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Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
April 1984
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Statistical Appendix
List of Tables
Statistical Appendix

Introduction

The statistical tables in this appendix have been drawn from a larger body of data normally used in analyzing the World Economic Outlook in the Fund. Many of the tables carry long-term averages (e.g., for the period 1967–76), as well as data for recent years.

The projections for 1984 shown in the tables are based on three assumptions or working hypotheses: (1) that the average exchange rates of a recent period (November 1983) will prevail throughout 1984; (2) that “present” policies of national authorities will be maintained; and (3) that the average price of oil will remain constant in nominal terms.

A few of the tables include series expressed in SDRs (or based on SDR values). The U.S. dollar-SDR conversion rates used in this report are, for the historical period, the geometric averages of daily rates given in the Fund’s International Financial Statistics (IFS). For the years prior to 1970, these data impute to the SDR a value of US$1.00. For 1984, a rate of US$1,052 per SDR—the rate prevailing on average during November 1983—is used.

The classification of countries in this report is the one adopted by the Fund in December 1979 and utilized in IFS for the March 1980 and subsequent issues. Industrial countries comprise

  • Australia

  • Austria

  • Belgium

  • Canada

  • Denmark

  • Finland

  • France

  • Germany, Federal Republic of

  • Iceland

  • Ireland

  • Italy

  • Japan

  • Luxembourg

  • Netherlands

  • New Zealand

  • Norway

  • Spain

  • Sweden

  • Switzerland

  • United Kingdom

  • United States

The developing countries are divided into two groups—“oil exporting countries” and “non-oil developing countries.” The countries covered under the heading oil exporting countries1 are

  • Algeria

  • Indonesia

  • Iran, Islamic

  • Republic of Iraq

  • Kuwait

  • Libyan Arab

  • Jamahiriya

  • Nigeria

  • Oman

  • Qatar

  • Saudi Arabia

  • United Arab

  • Emirates

  • Venezuela

The other developing countries, or non-oil developing countries, include all Fund members (as of March 31, 1984) except those listed above as being “industrial countries” or “oil exporting countries,” together with certain essentially autonomous dependent territories for which adequate statistics are available.2 Where regional breakdowns of data for “non-oil developing countries” are shown, the subgroups conform to the regional classification used in IFS.

In a number of tables, certain analytical subgroups of countries are distinguished. Among the “developing countries,” the subgroup of major borrowers is defined as those 25 developing countries with the largest outstanding external indebtedness in 1982. These are

  • Algeria

  • Argentina

  • Brazil

  • Chile

  • Colombia

  • Egypt

  • Hungary

  • India

  • Indonesia

  • Israel

  • Korea

  • Malaysia

  • Mexico

  • Morocco

  • Nigeria

  • Pakistan

  • Peru

  • Philippines

  • Portugal

  • Romania

  • South Africa

  • Thailand

  • Turkey

  • Venezuela

  • Yugoslavia

Among the “non-oil developing countries,” four analytical subgroups of countries are distinguished. These subgroupings are based primarily on the character of the countries’ economic activity and the predominant composition of their exports. Since the large “non-oil” group in the basic classification includes some countries that do have significant production and/or exports of oil, one of the analytical subgroups shown separately comprises countries (outside the main oil exporting group mentioned above) whose oil exports exceeded their oil imports in most years of the 1970s.

The countries classified in the subgroup net oil exporters are

  • Bahrain

  • Bolivia

  • Congo

  • Ecuador

  • Egypt

  • Gabon

  • Malaysia

  • Mexico

  • Peru

  • Syrian Arab Republic

  • Trinidad and Tobago

  • Tunisia

Within the great majority of developing countries and areas that are net importers of oil (net oil importers), three subgroups are distinguished. The first is major exporters of manufactures, including

  • Argentina

  • Brazil

  • Greece

  • Hong Kong

  • Israel

  • Korea

  • Portugal

  • Singapore

  • South Africa

  • Yugoslavia

A second subgroup is the low-income countries, comprising 43 countries whose per capita GDP, as estimated by the World Bank, did not exceed the equivalent of $350 in 1978. These are

