Chapter

Statistical Appendix

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Published Date:
April 2008
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Estimates and projections used in this report are based on data provided by IMF country desks as of March 31, 2008. Projections are IMF staff estimates. The database covers 44 countries of the IMF’s African Department; Eritrea, Liberia, and Zimbabwe are not included in aggregate groupings because of data limitations. The rest of the data are consistent with those underlying the April 2008 World Economic Outlook (WEO). While data follow established international statistical methodologies to the extent possible, variable choice may be determined by country-specific definitions. The coverage and definitions of data for different countries are therefore not always comparable. Moreover, many countries are not yet able to compile high-quality data.

Sub-Saharan Africa: Country Groupings

Resource-IntensiveNon-Resource-Intensive
OilNon-oilCoastalLandlocked
AngolaBotswanaBenin *Burkina Faso *
Cameroon *Côte d’IvoireCape VerdeBurundi
ChadGuineaComorosCentral African Republic
Congo, Rep. ofNamibiaGambiaCongo, Dem. Rep. of
Equatorial GuineaSão Tomé and PríncipeGhana *Ethiopia *
GabonSierra Leone *Guinea-BissauLesotho
NigeriaZambia *KenyaMalawi *
Madagascar *Mali *
MauritiusNiger *
Mozambique *Rwanda *
Senegal *Swaziland
SeychellesUganda *
South AfricaZimbabwe
Tanzania *
Togo
Note: These groupings follow Collier and O’Connell (2006), who show that the effect of being resource rich is independent of location and thus classify all sub-Saharan African economies by both endowment and location. A country is classified as resource-rich if primary commodity rents exceed 10 percent of GDP (South Africa is not classified as resource-intensive, using this criterion). In terms of location, countries are classified by whether they have ocean access (coastal) or are landlocked.Asterisk (*) marks countries that have reached the completion point under the enhanced HIPC Initiative and have qualified for MDRI relief.
Note: These groupings follow Collier and O’Connell (2006), who show that the effect of being resource rich is independent of location and thus classify all sub-Saharan African economies by both endowment and location. A country is classified as resource-rich if primary commodity rents exceed 10 percent of GDP (South Africa is not classified as resource-intensive, using this criterion). In terms of location, countries are classified by whether they have ocean access (coastal) or are landlocked.Asterisk (*) marks countries that have reached the completion point under the enhanced HIPC Initiative and have qualified for MDRI relief.

Data and Conventions

For Tables SA12, SA7, SA21, and SA22, country group composites are calculated as the arithmetic average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity (PPP) as a share of the total group GDP. The source of PPP weights is the WEO database.

For Tables SA34, SA6, SA812, SA1420, and SA2325, country group composites are calculated as the arithmetic average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP in U.S. dollars at market exchange rates as a share of total group GDP.

For Table SA5, country group composites are calculated as the geometric average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP valued at PPP as a share of the total group GDP. The source of PPP weights is the WEO database.

For Table SA13, country group composites are calculated as the geometric average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP in U.S. dollars at market exchange rates as a share of total group GDP.

WAEMU is the West African Economic and Monetary Union. CEMAC is the Central African Economic and Monetary Community. EAC-5 is the East African Community.1 SADC is the Southern African Development Community. COMESA is the Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa.

