic ofTanzaniaRepublic ofSouth AfricaCôte d’Ivoire
MaliCongo, Rep. ofEritreaUgandaLesothoSwazilandGambia, The
NigerEquatorial GuineaEthiopiaMadagascarGhana
SenegalGabonKenyaMalawiGuinea
TogoMadagascarMauritiusGuinea-Bissau
MalawiMozambiqueLiberia
MauritiusNamibiaMali
RwandaSeychellesNiger
SeychellesSouth AfricaNigeria
SwazilandSwazilandSenegal
UgandaTanzaniaSierra Leone
ZambiaZambiaTogo
ZimbabweZimbabwe
List of Country Acronyms: References for Figures 1.8, 1.13, and 3.4.
AGOAngolaCIVCôte d’IvoireLBRLiberiaRWARwanda
ARGArgentinaECUEcuadorMDGMadagascarPNGPapua New Guinea
BGDBangladeshGNQEquatorial GuineaMWIMalawiSTPSâo Tomé and Príncipe
BENBeninERIEritreaMYSMalaysiaSENSenegal
BWABotswanaETHEthiopiaMLIMaliSYCSeychelles
BRABrazilFJIFijiMUSMauritiusSLESierra Leone
BFABurkina FasoGABGabonMEXMexicoSGPSingapore
BDIBurundiGMBGambia, TheMNGMongoliaZAFSouth Africa
CPVCabo VerdeGHAGhanaMARMoroccoSSDSouth Sudan
KHMCambodiaGINGuineaMOZMozambiqueLKASri Lanka
CMRCameroonGNBGuinea-BissauNAMNamibiaSWZSwaziland
CAFCentral African RepublicHKGHong Kong SARNPLNepalTZATanzania
TCDChadHUNHungaryNERNigerTHAThailand
CHLChileINDIndiaNGANigeriaTGOTogo
CHNChinaIDNIndonesiaPAKPakistanUGAUganda
CODCongo, Dem. Rep. ofKENKenyaPOLPolandVENVenezuela
COGCongo, Republic ofKORKoreaPERPeruVNMVietnam
COLColombiaLAOLao PDRPHLPhilippinesZMBZambia
COMComorosLSOLesothoRUSRussiaZWEZimbabwe

List of Tables

Table SA1.Real GDP Growth(Percent)
2004-0820092010201120122013201420152016
Oil-exporting countries9.27.08.54.63.85.75.93.64.2
Excluding Nigeria10.71.74.23.72.46.54.72.53.8
Angola17.32.43.43.95.26.84.83.53.5
Cameroon3.11.93.34.14.65.65.75.35.4
Chad9.74.213.50.18.95.76.96.94.2
Congo, Rep. of4.37.58.73.43.83.36.81.06.5
Equatorial Guinea13.0−4.5−3.81.95.8−6.5−0.3−10.2−0.8
Gabon1.3−2.36.37.15.35.64.33.54.9
Nigeria8.69.010.04.94.35.46.34.04.3
South Sudan−52.429.32.9−5.30.7
Middle-income countries15.00.24.64.73.53.72.72.62.9
Excluding South Africa5.43.47.57.35.66.14.74.65.3
Botswana6.0−7.78.66.04.89.34.42.63.2
Cabo Verde7.1−1.31.54.01.11.01.83.53.7
Ghana6.35.87.914.08.07.34.03.55.7
Kenya4.63.38.46.14.65.75.36.56.8
Lesotho4.04.56.94.55.33.63.42.62.9
Mauritius4.33.04.13.93.23.23.63.23.8
Namibia4.30.36.05.15.15.14.54.85.0
Senegal4.52.44.21.84.43.64.75.15.9
Seychelles4.8−1.15.97.96.66.03.33.53.7
South Africa4.8−1.53.03.22.22.21.51.41.3
Swaziland4.41.91.41.23.02.92.51.90.7
Zambia7.79.210.36.46.86.75.64.34.0
Low-income and fragile countries5.75.16.56.26.56.66.95.96.5
Low-income excluding fragile countries7.86.57.77.86.27.27.46.26.8
Benin3.92.72.63.35.45.65.45.55.3
Burkina Faso5.93.08.46.66.56.64.05.06.0
Ethiopia211.810.010.611.48.79.810.38.78.1
Mali4.64.55.82.70.01.77.25.05.0
Mozambique7.76.57.17.47.17.47.47.08.2
Niger5.2−0.78.42.211.84.66.94.35.4
Rwanda9.06.26.37.58.84.76.96.57.0
Sierra Leone5.83.25.36.015.220.17.1−23.9−0.7
Tanzania6.55.46.47.95.17.37.06.97.0
Uganda8.38.17.76.82.63.94.85.25.5
Fragile countries2.72.64.43.26.95.65.85.25.9
Burundi4.43.85.14.24.04.54.7−7.25.2
Central African Rep.3.31.73.03.34.1−36.01.05.55.7
Comoros1.31.82.12.23.03.52.01.02.2
Congo, Dem. Rep. of6.12.97.16.97.18.59.28.47.3
Côte d’Ivoire1.83.32.0−4.410.78.77.98.27.6
Eritrea−2.13.92.28.77.01.31.70.22.2
Gambia, The3.36.46.5−4.35.64.8−0.24.75.5
Guinea2.9−0.31.93.93.82.31.10.04.9
Guinea-Bissau3.13.34.49.4−1.80.82.54.74.8
Liberia7.35.16.17.48.28.70.70.95.6
Madagascar5.8−4.70.31.53.02.33.33.44.6
Malawi6.18.36.94.91.95.25.74.05.0
São Tomé & Príncipe5.74.04.54.84.54.04.55.05.2
Togo2.43.54.14.85.95.45.05.45.6
Zimbabwe3−7.57.511.411.910.64.53.31.42.4
Sub-Saharan Africa6.84.16.65.04.35.25.03.84.3
Median4.83.36.04.85.15.14.54.05.0
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa6.83.86.25.95.26.45.74.75.5
Oil-importing countries5.32.05.35.34.64.84.44.04.4
Excluding South Africa5.64.56.96.66.26.46.15.46.1
CFA franc zone4.62.04.62.36.14.35.64.55.5
WAEMU3.62.94.41.16.85.86.36.16.3
CEMAC5.71.14.83.55.42.74.82.64.5
EAC-56.25.27.46.94.65.85.96.16.6
ECOWAS7.47.68.85.05.05.76.04.04.7
SADC6.20.54.24.33.74.23.53.03.1
SACU4.8−1.63.33.42.42.61.81.61.6
COMESA (SSA members)6.25.67.87.25.86.26.55.96.1
MDRI countries6.55.37.07.36.06.56.55.46.2
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs4.52.04.62.66.04.35.34.35.2
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs7.34.46.95.34.35.25.03.84.2
Sub-Saharan Africa46.84.16.65.04.65.05.03.94.3
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Table SA2.Real Non-Oil GDP Growth(Percent)
2004-0820092010201120122013201420152016
Oil-exporting countries13.26.27.56.05.88.36.74.44.7
Excluding Nigeria13.26.27.57.85.58.35.12.53.6
Angola17.68.17.69.55.510.98.22.13.4
Cameroon3.62.94.14.64.65.55.45.15.5
Chad6.36.417.20.211.68.07.11.33.6
Congo, Rep. of5.73.96.57.49.78.17.92.23.3
Equatorial Guinea31.813.01.19.80.33.3−0.5−0.1−0.7
Gabon4.9−3.313.010.47.07.84.95.16.1
Nigeria5.35.98.37.35.05.1
South Sudan−0.84.1−17.5−1.21.1
Middle-income countries15.00.24.64.23.43.62.72.52.8
Excluding South Africa5.43.47.56.05.55.94.64.35.1
Botswana6.0−7.78.66.04.89.34.42.63.2
Cabo Verde7.1−1.31.54.01.11.01.83.53.7
Ghana6.35.87.98.47.36.74.02.34.7
Kenya4.63.38.46.14.65.75.36.56.8
Lesotho4.04.56.94.55.33.63.42.62.9
Mauritius4.33.04.13.93.23.23.63.23.8
Namibia4.30.36.05.15.15.14.54.85.0
Senegal4.52.44.21.84.43.64.75.15.9
Seychelles4.8−1.15.97.96.66.03.33.53.7
South Africa4.8−1.53.03.22.22.21.51.41.3
Swaziland4.41.91.41.23.02.92.51.90.7
Zambia7.79.210.36.46.86.75.64.34.0
Low-income and fragile countries5.74.96.56.16.66.66.95.86.5
Low-income excluding fragile countries7.86.57.77.86.07.17.56.26.8
Benin3.92.72.63.35.45.65.45.55.3
Burkina Faso5.93.08.46.66.56.64.05.06.0
Ethiopia211.810.010.611.48.79.810.38.78.1
Mali4.64.55.82.70.01.77.25.05.0
Mozambique7.76.57.17.47.17.47.47.08.2
Niger5.2−0.78.41.34.22.18.33.76.0
Rwanda9.06.26.37.58.84.76.96.57.0
Sierra Leone5.83.25.36.015.220.17.1−23.9−0.7
Tanzania6.55.46.47.95.17.37.06.97.0
Uganda8.38.17.76.82.63.94.85.25.5
Fragile countries2.62.34.53.17.75.65.95.15.9
Burundi4.43.85.14.24.04.54.7−7.25.2
Central African Rep.3.31.73.03.34.1−36.01.05.55.7
Comoros1.31.82.12.23.03.52.01.02.2
Congo, Dem. Rep. of5.92.87.27.07.28.69.28.57.3