  • Afghanistan

  • Bangladesh

  • Benin

  • Bhutan

  • Burma

  • Burundi

  • Cape Verde

  • Central African

  • Republic

  • Chad

  • China

  • Comoros

  • Ethiopia

  • The Gambia

  • Guinea

  • Guinea-Bissau

  • Haiti

  • India

  • Democratic

  • Kampuchea

  • Kenya

  • Lao People’s

  • Democratic

  • Republic

  • Lesotho

  • Madagascar

  • Malawi

  • Maldives

  • Mali

  • Mauritania

  • Nepal

  • Niger

  • Pakistan

  • Rwanda

  • Senegal

  • Sierra Leone

  • Solomon Islands

  • Somalia

  • Sri Lanka

  • Sudan

  • Tanzania

  • Togo

  • Uganda

  • Upper Volta

  • Vanuatu

  • Viet Nam

  • Zaïre

The third subgroup, other net oil importers, comprises middle-income countries (according to the World Bank’s estimates), the majority of which export mainly primary commodities. The countries in this subgroup comprise all non-oil developing countries that are not included among “net oil exporters,” “major exporters of manufactures,” or “low-income countries.”

Under the approach indicated above, certain countries would qualify for inclusion in more than one of these subgroups but are classified in only one of them according to their more predominant characteristics for purposes of analysis. Thus, India, which would qualify as a “major exporter of manufactures,” and China, which to date has been a net exporter of oil, are both classified as low-income countries (within the oil importing subgroup) in this report.

Except where otherwise specifically indicated, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and other non-member countries of Eastern Europe, Cuba, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea are excluded from the following tables. Also, it has not been possible to include in the tables a number of small countries or territories for which trade and payments data are not available.

Domestic Economic Activity and Prices

Table 1.Industrial Countries: Changes in Output and Prices, 1967–841(In percent)
Change from Fourth Quarter of Preceding Year
Change from Preceding YearFourth quarter
Average 1967–76219771978197919801981198219831984198219831984
Real GNP
Canada4.82.03.63.21.03.4–4.43.05.0–5.06.94.1
United States2.85.55.02.8–0.32.6–1.93.35.0–1.76.24.0
Japan7.45.35.15.24.84.03.43.13.93.84.03.3
France34.73.13.83.31.10.31.80.60.61.20.11.4
Germany, Fed. Rep. of3.42.83.54.01.9–0.3–1.11.32.6–2.03.22.7
Italy34.31.92.74.93.90.1–0.3–1.41.9–2.41.61.5
United Kingdom32.32.23.82.6–2.5–1.81.92.92.61.62.72.8
Other industrial countries4.31.72.02.92.10.50.41.12.20.31.82.1
All industrial countries3.73.94.13.51.31.6–0.12.33.6–0.34.03.2
Of which,
Seven major countries above3.64.34.53.51.21.8–0.22.53.9–0.54.43.3
European countries3.82.43.03.41.5–0.30.51.11.9–0.11.92.1
GNP deflator
Canada6.97.46.710.311.110.610.16.24.98.85.14.9
United States5.65.87.48.69.29.46.04.24.14.44.14.3
Japan7.95.74.62.62.82.71.70.70.70.80.81.1
France37.39.09.510.412.012.012.39.27.29.69.46.1
Germany, Fed. Rep. of5.13.74.24.04.54.24.83.23.04.82.52.5
Italy39.319.113.915.920.718.417.515.012.216.615.511.9
United Kingdom39.914.010.814.519.811.67.25.15.06.34.44.8
Other industrial countries8.010.18.78.28.79.29.37.46.28.37.16.0
All industrial countries6.77.67.58.09.18.67.15.14.55.85.04.3
Of which,
Seven major countries above6.57.27.38.09.18.56.74.74.25.44.54.1
European countries7.59.88.69.010.99.99.37.26.18.47.05.6

Composites for the country groups are averages of percentage changes for individual countries weighted by the average U.S. dollar value of their respective GNPs over the preceding three years. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

GDP at market prices.

Composites for the country groups are averages of percentage changes for individual countries weighted by the average U.S. dollar value of their respective GNPs over the preceding three years. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

GDP at market prices.