Table SA1.Real GDP Growth(Percent)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries6.38.111.07.77.38.89.9
Excluding Nigeria5.74.811.610.98.812.010.9
Angola4.93.311.220.618.621.116.0
Cameroon4.54.03.72.33.23.34.5
Chad5.214.733.67.90.20.61.8
Congo, Rep. of2.70.83.57.86.2−1.69.2
Equatorial Guinea50.313.132.26.9−5.612.410.1
Gabon0.02.41.13.01.25.64.2
Nigeria6.810.310.65.46.26.49.1
Middle-income countries3.03.34.94.95.25.14.0
Excluding South Africa5.44.45.34.04.04.85.2
Botswana7.86.06.34.73.65.45.0
Cape Verde7.84.74.45.710.86.97.7
Lesotho1.82.74.22.97.24.95.2
Mauritius5.03.84.73.13.64.67.0
Namibia3.93.56.64.84.14.44.7
Seychelles3.3−5.9−2.91.25.35.34.6
South Africa2.73.14.95.05.45.13.8
Swaziland2.33.92.52.22.82.42.0
Low-income countries4.04.45.97.06.66.96.1
Benin5.13.93.12.93.84.25.4
Burkina Faso5.78.04.67.15.54.24.0
Ethiopia3.4−3.59.812.611.611.48.4
Ghana4.35.25.65.96.46.46.9
Kenya1.92.84.65.86.17.02.5
Madagascar1.710.85.34.45.06.36.8
Malawi1.64.25.02.37.97.47.1
Mali5.07.22.46.15.32.54.3
Mozambique9.06.57.98.48.07.07.0
Niger4.17.7−0.87.45.23.24.4
Rwanda8.50.35.37.15.56.06.0
Senegal4.06.75.85.32.15.05.4
Tanzania4.86.97.87.46.77.37.8
Uganda5.74.75.46.85.16.57.1
Zambia2.65.15.45.26.25.36.3
Fragile countries0.81.23.33.72.63.35.0
Including Zimbabwe0.70.83.13.42.33.04.8
Burundi1.6−1.24.80.95.13.65.9
Central African Republic2.7−7.61.02.44.04.24.9
Comoros2.72.5−0.24.21.2−1.01.6
Congo, Dem. Rep. of−2.85.86.67.95.66.38.8
Côte d’Ivoire1.0−1.71.61.8−0.31.62.9
Eritrea1.6−2.71.52.6−1.01.31.2
Gambia, The4.36.97.05.16.57.06.5
Guinea4.21.22.73.32.21.54.9
Guinea-Bissau−2.1−0.62.23.21.82.53.2
Liberia−31.32.65.37.89.49.5
São Tomé and Príncipe3.55.46.65.76.76.06.0
Sierra Leone3.89.57.47.37.46.86.5
Togo0.05.22.41.34.12.13.0
Zimbabwe−2.7−10.4−3.6−4.0−5.4−6.1−6.6
Sub-Saharan Africa4.14.96.96.26.16.66.5
Including Zimbabwe4.04.86.96.26.16.66.5
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa4.14.17.07.36.57.77.3
Oil-importing countries3.13.55.15.65.55.64.9
Excluding South Africa3.63.85.46.15.66.15.8
CFA franc zone4.54.67.24.52.23.64.8
WAEMU3.24.02.94.32.83.24.1
CEMAC6.05.311.54.61.64.05.5
EAC-53.84.25.86.46.06.95.3
SADC3.13.95.86.76.97.46.3
SACU2.93.34.94.95.35.13.9
COMESA3.22.97.110.09.711.09.1
Resource-intensive countries5.76.99.66.96.57.99.0
Oil6.38.111.07.77.38.89.9
Non-oil3.52.54.23.72.83.74.5
Non-resource-intensive countries3.13.65.35.85.85.84.9
Coastal3.03.85.15.25.55.54.4
Landlocked3.42.75.98.07.37.16.8
MDRI4.54.75.96.66.36.56.5
Fixed exchange rate regime4.74.66.84.42.63.84.8
Floating exchange rate regime3.94.96.96.76.97.36.9
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Table SA2.Real Non-Oil GDP Growth(Percent)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries16.56.310.79.311.712.011.3
Excluding Nigeria9.27.07.210.314.715.014.1
Angola5.910.39.014.127.520.419.4
Cameroon5.24.94.93.22.93.94.6
Chad4.66.02.111.04.73.72.0
Congo, Rep. of2.85.45.05.45.96.66.9
Equatorial Guinea28.511.720.023.112.142.931.2
Gabon2.40.92.34.34.96.44.7
Nigeria9.75.813.28.69.49.69.0
Middle-income countries3.03.34.94.95.25.14.0
Excluding South Africa5.44.45.34.04.04.85.2
Botswana7.86.06.34.73.65.45.0
Cape Verde7.84.74.45.710.86.97.7
Lesotho1.82.74.22.97.24.95.2
Mauritius5.03.84.73.13.64.67.0
Namibia3.93.56.64.84.14.44.7
Seychelles3.3−5.9−2.91.25.35.34.6
South Africa2.73.14.95.05.45.13.8
Swaziland2.33.92.52.22.82.42.0
Low-income countries4.04.46.46.96.66.96.0
Benin5.13.93.12.93.84.25.4
Burkina Faso5.78.04.67.15.54.24.0
Ethiopia3.4−3.513.112.611.611.48.4
Ghana4.35.25.65.96.46.46.9
Kenya1.92.84.65.86.17.02.5
Madagascar1.710.85.34.45.06.36.8
Malawi1.64.25.02.37.97.47.1
Mali5.07.22.46.15.32.54.3
Mozambique9.17.97.56.28.57.07.0
Niger4.17.7−0.87.45.23.24.4
Rwanda8.50.35.37.15.56.06.0
Senegal4.06.75.85.32.15.05.4
Tanzania4.86.97.87.46.77.17.5
Uganda5.74.75.46.85.16.57.1
Zambia2.65.15.45.26.25.36.3
Fragile countries0.81.03.33.42.33.55.0
Including Zimbabwe0.60.53.13.22.13.24.8
Burundi1.6−1.24.80.95.13.65.9
Central African Republic2.7−7.61.02.44.04.24.9
Comoros2.72.5−0.24.21.2−1.01.6
Congo, Dem. Rep. of−2.85.86.67.95.66.38.8
Côte d’Ivoire0.9−2.21.61.2−1.02.22.9
Eritrea1.6−2.71.52.6−1.01.31.2
Gambia, The4.36.97.05.16.57.06.5
Guinea4.21.22.73.32.21.54.9
Guinea-Bissau−2.1−0.62.23.21.82.53.2
Liberia−31.32.65.37.89.49.5
São Tomé and Príncipe3.55.46.65.76.76.06.0
Sierra Leone3.89.57.47.37.46.86.5
Togo0.15.22.41.34.12.13.0
Zimbabwe−2.7−10.4−3.6−4.0−5.4−6.1−6.6
Sub-Saharan Africa7.34.36.96.77.47.77.0
Including Zimbabwe7.24.36.96.67.47.67.0
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa5.14.66.17.18.18.68.3
Oil-importing countries3.13.55.35.55.55.64.8
Excluding South Africa3.63.85.75.95.66.15.8
CFA franc zone5.74.24.45.93.96.76.2
WAEMU3.23.82.94.12.63.44.1
CEMAC9.14.76.07.75.210.28.4
EAC-53.84.25.86.46.06.85.2
SADC3.24.55.66.07.97.36.8
SACU2.93.34.94.95.35.13.9
COMESA3.44.37.28.511.810.810.2
Resource-intensive countries13.65.59.48.210.010.510.2
Oil16.56.310.79.311.712.011.3
Non-oil3.42.34.23.52.53.94.5
Non-resource-intensive countries3.13.65.45.75.85.84.9
Coastal3.03.95.15.25.55.54.4
Landlocked3.42.76.98.07.37.16.8
MDRI5.04.86.56.66.36.56.5
Fixed exchange rate regime5.54.34.65.63.96.45.9
Floating exchange rate regime4.64.37.56.98.38.07.2
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Table SA3.Real Per Capita GDP Growth(Percent)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries3.35.08.04.84.45.97.0
Excluding Nigeria2.51.48.57.95.88.97.9
Angola1.90.48.017.215.217.712.7
Cameroon1.51.20.9−0.50.40.51.7
Chad2.64.830.45.3−2.3−1.8−0.7
Congo, Rep. of−0.1−2.00.64.73.2−4.46.1
Equatorial Guinea40.29.928.43.9−8.29.37.0
Gabon−2.4−0.1−1.40.5−1.33.02.6
Nigeria3.97.47.62.63.43.56.2
Middle-income countries1.52.23.94.04.04.43.0
Excluding South Africa3.93.44.53.43.64.55.0
Botswana6.65.96.45.14.36.36.0
Cape Verde5.42.82.53.78.85.05.7
Lesotho0.10.91.91.05.23.03.3
Mauritius3.92.83.82.22.83.86.1
Namibia1.52.15.43.73.23.53.9
Seychelles2.8−7.7−3.71.13.45.25.0
South Africa1.22.13.84.04.14.32.8
Swaziland−0.31.50.30.21.10.80.6
Low-income countries1.31.94.24.44.14.33.6
Benin1.72.00.10.00.81.02.1
Burkina Faso2.94.61.44.63.11.81.7
Ethiopia0.4−6.16.89.68.58.45.7
Ghana1.72.63.03.23.73.74.2
Kenya−0.30.72.63.84.35.10.7
Madagascar−1.27.718.81.62.23.54.0
Malawi−1.11.92.80.35.75.35.0
Mali2.54.80.13.72.90.21.9
Mozambique6.84.56.05.85.54.64.6
Niger0.84.4−3.84.22.00.11.3
Rwanda2.8−1.43.85.23.63.83.8
Senegal1.44.23.32.8−0.32.62.9
Tanzania2.34.85.55.14.85.25.7
Uganda2.51.21.83.11.42.83.4
Zambia0.32.72.92.73.72.83.8
Fragile countries-1.6-1.11.01.20.31.02.7
Including Zimbabwe-1.6-1.50.91.10.10.8
Burundi−0.7−4.02.8−1.13.11.63.8
Central African Republic0.8−9.4−1.00.42.02.22.8
Comoros0.70.4−2.32.1−0.8−3.0−0.5
Congo, Dem. Rep. of−5.02.83.54.72.53.25.7
Côte d’Ivoire−1.3−3.20.10.0−1.80.11.4
Eritrea−1.9−6.9−2.8−1.4−3.9−1.7−1.8
Gambia, The0.94.24.32.53.84.33.8
Guinea1.5−2.3−0.50.1−1.0−1.71.8
Guinea-Bissau−6.5−3.4−0.70.3−1.1−0.40.3
Liberia−32.20.82.43.74.44.1
São Tomé and Príncipe1.53.04.13.34.33.73.7
Sierra Leone1.16.74.64.54.74.13.8
Togo−3.22.4−0.3−1.31.5−0.40.5
Zimbabwe−2.4−11.3−3.3−4.0−5.4−6.1
Sub-Saharan Africa1.82.75.14.23.94.64.4
Including Zimbabwe1.82.75.04.13.94.6
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa1.41.55.04.84.15.34.9
Oil-importing countries1.11.83.83.93.74.13.2
Excluding South Africa1.11.53.73.73.43.83.6
CFA franc zone1.61.74.51.9−0.21.12.3
WAEMU0.51.60.51.90.60.91.8
CEMAC2.81.78.51.9−1.01.32.9
EAC-51.11.83.34.03.84.53.0
SADC1.42.44.85.35.26.04.8
SACU1.42.24.04.04.04.42.9
COMESA0.50.45.57.37.08.36.5
Resource-intensive countries2.94.17.04.33.95.36.3
Oil3.35.08.04.84.45.97.0
Non-oil1.40.92.72.31.52.53.4
Non-resource-intensive countries1.11.93.94.14.04.23.2
Coastal1.32.44.13.83.94.23.0
Landlocked0.5−0.23.05.14.54.34.0
MDRI1.62.04.03.93.63.73.8
Fixed exchange rate regime2.02.04.52.20.51.72.7
Floating exchange rate regime1.72.95.24.64.85.34.8
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Table SA4.Real Per Capita GDP(U.S. dollars, at 2000 prices, using 2000 exchange rates)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries493589631656681715761
Excluding Nigeria7477918428979381,0091,079
Angola7007668289701,1171,3151,481
Cameroon649673679675678682693
Chad197224293308301296294
Congo, Rep. of1,1091,1141,1201,1731,2111,1581,229
Equatorial Guinea1,4752,5823,3173,4453,1623,4553,695
Gabon4,4754,0974,0404,0614,0094,1284,237
Nigeria405517556571590611648
Middle-income countries2,8423,0463,1633,2863,4163,5623,667
Excluding South Africa2,1412,3672,4592,5292,6062,7062,823
Botswana4,1685,0365,3595,6345,8746,2446,616
Cape Verde1,1951,3751,4091,4621,5901,6681,764
Lesotho411411419423445459474
Mauritius3,5843,9784,1304,2204,3364,5014,776
Namibia1,8051,9442,0492,1252,1932,2712,358
Seychelles7,6697,1186,8546,9317,1647,5367,914
South Africa2,9713,1743,2963,4293,5693,7233,827
Swaziland1,5041,4971,5021,5061,5221,5351,544
Low-income countries248261272283294306317
Benin374394394394397401410
Burkina Faso231254257269277283287
Ethiopia125120128141153166175
Ghana269287296305317329342
Kenya413413424440459482486
Madagascar232226268272278288299
Malawi151144148148157165173
Mali252281281292300301306
Mozambique240291308326344360377
Niger161172166173176176179
Rwanda232237246259268278289
Senegal446474490504502515530
Tanzania304344363382400421445
Uganda239257262270274281291
Zambia315334343353366376390
Fragile countries232216217219219220225
Including Zimbabwe284252250249246243
Burundi111104107105109110115
Central African Republic253225222223228233239
Comoros374380371379376364363
Congo, Dem. Rep. of928588929497103
Côte d’Ivoire639574575575564565573
Eritrea223191185183175172169
Gambia, The235243254260270282293
Guinea388388386387383376383
Guinea-Bissau165134133134132132132
Liberia118119122126132137
São Tomé and Príncipe562622648669698724751
Sierra Leone151202212221232241250
Togo245227227224227226227
Zimbabwe720577558536507476
Sub-Saharan Africa542580604624644667691
Including Zimbabwe546580604622641664
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa328342356370382398415
Oil-importing countries561576595612630649664
Excluding South Africa284293303312321331342
CFA franc zone465473486494493498510
WAEMU360356357363364366372
CEMAC708738779791785795818
EAC-5303319330343356372384
SADC9119559981,0351,0771,1231,159
SACU2,8313,0333,1513,2753,4053,5513,653
COMESA257261274291307329347
Resource-intensive countries524602638660681710750
Oil493589631656681715761
Non-oil640652666676681692709
Non-resource-intensive countries552568587605624644659
Coastal9741,0171,0611,0951,1321,1711,199
Landlocked162164168176183190198
MDRI251267278288298308320
Fixed exchange rate regime555572588598600609623
Floating exchange rate regime540582608630654681707
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Table SA5.Consumer Prices(Annual average percent change)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries24.920.414.914.78.25.78.1
Excluding Nigeria50.330.214.610.68.06.07.5
Angola193.998.343.623.013.312.211.4
Cameroon3.50.60.32.05.10.93.0
Chad3.8−1.8−5.47.97.9−8.83.0
Congo, Rep. of3.71.53.82.54.72.63.0
Equatorial Guinea5.47.34.25.74.54.65.5
Gabon1.42.10.41.2−1.45.04.0
Nigeria10.614.015.017.88.35.58.6
Middle-income countries6.95.91.83.75.07.28.7
Excluding South Africa7.47.05.35.77.77.98.7
Botswana7.79.27.08.611.67.18.0
Cape Verde3.41.2−1.90.45.44.43.3
Lesotho8.47.35.03.46.18.09.6
Mauritius6.13.94.74.95.610.79.5
Namibia8.97.24.12.35.16.77.5
Seychelles3.73.33.90.8−1.45.723.3
South Africa6.85.81.43.44.77.18.7
Swaziland8.07.43.44.85.38.29.8
Low-income countries7.38.77.78.89.18.69.4
Benin3.41.50.95.43.82.02.4
Burkina Faso2.22.0−0.46.42.4−0.26.4
Ethiopia−0.715.18.66.812.317.020.1
Ghana21.626.712.615.110.99.68.9
Kenya7.09.811.610.314.59.812.3
Madagascar8.8−1.114.018.410.810.39.0
Malawi26.39.611.415.513.98.16.9
Mali2.0−1.3−3.16.41.92.52.5
Mozambique8.413.512.66.413.27.95.7
Niger2.5−1.80.47.80.10.14.5
Rwanda4.27.412.09.28.89.47.1
Senegal1.60.00.51.72.15.94.5
Tanzania8.94.44.14.47.37.07.1
Uganda3.75.75.08.06.66.85.9
Zambia24.321.418.018.39.010.76.6
Fragile countries28.96.14.612.010.48.67.6
Including Zimbabwe30.012.39.915.918.022.5
Burundi13.210.78.013.42.88.411.8
Central African Republic1.34.4−2.22.96.70.92.7
Comoros3.13.74.53.03.43.03.0
Congo, Dem. Rep. of240.912.84.021.413.216.710.1
Côte d’Ivoire3.61.30.64.25.02.14.7
Eritrea12.222.725.112.515.19.311.0
Gambia, The3.617.014.35.02.15.05.0
Guinea4.412.917.531.434.722.913.2
Guinea-Bissau11.7−3.50.83.42.03.83.3
Liberia10.33.66.97.211.29.0
São Tomé and Príncipe25.49.813.317.223.119.914.1
Sierra Leone13.87.514.212.19.511.712.4
Togo2.5−0.90.46.82.21.04.1
Zimbabwe161.7365.0350.0237.81,016.710,452.6
Sub-Saharan Africa13.310.87.38.87.37.28.6
Including Zimbabwe13.411.27.69.07.87.9
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa19.313.28.89.48.87.88.5
Oil-importing countries9.06.94.26.27.07.88.8
Excluding South Africa11.18.06.89.09.18.59.0
CFA franc zone2.91.00.24.13.61.63.9
WAEMU2.80.50.04.83.02.24.3
CEMAC3.11.60.33.34.20.93.5
EAC-56.97.37.98.010.08.39.1
SADC19.912.46.36.86.88.28.9
SACU6.96.01.83.65.07.18.6
COMESA37.723.915.713.211.311.611.6
Resource-intensive countries21.017.713.313.98.66.18.0
Oil24.920.414.914.78.25.78.1
Non-oil8.18.17.410.310.57.77.4
Non-resource-intensive countries9.16.83.85.86.67.99.0
Coastal7.36.53.55.06.27.48.5
Landlocked17.17.94.99.08.29.710.8
MDRI6.87.46.17.87.77.58.1
Fixed exchange rate regime3.82.21.14.44.42.54.7
Floating exchange rate regime15.813.19.09.98.18.39.5
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