Côte d’Ivoire1.82.12.6−4.813.58.88.37.87.6
Eritrea−2.13.92.28.77.01.31.70.22.2
Gambia, The3.36.46.5−4.35.64.8−0.24.75.5
Guinea2.9−0.31.93.93.82.31.10.04.9
Guinea-Bissau3.13.34.49.4−1.80.82.54.74.8
Liberia7.35.16.17.48.28.70.70.95.6
Madagascar5.8−4.70.31.53.02.33.33.44.6
Malawi6.18.36.94.91.95.25.74.05.0
São Tomé & Príncipe5.74.04.54.84.54.04.55.05.2
Togo2.43.54.14.85.95.45.05.45.6
Zimbabwe3−7.57.511.411.910.64.53.31.42.4
Sub-Saharan Africa6.52.65.75.45.16.35.44.14.5
Median4.93.36.05.25.15.14.74.05.0
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa7.44.87.16.56.06.85.94.65.4
Oil-importing countries5.31.95.34.94.64.84.43.94.4
Excluding South Africa5.64.46.96.16.26.36.15.36.0
CFA franc zone6.63.45.93.56.65.65.84.75.4
WAEMU3.62.54.60.97.15.66.55.96.3
CEMAC9.74.47.36.26.05.75.03.44.2
EAC-56.25.27.46.94.65.85.96.16.6
ECOWAS4.43.35.44.96.27.86.84.75.3
SADC6.31.24.85.03.74.73.92.93.1
SACU4.8−1.63.33.42.42.61.81.61.6
COMESA (SSA members)6.25.67.97.25.86.26.55.96.1
MDRI countries6.65.37.06.86.06.56.55.36.0
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs6.23.25.73.66.45.45.54.65.1
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs6.82.45.65.64.96.45.64.14.5
Sub-Saharan Africa46.52.65.75.45.16.35.54.14.5
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Table SA3.Real Per Capita GDP Growth(Percent)
2004-0820092010201120122013201420152016
Oil-exporting countries6.24.15.61.81.02.93.00.81.4
Excluding Nigeria7.6−1.01.41.0−0.43.61.9−0.21.2
Angola13.8−0.60.40.92.13.71.70.50.5
Cameroon0.3−0.80.81.62.03.03.12.82.8
Chad7.01.710.8−2.46.23.14.34.31.7
Congo, Rep. of1.44.45.70.50.91.14.5−1.24.3
Equatorial Guinea9.7−7.2−6.5−0.92.8−9.1−3.0−12.6−3.4
Gabon−1.0−3.74.75.63.74.12.82.13.5
Nigeria5.76.17.02.11.52.63.51.21.5
South Sudan−54.723.4−1.6−9.4−1.3
Middle-income countries13.3−1.62.92.91.61.80.80.81.0
Excluding South Africa3.21.15.34.93.13.62.32.22.9
Botswana4.6−8.97.24.83.68.03.21.42.0
Cabo Verde6.4−1.51.13.3−2.0−0.20.62.22.4
Ghana3.63.15.211.25.34.61.40.93.1
Kenya1.80.56.13.41.52.92.63.74.0
Lesotho3.94.36.64.35.03.33.22.42.7
Mauritius3.82.83.93.72.93.03.63.13.8
Namibia2.9−1.24.53.63.73.73.03.94.2
Senegal1.7−0.41.3−1.11.40.71.72.12.9
Seychelles3.7−1.53.06.75.44.82.12.32.5
South Africa3.4−2.91.51.70.70.6−0.1−0.2−0.2
Swaziland5.60.70.30.01.81.71.20.7−0.5
Zambia4.86.17.03.13.43.32.20.90.6
Low-income and fragile countries2.92.43.83.63.84.14.43.44.0
Low-income excluding fragile countries4.73.85.05.23.74.75.03.94.4
Benin0.6−0.3−0.30.52.62.92.72.92.8
Burkina Faso2.80.05.33.63.43.61.12.03.0
Ethiopia29.28.38.89.67.08.18.67.06.4
Mali1.31.22.6−0.3−2.9−1.33.91.71.8
Mozambique4.83.74.44.84.44.84.74.55.5
Niger1.5−4.15.1−0.98.51.43.71.22.3
Rwanda6.84.13.15.45.71.84.13.64.3
Sierra Leone2.41.23.33.913.017.64.9−25.0−2.5
Tanzania3.62.73.85.32.75.24.94.84.9
Uganda4.64.54.23.5−0.80.31.72.12.4
Fragile countries0.10.01.70.44.12.93.12.63.2
Burundi2.31.42.61.71.62.02.3−9.32.7
Central African Rep.1.5−0.21.11.32.1−37.3−0.93.53.7
Comoros−1.1−1.2−0.9−0.80.00.5−1.0−1.9−0.8
Congo, Dem. Rep. of3.0−0.14.03.84.05.36.05.34.2
Côte d’Ivoire−0.80.6−0.6−6.87.95.95.25.54.9
Eritrea−5.70.6−1.15.23.6−1.9−1.5−3.0−1.0
Gambia, The0.43.63.7−6.92.82.0−2.91.92.7
Guinea0.6−2.9−0.71.31.2−0.3−1.4−2.42.3
Guinea-Bissau0.91.12.16.8−4.0−1.40.32.42.5
Liberia5.70.81.84.75.55.9−1.9−1.73.1
Madagascar2.8−7.4−2.5−1.40.2−0.60.50.61.7
Malawi3.55.33.91.9−1.02.32.71.12.1
São Tomé & Príncipe3.01.01.51.91.81.41.92.52.7
Togo−0.50.91.42.13.22.72.32.72.9
Zimbabwe3−8.36.610.49.17.83.32.10.31.3
Sub-Saharan Africa4.31.74.22.61.82.82.61.41.9
Median3.00.83.22.62.82.92.32.02.7
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa4.11.23.73.32.63.93.22.23.1
Oil-importing countries3.2−0.13.23.12.42.72.31.92.3
Excluding South Africa3.01.94.44.13.63.93.63.03.6
CFA franc zone1.8−0.71.9−0.33.41.72.91.92.8
WAEMU0.70.01.6−1.73.92.93.33.23.4
CEMAC2.9−1.42.31.12.90.42.50.32.2
EAC-53.22.34.74.11.63.13.33.54.0
ECOWAS4.54.75.92.22.22.93.21.31.9
SADC4.4−1.42.32.33.72.21.51.01.1
SACU3.5−3.01.91.90.91.10.20.00.0
COMESA (SSA members)3.63.15.44.73.23.74.03.53.7
MDRI countries3.62.64.24.63.33.83.92.83.7
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs1.8−0.62.00.13.41.82.81.92.8
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs4.92.04.52.91.92.72.61.41.8
Sub-Saharan Africa44.31.74.22.62.22.62.61.51.9
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Table SA4.Consumer Prices(Annual average, percent change)
2004-0820092010201120122013201420152016
Oil-exporting countries10.911.512.110.011.27.57.18.79.3
Excluding Nigeria9.28.87.87.78.54.94.67.88.3
Angola20.913.714.513.510.38.87.310.314.2
Cameroon2.73.01.32.92.42.11.92.02.1
Chad1.510.1−2.11.97.70.21.74.33.1
Congo, Rep. of3.94.35.01.85.04.60.90.91.7
Equatorial Guinea4.45.75.34.83.43.24.33.52.9
Gabon0.91.91.41.32.70.54.50.62.5
Nigeria11.612.513.710.812.28.58.19.19.7
South Sudan45.10.01.741.114.4
Middle-income countries16.87.94.66.56.26.16.75.96.1
Excluding South Africa9.29.45.29.17.16.87.77.56.5
Botswana9.48.16.98.57.55.83.94.04.4
Cabo Verde2.91.02.14.52.51.5−0.21.02.5
Ghana13.313.16.77.77.111.715.515.310.1
Kenya8.310.64.314.09.45.76.96.35.9
Lesotho6.95.93.46.05.55.03.83.94.1
Mauritius7.42.52.96.53.93.53.22.03.0
Namibia5.49.54.95.06.75.65.34.86.0
Senegal3.3−2.21.23.41.40.7−1.10.62.1
Seychelles9.031.8−2.42.67.14.31.44.32.9
South Africa5.67.14.35.05.75.86.14.85.9
Swaziland6.27.44.56.18.95.65.75.25.7
Zambia13.713.48.58.76.67.07.87.37.5
Low-income and fragile countries9.410.06.813.811.05.64.55.35.5
Low-income excluding fragile countries9.18.55.816.414.15.74.75.96.3
Benin3.70.92.22.76.71.0−1.10.52.3
Burkina Faso3.80.9−0.62.83.80.5−0.30.71.8
Ethiopia18.08.58.133.224.18.17.410.09.0
Mali3.12.21.33.15.3−0.60.92.43.6
Mozambique10.23.312.710.42.14.22.34.05.6
Niger4.04.3−2.82.90.52.3−0.91.32.1
Rwanda10.910.32.35.76.34.21.82.14.2
Sierra Leone12.59.217.818.513.89.88.310.212.7
Tanzania6.612.17.212.716.07.96.15.65.9
Uganda7.513.14.018.714.04.84.65.76.5
Fragile countries9.912.58.79.05.75.34.14.24.0
Burundi11.410.66.59.618.27.94.47.46.2
Central African Rep.3.53.51.51.25.96.611.65.74.9
Comoros4.04.83.92.25.91.61.32.02.2