Table 2.Developing Countries: Changes in Output, 1967–841(In percent)
Change from Preceding Year
Average

1967–762
19771978197919801981198219831984
Developing countries
Weighted average35.75.85.54.83.51.20.20.83.8
Of which, major borrowers6.55.55.45.04.32.30.90.32.8
Median5.05.64.93.73.21.81.73.5
Oil exporting countries37.06.32.33.7–2.0–4.0–4.3–1.14.7
Oil sector2.0–3.53.0–11.7–15.4–16.0–6.97.0
Other sectors9.46.04.14.95.53.91.93.7
Non-oil developing countries
Weighted average35.65.76.45.15.02.81.51.63.5
Median5.05.05.64.83.73.32.01.73.0
By analytical group
Weighted averages3
Net oil exporters6.83.66.17.67.36.61.1–1.52.4
Net oil importers5.45.76.44.74.72.21.62.23.7
Major exporters of manufactures6.95.74.76.44.50.10.3–0.12.5
Low-income countries3.86.69.03.36.04.34.36.15.8
Excluding China and India3.63.65.42.33.43.43.82.63.7
Other net oil importers5.16.05.63.63.23.10.41.12.9
Medians
Net oil exporters6.04.96.64.56.34.81.22.34.2
Net oil importers4.85.05.34.83.73.02.11.73.0
Major exporters of manufactures7.66.46.76.84.94.21.01.81.6
Low-income countries3.93.94.73.83.52.82.82.43.9
Other net oil importers5.15.55.94.93.73.01.81.13.0
By area
Weighted averages3
Africa (excluding South Africa)4.82.32.52.23.01.81.20.13.5
Asia5.07.39.84.75.45.14.56.56.1
Europe5.55.45.43.91.52.32.40.61.8
Middle East5.64.37.44.36.85.43.44.23.6
Western Hemisphere6.65.04.26.76.10.2–1.6–2.31.3
Medians
Africa4.73.53.54.02.52.02.61.63.0
Asia4.85.86.76.35.55.03.84.45.0
Europe6.46.66.85.62.72.52.90.82.1
Middle East6.45.68.23.86.87.35.44.24.5
Western Hemisphere4.95.36.44.84.32.1–0.72.0

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change. Excludes China.

Arithmetic averages of country growth rates weighted by the average U.S. dollar value of GDPs over the preceding three years.

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change. Excludes China.

Arithmetic averages of country growth rates weighted by the average U.S. dollar value of GDPs over the preceding three years.

Table 3.Developing Countries: Changes in Consumer Prices, 1967–841(In percent)
Change from Preceding Year
Average

1967–762
19771978197919801981198219831984
Developing countries
Weighted average21.918.921.627.727.126.735.428.3
Of which, major borrowers35.732.329.837.337.139.054.142.0
Median11.29.911.614.613.510.310.010.0
Oil exporting countries
Weighted average315.211.910.913.213.28.111.410.9
Median11.210.610.611.211.17.69.08.5
Non-oil developing countries
Weighted average315.923.620.924.832.031.332.944.134.5
Median7.811.29.412.014.913.711.011.010.0
By analytical group
Weighted averages3
Net oil exporters8.222.817.717.724.224.443.674.240.1
Net oil importers17.323.821.425.933.232.331.139.133.5
Major exporters of manufactures22.643.240.245.454.561.963.386.576.1
Low-income countries10.77.03.76.711.710.47.48.16.0
Excluding China and India14.914.211.517.921.826.420.418.015.3
Other net oil importers15.819.618.723.931.519.315.716.014.1
Medians
Net oil exporters7.912.310.69.015.114.616.216.313.0
Net oil importers7.810.69.112.214.913.510.610.010.0
Major exporters of manufactures11.512.214.419.024.922.621.020.720.0
Low-income countries8.19.69.111.014.413.611.913.010.5
Other net oil importers7.511.28.312.114.312.37.77.68.7
By area
Weighted averages3
Africa (excluding South Africa)8.624.319.122.523.328.218.319.515.7
Asia10.35.53.76.712.510.55.95.94.9
Europe9.015.119.825.937.924.023.523.323.0
Middle East9.620.020.925.942.234.036.140.347.2
Western Hemisphere27.553.845.350.158.665.378.4122.791.6
Medians
Africa7.512.010.111.613.813.513.513.011.0
Asia8.05.06.06.314.513.47.48.06.5
Europe7.311.19.914.316.215.718.514.214.5
Middle East9.514.312.014.115.210.311.210.012.5
Western Hemisphere8.711.510.215.618.114.69.411.610.0

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change. Excludes China.

Geometric averages of country indices, weighted by the average U.S. dollar value of GDPs over the preceding three years.

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change. Excludes China.

Geometric averages of country indices, weighted by the average U.S. dollar value of GDPs over the preceding three years.