Zimbabwe 2007 data is an estimate. No projection for 2008 is shown since Zimbabwe is in hyperinflation and inflation can no longer be forecasted in a meaningful way.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

Zimbabwe 2007 data is an estimate. No projection for 2008 is shown since Zimbabwe is in hyperinflation and inflation can no longer be forecasted in a meaningful way.

Table SA6.Total Investment(Percent of GDP)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries24.324.421.820.521.521.920.4
Excluding Nigeria23.522.919.317.218.018.416.1
Angola21.512.79.18.111.312.010.6
Cameroon18.317.518.919.116.816.717.3
Chad27.855.625.821.421.419.815.6
Congo, Rep. of24.826.122.521.622.926.221.8
Equatorial Guinea70.459.445.138.241.745.137.7
Gabon27.623.824.421.323.925.424.2
Nigeria24.725.423.522.823.924.423.5
Middle-income countries17.517.719.919.822.122.523.2
Excluding South Africa29.330.730.128.928.230.833.2
Botswana35.241.040.535.232.734.537.3
Cape Verde34.631.037.436.938.043.347.5
Lesotho46.233.231.428.024.327.830.5
Mauritius25.624.922.823.422.526.429.6
Namibia22.029.826.126.127.528.329.8
Seychelles31.410.412.730.242.561.566.4
South Africa15.916.118.618.721.321.522.0
Swaziland18.018.818.418.016.919.517.8
Low-income countries17.620.022.022.924.225.525.8
Benin19.219.619.019.618.122.122.3
Burkina Faso20.517.415.319.816.318.718.8
Ethiopia17.121.625.523.024.225.023.7
Ghana23.322.928.429.030.432.832.3
Kenya13.413.115.218.121.819.519.3
Madagascar15.117.924.522.923.031.135.8
Malawi14.420.625.321.522.128.124.4
Mali21.421.121.722.322.423.123.7
Mozambique26.028.223.422.328.432.532.5
Niger12.616.314.623.121.621.725.5
Rwanda16.718.620.415.114.216.723.0
Senegal18.825.926.629.829.331.831.9
Tanzania15.319.222.625.127.928.928.8
Uganda18.520.522.321.523.424.526.1
Zambia18.225.624.323.523.525.023.6
Fragile countries13.210.711.311.711.812.315.8
Including Zimbabwe11.64.310.510.812.014.8
Burundi6.310.613.310.816.317.519.9
Central African Republic9.56.16.28.99.28.210.3
Comoros11.910.39.49.39.89.710.4
Congo, Dem. Rep. of14.612.212.813.913.318.225.0
Côte d’Ivoire12.110.110.89.79.48.710.4
Eritrea31.326.520.320.313.711.510.9
Gambia, The20.019.229.026.827.923.625.1
Guinea18.110.211.314.013.714.719.3
Guinea-Bissau14.512.613.214.612.214.115.8
Liberia
São Tomé and Príncipe1
Sierra Leone6.214.310.817.415.513.415.8
Togo12.010.911.111.816.811.013.7
Zimbabwe11.5−13.05.14.313.723.6
Sub-Saharan Africa18.719.520.320.221.822.322.2
Including Zimbabwe18.218.720.120.021.722.4
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa19.420.420.720.421.122.121.7
Oil-importing countries17.117.719.720.021.922.623.4
Excluding South Africa18.519.721.221.822.623.925.0
CFA franc zone19.321.220.220.620.621.721.3
WAEMU15.816.516.618.217.618.519.7
CEMAC23.927.024.122.923.524.822.8
EAC-515.016.719.220.723.322.723.5
SADC17.617.719.319.021.021.521.6
SACU17.217.519.719.622.022.222.8
COMESA17.417.818.017.218.619.519.0
Resource-intensive countries22.923.621.820.621.421.720.7
Oil24.324.421.820.521.521.920.4
Non-oil19.720.821.521.020.820.822.2
Non-resource-intensive countries16.817.319.519.922.022.823.5
Coastal16.617.119.419.822.422.923.5
Landlocked17.618.619.920.120.122.123.5
MDRI18.320.722.423.023.525.425.7
Fixed exchange rate regime21.623.222.522.522.423.623.5
Floating exchange rate regime18.018.519.719.621.622.121.9
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

São Tomé and Príncipe is not included in the aggregate grouping because of data limitations.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

São Tomé and Príncipe is not included in the aggregate grouping because of data limitations.

Table SA7.Domestic Saving(Percent of GDP)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries28.228.535.539.741.237.141.5
Excluding Nigeria28.829.833.941.845.142.546.7
Angola24.319.225.137.947.245.649.1
Cameroon19.117.818.518.118.915.616.4
Chad−3.019.117.027.627.325.723.2
Congo, Rep. of45.052.756.158.547.528.950.6
Equatorial Guinea63.579.883.587.386.085.783.3
Gabon48.648.054.659.657.854.358.2
Nigeria27.827.736.538.338.733.337.7
Middle-income countries19.519.519.419.119.619.819.7
Excluding South Africa25.828.328.829.131.931.830.7
Botswana48.149.750.452.455.255.754.7
Cape Verde−5.3−6.5−1.54.04.87.010.4
Lesotho−23.9−20.0−16.3−21.3−22.8−22.2−19.0
Mauritius24.425.823.319.015.615.518.6
Namibia13.822.622.122.630.331.328.2
Seychelles18.815.18.07.825.324.923.4
South Africa18.618.418.217.918.018.418.4
Swaziland4.820.815.99.09.27.91.6
Low-income countries7.08.89.79.310.511.49.7
Benin7.16.76.79.86.610.611.3
Burkina Faso6.14.31.84.73.44.33.5
Ethiopia6.63.65.03.03.75.63.4
Ghana6.410.97.33.44.59.46.1
Kenya6.06.27.59.29.59.16.7
Madagascar8.38.99.58.511.813.76.4
Malawi2.23.97.2−5.2−1.57.25.9
Mali13.414.013.513.719.416.716.3
Mozambique6.05.08.97.612.014.811.7
Niger4.16.33.68.78.410.513.0
Rwanda1.57.110.23.33.24.20.6
Senegal11.113.814.014.211.215.614.0
Tanzania7.614.916.216.214.015.715.4
Uganda7.06.38.77.68.15.67.7
Zambia6.813.119.821.431.827.926.1
Fragile countries15.012.811.99.311.710.311.9
Including Zimbabwe11.93.69.97.411.313.2
Burundi−4.4−8.7−11.0−17.4−20.9−17.5−11.2
Central African Republic4.81.60.00.11.40.81.6
Comoros−7.2−5.0−9.7−12.7−14.4−8.9−12.2
Congo, Dem. Rep. of15.510.08.82.38.112.615.4
Côte d’Ivoire21.221.020.017.219.916.016.8
Eritrea−22.5−34.6−33.8−28.4−17.8−18.0−16.6
Gambia, The12.19.98.04.110.65.45.2
Guinea14.67.87.010.99.16.19.1
Guinea-Bissau−7.8−1.6−3.0−2.3−19.0−4.4−4.9
Liberia
São Tomé and Príncipe1
Sierra Leone−3.9−3.3−0.44.27.86.16.1
Togo−1.0−3.1−3.9−5.0−2.7−9.5−9.9
Zimbabwe9.0−21.1−3.7−6.69.123.3
Sub-Saharan Africa18.219.121.523.024.923.825.9
Including Zimbabwe17.618.121.322.824.823.8
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa15.116.618.821.224.123.725.5
Oil-importing countries15.315.716.115.616.316.515.9
Excluding South Africa11.612.513.312.614.214.213.0
CFA franc zone20.422.424.227.727.725.528.2
WAEMU13.413.312.312.312.912.412.5
CEMAC29.433.637.443.242.038.142.5
EAC-56.38.910.410.39.69.58.8
SADC18.018.319.019.822.323.124.2
SACU19.419.419.419.219.720.019.7
COMESA11.011.714.217.123.223.725.9
Resource-intensive countries26.827.433.337.239.435.639.4
Oil28.228.535.539.741.237.141.5
Non-oil23.223.625.426.631.328.227.4
Non-resource-intensive countries14.214.815.014.314.415.014.5
Coastal15.616.216.416.015.916.616.1
Landlocked6.86.46.54.15.76.86.6
MDRI8.810.511.310.511.912.411.1
Fixed exchange rate regime21.523.525.328.429.227.329.1
Floating exchange rate regime17.418.020.621.823.923.025.2
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

São Tomé and Príncipe is not included in the aggregate grouping because of data limitations.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

São Tomé and Príncipe is not included in the aggregate grouping because of data limitations.