Congo, Dem. Rep. of14.746.223.515.52.10.81.01.01.7
Côte d’Ivoire3.21.01.44.91.32.60.41.61.5
Eritrea16.433.012.713.312.312.312.312.312.3
Gambia, The6.24.65.04.84.65.26.26.55.3
Guinea25.04.715.521.415.211.99.79.08.7
Guinea-Bissau4.0−1.61.15.12.10.8−1.01.32.3
Liberia9.87.47.38.56.87.69.97.98.2
Madagascar12.59.09.29.55.75.86.17.67.4
Malawi11.58.47.47.621.328.323.820.114.0
São Tomé & Príncipe20.817.013.314.310.68.17.05.84.6
Togo3.83.71.43.62.61.80.21.92.1
Zimbabwe239.96.23.03.53.71.6−0.2−1.60.0
Sub-Saharan Africa8.89.88.29.59.46.66.46.97.3
Median7.27.34.45.86.34.84.34.34.6
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa9.29.56.611.09.35.85.46.56.4
Oil-importing countries7.78.75.49.28.05.95.85.65.9
Excluding South Africa9.39.86.212.09.66.05.66.15.8
CFA franc zone3.12.61.43.13.31.71.21.72.2
WAEMU3.40.90.83.72.71.3−0.11.32.1
CEMAC2.74.52.02.63.82.12.62.22.4
EAC-57.811.65.214.012.66.25.85.75.9
ECOWAS10.310.411.19.610.37.67.38.38.5
SADC8.09.86.97.63.76.36.05.66.8
SACU5.87.24.45.25.85.75.94.85.8
COMESA (SSA members)11.513.07.416.111.76.26.16.66.4
MDRI countries9.210.06.511.910.06.15.76.46.0
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs3.63.61.93.53.82.21.72.22.7
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs9.811.09.310.610.17.47.27.68.1
Sub-Saharan Africa38.89.88.29.59.26.66.46.87.3
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Table SA5.Consumer Prices(End of period, percent change)
2004-0820092010201120122013201420152016
Oil-exporting countries9.812.210.99.610.66.97.210.59.5
Excluding Nigeria8.47.88.47.56.84.05.210.59.6
Angola17.314.015.311.49.07.77.513.913.0
Cameroon3.10.92.62.72.51.72.62.02.1
Chad3.24.7−2.210.82.10.93.73.23.0
Congo, Rep. of4.42.55.41.87.52.10.51.82.2
Equatorial Guinea4.35.05.44.92.64.94.33.52.9
Gabon1.10.90.72.32.23.31.71.12.5
Nigeria10.413.911.710.312.07.97.910.59.5
South Sudan25.2−8.89.968.953.9
Middle-income countries17.46.44.47.75.66.16.56.15.7
Excluding South Africa9.76.56.110.55.57.47.67.25.7
Botswana9.95.87.49.27.44.13.74.34.4
Cabo Verde3.5−0.43.43.64.10.1−0.42.02.5
Ghana13.79.56.98.48.113.517.012.08.0
Kenya9.08.05.818.93.27.16.06.35.4
Lesotho7.23.83.67.25.05.62.64.15.0
Mauritius7.31.56.14.93.24.10.23.03.0
Namibia6.17.93.17.46.44.94.65.25.5
Senegal3.8−4.54.32.71.1−0.1−0.83.01.4
Seychelles16.1−2.50.45.55.83.40.54.93.8
South Africa6.46.33.56.15.75.45.85.55.7
Swaziland7.74.54.57.88.34.46.26.15.4
Zambia13.49.97.97.27.37.17.98.07.0
Low-income and fragile countries10.28.47.415.88.24.64.36.45.2
Low-income excluding fragile countries9.77.27.320.18.94.74.37.35.9
Benin4.1−0.54.01.86.8−1.8−0.82.32.4
Burkina Faso4.1−1.8−0.35.11.70.1−0.11.61.8
Ethiopia19.37.114.635.915.07.77.112.38.2
Mali3.71.71.95.32.40.01.23.12.6
Mozambique9.24.216.65.52.23.01.15.55.6
Niger5.3−3.11.41.40.71.1−0.62.61.5
Rwanda11.45.70.28.33.93.62.13.55.0
Sierra Leone12.410.818.416.912.08.59.812.010.3
Tanzania7.112.25.619.812.15.64.86.65.4
Uganda8.411.03.127.05.34.34.96.46.6
Fragile countries10.910.67.88.26.84.44.14.53.8
Burundi12.54.64.114.911.89.03.711.84.4
Central African Rep.4.7−1.22.34.35.95.98.49.42.5
Comoros4.42.26.74.91.03.50.04.00.1
Congo, Dem. Rep. of17.253.49.815.42.71.01.20.92.5
Côte d’Ivoire3.9−1.75.12.03.40.40.92.01.8
Eritrea17.522.214.212.312.312.312.312.312.3
Gambia, The5.22.75.84.44.95.56.96.04.7
Guinea24.67.920.819.012.810.59.09.48.0
Guinea-Bissau4.6−6.45.73.41.6−0.1−0.12.02.5
Liberia9.59.76.611.47.78.57.78.08.5
Madagascar13.68.010.26.95.86.36.08.17.2
Malawi11.67.66.39.834.623.524.218.79.1
São Tomé & Príncipe21.916.112.911.910.47.16.45.24.0
Togo4.90.63.81.52.91.81.82.22.3
Zimbabwe2−7.73.24.92.90.3−0.8−0.70.5
Sub-Saharan Africa8.99.27.710.28.36.16.38.07.2
Median7.34.75.47.05.74.33.75.24.4
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa9.67.87.312.37.15.25.47.56.3
Oil-importing countries8.47.15.510.76.65.55.66.25.5
Excluding South Africa10.07.76.913.87.25.65.56.65.4
CFA franc zone3.60.22.93.52.91.21.42.32.1
WAEMU4.0−1.73.32.92.70.10.22.31.9
CEMAC3.22.42.44.03.22.42.62.32.4
EAC-58.49.94.820.36.95.95.16.45.6
ECOWAS9.610.810.29.210.27.27.49.38.1
SADC8.48.96.18.43.75.65.66.66.4
SACU6.56.33.66.25.85.35.65.45.6
COMESA (SSA members)12.510.77.818.67.76.35.87.46.0
MDRI countries9.88.56.913.77.85.65.77.05.5
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs4.21.13.24.03.41.71.82.72.6
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs9.810.88.511.39.07.07.08.67.7
Sub-Saharan Africa38.99.27.710.28.26.26.27.76.9
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Table SA6.Total Investment(Percent of GDP)
2004-0820092010201120122013201420152016
Oil-exporting countries17.622.418.917.316.716.817.718.417.8
Excluding Nigeria19.024.723.520.221.422.022.821.321.2
Angola12.615.214.412.914.914.815.010.411.3
Cameroon16.520.620.320.220.721.622.422.722.5
Chad22.630.234.528.531.527.530.529.028.8
Congo, Rep. of20.922.520.525.326.030.942.241.739.0
Equatorial Guinea38.271.363.955.648.054.047.955.248.8
Gabon23.229.129.830.623.326.526.831.931.5
Nigeria17.021.617.316.214.914.915.817.416.5
South Sudan5.510.712.512.813.916.8
Middle-income countries121.421.721.421.723.122.022.322.422.6
Excluding South Africa23.923.524.926.328.225.225.426.126.8
Botswana30.037.338.037.838.533.431.532.833.4
Cabo Verde36.736.537.737.240.339.637.640.741.6
Ghana22.020.725.726.632.023.524.823.825.2
Kenya18.919.320.721.721.520.121.423.824.2
Lesotho25.529.529.035.036.735.033.033.333.2
Mauritius25.621.323.726.024.825.122.925.426.3
Namibia22.727.324.122.426.924.928.029.632.7
Senegal26.322.422.025.629.127.927.926.927.1
Seychelles28.627.336.635.037.437.937.333.734.1
South Africa20.220.719.519.120.120.120.419.919.8
Swaziland22.814.46.54.65.57.79.210.18.0
Zambia33.230.329.933.534.233.631.130.930.7
Low-income and fragile countries21.621.823.024.924.826.325.927.628.5
Low-income excluding fragile countries24.123.926.030.429.531.731.333.533.7
Benin18.320.917.618.717.623.618.422.522.0
Burkina Faso18.517.918.015.414.920.210.813.817.0
Ethiopia222.723.324.431.230.835.836.839.536.9
Mali28.427.835.426.318.318.525.030.532.8
Mozambique21.816.017.836.856.558.648.448.651.6
Niger23.232.149.543.940.140.640.643.848.1