Table 4.Industrial Countries: Changes in Real Total Domestic Demand, 1967–841(In percent)
Change from Fourth

Quarter of

Preceding Year
Change from Preceding YearFourth quarter
Average

1967–762
1977197819791980198119821983198419831984
Canada5.11.11.74.0–0.23.7–6.73.95.98.44.4
United States2.75.95.02.0–1.23.2–1.04.55.87.44.5
Japan7.04.26.16.41.22.03.21.62.92.02.8
France4.71.83.74.12.1–0.63.9–0.5–0.5–1.61.5
Germany, Fed. Rep. of2.52.93.75.41.4–2.5–2.21.92.24.22.0
Italy2.60.52.05.77.0–2.2–0.2–2.42.21.2
United Kingdom2.00.84.44.2–3.5–1.92.44.23.05.12.7
Other industrial countries3.11.41.03.42.0–1.30.4–0.11.41.01.1
All industrial countries3.33.64.03.70.50.80.22.43.74.33.1
Of which,
Seven major countries above3.34.04.63.80.21.20.12.94.04.83.4
European countries3.01.72.74.41.7–2.00.70.81.51.81.5

Composites for the country groups are averages of percentage changes for individual countries weighted by the average U.S. dollar value of their respective GNPs over the previous three years. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Composites for the country groups are averages of percentage changes for individual countries weighted by the average U.S. dollar value of their respective GNPs over the previous three years. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Table 5.Major Industrial Countries: Changes in Real GNP and Components, 1977–841(In percent)
Change from Fourth

Quarter of

Preceding Year
Change from Preceding YearFourth quarter
19771978197919801981198219831984198219831984
Consumer expenditure3.94.43.61.01.41.43.03.32.23.43.3
Public consumption1.83.02.22.21.91.41.01.62.1–0.32.3
Gross fixed investment7.37.04.7–1.90.8–3.63.76.5–3.18.53.3
Final domestic demand3.94.63.60.81.40.62.63.41.33.33.1
Stockholding20.10.2–0.6–0.2–0.40.30.6–1.31.50.3
Total domestic demand4.04.63.80.21.20.12.94.04.83.4
Exports of goods and services5.37.910.28.04.9–2.6–1.44.4–7.24.63.4
Imports of goods and services4.99.19.30.54.11.52.68.0–3.611.73.8
Foreign balance20.3–0.2–0.21.00.5–0.3–0.4–0.2–0.4–0.4–0.1
GNP4.34.53.51.21.8–0.22.53.9–0.54.43.3

Averages of percentage changes for individual countries weighted by the average U.S. dollar value of their respective GNPs over the preceding three years.

Changes expressed as a percentage of GNP in the preceding period.

Averages of percentage changes for individual countries weighted by the average U.S. dollar value of their respective GNPs over the preceding three years.

Changes expressed as a percentage of GNP in the preceding period.

Table 6.Major Industrial Countries: Employment and Unemployment, 1967–841(In percent)
Average

1967–76
19771978197919801981198219831984
Growth in employment
Canada2.71.83.54.13.02.8–3.30.92.9
United States2.03.74.42.90.51.1–0.91.33.4
Japan0.91.41.21.31.00.81.01.71.2
France1.10.80.4–0.1–0.8–0.1–0.3–0.3
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–0.2–0.62.51.1–0.6–2.0–2.0–0.2
Italy1.01.00.51.11.50.4–0.40.10.5
United Kingdom–0.30.30.91.1–1.8–4.4–2.4–1.20.4
All seven countries1.42.22.62.10.60.3–0.80.62.0
Unemployment rates
Canada5.68.18.47.57.57.611.111.910.6
United States5.47.06.15.97.27.69.79.67.9
Japan1.42.02.22.12.02.22.42.62.5
France4.35.05.46.26.67.78.49.19.9
Germany, Fed. Rep. of1.53.93.83.33.44.96.88.28.2
Italy24.87.27.27.77.68.49.19.910.1
United Kingdom3.15.65.55.16.410.011.712.412.4
All seven countries33.75.45.15.05.66.58.08.37.7

The figures in the table are not wholly comparable among countries since they are based on the differing labor force definitions and concepts used by the respective national statistical agencies.

Figures for 1967 to 1976 have been adjusted by the staff to allow for a discontinuity in Italian labor force statistics.

National unemployment rates weighted by labor force in the respective countries.

The figures in the table are not wholly comparable among countries since they are based on the differing labor force definitions and concepts used by the respective national statistical agencies.