Table SA8.Overall Fiscal Balance, Including Grants(Central government; percent of GDP)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries-3.1-0.74.58.111.72.97.9
Excluding Nigeria-4.2-0.21.97.917.85.78.2
Angola−13.0−6.4−0.57.314.82.26.8
Cameroon−0.81.2−0.53.633.14.53.3
Chad−5.1−6.3−3.0−0.42.43.51.9
Congo, Rep. of−7.10.43.615.617.111.122.1
Equatorial Guinea5.511.712.519.623.522.515.0
Gabon1.27.48.38.69.28.712.6
Nigeria−2.3−1.16.38.17.70.97.6
Middle-income countries-2.2-2.2-1.7-0.40.91.20.9
Excluding South Africa-2.4-3.7-2.11.34.93.31.4
Botswana1.4−1.00.96.710.78.24.4
Cape Verde−10.6−4.3−3.8−6.4−5.0−3.2−3.7
Lesotho−3.5−0.45.64.813.415.111.2
Mauritius−5.1−6.2−5.3−5.0−5.4−4.2−2.0
Namibia−3.3−6.5−4.3−1.22.52.80.6
Seychelles−12.32.1−1.02.1−7.7−7.2−8.8
South Africa−2.2−2.0−1.6−0.60.40.90.8
Swaziland−1.3−2.9−4.7−1.610.4−0.4−1.3
Low-income countries-3.2-3.1-2.5-2.63.8-3.6-4.1
Benin−0.2−1.9−1.0−2.5−0.4−0.4−1.7
Burkina Faso1−3.5−2.9−4.3−4.915.8−6.1−5.4
Ethiopia−5.9−7.0−3.0−4.4−3.9−3.1−3.4
Ghana−7.4−3.3−3.1−1.7−7.1−6.9−8.8
Kenya−1.3−1.7−0.1−1.7−2.5−3.2−3.8
Madagascar−4.0−4.2−5.0−4.737.9−3.9−4.4
Malawi−6.2−4.7−4.8−1.1−1.3−2.80.0
Mali1−3.4−1.3−2.6−3.232.0−3.8−3.9
Mozambique−3.9−4.2−4.4−2.2−1.4−5.6−6.4
Niger1−3.7−2.8−3.6−2.041.1−0.9−3.3
Rwanda−2.0−2.1−0.20.6−0.4−0.6−1.2
Senegal−0.5−1.6−2.9−3.2−6.2−4.4−4.7
Tanzania−0.9−1.2−2.7−2.8−4.7−3.9−3.7
Uganda−3.4−4.3−1.7−0.6−0.8−2.3−3.4
Zambia1−4.5−6.0−2.9−2.719.8−1.7−2.1
Fragile countries-2.9-3.4-2.9-2.4-1.11.0-0.3
Including Zimbabwe-4.2-2.5-3.5-2.9-1.90.7
Burundi−4.2−6.2−4.9−5.1−1.41.50.1
Central African Republic−1.0−3.3−2.2−4.59.01.6−0.1
Comoros−3.1−3.4−1.70.1−2.6−3.6−0.7
Congo, Dem. Rep. of−4.6−4.7−4.9−3.6−1.2−0.61.2
Côte d’Ivoire−1.4−2.2−1.7−1.7−1.8−0.4−0.6
Eritrea−30.6−13.5−16.6−20.8−11.7−10.0−8.3
Gambia, The−5.4−4.7−5.7−8.6−6.32.9−4.1
Guinea−3.1−6.2−4.9−1.5−2.90.3−0.7
Guinea-Bissau−11.1−12.9−15.0−11.9−9.7−9.70.7
Liberia1.00.00.01.25.30.0
São Tomé and Príncipe−16.1−10.4−15.837.5−14.0125.811.6
Sierra Leone1−8.9−6.7−3.5−2.79.326.1−3.2
Togo−2.52.41.0−3.5−3.8−1.9−2.4
Zimbabwe2−7.7−0.2−7.6−11.4−4.3−10.2
Sub-Saharan Africa-2.6-2.1-0.21.75.10.82.6
Including Zimbabwe−2.8−2.0−0.31.65.00.8
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa−3.2−2.5−1.41.07.80.71.4
Oil-importing countries-2.6-2.5-2.0-1.21.6-0.3-0.8
Excluding South Africa−3.0−3.2−2.5−1.93.1−1.8−2.7
CFA franc zone−1.40.10.22.613.73.53.8
WAEMU−1.9−1.9−2.4−2.86.9−2.4−2.8
CEMAC−0.92.53.08.020.29.29.7
EAC-5−1.7−2.1−1.3−1.8−2.7−3.0−3.5
SADC−2.8−2.6−1.90.03.30.81.5
SACU−2.1−2.1−1.6−0.31.11.31.0
COMESA−4.8−4.7−2.30.26.8−0.71.2
Resource-intensive countries-2.6-1.43.16.610.72.96.8
Oil−3.1−0.74.58.111.72.97.9
Non-oil−1.8−3.6−2.00.46.52.80.3
Non-resource-intensive countries-2.7-2.4-2.0-1.30.9-0.7-0.9
Coastal−2.4−2.1−1.9−1.1−0.1−0.4−0.6
Landlocked−4.1−4.1−3.0−2.76.8−2.1−2.2
MDRI−3.3−2.7−2.6−1.89.1−2.2−3.2
Fixed exchange rate regime−1.4−0.5−0.12.612.43.83.5
Floating exchange rate regime−2.9−2.5−0.21.53.40.22.4
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

The fiscal balance has been particulary distorted by MDRI relief in 2006/07.

Ratios represent the sum of deflated monthly flows divided by annual real GDP. Conventionally calculated annual flows in relation to nominal GDP become distorted in a hyperinflation environment.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

The fiscal balance has been particulary distorted by MDRI relief in 2006/07.

Ratios represent the sum of deflated monthly flows divided by annual real GDP. Conventionally calculated annual flows in relation to nominal GDP become distorted in a hyperinflation environment.

Table SA9.Overall Fiscal Balance, Excluding Grants(Central government; percent of GDP)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries-3.5-1.14.47.99.52.77.7
Excluding Nigeria-5.2-1.21.47.512.45.37.9
Angola−15.0−7.2−1.07.114.82.16.8
Cameroon−1.00.7−0.83.04.73.32.5
Chad−10.5−14.0−6.0−3.70.51.6−0.3
Congo, Rep. of−7.4−0.13.315.416.910.721.5
Equatorial Guinea5.211.712.519.623.522.515.0
Gabon1.27.48.28.69.28.712.6
Nigeria−2.3−1.16.38.17.70.97.6
Middle-income countries-2.3-2.2-1.8-0.50.81.10.8
Excluding South Africa-3.1-4.3-3.00.64.22.50.5
Botswana1.0−1.20.36.410.17.84.0
Cape Verde−19.2−9.8−12.7−12.8−10.6−9.9−8.7
Lesotho−6.5−3.13.02.712.312.36.4
Mauritius−5.2−6.5−5.7−5.3−5.6−4.4−3.1
Namibia−3.4−6.6−4.5−1.32.42.50.4
Seychelles−12.82.1−1.20.8−9.4−7.6−9.1
South Africa−2.2−2.0−1.6−0.60.40.90.8
Swaziland−2.2−3.9−5.4−2.69.6−1.2−1.9
Low-income countries-7.0-7.9-7.5-7.4-8.0-8.6-9.2
Benin−2.8−3.7−3.7−4.6−2.6−3.7−4.1
Burkina Faso−10.2−8.3−8.6−9.4−10.7−13.3−12.2
Ethiopia−9.0−13.6−7.6−8.7−7.4−9.5−9.0
Ghana−10.2−8.0−9.5−6.9−12.4−11.6−13.7
Kenya−2.2−3.6−1.3−3.0−3.6−4.1−4.8
Madagascar−7.7−9.3−13.3−10.6−10.3−9.0−9.0
Malawi−12.2−12.6−15.1−12.8−14.2−16.1−12.4
Mali−7.9−5.7−6.6−7.3−7.7−9.3−8.3
Mozambique−13.2−13.9−12.3−8.8−12.7−18.7−20.5
Niger−8.7−7.7−9.4−9.6−6.9−6.9−11.6
Rwanda−9.2−9.8−11.3−12.1−11.3−13.0−14.6
Senegal−2.6−3.5−5.0−4.9−7.7−6.6−6.4
Tanzania−4.1−6.4−7.7−9.2−9.9−8.6−10.8
Uganda−9.4−10.9−10.7−8.5−7.3−8.6−7.7
Zambia−11.1−13.0−8.4−8.3−6.2−6.7−7.0
Fragile countries-4.3-5.1-4.9-5.3-5.6-3.0-4.1
Including Zimbabwe-5.3-3.8-5.3-5.3-5.8-2.4
Burundi−6.9−13.8−19.7−16.8−19.3−21.0−22.3
Central African Republic−6.7−4.8−5.6−8.7−4.4−1.6−4.7
Comoros−9.0−5.7−4.5−4.2−7.6−9.1−5.3
Congo, Dem. Rep. of−4.7−6.7−6.8−8.7−9.2−4.1−5.1
Côte d’Ivoire−2.0−2.8−2.6−2.8−2.4−1.0−2.1
Eritrea−41.7−32.4−31.7−30.1−16.1−12.5−10.3
Gambia, The−7.6−7.2−10.2−10.3−8.0−3.3−8.0
Guinea−5.7−8.9−5.9−2.1−4.3−1.8−2.1
Guinea-Bissau−21.4−23.3−32.2−24.6−21.6−25.3−20.8
Liberia0.2−0.30.01.15.1−0.7
São Tomé and Príncipe−36.7−29.7−34.920.3−30.2−0.1−2.8
Sierra Leone−13.9−14.4−12.4−12.8−11.0−6.0−9.4
Togo−3.41.90.2−4.6−5.2−3.6−4.7
Zimbabwe1−8.4−0.4−7.6−11.4−4.3−10.2
Sub-Saharan Africa-3.7-3.4-1.40.51.8-0.51.4
Including Zimbabwe−3.9−3.3−1.40.51.7−0.5
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa−5.6−5.5−4.2−1.80.1−2.2−1.4
Oil-importing countries-4.0-4.2-3.6-2.8-2.3-2.2-2.7
Excluding South Africa−5.8−6.8−6.2−5.7−5.6−6.0−6.9
CFA franc zone−3.1−1.7−1.40.92.21.51.8
WAEMU−4.3−4.3−4.8−5.4−5.7−5.5−6.1
CEMAC−1.81.52.47.29.78.49.0
EAC-5−4.7−6.3−5.9−6.7−6.8−6.9−7.9
SADC−3.6−3.5−2.7−0.91.1−0.10.5
SACU−2.1−2.1−1.7−0.31.01.31.0
COMESA−7.2−7.9−5.4−2.90.7−3.4−1.2
Resource-intensive countries-3.3-2.12.66.17.82.36.4
Oil−3.5−1.14.47.99.52.77.7
Non-oil−3.4−5.4−3.6−1.30.10.1−1.6
Non-resource-intensive countries-4.0-4.0-3.6-2.9-2.6-2.5-2.8
Coastal−3.2−3.1−2.8−2.0−1.7−1.4−1.7
Landlocked−8.1−9.2−8.3−8.5−7.4−8.4−8.5
MDRI−7.1−7.4−7.5−6.7−7.1−7.9−8.4
Fixed exchange rate regime−3.0−2.1−1.61.13.02.01.7
Floating exchange rate regime−3.9−3.7−1.30.41.5−1.01.3
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

Ratios represent the sum of deflated monthly flows divided by annual real GDP. Conventionally calculated annual flows in relation to nominal GDP become distorted in a hyperinflation environment.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

Ratios represent the sum of deflated monthly flows divided by annual real GDP. Conventionally calculated annual flows in relation to nominal GDP become distorted in a hyperinflation environment.