Rwanda20.123.623.223.525.926.526.325.325.4
Sierra Leone10.210.031.142.127.912.713.315.215.1
Tanzania26.325.127.333.228.530.331.030.931.0
Uganda29.127.626.029.529.529.230.233.434.8
Fragile countries17.318.217.614.616.216.115.516.018.4
Burundi18.119.019.219.319.519.619.614.719.7
Central African Rep.10.113.214.312.215.08.710.214.616.3
Comoros10.712.415.414.916.820.418.618.420.8
Congo, Dem. Rep. of12.714.812.312.212.715.315.715.614.8
Côte d’Ivoire12.811.614.910.516.517.016.818.519.1
Eritrea15.99.39.310.09.58.88.07.87.6
Gambia, The21.119.621.318.927.820.024.518.024.1
Guinea17.310.39.413.424.720.49.412.547.3
Guinea-Bissau6.86.06.65.37.37.010.812.414.2
Liberia
Madagascar29.735.623.417.617.615.915.616.317.6
Malawi21.530.828.414.815.715.314.113.413.4
São Tomé & Príncipe54.937.154.342.935.631.525.732.126.8
Togo19.222.823.923.523.823.623.624.624.6
Zimbabwe315.123.922.413.513.013.112.912.8
Sub-Saharan Africa19.922.020.720.520.820.821.121.921.9
Median21.621.623.422.924.222.523.223.824.9
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa21.623.023.724.125.024.925.025.726.3
Oil-importing countries21.521.722.022.923.823.723.724.525.0
Excluding South Africa22.522.523.725.426.125.925.727.027.9
CFA franc zone21.125.926.924.824.425.725.827.527.5
WAEMU19.419.422.720.020.922.221.223.424.7
CEMAC22.933.031.429.828.129.631.032.330.8
EAC-523.423.324.227.425.825.926.828.228.8
ECOWAS17.821.018.817.817.416.817.318.818.9
SADC20.921.420.520.93.721.821.721.121.3
SACU20.721.520.319.921.020.821.020.820.8
COMESA (SSA members)23.023.122.724.324.025.025.427.026.8
MDRI countries23.023.624.426.827.327.727.928.929.2
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs21.325.526.124.124.125.225.427.127.2
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs19.721.519.820.220.420.220.621.221.2
Sub-Saharan Africa419.922.020.720.720.820.821.221.922.0
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Table SA7.Gross National Savings(Percent of GDP)
2004-0820092010201120122013201420152016
Oil-exporting countries29.923.021.921.220.719.616.814.614.9
Excluding Nigeria28.013.324.226.324.722.419.112.113.8
Angola27.35.223.525.526.921.513.52.85.8
Cameroon15.517.617.517.517.117.817.817.617.3
Chad23.121.125.522.822.818.321.618.619.6
Congo, Rep. of18.28.427.929.923.626.532.826.524.5
Equatorial Guinea52.724.422.734.436.329.425.323.624.0
Gabon39.633.838.543.439.238.735.025.327.5
Nigeria30.726.621.219.219.318.516.015.615.4
South Sudan23.5−8.911.315.49.013.2
Middle-income countries116.316.717.316.814.414.414.517.217.1
Excluding South Africa21.820.520.018.117.217.017.619.519.7
Botswana40.929.934.640.539.942.347.635.633.6
Cabo Verde27.221.925.320.927.734.630.031.035.0
Ghana14.718.419.619.016.813.515.215.418.0
Kenya16.414.914.812.513.111.211.014.114.5
Lesotho43.233.119.220.026.524.424.826.919.2
Mauritius20.015.014.313.118.419.718.320.320.8
Namibia30.125.720.619.321.220.918.017.516.5
Senegal16.415.617.617.418.317.519.120.821.9
Seychelles14.812.417.613.517.526.516.318.619.4
South Africa16.018.018.017.015.114.414.915.615.3
Swaziland19.62.8−2.1−2.28.612.912.211.25.2
Zambia32.136.237.438.139.733.029.729.528.1
Low-income and fragile countries16.013.416.717.016.215.616.216.918.0
Low-income excluding fragile countries18.515.919.521.721.120.520.821.522.4
Benin11.011.98.910.99.313.210.413.212.8
Burkina Faso8.113.215.813.910.413.64.65.99.2
Ethiopia219.715.424.533.131.229.728.827.027.6
Mali20.820.522.820.115.715.117.727.128.7
Mozambique11.15.07.113.714.218.513.610.59.5
Niger14.17.725.521.625.525.225.324.824.7
Rwanda18.416.417.816.414.719.114.414.715.9
Sierra Leone4.5−1.79.6−17.04.62.31.41.23.2
Tanzania20.918.321.221.619.315.121.922.723.9
Uganda24.921.216.918.721.522.020.622.823.6
Fragile countries11.89.211.78.27.16.47.38.19.3
Burundi12.221.77.86.42.71.62.43.710.3
Central African Rep.4.64.14.14.610.45.74.12.85.1
Comoros4.46.215.210.012.211.811.69.39.8
Congo, Dem. Rep. of8.07.15.74.75.84.76.14.33.8
Côte d’Ivoire13.918.316.821.015.315.716.117.517.2
Eritrea−19.9−9.7−9.31.25.94.02.41.00.6
Gambia, The12.67.15.06.719.99.811.44.513.9
Guinea12.02.4−0.3−5.4−4.0−3.6−14.9−4.210.5
Guinea-Bissau5.60.8−2.24.9−2.62.69.68.89.4
Liberia
Madagascar20.414.513.710.810.810.315.314.915.4
Malawi14.926.931.86.26.46.66.08.96.1
São Tomé & Príncipe27.813.832.617.414.38.1−2.019.711.6
Togo10.417.217.615.416.310.510.712.212.5
Zimbabwe3−32.08.0−8.5−11.0−12.5−8.9−10.1−7.1
Sub-Saharan Africa22.219.419.719.218.517.516.616.016.4
Median16.415.417.617.216.015.115.315.515.4
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa20.615.319.720.319.718.317.816.517.5
Oil-importing countries17.216.818.117.716.916.016.417.117.4
Excluding South Africa18.216.018.218.218.017.017.317.918.6
CFA franc zone20.618.020.722.320.319.919.619.119.6
WAEMU14.015.817.417.915.315.815.117.518.2
CEMAC27.720.324.227.025.724.424.521.021.2
EAC-519.617.717.417.016.815.016.818.819.7
ECOWAS26.023.720.118.418.117.415.415.615.9
SADC19.015.919.218.43.716.116.114.714.8
SACU17.518.518.517.816.315.816.516.616.0
COMESA (SSA members)18.515.218.017.818.517.417.117.617.9
MDRI countries17.616.919.620.119.618.319.019.219.9
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs20.517.619.621.119.919.619.118.718.9
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs22.520.119.919.118.817.516.515.916.2
Sub-Saharan Africa422.219.419.719.218.717.616.616.116.4
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Table SA8.Overall Fiscal Balance, Including Grants(Percent of GDP)
2004-0820092010201120122013201420152016
Oil-exporting countries5.6−5.4−2.32.30.6−2.1−3.1−4.3−3.4
Excluding Nigeria7.3−4.42.46.01.5−1.7−5.8−5.5−3.9
Angola4.6−7.43.48.74.6−0.3−6.4−3.5−1.4
Cameroon8.60.0−1.1−2.6−1.6−4.0−5.2−5.1−5.6
Chad1.2−9.2−4.22.40.5−2.1−4.2−1.1−0.9
Congo, Rep. of13.54.816.116.56.4−1.8−7.7−9.4−2.6
Equatorial Guinea18.4−9.5−5.81.0−9.0−7.5−6.8−5.9−3.2
Gabon8.56.82.72.51.61.82.7−3.6−2.5
Nigeria4.9−6.0−4.20.40.3−2.3−2.0−3.9−3.2
South Sudan5.4−11.3−5.9−11.4−24.5−23.7
Middle-income countries1−0.3−4.8−5.0−4.1−4.4−4.7−4.5−4.9−4.4
Excluding South Africa−1.1−5.0−5.7−4.5−5.2−5.8−5.9−6.2−5.6
Botswana4.5−13.6−7.8−0.10.85.34.3−0.50.4
Cabo Verde−3.3−5.9−10.7−7.7−10.3−8.9−7.4−4.1−3.5