Figures for 1967 to 1976 have been adjusted by the staff to allow for a discontinuity in Italian labor force statistics.

National unemployment rates weighted by labor force in the respective countries.

Table 7.Industrial Countries: Changes in Consumer Prices, 1967–841(In percent)
Change from Preceding Year
Average

1967–762
19771978197919801981198219831984
Canada6.08.08.99.210.212.510.85.95.6
United States5.86.57.611.313.510.36.23.24.5
Japan8.98.03.83.68.04.92.61.82.1
France7.39.59.310.613.313.312.09.57.4
Germany, Fed. Rep. of4.33.72.74.15.55.95.33.02.8
Italy8.517.012.114.821.217.816.514.712.0
United Kingdom10.015.88.313.517.911.98.64.75.2
Other industrial countries7.411.38.57.810.010.59.67.46.2
All industrial countries6.78.47.29.011.79.97.44.84.9
Of which,
Seven major countries above6.67.96.99.212.09.87.04.44.7
European countries7.110.27.68.811.710.99.57.26.2

Composites for the country groups are averages of percentage changes for individual countries weighted by the average U.S. dollar value of their respective GNPs over the preceding three years. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Composites for the country groups are averages of percentage changes for individual countries weighted by the average U.S. dollar value of their respective GNPs over the preceding three years. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Table 8.Major Industrial Countries: Central Government Fiscal Balances and Impulses, 1977–841(In percent of GNP)
19771978197919801981198219831984
Fiscal balance
(+ surplus, – deficit)
Canada2–3.5–4.6–3.4–3.3–2.1–5.7–6.7–5.9
United States–2.7–2.0–1.2–2.4–2.5–4.3–5.8–5.3
Japan3–5.1–5.3–6.2–6.1–5.9–5.5–5.1–4.9
France4–1.0–2.6–1.5–1.1–2.6–2.8–2.9–3.0
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–2.2–2.1–1.8–1.7–2.2–1.9–2.0–1.5
Italy5–9.0–14.6–11.1–10.9–12.9–15.1–16.8–17.3
United Kingdom–3.1–5.0–5.3–4.9–4.1–2.9–4.9–3.4
All seven countries–3.2–3.6–3.1–3.5–3.8–4.7–5.6–5.2
All seven countries except United States–3.7–4.9–4.6–4.4–4.7–5.0–5.5–5.1
Fiscal impulse6
(+ expansionary, – contractionary)
Canada21.21.0–0.7–0.4–1.11.40.7–0.1
United States0.2–0.80.30.20.51.60.2
Japan30.20.21.0–0.3–0.6–0.4–0.2
France4–0.41.9–0.8–0.71.0–0.3–0.3
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–0.40.1–0.4–0.7–1.8–0.1–0.2
Italy5–0.85.3–3.0–0.10.60.6–0.1–0.1
United Kingdom–2.32.70.5–2.4–2.5–1.22.4–1.2
All seven countries–0.10.7–0.4–0.2–0.2–0.10.9–0.1
All seven countries except United States–0.31.3–0.5–0.4–0.50.2–0.3

Composites for the country groups are weighted averages of the individual country ratios, with weights in each year proportionate to the U.S. dollar value of the respective GNPs in the preceding year.

Data for Canada are on a national income accounts basis.

Data for Japan cover the consolidated operations of the general account, certain special accounts, social security transactions, and disbursements of the Fiscal Investment and Loan Program (FILP), except those to financial institutions. Japanese data other than FILP transactions are based on national income accounts.

Data for France do not include social security transactions and are on an administrative basis.

Data for Italy refer to the “state sector” and cover the transactions of the state budget as well as those of several autonomous entities operating at the state level but do not include the gross transactions (revenue and expenditure) of social security institutions, only their deficits.

For definition of fiscal impulse, see Appendix A, Supplementary Note 2 of the May 1983 World Economic Outlook, p. 110.

Composites for the country groups are weighted averages of the individual country ratios, with weights in each year proportionate to the U.S. dollar value of the respective GNPs in the preceding year.

Data for Canada are on a national income accounts basis.

Data for Japan cover the consolidated operations of the general account, certain special accounts, social security transactions, and disbursements of the Fiscal Investment and Loan Program (FILP), except those to financial institutions. Japanese data other than FILP transactions are based on national income accounts.

Data for France do not include social security transactions and are on an administrative basis.

Data for Italy refer to the “state sector” and cover the transactions of the state budget as well as those of several autonomous entities operating at the state level but do not include the gross transactions (revenue and expenditure) of social security institutions, only their deficits.