Table SA10.Government Revenue, Excluding Grants(Percent of GDP)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries23.321.324.027.428.023.026.5
Excluding Nigeria26.626.327.131.537.632.633.6
Angola42.437.237.540.446.435.237.0
Cameroon14.616.115.217.619.318.919.5
Chad7.87.88.59.416.922.320.2
Congo, Rep. of26.929.730.038.644.342.744.2
Equatorial Guinea22.527.331.937.945.746.039.5
Gabon32.530.130.831.331.730.230.1
Nigeria20.918.121.924.721.816.221.5
Middle-income countries24.424.024.926.427.528.027.9
Excluding South Africa31.630.631.533.235.434.534.3
Botswana39.238.237.439.140.038.137.1
Cape Verde20.621.322.823.724.223.924.1
Lesotho43.142.246.748.758.463.865.3
Mauritius19.420.119.919.819.919.120.7
Namibia32.129.229.931.733.835.734.7
Seychelles42.147.250.050.252.549.344.9
South Africa23.523.224.125.626.527.227.2
Swaziland26.127.430.832.141.737.939.7
Low-income countries14.615.416.316.316.616.917.4
Benin15.217.016.416.516.819.018.5
Burkina Faso12.112.112.812.312.313.313.4
Ethiopia15.116.216.114.614.812.813.4
Ghana17.720.823.823.821.922.724.4
Kenya20.219.721.220.820.820.220.9
Madagascar10.210.312.211.111.311.612.6
Malawi16.316.016.818.517.519.118.5
Mali13.916.417.417.917.717.918.6
Mozambique11.113.313.114.115.916.517.1
Niger9.710.211.410.813.215.512.8
Rwanda10.912.812.813.612.912.413.7
Senegal16.518.118.319.320.120.320.3
Tanzania10.010.110.411.112.013.514.9
Uganda11.512.212.712.813.113.413.9
Zambia18.818.018.217.416.919.119.2
Fragile countries13.513.714.515.116.016.817.7
Including Zimbabwe16.216.817.018.520.734.5
Burundi17.721.120.120.018.917.718.5
Central African Republic9.28.18.38.29.510.210.6
Comoros12.915.815.615.713.612.114.2
Congo, Dem. Rep. of5.87.79.511.413.014.518.8
Côte d’Ivoire17.716.817.517.118.519.818.9
Eritrea28.932.623.426.423.022.823.5
Gambia, The17.615.720.919.721.222.121.1
Guinea11.310.510.513.113.313.114.7
Guinea-Bissau15.015.217.217.619.616.120.6
Liberia11.214.914.618.622.425.3
São Tomé and Príncipe16.615.416.864.721.339.334.5
Sierra Leone9.412.412.311.911.810.811.9
Togo13.617.016.815.716.917.017.2
Zimbabwe124.024.933.735.035.128.8
Sub-Saharan Africa21.220.822.324.225.023.424.9
Including Zimbabwe21.220.922.424.325.224.5
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa18.919.520.822.625.323.924.9
Oil-importing countries20.420.621.722.723.423.723.8
Excluding South Africa16.917.318.518.919.519.519.8
CFA franc zone17.418.018.720.723.323.823.5
WAEMU15.616.016.516.417.318.317.9
CEMAC19.820.621.125.029.129.128.6
EAC-514.714.915.715.816.416.717.4
SADC23.223.024.226.028.027.428.1
SACU24.524.124.926.527.628.128.1
COMESA20.321.022.724.427.624.226.2
Resource-intensive countries23.421.523.826.827.523.326.2
Oil23.321.324.027.428.023.026.5
Non-oil23.321.923.024.324.925.124.4
Non-resource-intensive countries20.020.421.622.523.223.523.7
Coastal21.221.422.523.724.424.925.1
Landlocked13.414.415.515.616.516.216.9
MDRI13.614.715.315.716.216.517.0
Fixed exchange rate regime21.221.021.923.926.526.526.0
Floating exchange rate regime21.220.722.424.224.622.824.6
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

Ratios represent the sum of deflated monthly flows divided by annual real GDP. Conventionally calculated annual flows in relation to nominal GDP become distorted in a hyperinflation environment.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

Ratios represent the sum of deflated monthly flows divided by annual real GDP. Conventionally calculated annual flows in relation to nominal GDP become distorted in a hyperinflation environment.

Table SA11.Government Expenditure(Central government; percent of GDP)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries26.822.419.619.618.520.318.8
Excluding Nigeria31.827.525.724.125.327.325.7
Angola57.444.338.533.331.633.130.3
Cameroon15.615.416.014.614.515.617.0
Chad18.321.914.413.116.520.720.4
Congo, Rep. of34.329.826.723.227.432.022.7
Equatorial Guinea17.315.619.318.222.223.624.5
Gabon31.322.822.622.822.521.517.6
Nigeria23.219.215.616.614.115.313.9
Middle-income countries26.826.326.726.826.726.927.1
Excluding South Africa34.734.834.532.531.232.033.8
Botswana38.239.437.132.729.930.333.1
Cape Verde39.931.135.636.534.833.932.7
Lesotho49.545.343.745.946.251.558.9
Mauritius24.626.625.625.125.523.623.8
Namibia35.535.934.433.031.433.334.3
Seychelles54.945.151.249.461.956.954.0
South Africa25.725.225.726.226.126.326.4
Swaziland28.331.336.234.732.139.141.7
Low-income countries21.623.323.823.824.625.626.6
Benin18.020.620.121.119.422.622.5
Burkina Faso22.320.421.421.722.926.525.7
Ethiopia24.129.723.723.322.322.322.4
Ghana27.828.833.330.734.334.338.1
Kenya22.323.422.523.724.424.325.7
Madagascar17.919.625.421.621.620.621.6
Malawi28.528.631.931.331.635.330.8
Mali21.822.124.025.225.427.226.9
Mozambique24.327.225.322.928.735.237.6
Niger18.517.920.820.420.122.324.4
Rwanda20.122.624.125.724.225.428.2
Senegal19.121.623.324.227.827.026.7
Tanzania14.116.418.120.321.822.125.7
Uganda20.923.123.421.320.421.921.6
Zambia29.930.926.625.723.125.726.2
Fragile countries17.818.919.420.421.619.821.8
Including Zimbabwe21.520.622.223.826.536.9
Burundi24.634.939.836.838.238.740.9
Central African Republic15.912.913.916.913.911.815.3
Comoros21.921.520.119.921.221.319.5
Congo, Dem. Rep. of10.514.416.320.222.218.623.8
Côte d’Ivoire19.719.620.119.920.920.821.0
Eritrea70.664.955.156.539.135.333.8
Gambia, The25.222.931.130.029.225.429.1
Guinea17.019.416.415.217.614.816.8
Guinea-Bissau36.438.549.442.241.241.441.4
Liberia11.015.114.617.617.325.9
São Tomé and Príncipe53.445.051.744.551.539.437.3
Sierra Leone23.426.724.824.622.716.821.3
Togo17.115.216.620.422.120.621.9
Zimbabwe132.425.341.346.439.439.1
Sub-Saharan Africa24.924.123.723.723.223.923.5
Including Zimbabwe25.024.123.923.923.525.0
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa24.524.925.024.425.226.126.3
Oil-importing countries24.324.725.325.525.725.926.5
Excluding South Africa22.824.124.724.625.125.526.7
CFA franc zone20.619.720.119.821.222.321.7
WAEMU19.920.321.421.923.023.923.9
CEMAC21.619.118.717.719.420.819.7
EAC-519.421.221.622.523.223.625.3
SADC26.826.526.826.926.827.527.6
SACU26.726.226.626.826.626.927.1
COMESA27.528.928.227.226.827.627.5
Resource-intensive countries26.823.621.220.819.621.119.9
Oil26.822.419.619.618.520.318.8
Non-oil26.727.326.725.624.824.926.0
Non-resource-intensive countries24.024.425.125.525.826.026.6
Coastal24.524.525.325.726.126.326.8
Landlocked21.523.623.924.123.924.625.5
MDRI20.622.122.822.523.324.425.4
Fixed exchange rate regime24.223.123.522.823.524.524.3
Floating exchange rate regime25.124.423.823.923.123.823.4
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

Ratios represent the sum of deflated monthly flows divided by annual real GDP. Conventionally calculated annual flows in relation to nominal GDP become distorted in a hyperinflation environment.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

Ratios represent the sum of deflated monthly flows divided by annual real GDP. Conventionally calculated annual flows in relation to nominal GDP become distorted in a hyperinflation environment.