Ghana−4.9−7.0−9.4−7.3−12.2−11.1−10.9−5.9−4.3
Kenya−1.9−4.3−4.4−4.1−5.0−5.7−7.2−8.1−7.3
Lesotho9.0−4.0−4.2−10.65.0−2.50.6−3.2−10.4
Mauritius−3.9−3.6−3.2−3.2−1.8−3.5−3.2−5.0−3.9
Namibia2.0−0.1−4.5−6.7−2.3−3.4−3.7−5.9−7.4
Senegal−3.8−4.9−5.2−6.1−5.2−5.5−4.9−4.7−4.2
Seychelles−0.74.80.53.32.70.33.51.12.5
South Africa0.0−4.7−4.8−3.9−4.1−4.1−3.8−4.1−3.7
Swaziland1.4−2.9−8.8−3.64.20.5−1.6−4.4−6.7
Zambia2.1−2.1−2.4−1.8−2.9−6.5−6.1−7.8−6.5
Low-income and fragile countries−1.4−2.6−2.4−2.9−2.3−2.5−3.0−3.2−3.1
Low-income excluding fragile countries−1.1−3.0−3.3−2.7−2.6−3.0−3.8−3.7−3.7
Benin−0.7−3.3−0.4−1.4−0.3−2.1−2.5−2.6−3.5
Burkina Faso−0.8−4.7−3.0−1.4−3.1−3.9−1.9−2.5−3.0
Ethiopia2−3.4−0.9−1.3−1.6−1.2−1.9−2.6−2.8−2.8
Mali4.0−4.2−2.9−4.2−1.1−2.8−3.5−3.2−4.0
Mozambique−2.9−5.0−3.9−4.8−3.9−2.7−10.3−6.5−5.1
Niger7.1−5.3−2.4−1.5−1.1−2.6−8.3−8.0−5.3
Rwanda0.20.30.4−1.8−1.6−2.6−3.6−3.2−3.1
Sierra Leone2.2−2.3−5.0−4.6−5.2−2.4−3.6−4.0−5.2
Tanzania−2.5−4.5−4.8−3.6−4.1−3.9−3.2−4.0−3.9
Uganda−0.8−2.1−5.7−2.7−3.0−4.0−3.5−3.6−4.2
Fragile countries−1.7−2.0−1.3−3.1−1.8−1.7−1.8−2.5−2.0
Burundi−2.7−5.1−3.6−3.9−3.5−1.7−3.4−6.0−4.8
Central African Rep.0.5−0.6−1.5−2.40.0−6.33.0−4.9−3.4
Comoros−1.70.67.01.43.317.8−0.50.6−2.5
Congo, Dem. Rep. of−0.31.32.4−0.51.83.01.31.91.2
Côte d’Ivoire−1.0−1.4−1.8−5.4−3.1−2.2−2.3−3.2−3.2
Eritrea−17.9−14.7−16.0−16.2−15.3−15.2−14.5−14.5−14.4
Gambia, The−3.2−2.7−4.7−4.7−4.4−8.5−10.0−6.3−3.0
Guinea−1.5−7.1−14.0−1.3−3.3−5.2−4.1−6.7−3.3
Guinea-Bissau−4.04.11.6−0.8−2.2−1.8−1.4−0.9−2.3
Liberia−0.5−10.1−5.7−3.1−1.6−4.7−3.5−10.2−6.9
Madagascar−2.6−2.5−0.9−2.4−2.6−4.0−2.3−4.4−2.8
Malawi−2.3−3.62.1−3.9−1.9−6.4−4.0−6.4−3.2
São Tomé & Príncipe24.9−18.1−11.1−11.7−10.91.9−5.5−8.8−2.3
Togo−1.4−3.9−2.5−4.0−7.2−4.6−4.9−6.3−6.0
Zimbabwe3−3.5−2.10.7−1.3−0.6−1.9−1.5−1.3−0.5
Sub-Saharan Africa1.7−4.6−3.4−1.1−1.8−3.1−3.5−4.3−3.6
Median−0.7−3.7−3.4−2.6−2.2−2.8−3.6−4.4−3.5
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa1.2−3.8−1.9−0.3−1.8−3.1−4.6−4.6−3.9
Oil-importing countries−0.6−4.1−4.3−3.7−3.7−3.9−4.0−4.2−3.9
Excluding South Africa−1.3−3.5−3.8−3.6−3.4−3.8−4.1−4.3−4.0
CFA franc zone4.8−2.1−0.7−0.4−1.9−3.1−3.7−4.3−3.7
WAEMU−0.3−3.3−2.6−4.0−3.0−3.2−3.5−3.8−3.7
CEMAC9.7−0.81.12.8−0.9−3.0−4.0−4.8−3.5
EAC-5−1.8−3.7−4.5−3.5−4.1−4.5−4.9−5.7−5.4
ECOWAS3.0−5.5−4.5−0.9−1.2−3.1−2.7−4.0−3.3
SADC0.2−4.8−3.2−1.73.7−2.8−3.9−3.7−3.1
SACU0.3−4.9−4.9−3.8−3.7−3.6−3.4−4.0−3.8
COMESA (SSA members)−1.6−2.2−2.3−2.6−2.2−3.2−3.7−4.2−3.9
MDRI countries0.1−2.6−2.3−2.4−3.1−4.0−4.4−4.0−3.6
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs4.3−2.2−1.5−1.3−2.0−3.2−3.9−4.6−4.3
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs1.3−5.0−3.8−1.2−1.7−3.0−3.4−4.0−3.4
Sub-Saharan Africa41.7−4.6−3.4−1.2−1.7−3.1−3.5−4.1−3.5
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Table SA9.Overall Fiscal Balance, Excluding Grants(Percent of GDP)
2004-0820092010201120122013201420152016
Oil-exporting countries5.2−5.5−2.32.10.5−2.3−3.2−4.5−3.6
Excluding Nigeria5.9−4.72.25.51.0−2.3−6.4−6.2−4.9
Angola4.4−7.43.48.74.6−0.3−6.5−3.5−1.4
Cameroon2.3−0.8−1.7−3.1−2.0−4.3−5.5−5.2−5.8
Chad−0.7−11.9−5.50.8−2.2−4.3−6.2−4.2−3.2
Congo, Rep. of13.24.516.015.96.3−2.2−8.2−10.0−3.0
Equatorial Guinea18.4−9.5−5.81.0−9.0−7.5−6.8−5.9−3.2
Gabon8.56.82.72.51.61.82.7−3.6−2.5
Nigeria4.9−6.0−4.20.40.3−2.3−2.0−3.9−3.2
South Sudan1.9−15.9−11.7−17.1−31.7−33.9
Middle-income countries1−1.0−5.3−5.4−4.4−4.8−4.9−4.8−5.2−4.7
Excluding South Africa−3.4−6.8−7.0−5.7−6.3−6.6−6.7−7.2−6.4
Botswana3.8−14.6−8.2−0.60.75.14.0−0.70.2
Cabo Verde−9.0−11.0−17.0−10.6−13.1−11.4−9.1−7.0−5.5
Ghana−8.3−10.0−11.7−9.4−13.7−11.5−11.6−7.4−5.6
Kenya−2.9−5.0−5.0−4.6−5.5−6.2−7.8−8.6−7.7
Lesotho7.3−7.0−11.5−18.4−3.6−7.3−1.4−6.9−14.0
Mauritius−4.2−5.2−3.9−3.9−2.5−3.9−3.4−5.6−4.1
Namibia1.9−0.4−4.6−6.8−2.4−3.6−3.8−5.9−7.4
Senegal−5.8−7.9−7.7−8.3−8.0−8.0−8.2−7.6−7.2
Seychelles−1.80.8−0.30.9−1.8−3.70.5−1.40.5
South Africa0.0−4.7−4.8−3.9−4.1−4.1−3.8−4.1−3.7
Swaziland0.9−3.4−8.8−3.74.10.0−3.2−5.0−7.2
Zambia−5.7−4.5−3.9−2.4−4.6−8.0−6.9−8.6−7.3
Low-income and fragile countries−6.2−6.6−6.6−6.3−5.1−5.2−5.4−5.8−5.3
Low-income excluding fragile countries−7.3−7.6−7.3−6.7−5.6−5.9−6.1−6.2−5.8
Benin−3.0−6.5−1.9−4.0−2.3−3.1−3.6−5.2−5.9
Burkina Faso−10.2−10.6−7.5−6.4−8.0−9.3−6.1−7.5−7.7
Ethiopia2−7.5−5.2−4.5−4.8−2.9−3.5−3.8−4.1−3.8
Mali−6.9−8.8−5.8−8.0−1.4−6.2−6.2−7.6−6.7
Mozambique−9.8−13.5−12.1−12.2−9.0−8.0−15.3−11.4−8.6
Niger−7.6−9.7−7.0−5.2−7.2−10.9−13.9−12.9−9.8
Rwanda−10.0−11.2−12.9−12.6−10.9−11.2−11.0−10.6−8.7
Sierra Leone−7.5−8.4−10.3−10.1−9.0−5.0−7.9−9.3−8.7
Tanzania−7.2−8.1−8.2−6.9−7.0−6.3−4.8−5.4−5.4
Uganda−5.3−4.5−8.2−4.4−4.9−5.1−4.6−5.0−5.5
Fragile countries−4.7−5.0−5.4−5.7−4.3−4.1−4.2−5.0−4.6
Burundi−18.7−24.0−26.3−24.5−20.4−18.1−16.4−18.0−16.4
Central African Rep.−5.5−5.9−7.0−4.9−4.9−9.1−7.7−9.5−8.1
Comoros−7.8−9.1−7.8−6.0−6.0−9.7−9.9−8.2−10.3
Congo, Dem. Rep. of−1.9−3.2−5.7−3.9−1.10.60.1−0.5−1.6
Côte d’Ivoire−2.0−1.9−2.3−5.8−3.7−3.6−4.6−5.2−5.1
Eritrea−24.8−17.3−21.3−19.4−16.5−15.7−14.9−14.9−14.7
Gambia, The−4.8−6.9−8.7−9.9−13.3−10.8−13.7−10.4−6.8
Guinea−2.5−7.5−14.4−4.7−6.0−6.7−8.2−9.7−5.9
Guinea-Bissau−12.7−11.8−7.9−7.4−4.6−5.3−10.4−7.0−8.2
Liberia−0.7−12.6−7.5−4.7−4.1−7.8−8.7−18.2−15.9
Madagascar−9.2−4.2−2.8−4.3−3.8−5.3−4.6−6.4−4.8
Malawi−12.3−11.1−8.0−7.4−10.7−13.1−7.4−9.8−6.5
São Tomé & Príncipe−15.0−32.5−29.7−29.6−28.6−11.0−15.9−23.9−18.9
Togo−2.7−5.4−4.5−7.2−8.8−7.6−6.9−8.5−8.4
Zimbabwe3−3.5−2.60.7−1.3−0.6−1.9−1.5−1.3−0.5
Sub-Saharan Africa0.4−5.7−4.3−1.9−2.5−3.8−4.2−5.0−4.4
Median−4.5−7.2−7.0−4.8−4.6−6.2−6.8−7.0−6.5
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa−2.0−6.1−4.1−2.1−3.5−4.7−6.0−6.3−5.5
Oil-importing countries−2.4−5.8−5.8−4.9−4.9−5.0−5.0−5.4−5.0
Excluding South Africa−5.1−6.7−6.8−6.0−5.6−5.8−5.9−6.3−5.7
CFA franc zone1.3−4.0−2.1−1.8−3.3−4.8−5.5−6.3−5.5
WAEMU−4.9−6.2−4.9−6.5−5.2−6.2−6.4−7.0−6.6
CEMAC7.2−1.70.62.3−1.5−3.5−4.7−5.5−4.2
EAC-5−5.4−6.6−7.6−6.2−6.5−6.5−6.6−7.3−6.9
ECOWAS1.8−6.4−5.0−1.5−1.6−3.6−3.2−4.7−3.9
SADC−0.6−5.6−4.0−2.33.7−3.4−4.3−4.3−3.6
SACU0.2−4.9−5.0−3.9−3.8−3.7−3.4−4.0−3.8
COMESA (SSA members)−5.3−5.3−5.6−4.8−4.2−4.9−5.0−5.7−5.3