For definition of fiscal impulse, see Appendix A, Supplementary Note 2 of the May 1983 World Economic Outlook, p. 110.

International Trade

Table 9.World Trade Summary, 1967–841(Percentage changes)
Change from Preceding Year
Average

1967–762
197719781979198019811982198319843
World trade4
Volume7.55.05.57.01.51.0–2.52.05.5
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)8.59.010.018.520.0–1.0–4.0–4.51.5
(in SDR terms)57.07.52.514.519.09.02.5–1.03.0
Volume of trade
Exports
Industrial countries8.05.36.17.53.73.4–2.12.04.5
Developing countries6.52.44.25.3–2.5–4.1–7.40.67.5
Oil exporting countries6.00.5–2.92.3–12.5–15.6–18.4–7.28.5
Non-oil developing countries6.64.110.08.09.07.81.75.37.0
Imports
Industrial countries7.64.45.18.6–1.5–1.9–0.54.16.5
Developing countries8.710.27.25.28.17.2–4.5–3.44.5
Oil exporting countries18.516.33.8–8.512.420.66.5–10.21.0
Non-oil developing countries6.07.78.610.76.83.1–8.3–0.65.5
Unit value of trade
(in SDR terms)5
Exports
Industrial countries6.26.65.211.512.46.13.0–0.33.0
Developing countries11.310.9–4.025.435.114.01.0–2.83.5
Oil exporting countries20.18.4–6.239.759.320.62.2–8.41.0
Non-oil developing countries6.313.4–2.215.014.97.90.94.5
Imports
Industrial countries7.27.92.315.420.67.71.2–2.42.5
Developing countries6.56.53.112.817.812.33.43.5
Oil exporting countries6.27.34.99.510.78.22.50.63.0
Non-oil developing countries7.16.22.414.220.113.73.7–0.23.0

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix. Excludes data for China prior to 1978.

Compound annual rates of change.

Figures are rounded to the nearest 0.5 percent.

Averages based on data for the three groups of countries shown separately below and on partly estimated data for other countries (mainly, the U.S.S.R. and other nonmember countries of Eastern Europe and, for years prior to 1978, China). Figures are rounded to the nearest 0.5 percent.

For years prior to 1970, an imputed value of US$1.00 has been assigned to the SDR.

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix. Excludes data for China prior to 1978.

Compound annual rates of change.

Figures are rounded to the nearest 0.5 percent.

Averages based on data for the three groups of countries shown separately below and on partly estimated data for other countries (mainly, the U.S.S.R. and other nonmember countries of Eastern Europe and, for years prior to 1978, China). Figures are rounded to the nearest 0.5 percent.

For years prior to 1970, an imputed value of US$1.00 has been assigned to the SDR.

Table 10.Summary of Terms of Trade and World Prices, 1967–841(Percentage changes)
Change from Preceding Year
Average

1967–762
197719781979198019811982198319843
Terms of trade
Industrial countries–1.0–1.22.8–3.4–6.8–1.51.82.1
Developing countries4.54.1–6.911.214.71.5–2.3–2.9
Oil exporting countries13.11.0–10.527.643.911.5–0.4–9.0–2.5
Non-oil developing countries–0.76.8–4.50.8–4.3–5.1–3.51.11.5
Net oil exporters1.26.9–4.319.311.5–7.1–6.8–2.71.0
Net oil importers–1.06.8–4.5–2.1–7.1–4.8–2.91.81.5
Major exporters of manufactures–1.15.0–3.3–2.8–6.8–4.4–2.63.91.5
Low-income countries4–0.616.4–7.9–0.6–10.4–5.3–2.61.81.0
Other net oil importers–0.76.1–5.10.2–9.1–8.0–5.5–0.22.5
World trade prices (in U.S. dollar terms) for major commodity groups5
Manufactures7.58.014.514.011.0–6.0–1.0–3.01.0
Oil21.79.30.446.063.510.0–4.2–12.1–1.5
Non-oil primary commodities (market prices)7.421.2–4.116.38.7–14.6–12.06.77.0

Based on foreign trade unit values except where indicated. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix. Excludes data for China prior to 1978.

Compound annual rates of change.

Figures are rounded to the nearest 0.5 percent.

Excluding China and India.