Table SA12.Broad Money(Percent of GDP)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries18.620.117.716.618.621.320.9
Excluding Nigeria15.116.015.214.916.919.518.3
Angola19.417.316.416.219.021.819.8
Cameroon14.117.718.117.918.320.520.4
Chad12.011.58.17.59.112.613.1
Congo, Rep. of14.314.013.414.016.419.516.9
Equatorial Guinea6.49.08.07.07.18.59.1
Gabon14.015.516.117.118.919.417.6
Nigeria21.022.719.417.819.622.622.8
Middle-income countries57.162.764.069.176.382.688.7
Excluding South Africa44.551.251.150.266.473.572.1
Botswana25.628.428.827.338.243.743.7
Cape Verde67.971.576.682.082.984.485.2
Lesotho31.329.227.828.634.734.334.3
Mauritius77.692.498.4103.4161.0177.1169.2
Namibia38.640.343.443.748.051.352.6
Seychelles90.6110.8125.0123.1117.897.488.5
South Africa58.864.165.571.577.583.790.6
Swaziland21.421.621.420.923.025.519.7
Low-income countries24.828.728.427.829.530.230.6
Benin28.029.426.529.832.431.731.8
Burkina Faso21.927.123.120.320.724.424.4
Ethiopia35.544.339.038.036.133.330.9
Ghana25.932.033.431.336.337.138.6
Kenya38.339.539.838.639.839.140.3
Madagascar19.621.421.418.219.320.521.9
Malawi15.114.916.015.414.215.115.2
Mali22.130.529.429.728.830.731.2
Mozambique22.429.126.628.631.731.832.5
Niger8.912.615.214.215.418.018.8
Rwanda17.217.516.516.515.420.020.3
Senegal23.432.134.134.036.637.339.9
Tanzania16.218.218.620.524.225.626.8
Uganda15.020.219.718.518.919.220.0
Zambia20.521.822.418.021.623.123.1
Fragile countries17.918.420.120.521.923.723.3
Including Zimbabwe23.329.323.128.134.9108.9
Burundi19.827.027.729.931.730.329.9
Central African Republic16.514.616.418.015.914.414.7
Comoros20.522.420.720.020.222.823.8
Congo, Dem. Rep. of6.06.28.88.510.512.312.1
Côte d’Ivoire23.722.123.724.125.428.728.0
Eritrea127.0146.2129.0129.3123.9123.8118.6
Gambia, The34.045.845.146.654.452.652.6
Guinea10.715.116.617.219.917.917.8
Guinea-Bissau38.722.030.533.034.337.438.0
Liberia15.218.821.323.525.127.3
São Tomé and Príncipe19.029.727.936.439.638.738.7
Sierra Leone16.520.519.621.521.323.323.2
Togo24.727.631.128.933.938.340.2
Zimbabwe136.658.743.783.4119.8412.1
Sub-Saharan Africa37.941.141.642.444.647.447.9
Including Zimbabwe37.841.541.642.745.252.7
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa24.126.626.525.628.530.028.8
Oil-importing countries43.448.650.753.858.461.765.2
Excluding South Africa26.329.930.530.134.035.335.0
CFA franc zone18.821.120.820.221.323.423.0
WAEMU22.825.826.326.327.730.030.5
CEMAC13.615.314.614.115.116.916.2
EAC-525.327.827.827.729.930.731.4
SADC48.953.555.158.162.466.268.2
SACU56.261.662.968.174.280.486.9
COMESA29.632.031.729.532.132.930.6
Resource-intensive countries20.121.219.718.520.723.322.6
Oil18.620.117.716.618.621.320.9
Non-oil23.824.926.626.130.332.932.7
Non-resource-intensive countries46.051.653.757.262.065.369.2
Coastal50.956.358.663.069.073.178.1
Landlocked20.024.223.522.923.223.923.4
MDRI20.725.124.824.526.027.127.4
Fixed exchange rate regime22.024.124.123.525.727.827.2
Floating exchange rate regime41.945.345.846.948.851.652.2
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

2007 is an estimate.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

2007 is an estimate.

Table SA13.Broad Money Growth(Percent)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries36.722.917.823.238.931.222.7
Excluding Nigeria51.321.123.934.737.435.019.1
Angola252.167.549.859.759.649.523.9
Cameroon16.2−0.97.34.29.318.67.4
Chad7.5−3.13.322.729.044.019.6
Congo, Rep. of10.9−2.415.936.347.97.410.3
Equatorial Guinea36.456.733.534.714.134.029.6
Gabon7.7−0.311.827.621.011.07.8
Nigeria28.024.114.016.039.928.525.3
Middle-income countries13.913.213.319.325.323.721.3
Excluding South Africa15.015.814.310.549.524.510.4
Botswana21.817.613.910.667.434.312.9
Cape Verde8.08.610.515.517.713.413.0
Lesotho8.76.03.39.135.410.412.9
Mauritius12.224.318.313.668.523.810.3
Namibia13.09.616.29.729.818.815.4
Seychelles15.46.014.01.73.0−8.017.2
South Africa13.812.913.120.522.523.622.6
Swaziland10.914.110.45.925.121.4−14.7
Low-income countries15.122.012.812.621.919.516.1
Benin13.36.6−6.721.816.35.28.4
Burkina Faso5.254.0−7.2−3.810.222.910.9
Ethiopia8.914.710.919.617.419.721.1
Ghana37.738.125.914.338.822.722.0
Kenya6.111.513.49.117.119.112.5
Madagascar15.66.419.44.624.924.023.4
Malawi31.129.329.814.317.422.512.2
Mali12.425.5−2.49.57.211.88.0
Mozambique28.218.75.927.123.416.215.4
Niger6.542.220.36.616.224.114.9
Rwanda14.215.212.117.210.750.214.1
Senegal10.331.512.97.412.713.416.3
Tanzania14.322.718.025.531.620.720.0
Uganda18.923.39.08.716.417.416.6
Zambia32.023.430.20.445.121.511.5
Fragile countries33.2-0.923.115.523.022.510.3
Including Zimbabwe47.554.639.341.772.0321.1
Burundi15.823.316.727.116.410.015.0
Central African Republic−2.7−8.014.216.5−4.2−3.79.4
Comoros11.4−1.1−6.33.14.215.09.2
Congo, Dem. Rep. of225.557.359.926.448.550.616.3
Côte d’Ivoire10.2−26.69.57.410.317.25.3
Eritrea25.415.111.710.75.78.67.7
Gambia, The22.543.418.313.126.28.611.8
Guinea14.935.337.037.259.48.315.9
Guinea-Bissau34.7−65.344.020.65.316.08.3
Liberia8.349.335.734.433.729.6
São Tomé and Príncipe34.543.97.445.939.324.821.1
Sierra Leone28.826.218.932.819.328.517.1
Togo3.311.418.31.422.116.410.0
Zimbabwe167.7413.5222.6520.01,416.633,994.4
Sub-Saharan Africa20.316.515.019.029.025.420.3
Including Zimbabwe22.420.916.120.431.636.2
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa24.417.217.318.929.625.416.0
Oil-importing countries16.014.313.917.124.122.318.7
Excluding South Africa18.616.015.012.826.120.814.2
CFA franc zone10.83.88.913.415.618.011.5
WAEMU9.34.36.27.311.815.79.6
CEMAC12.83.112.019.819.320.213.2
EAC-511.617.514.114.620.520.615.5
SADC22.717.616.822.330.127.421.2
SACU14.012.913.119.524.523.921.6
COMESA38.726.525.223.136.331.718.3
Resource-intensive countries30.116.717.620.538.329.520.9
Oil36.722.917.823.238.931.222.7
Non-oil15.8−1.516.710.035.321.510.6
Non-resource-intensive countries16.016.413.618.022.722.419.8
Coastal14.014.513.518.923.422.220.8
Landlocked27.628.214.212.819.123.514.5
MDRI17.120.011.812.120.919.615.6
Fixed exchange rate regime11.85.49.712.621.019.211.3
Floating exchange rate regime22.519.516.320.530.926.822.2
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

2007 is an estimate.

Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.

2007 is an estimate.