MDRI countries−5.1−6.4−6.0−5.3−5.7−6.3−6.4−6.3−5.6
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs1.0−4.1−3.0−2.8−3.4−4.9−5.6−6.5−6.0
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs0.3−6.0−4.6−1.8−2.3−3.5−3.9−4.6−3.9
Sub-Saharan Africa40.4−5.7−4.3−2.0−2.4−3.7−4.1−4.8−4.1
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Table SA10.Government Revenue, Excluding Grants(Percent of GDP)
2004-0820092010201120122013201420152016
Oil-exporting countries25.917.819.024.621.317.916.312.112.3
Excluding Nigeria34.730.334.838.236.633.530.324.324.2
Angola45.534.543.548.845.940.434.627.427.6
Cameroon18.216.716.017.517.517.618.017.216.3
Chad14.112.318.923.221.818.515.913.415.1
Congo, Rep. of39.629.137.542.042.546.541.940.642.4
Equatorial Guinea38.349.134.235.034.731.833.630.227.9
Gabon28.729.425.829.030.130.226.121.523.4
Nigeria21.811.212.417.714.311.010.57.57.6
South Sudan26.78.214.722.911.810.8
Middle-income countries125.425.024.825.425.525.426.226.526.5
Excluding South Africa21.620.320.121.321.621.322.421.921.8
Botswana41.436.833.635.035.837.239.434.132.5
Cabo Verde22.721.921.722.721.622.221.322.523.7
Ghana13.613.414.417.117.016.317.718.319.3
Kenya18.718.119.219.018.719.319.219.921.0
Lesotho57.060.444.744.457.955.658.556.547.2
Mauritius19.421.221.220.720.821.020.521.821.4
Namibia28.530.827.829.831.231.033.232.629.5
Senegal19.518.619.320.520.519.921.020.821.2
Seychelles36.532.934.235.634.231.932.431.631.4
South Africa26.827.026.727.027.227.628.229.129.5
Swaziland30.529.320.520.129.728.728.726.821.9
Zambia15.213.314.216.917.416.918.517.116.0
Low-income and fragile countries13.013.514.715.115.716.016.116.316.5
Low-income excluding fragile countries12.813.013.714.314.715.515.515.916.2
Benin18.218.518.617.618.819.418.218.718.8
Burkina Faso13.113.615.315.717.518.517.317.317.9
Ethiopia213.911.914.013.413.814.314.014.714.5
Mali16.917.117.217.017.117.317.619.019.3
Mozambique12.915.817.919.722.426.927.825.525.7
Niger13.714.313.614.215.217.018.018.719.1
Rwanda12.712.613.013.815.016.416.715.215.3
Sierra Leone8.89.19.911.511.410.79.99.49.9
Tanzania10.812.112.012.312.713.113.213.714.5
Uganda10.910.810.612.811.611.712.513.714.0
Fragile countries13.314.316.216.417.416.917.017.017.1
Burundi13.913.914.515.314.513.313.712.413.0
Central African Rep.9.410.811.610.811.55.74.96.77.5
Comoros14.113.914.316.119.315.514.517.117.1
Congo, Dem. Rep. of8.610.712.111.814.412.913.313.613.9
Côte d’Ivoire17.518.017.718.818.418.518.617.517.9
Eritrea22.313.313.314.214.214.114.214.114.0
Gambia, The15.816.214.916.116.416.318.719.620.6
Guinea14.116.215.316.820.118.417.920.320.8
Guinea-Bissau9.49.110.810.19.18.112.012.613.9
Liberia15.120.625.024.326.025.023.522.723.5
Madagascar11.79.911.29.79.69.610.110.310.6
Malawi16.419.421.818.418.321.621.821.221.2
São Tomé & Príncipe27.716.317.518.416.320.615.616.717.2
Togo16.315.818.016.717.618.017.718.218.6
Zimbabwe36.111.423.326.728.027.727.328.127.0
Sub-Saharan Africa23.419.820.723.321.920.219.417.818.1
Median16.416.217.617.718.318.518.218.719.1
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa21.820.322.224.624.023.022.119.919.9
Oil-importing countries21.921.221.822.422.322.222.422.522.5
Excluding South Africa16.516.116.917.718.118.118.418.318.4
CFA franc zone21.520.921.023.023.122.621.719.920.2
WAEMU16.917.017.317.718.118.418.518.418.8
CEMAC25.925.024.627.627.626.825.021.721.8
EAC-514.214.314.715.215.115.515.716.517.3
ECOWAS20.012.613.417.715.112.512.19.910.3
SADC26.725.726.928.43.727.827.225.925.9
SACU27.627.627.027.427.828.329.029.629.6
COMESA (SSA members)14.814.415.816.216.616.716.817.117.1
MDRI countries14.814.215.416.516.716.917.016.717.0
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs22.622.021.723.524.023.522.821.221.0
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs23.619.520.523.221.619.718.817.317.6
Sub-Saharan Africa423.419.820.723.322.020.219.417.818.1
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Table SA11.Government Expenditure(Percent of GDP)
2004-0820092010201120122013201420152016
Oil-exporting countries20.723.321.322.520.820.219.516.615.9
Excluding Nigeria28.835.032.632.735.635.836.630.529.0
Angola41.141.940.040.241.340.841.130.929.0
Cameroon15.917.517.720.519.521.923.522.422.1
Chad14.924.224.422.423.922.922.117.618.3
Congo, Rep. of26.424.721.426.136.248.750.150.645.5
Equatorial Guinea20.058.640.034.043.839.340.436.131.1
Gabon20.222.623.126.528.528.423.525.125.9
Nigeria16.917.216.717.314.013.412.511.310.7
South Sudan24.824.126.440.043.544.6
Middle-income countries126.330.330.329.830.330.431.031.731.3
Excluding South Africa25.127.027.127.028.027.929.129.128.2
Botswana37.651.441.835.635.132.135.434.832.2
Cabo Verde31.732.838.733.334.733.630.329.629.2
Ghana21.823.526.126.530.727.829.325.624.9
Kenya21.623.124.223.624.225.527.028.528.7
Lesotho49.867.456.262.861.562.959.963.461.2
Mauritius23.726.325.124.623.324.923.927.425.5
Namibia26.631.132.436.733.734.637.138.537.0
Senegal25.326.527.128.828.527.929.228.428.4
Seychelles38.332.134.634.736.135.631.933.130.9
South Africa26.831.731.530.931.331.732.033.233.2
Swaziland29.632.729.423.825.628.631.931.729.1
Zambia21.017.818.119.322.024.925.425.723.3
Low-income and fragile countries19.220.121.321.420.821.321.522.021.8
Low-income excluding fragile countries20.120.721.121.020.321.521.722.121.9
Benin21.225.020.421.621.022.421.823.824.8
Burkina Faso23.324.222.822.125.527.823.324.825.6
Ethiopia221.517.118.518.216.617.817.718.818.4
Mali23.825.923.025.018.523.523.826.526.0
Mozambique22.729.430.031.931.434.943.236.934.3
Niger21.323.920.619.422.327.831.931.629.0
Rwanda22.723.925.926.525.927.627.725.724.0
Sierra Leone16.417.520.221.620.415.617.918.718.6
Tanzania18.020.220.219.119.819.418.019.119.9
Uganda16.215.318.817.216.516.817.118.719.5
Fragile countries18.019.321.622.121.720.921.221.921.7
Burundi32.638.040.839.834.931.430.130.329.4
Central African Rep.14.916.618.615.716.414.712.616.215.6
Comoros21.923.022.122.125.325.224.425.327.4
Congo, Dem. Rep. of10.613.917.715.715.412.213.314.215.5
Côte d’Ivoire19.519.920.024.622.122.123.222.722.9
Eritrea47.130.634.633.630.729.829.129.028.7
Gambia, The20.623.123.626.029.727.132.430.027.4
Guinea16.523.729.721.526.125.126.130.026.7
Guinea-Bissau22.120.918.717.513.713.422.419.622.1
Liberia15.833.232.529.030.132.832.340.939.4
Madagascar20.914.114.014.113.414.914.716.715.4
Malawi28.630.529.825.829.034.729.231.027.7
São Tomé & Príncipe42.648.847.348.044.931.631.540.636.2
Togo19.021.222.523.826.425.524.626.727.0
Zimbabwe39.614.022.627.928.629.728.729.327.5
Sub-Saharan Africa23.025.525.025.224.423.923.622.822.4
Median21.724.123.924.825.927.627.728.427.4
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa23.826.326.326.827.527.728.226.225.4
Oil-importing countries24.326.927.627.327.227.227.427.927.5
Excluding South Africa21.622.723.623.723.723.924.324.624.1
CFA franc zone20.324.923.124.826.327.527.326.225.7
WAEMU21.823.222.224.223.224.624.925.325.4
CEMAC18.726.724.025.329.230.329.727.226.0
EAC-519.620.922.321.421.622.122.323.724.2
ECOWAS18.219.018.419.116.716.115.314.514.3
SADC27.431.330.930.63.731.231.530.229.5
SACU27.332.532.031.331.631.932.533.633.4
COMESA (SSA members)20.119.721.521.020.921.621.822.822.4
MDRI countries20.020.621.421.822.423.123.423.022.6
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs21.726.124.726.227.428.428.427.727.0
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs23.325.525.125.023.923.222.721.821.5
Sub-Saharan Africa423.025.525.025.224.423.923.522.622.2
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Table SA12.Government Debt(Percent of GDP)
2004-0820092010201120122013201420152016
Oil-exporting countries21.719.115.014.414.416.117.521.722.6
Excluding Nigeria34.237.328.222.923.128.934.647.445.3
Angola28.249.938.831.428.736.242.257.453.0
Cameroon30.110.111.513.215.418.725.432.235.1
Chad24.831.720.720.717.918.724.625.223.8
Congo, Rep. of114.461.622.933.134.138.241.857.554.1
Equatorial Guinea2.16.410.17.49.17.912.016.115.7
Gabon41.223.120.517.919.929.228.938.741.7
Nigeria16.09.69.610.210.410.510.511.913.7
South Sudan0.04.512.420.349.451.7
Middle-income countries131.231.534.937.239.943.046.949.851.0
Excluding South Africa35.134.136.336.238.742.348.552.152.9
Botswana8.018.120.419.618.917.514.512.411.3
Cabo Verde73.865.272.478.891.1100.7114.0124.7123.3
Ghana39.336.146.342.649.156.269.072.870.5
Kenya45.241.144.443.041.744.252.656.255.9
Lesotho57.537.635.238.040.343.447.853.455.8
Mauritius49.552.151.952.151.553.956.256.054.3
Namibia23.015.915.523.324.123.824.725.826.1
Senegal32.534.035.540.742.846.653.155.061.9
Seychelles140.1121.381.973.977.164.165.364.559.5
South Africa29.830.334.437.640.543.346.048.449.8
Swaziland14.610.313.513.914.414.813.617.621.5
Zambia20.420.518.920.625.528.635.241.944.9
Low-income and fragile countries61.743.137.538.732.133.234.937.537.5
Low-income excluding fragile countries41.326.228.428.327.029.532.435.336.2
Benin26.827.330.231.929.229.834.035.236.1
Burkina Faso32.628.529.329.828.328.728.533.232.2
Ethiopia257.124.927.425.720.921.622.322.623.5
Mali32.523.928.830.529.830.636.742.541.7
Mozambique50.242.543.137.640.852.257.561.059.6
Niger43.327.724.327.726.527.932.243.745.9
Rwanda47.122.422.623.120.127.630.232.734.8
Sierra Leone94.148.146.844.936.935.037.747.249.5
Tanzania33.524.427.327.829.230.935.240.241.8
Uganda34.819.222.923.624.227.631.435.037.9
Fragile countries89.569.350.953.840.239.139.041.239.7
Burundi134.425.740.336.937.132.830.533.729.6
Central African Rep.86.632.532.332.933.152.347.642.137.1
Comoros65.153.550.346.142.518.124.524.725.7
Congo, Dem. Rep. of96.689.827.022.319.918.319.020.521.5
Côte d’Ivoire76.664.263.093.344.839.936.634.733.4
Eritrea145.2144.6143.8133.0127.6130.4132.1137.6136.9
Gambia, The107.362.669.677.377.083.3101.1107.7101.7
Guinea117.989.399.677.835.439.541.140.936.3
Guinea-Bissau197.4159.267.549.552.153.254.352.247.6
Liberia548.8173.933.429.627.027.533.541.246.1
Madagascar56.833.431.932.433.734.034.735.443.6
Malawi62.935.629.630.643.959.462.262.557.8
São Tomé & Príncipe207.268.075.371.778.371.469.091.290.1
Togo97.473.450.044.546.150.158.761.160.2
Zimbabwe350.668.363.251.856.754.253.469.357.5
Sub-Saharan Africa32.728.927.127.627.228.630.434.535.6
Median49.834.832.932.433.734.036.642.144.9
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa46.039.034.432.731.034.338.344.143.7
Oil-importing countries39.735.335.737.737.439.542.445.045.6
Excluding South Africa50.939.737.037.734.736.840.042.843.1
CFA franc zone46.334.129.634.227.629.532.837.538.3
WAEMU53.244.642.953.037.537.138.940.941.5
CEMAC39.923.016.617.718.622.126.533.434.3
EAC-541.230.033.333.032.935.541.345.746.7
ECOWAS28.220.018.419.917.518.118.320.622.6
SADC32.835.733.934.63.739.042.046.846.7
SACU28.829.433.236.439.041.443.645.947.2
COMESA (SSA members)53.540.534.532.932.634.137.440.140.4
MDRI countries51.434.029.129.330.133.136.739.941.0
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs45.534.330.234.929.531.334.539.540.4
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs30.327.626.326.726.828.229.733.234.5
Sub-Saharan Africa432.728.927.128.027.428.830.534.335.4
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Table SA13.Broad Money(Percent of GDP)
2004-0820092010201120122013201420152016
Oil-exporting countries16.928.022.421.023.121.923.725.125.0
Excluding Nigeria17.930.327.126.627.828.931.436.536.4
Angola21.942.535.337.635.036.740.346.745.6
Cameroon19.422.323.424.222.723.324.024.324.4
Chad9.011.111.512.112.413.315.716.216.9
Congo, Rep. of16.022.523.828.033.034.839.250.948.6
Equatorial Guinea7.315.415.813.218.421.420.322.321.6
Gabon17.020.319.520.523.224.824.425.526.2
Nigeria16.527.120.818.821.319.320.921.020.9
South Sudan9.519.814.318.634.744.4
Middle-income countries160.564.463.462.160.659.459.759.759.5
Excluding South Africa36.239.140.540.039.840.041.442.042.2
Botswana46.752.750.142.445.944.544.444.544.7
Cabo Verde75.177.580.178.582.190.195.895.099.0
Ghana22.828.029.930.430.028.832.533.734.1
Kenya35.736.540.140.640.542.243.544.345.1
Lesotho32.639.139.936.236.139.437.435.836.3
Mauritius98.599.5100.498.9100.599.8103.0103.298.7
Namibia44.565.864.467.259.755.451.150.549.8
Senegal34.736.839.740.039.942.345.045.545.2
Seychelles84.655.562.157.648.654.960.560.560.5
South Africa72.577.775.874.672.771.171.071.071.0