Table SA14.Claims on Nonfinancial Private Sector(Percent of broad money)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries58.155.457.661.057.873.675.7
Excluding Nigeria51.548.644.442.043.647.150.5
Angola21.132.235.234.742.050.053.2
Cameroon60.361.056.959.755.751.153.9
Chad50.253.849.347.245.728.124.8
Congo, Rep. of53.528.225.418.914.114.115.4
Equatorial Guinea62.533.230.333.640.648.557.9
Gabon80.975.561.353.653.756.860.3
Nigeria62.759.766.173.867.192.493.8
Middle-income countries103.9101.2102.1101.5102.2100.4100.2
Excluding South Africa67.881.083.485.069.666.368.7
Botswana57.266.572.370.150.346.646.6
Cape Verde47.350.950.347.552.457.558.0
Lesotho57.323.825.731.326.330.930.9
Mauritius70.588.380.274.952.347.548.7
Namibia102.4123.6128.2139.7125.5117.4114.4
Seychelles19.323.827.230.828.742.342.4
South Africa108.7103.7104.4103.5106.3104.5103.9
Swaziland59.275.789.3102.098.999.1128.5
Low-income countries51.045.648.854.456.458.460.3
Benin33.049.255.054.351.953.753.6
Burkina Faso53.550.761.279.282.067.269.5
Ethiopia49.534.334.545.750.655.155.9
Ghana52.848.949.258.859.666.173.6
Kenya71.058.964.665.463.666.567.1
Madagascar47.241.247.255.952.850.050.9
Malawi34.026.929.430.744.741.241.5
Mali68.261.465.174.891.397.7105.7
Mozambique66.844.439.548.851.251.549.1
Niger53.542.843.348.755.253.552.8
Rwanda56.360.559.560.366.956.158.5
Senegal71.461.359.368.763.560.457.3
Tanzania24.729.937.137.338.543.649.9
Uganda42.236.139.641.245.748.152.8
Zambia50.033.738.445.246.253.255.4
Fragile countries50.647.846.345.544.145.045.7
Including Zimbabwe60.057.848.643.842.845.3
Burundi94.294.285.060.965.465.664.9
Central African Republic37.051.250.042.145.949.949.6
Comoros42.436.135.033.529.425.629.7
Congo, Dem. Rep. of14.616.320.224.926.731.232.1
Côte d’Ivoire67.361.860.657.256.357.057.8
Eritrea31.622.223.524.423.523.423.9
Gambia, The38.043.030.932.232.232.232.1
Guinea48.440.932.234.629.727.127.2
Guinea-Bissau19.08.85.26.411.516.117.9
Liberia63.656.747.147.941.539.2
São Tomé and Príncipe20.127.656.955.458.756.655.3
Sierra Leone15.920.324.521.721.623.523.9
Togo63.062.254.960.649.952.054.4
Zimbabwe84.184.863.931.434.246.3
Sub-Saharan Africa74.573.576.077.075.279.780.3
Including Zimbabwe74.673.875.976.674.979.2
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa52.150.751.553.152.253.755.8
Oil-importing countries81.380.083.184.084.383.083.3
Excluding South Africa53.451.354.057.856.357.158.8
CFA franc zone60.457.054.354.954.453.354.9
WAEMU61.457.558.663.064.162.763.4
CEMAC62.156.449.446.845.144.247.2
EAC-550.845.951.151.653.456.459.0
SADC89.787.289.588.187.586.385.4
SACU105.5102.2103.1102.5103.8102.0101.7
COMESA51.148.751.552.852.755.857.5
Resource-intensive countries59.657.359.462.258.171.073.2
Oil58.155.457.661.057.873.675.7
Non-oil63.563.766.067.259.458.258.8
Non-resource-intensive countries83.882.085.286.187.586.186.3
Coastal93.089.191.892.093.291.791.6
Landlocked46.341.044.451.156.156.359.0
MDRI49.245.447.253.054.755.457.8
Fixed exchange rate regime62.460.960.261.458.356.658.2
Floating exchange rate regime81.076.679.980.678.984.784.9
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Table SA15.Exports of Goods and Services(Percent of GDP)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries46.047.049.554.552.249.951.7
Excluding Nigeria51.952.957.466.467.065.867.7
Angola75.069.669.779.373.871.472.6
Cameroon24.724.022.724.528.126.827.2
Chad16.824.651.553.557.153.853.1
Congo, Rep. of77.280.878.688.996.5103.399.3
Equatorial Guinea98.196.497.396.894.593.091.5
Gabon58.355.262.267.766.064.468.4
Nigeria42.243.244.446.542.638.640.2
Middle-income countries30.531.029.530.031.934.035.0
Excluding South Africa51.155.252.350.750.454.053.0
Botswana44.756.747.646.241.846.844.6
Cape Verde26.531.432.036.842.643.646.4
Lesotho34.550.054.749.650.855.655.4
Mauritius61.258.455.557.760.760.862.2
Namibia45.037.240.639.745.849.347.1
Seychelles72.187.489.799.6110.7123.7118.1
South Africa27.828.126.727.529.631.632.9
Swaziland75.486.886.572.663.768.469.3
Low-income countries20.121.323.723.424.623.923.0
Benin14.913.714.313.010.711.412.2
Burkina Faso10.18.610.79.611.711.010.9
Ethiopia12.614.214.915.113.912.812.3
Ghana39.240.739.336.139.138.537.5
Kenya22.323.726.627.924.722.822.8
Madagascar23.923.132.927.330.131.028.9
Malawi25.519.520.619.618.819.520.5
Mali25.626.024.625.630.627.426.5
Mozambique18.229.032.132.942.541.339.2
Niger17.915.717.916.515.515.818.5
Rwanda7.57.99.69.610.39.39.0
Senegal28.226.627.227.226.326.124.7
Tanzania13.014.718.019.722.021.619.6
Uganda11.812.014.313.814.715.715.7
Zambia28.929.038.234.137.841.239.0
Fragile countries31.735.537.540.441.940.542.0
Including Zimbabwe29.230.738.140.641.235.2
Burundi7.78.49.611.510.48.411.6
Central African Republic19.213.513.212.614.014.814.4
Comoros15.215.812.711.814.09.810.4
Congo, Dem. Rep. of22.026.130.333.736.245.145.7
Côte d’Ivoire42.245.848.651.152.247.850.2
Eritrea13.68.38.66.27.06.66.3
Gambia, The51.766.173.265.564.259.654.9
Guinea22.922.321.028.334.924.924.0
Guinea-Bissau25.130.031.031.423.830.827.9
Liberia36.831.328.835.641.149.5
São Tomé and Príncipe17.917.514.014.014.010.812.9
Sierra Leone15.723.223.024.125.021.020.6
Togo32.743.541.340.342.342.747.4
Zimbabwe29.117.642.542.036.316.6
Sub-Saharan Africa31.633.534.436.838.138.039.6
Including Zimbabwe31.233.134.536.938.037.7
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa32.234.938.141.543.142.944.3
Oil-importing countries27.528.628.629.030.631.531.8
Excluding South Africa27.329.331.231.031.831.330.6
CFA franc zone35.236.340.044.046.344.746.4
WAEMU30.230.331.531.832.530.431.3
CEMAC41.743.749.556.359.658.660.1
EAC-516.217.620.421.421.020.219.7
SADC30.832.031.834.036.839.241.0
SACU29.430.028.629.131.033.234.1
COMESA32.635.239.343.243.744.346.5
Resource-intensive countries43.845.747.952.350.748.950.5
Oil46.047.049.554.552.249.951.7
Non-oil38.441.342.543.244.043.843.4
Non-resource-intensive countries26.027.026.927.228.929.930.4
Coastal27.428.227.628.230.131.432.0
Landlocked18.620.522.521.521.922.422.2
MDRI20.321.423.122.825.124.523.6
Fixed exchange rate regime37.839.542.244.946.546.047.1
Floating exchange rate regime30.132.032.534.936.236.338.0
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Table SA16.Imports of Goods and Services(Percent of GDP)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries41.143.136.035.432.734.730.6
Excluding Nigeria46.346.443.241.940.141.737.0
Angola72.263.153.749.437.937.734.1
Cameroon23.223.425.026.427.527.928.1
Chad47.761.160.347.351.247.745.0
Congo, Rep. of57.159.845.052.071.9100.669.5
Equatorial Guinea105.176.158.847.650.152.445.9
Gabon37.331.032.029.432.135.434.1
Nigeria37.641.031.431.027.829.826.0
Middle-income countries28.829.130.030.834.837.038.6
Excluding South Africa56.056.054.251.149.655.658.9
Botswana36.842.939.131.027.333.137.8
Cape Verde61.267.469.564.868.673.375.8
Lesotho100.6103.2102.499.097.8106.0102.2
Mauritius62.357.455.062.167.671.773.5
Namibia53.244.344.643.343.146.348.6
Seychelles84.382.794.5122.0127.9160.3161.1
South Africa25.125.827.128.332.934.736.2
Swaziland88.684.789.181.571.480.286.1
Low-income countries30.631.935.036.437.538.138.6
Benin27.026.526.622.822.222.923.1
Burkina Faso24.521.724.324.724.625.426.3
Ethiopia23.629.231.535.536.632.231.9
Ghana56.152.760.461.765.065.962.6
Kenya28.028.232.635.234.733.234.7
Madagascar30.732.147.941.641.248.558.1
Malawi38.236.238.846.342.540.440.9
Mali33.633.232.934.233.633.834.0
Mozambique35.546.241.844.050.351.554.4
Niger26.425.828.830.930.131.034.1
Rwanda24.726.126.528.027.427.431.1
Senegal36.238.739.942.744.442.242.7
Tanzania22.120.823.227.033.035.033.0
Uganda23.226.727.626.929.932.034.1
Zambia40.441.542.636.229.638.336.5
Fragile countries30.133.537.142.942.342.846.2
Including Zimbabwe28.330.038.944.142.137.1
Burundi18.327.733.939.747.643.141.3
Central African Republic24.018.019.421.421.922.323.1
Comoros34.331.031.733.938.328.433.0
Congo, Dem. Rep. of21.228.434.445.341.350.755.2
Côte d’Ivoire33.234.939.443.641.640.543.8
Eritrea67.287.188.955.438.736.334.0
Gambia, The60.779.0104.399.189.690.792.1
Guinea26.424.625.431.539.633.534.2