Swaziland19.825.425.024.423.925.424.324.124.4
Zambia18.017.818.418.920.021.421.421.722.5
Low-income and fragile countries22.023.225.325.925.225.827.027.828.6
Low-income excluding fragile countries23.923.925.825.925.526.428.029.230.2
Benin33.241.744.545.844.749.154.960.666.3
Burkina Faso23.928.029.729.730.531.935.137.840.3
Ethiopia234.624.827.027.625.327.128.429.230.5
Mali28.828.127.729.632.233.633.134.735.8
Mozambique17.224.624.727.531.334.239.040.641.0
Niger15.618.520.320.222.423.928.026.526.1
Rwanda16.717.518.520.320.121.122.723.723.9
Sierra Leone16.722.623.523.222.019.822.024.824.6
Tanzania20.923.325.124.723.822.723.424.224.7
Uganda16.517.921.719.819.720.121.321.722.6
Fragile countries19.122.024.425.924.724.725.125.225.4
Burundi22.324.325.322.520.619.718.918.918.9
Central African Rep.15.916.117.819.218.328.128.728.828.8
Comoros25.630.434.134.938.336.938.438.438.4
Congo, Dem. Rep. of6.610.210.510.711.611.511.911.611.6
Côte d’Ivoire11.314.115.718.915.115.015.716.617.3
Eritrea130.2121.6123.2114.7114.1120.4123.4126.3125.5
Gambia, The39.048.749.955.754.556.659.259.261.4
Guinea20.226.938.233.628.930.430.733.333.3
Guinea-Bissau19.124.629.733.232.036.944.644.645.8
Liberia19.531.435.542.036.334.834.634.734.7
Madagascar23.624.524.726.125.725.225.423.223.5
Malawi15.819.822.125.125.726.024.525.226.1
São Tomé & Príncipe33.234.936.634.938.038.340.140.141.2
Togo33.341.345.646.945.346.548.449.550.6
Zimbabwe310.716.924.728.329.628.831.633.134.1
Sub-Saharan Africa35.240.337.836.736.835.936.837.437.4
Median21.426.127.428.330.030.432.534.734.7
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa25.129.330.030.029.930.532.133.834.2
Oil-importing countries46.849.149.048.446.946.246.546.646.6
Excluding South Africa27.329.030.931.230.631.032.332.933.5
CFA franc zone18.822.623.925.225.426.928.430.330.9
WAEMU22.626.027.929.728.729.931.933.234.3
CEMAC14.819.019.620.421.923.524.526.926.8
EAC-525.626.729.629.228.829.230.230.931.6
ECOWAS18.427.223.021.823.522.123.824.324.5
SADC53.358.656.655.83.753.153.253.853.3
SACU69.875.573.572.170.368.668.368.368.2
COMESA (SSA members)29.728.530.730.930.531.332.232.533.0
MDRI countries22.123.725.425.925.826.427.929.029.6
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs23.027.328.429.629.430.731.833.433.8
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs37.742.739.538.338.237.037.738.137.9
Sub-Saharan Africa435.240.337.837.036.936.036.937.437.3
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Excluding South Sudan.

Table SA14.Broad Money Growth(Percent)
2004-0820092010201120122013201420152016
Oil-exporting countries36.816.38.79.324.33.318.19.312.7
Excluding Nigeria36.314.413.926.012.29.912.38.612.8
Angola64.621.55.337.14.914.116.511.516.9
Cameroon10.56.911.310.61.410.810.58.67.7
Chad23.6−4.625.314.213.48.626.53.514.0
Congo, Rep. of28.75.038.934.521.10.713.11.44.8
Equatorial Guinea30.729.933.57.757.87.3−14.1−15.2−1.5
Gabon14.22.219.226.515.76.11.6−5.25.3
Nigeria37.217.16.94.029.11.020.49.612.7
South Sudan33.9−1.621.267.937.5
Middle-income countries119.15.811.911.88.89.311.49.39.6
Excluding South Africa19.713.821.618.215.215.118.414.313.3
Botswana17.4−1.312.44.313.98.312.57.79.0
Cabo Verde12.53.55.44.66.311.47.44.710.7
Ghana31.326.034.432.224.319.136.822.516.7
Kenya14.916.021.619.114.115.616.715.615.7
Lesotho16.817.714.51.67.021.24.03.18.7
Mauritius13.02.46.96.48.25.88.75.22.2
Namibia30.47.07.513.85.38.67.79.89.7
Senegal9.510.914.16.76.88.011.47.77.7
Seychelles7.97.013.54.5−0.623.717.55.76.6
South Africa18.91.86.98.35.25.97.36.37.2
Swaziland15.726.87.95.510.015.93.97.46.9
Zambia25.67.729.921.717.920.812.613.415.2
Low-income and fragile countries18.526.125.820.815.614.117.215.014.9
Low-income excluding fragile countries17.918.524.620.920.115.019.217.216.5
Benin15.66.211.69.19.017.316.717.117.6
Burkina Faso6.918.219.113.815.910.612.414.515.1
Ethiopia218.019.924.436.532.924.226.924.222.0
Mali5.616.09.015.315.27.47.113.211.6
Mozambique22.234.617.623.925.621.227.417.115.4
Niger15.718.322.06.231.210.125.70.35.6
Rwanda23.613.016.926.714.015.519.015.813.2
Sierra Leone24.531.328.522.622.516.716.610.512.2
Tanzania22.417.725.418.212.510.015.616.214.7
Uganda19.116.641.510.514.99.515.213.315.4
Fragile countries19.740.127.920.57.812.713.510.912.0
Burundi21.119.819.46.110.911.98.70.011.5
Central African Rep.7.511.716.113.81.65.614.612.512.7
Comoros8.113.319.49.616.02.88.12.95.9
Congo, Dem. Rep. of52.550.430.823.221.118.114.26.78.5
Côte d’Ivoire12.024.419.317.2−7.69.713.817.413.9
Eritrea11.215.715.614.617.917.514.812.912.2
Gambia, The16.519.413.711.07.815.111.211.015.0
Guinea35.525.974.49.41.014.112.215.713.3
Guinea-Bissau25.74.429.639.1−6.014.831.011.310.1
Liberia33.630.628.041.3−2.17.62.10.44.7
Madagascar17.210.29.616.46.95.311.11.714.2
Malawi27.623.933.935.722.935.120.727.822.2
São Tomé & Príncipe29.88.225.110.420.313.916.815.111.4
Togo15.716.216.315.98.910.39.810.510.6
Zimbabwe31.4340.068.633.119.15.312.65.15.8
Sub-Saharan Africa25.514.313.412.616.77.815.610.612.2
Median17.716.119.214.013.910.613.110.511.6
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa22.819.721.721.214.713.316.313.214.0
Oil-importing countries18.912.916.915.111.411.213.711.611.8
Excluding South Africa18.921.424.219.815.514.517.714.714.3
CFA franc zone14.412.819.214.811.18.810.77.29.7
WAEMU10.817.216.413.16.110.113.613.012.2
CEMAC18.48.322.316.516.77.57.50.96.7
EAC-518.716.726.716.913.612.215.915.015.1
ECOWAS31.317.910.97.524.44.020.311.112.9
SADC23.811.211.614.73.79.410.78.710.2
SACU19.02.27.28.25.76.37.56.47.4
COMESA (SSA members)19.124.626.222.018.716.517.114.515.2
MDRI countries20.818.124.521.317.514.818.714.714.4
Countries with conventional exchange rate pegs15.012.918.014.210.89.310.37.49.6
Countries without conventional exchange rate pegs27.913.312.312.217.57.616.410.912.5
Sub-Saharan Africa425.514.313.412.616.67.815.610.312.1
Sources: IMF, African Department database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, 18 September, 2015.

Excluding fragile countries.

Fiscal year data.

In constant 2009 U.S. dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dol