Guinea-Bissau47.944.147.348.255.049.348.5
Liberia47.670.975.790.293.4107.6
São Tomé and Príncipe50.453.652.757.586.569.972.5
Sierra Leone28.440.834.237.232.628.330.4
Togo45.757.556.357.261.863.572.5
Zimbabwe29.420.751.252.940.916.9
Sub-Saharan Africa32.033.733.133.935.036.735.8
Including Zimbabwe31.633.433.334.135.036.4
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa36.738.339.840.640.241.640.6
Oil-importing countries29.430.332.033.336.237.839.2
Excluding South Africa34.335.838.640.040.341.542.8
CFA franc zone34.035.336.337.039.541.139.5
WAEMU32.633.535.837.837.336.938.8
CEMAC35.837.637.036.341.545.340.1
EAC-524.825.428.330.733.133.334.0
SADC30.531.332.133.135.437.738.4
SACU27.427.929.129.733.735.737.4
COMESA38.840.742.543.239.140.039.4
Resource-intensive countries39.641.836.736.033.235.332.0
Oil41.143.136.035.432.734.730.6
Non-oil36.237.739.038.335.638.340.6
Non-resource-intensive countries28.529.431.132.736.337.739.1
Coastal28.328.930.431.836.137.739.1
Landlocked29.632.535.437.737.137.839.0
MDRI30.031.433.835.236.637.537.8
Fixed exchange rate regime38.239.139.839.340.643.042.3
Floating exchange rate regime30.432.431.432.733.735.334.5
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Table SA17.Trade Balance(Percent of GDP)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries17.515.024.329.427.623.928.7
Excluding Nigeria23.222.330.740.740.738.743.5
Angola36.428.938.651.449.347.550.9
Cameroon3.71.9−0.40.33.01.61.9
Chad−15.4−8.428.035.834.031.630.8
Congo, Rep. of47.550.653.056.552.642.457.3
Equatorial Guinea40.953.564.067.763.059.263.3
Gabon34.735.241.948.845.441.545.4
Nigeria13.710.320.121.919.113.418.1
Middle-income countries2.11.5-0.4-0.6-2.3-2.3-3.0
Excluding South Africa-5.0-3.3-3.3-2.1-1.2-4.3-8.9
Botswana10.713.98.915.515.114.27.4
Cape Verde−35.5−37.8−41.0−35.0−39.4−47.3−49.9
Lesotho−65.2−49.8−44.9−46.1−44.7−47.4−44.8
Mauritius−7.7−5.8−6.3−11.4−13.2−17.3−19.8
Namibia−5.9−10.3−5.0−4.31.41.6−2.0
Seychelles−29.6−12.6−22.2−41.4−37.4−63.1−65.4
South Africa3.02.1−0.1−0.4−2.4−2.0−2.4
Swaziland−4.85.73.8−4.7−5.1−11.3−16.3
Low-income countries-8.5-9.0-10.3-12.2-12.1-13.6-14.4
Benin−10.4−11.3−11.0−9.3−10.7−10.9−10.4
Burkina Faso−10.4−8.9−9.1−9.9−8.6−9.4−10.5
Ethiopia−12.8−17.1−19.8−22.6−23.7−20.3−20.6
Ghana−15.1−10.3−17.0−23.7−23.8−26.7−23.4
Kenya−7.7−7.7−10.0−11.2−14.3−15.3−15.1
Madagascar−3.1−3.5−10.1−12.0−9.8−16.2−23.1
Malawi−4.8−10.5−11.8−19.6−17.4−14.9−14.0
Mali0.6−1.3−2.4−2.72.5−1.1−2.8
Mozambique−15.4−14.9−9.3−11.0−7.9−8.5−13.0
Niger−2.9−5.2−5.1−8.7−7.9−7.9−7.9
Rwanda−9.4−10.2−9.0−10.4−10.1−11.9−14.3
Senegal−7.6−11.8−12.3−15.1−17.7−17.6−17.9
Tanzania−7.1−5.6−6.7−8.0−11.9−15.3−14.5
Uganda−7.2−10.0−9.9−9.6−11.6−11.3−14.1
Zambia−5.3−7.0−0.50.710.98.36.4
Fragile countries7.58.26.33.35.73.72.8
Including Zimbabwe5.55.74.61.94.62.9
Burundi−7.3−15.3−15.2−18.4−19.7−22.8−20.2
Central African Republic2.40.9−1.7−3.2−3.1−2.5−3.5
Comoros−15.3−11.7−16.4−20.8−22.5−18.0−21.2
Congo, Dem. Rep. of6.12.10.9−5.60.10.1−1.1
Côte d’Ivoire15.718.516.614.618.015.014.5
Eritrea−50.3−69.7−73.7−44.6−29.5−27.5−25.8
Gambia, The−14.1−14.6−39.1−45.6−40.0−47.7−52.8
Guinea3.24.20.72.72.2−2.5−4.0
Guinea-Bissau−9.7−3.6−2.7−5.5−19.6−10.8−13.0
Liberia−4.7−28.8−34.7−39.7−37.0−39.0
São Tomé and Príncipe−23.0−25.6−28.2−30.7−49.8−39.5−42.2
Sierra Leone−6.1−14.8−8.3−12.1−6.6−6.0−7.0
Togo−10.2−9.4−13.1−16.4−19.1−20.3−25.0
Zimbabwe1.1−1.0−6.5−8.5−3.10.0
Sub-Saharan Africa3.53.34.96.66.65.17.5
Including Zimbabwe3.43.24.86.56.55.0
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa1.01.83.86.68.26.99.4
Oil-importing countries-0.6-0.9-2.5-3.5-4.5-5.2-6.1
Excluding South Africa−4.5−4.6−5.8−7.7−7.2−9.1−10.5
CFA franc zone8.89.112.315.416.113.316.0
WAEMU2.41.60.4−1.5−0.3−2.1−2.8
CEMAC17.018.425.632.331.928.333.0
EAC-5−7.4−7.6−8.9−10.0−13.0−14.5−14.8
SADC2.72.21.63.23.74.35.7
SACU2.72.0−0.1−0.1−1.8−1.6−2.3
COMESA−0.8−1.11.85.98.99.112.6
Resource-intensive countries14.613.320.525.324.821.525.5
Oil17.515.024.329.427.623.928.7
Non-oil7.57.97.38.411.89.67.0
Non-resource-intensive countries-1.7-2.0-3.7-4.9-6.6-7.1-7.7
Coastal−0.6−0.9−2.8−3.7−5.7−6.2−6.7
Landlocked−7.0−8.5−9.5−12.6−11.6−11.7−13.0
MDRI−6.9−7.6−8.8−10.6−9.6−11.2−12.0
Fixed exchange rate regime6.06.99.212.213.010.511.9
Floating exchange rate regime2.82.43.95.35.13.96.6
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Table SA18.External Current Account, Including Grants(Percent of GDP)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries-3.7-6.22.87.810.82.87.4
Excluding Nigeria-6.5-6.5-0.68.912.95.68.6
Angola−12.7−5.23.516.823.311.012.0
Cameroon−3.1−1.8−3.8−3.40.70.40.0
Chad−28.0−46.8−16.02.1−9.5−4.3−2.4
Congo, Rep. of−8.0−4.112.711.41.6−19.86.4
Equatorial Guinea−33.8−33.2−22.3−5.44.51.82.9
Gabon7.09.511.219.818.012.815.4
Nigeria−1.7−6.15.07.19.50.76.5
Middle-income countries-0.2-0.5-2.6-3.1-4.9-5.7-6.1
Excluding South Africa1.43.92.34.67.77.63.1
Botswana7.67.13.114.115.316.08.3
Cape Verde−10.6−11.1−14.3−3.4−5.1−10.1−11.6
Lesotho−21.6−12.3−5.5−7.04.44.94.8
Mauritius0.62.40.8−3.5−5.3−7.9−6.4
Namibia3.46.78.25.515.918.411.8
Seychelles−15.70.4−7.0−23.6−17.2−38.7−44.9
South Africa−0.5−1.1−3.2−4.0−6.5−7.3−7.1
Swaziland−2.16.82.2−3.1−3.71.3−1.4
Low-income countries-6.3-4.7-4.9-6.2-5.0-7.0-8.5
Benin−7.0−8.3−7.2−5.9−6.2−5.7−6.1
Burkina Faso−9.8−8.9−10.4−11.3−9.6−9.9−11.6
Ethiopia−3.7−1.4−4.0−6.3−9.1−4.5−4.1
Ghana−7.41.7−2.7−7.0−10.9−12.8−9.8
Kenya−2.1−0.20.1−0.8−2.5−3.5−5.2
Madagascar−5.3−4.9−9.2−11.1−8.7−15.1−27.3
Malawi−7.5−7.2−8.5−12.3−6.2−3.2−2.9
Mali−7.5−6.2−8.4−8.3−4.9−6.6−7.6
Mozambique−12.5−10.5−6.3−11.419.7−9.9−12.1
Niger−6.7−8.3−7.8−9.3−8.6−7.7−9.8
Rwanda−7.6−7.4−2.8−2.9−6.5−4.8−9.4
Senegal−4.9−6.1−6.1−7.8−9.8−8.1−10.3
Tanzania−6.5−4.2−3.6−4.1−7.8−9.2−9.4
Uganda−6.1−5.8−2.2−3.2−4.0−2.0−7.7
Zambia−15.0−14.8−11.8−9.11.1−6.7−5.5
Fragile countries-2.80.0-1.2-4.0-1.1-2.6-5.0
Including Zimbabwe-2.6-0.8-2.1-4.9-1.7-2.3
Burundi−4.7−4.6−8.1−9.6−14.4−12.3−11.4
Central African Republic−2.5−2.2−1.8−6.6−2.7−4.5−6.4
Comoros−5.4−3.8−4.6−6.5−5.21.9−3.5
Congo, Dem. Rep. of−4.01.0−2.4−10.5−2.4−4.0−10.5
Côte d’Ivoire−0.42.11.60.23.11.40.6
Eritrea−5.512.5−1.00.3−3.4−4.7−5.1
Gambia, The−3.3−7.1−9.1−22.3−16.9−18.3−22.5
Guinea−5.6−3.4−5.8−4.5−5.9−9.2−10.9
Guinea-Bissau−12.7−2.82.4−5.1−11.3−1.77.0
Liberia−14.2−5.6−13.3−31.0−30.7−42.1
São Tomé and Príncipe−17.1−13.2−17.3−13.6−45.7−35.5−36.1
Sierra Leone−3.1−4.8−5.8−7.1−3.6−3.8−6.4
Togo−6.9−4.2−3.0−5.3−6.0−6.5−8.4
Zimbabwe−1.7−2.9−8.3−11.0−6.0−1.0
Sub-Saharan Africa-2.6-2.9-1.5-0.40.7-2.8-1.2
Including Zimbabwe−2.6−2.9−1.5−0.50.7−2.7
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa−4.7−3.4−2.3−0.22.6−0.8−0.7
Oil-importing countries-2.3-1.7-3.1-4.0-4.6-5.8-6.7
Excluding South Africa−4.4−2.4−2.9−4.0−2.2−4.1−6.2
CFA franc zone−4.3−5.2−3.5−1.0−0.3−2.4−0.6
WAEMU−4.3−3.7−4.1−5.2−4.1−4.5−5.8
CEMAC−4.3−7.0−2.73.23.3−0.24.1
EAC-5−4.6−2.9−1.8−2.6−4.7−4.9−7.2
SADC−1.9−1.6−2.6−2.0−1.1−3.6−3.6
SACU−0.2−0.6−2.6−3.0−4.8−5.5−6.0
COMESA−5.0−2.5−1.01.25.41.50.9
Resource-intensive countries-2.8-4.62.26.710.03.06.5
Oil−3.7−6.22.87.810.82.87.4
Non-oil−0.70.70.12.46.54.21.3
Non-resource-intensive countries-2.5-2.0-3.5-4.8-6.0-7.1-7.7
Coastal−1.9−1.6−3.3−4.4−6.0−7.5−7.9
Landlocked−6.0−4.1−4.9−7.3−6.1−4.6−7.0
MDRI−6.6−5.0−5.5−6.7−4.6−6.6−7.9
Fixed exchange rate regime−3.1−3.4−2.20.51.90.30.5
Floating exchange rate regime−2.5−2.8−1.3−0.60.4−3.4−1.6
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Sources: IMF, African Department database, March 31, 2008; and World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, March 31, 2008.
Table SA19.External Current Account, Excluding Grants(Percent of GDP)
1997–2002200320042005200620072008
Oil-exporting countries-3.9-6.42.77.610.82.77.3
Excluding Nigeria-7.1-7.2-0.98.312.75.48.5
Angola−13.8−5.93.416.723.711.312.2
Cameroon−3.4−2.4−4.0−3.80.1−0.6−0.9
Chad−31.1−52.0−20.3−1.9−12.0−6.7−4.6
Congo, Rep. of−8.2−4.312.510.41.5−20.06.3
Equatorial Guinea−35.4−33.8−22.7−5.74.31.63.0
Gabon6.810.211.919.718.012.815.3
Nigeria−1.5−5.95.07.29.50.86.5
Middle-income countries-0.3-0.6-2.6-2.8-4.8-5.8