As represented, respectively, by (1) the United Nations export unit value index for the manufactures of the developed countries; (2) the oil export unit values of the oil exporting countries; and (3) the International Financial Statistics index of market quotations for non-oil primary commodities.

Based on foreign trade unit values except where indicated. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix. Excludes data for China prior to 1978.

Compound annual rates of change.

Figures are rounded to the nearest 0.5 percent.

Excluding China and India.

As represented, respectively, by (1) the United Nations export unit value index for the manufactures of the developed countries; (2) the oil export unit values of the oil exporting countries; and (3) the International Financial Statistics index of market quotations for non-oil primary commodities.

Table 11.Price Indices of Non-Oil Primary Commodities, 1967–841(Percentage changes)
Change from Preceding Year
Average

1967–762
19771978197919801981198219831984
Non-oil primary commodities37.421.2–4.116.38.7–14.6–12.06.77.2
By commodity group
Food and beverages9.433.4–10.59.69.9–16.9–12.58.37.5
Food7.6–1.815.813.330.1–13.6–20.88.88.6
Beverages12.573.2–27.55.8–12.2–22.32.57.66.1
Agricultural raw materials6.73.27.621.94.1–9.7–13.79.48.6
Metals3.37.55.429.910.7–14.0–9.24.4
Non-oil primary commodities exported by developing countries4
Oil exporting countries8.027.42.110.1–0.2–11.4–12.116.010.4
Non-oil developing countries7.325.4–7.214.310.0–14.7–13.27.97.1
By analytical group
Net oil exporters7.517.22.016.311.1–13.9–14.59.87.3
Net oil importers7.227.7–9.513.89.7–14.9–12.87.47.0
Major exporters of manufactures9.129.2–15.215.316.2–14.4–15.85.15.8
Low-income countries6.329.9–10.19.76.0–12.3–12.59.48.6
Other net oil importers6.625.6–5.314.67.1–16.3–10.97.97.1
By area
Africa (excluding South Africa)7.036.4–12.112.8–0.7–16.4–12.29.78.5
Asia5.418.110.116.613.7–15.7–16.612.810.5
Europe8.70.26.712.410.3–8.8–15.512.89.0
Middle East9.55.40.85.812.1–2.0–23.19.710.0
Western Hemisphere8.227.9–12.613.812.3–14.4–10.75.04.6
Memorandum items
Oil export unit value21.79.30.446.063.510.0–4.2–12.1–1.3
Export unit value of manufactures7.58.014.514.011.0–6.0–1.0–3.01.0

In U.S. dollar terms. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Based on averages of component commodity price indices weighted by the U.S. dollar value of exports of each commodity from primary producing countries in 1968–70.

Averages of percentage changes in individual commodity prices weighted according to the 1968–70 composition of commodity exports of the respective groups of developing countries.

In U.S. dollar terms. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Based on averages of component commodity price indices weighted by the U.S. dollar value of exports of each commodity from primary producing countries in 1968–70.

Averages of percentage changes in individual commodity prices weighted according to the 1968–70 composition of commodity exports of the respective groups of developing countries.

Table 12.Industrial Countries: Merchandise Trade, 1967–841(Percentage changes from preceding year, except as indicated)
Average

1967–762
197719781979198019811982198319843
Total merchandise trade
Value (in billions of U.S. dollars)
Trade balance…..–198–37–66–19–16–14–40
Exports…..6978341,0311,2111,2041,1361,1201,182
Imports…..–716–826–1,068–1,278–1,223–1,153–1,135–1,221
Volume
Exports8.05.36.17.53.73.4–2.12.04.5
Imports7.64.45.18.6–1.5–1.9–0.54.16.5
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports7.77.812.815.013.3–3.9–3.6–3.41.0
Imports8.89.19.719.121.5–2.4–5.3–5.41.0
Terms of trade–1.0–1.22.8–3.4–6.8–1.51.82.1
Net oil imports
Value (in billions of U.S. dollars)…..–123–120–174–245–236–192–162–169
Volume8.53.8–3.93.0–13.5–15.0–13.6–6.46.5
Import unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)19.67.52.442.361.411.2–6.6–9.4–1.5
Memorandum item
Oil export unit value of oil exporting countries (in U.S. dollar terms)21.79.30.446.063.510.0–4.2–12.1–1.5
Non-oil trade
Value (in billions of U.S. dollars)
Trade balance…..104129137179217176148130
Exports…..6758109901,1541,1411,0721,0581,120
Imports…..–571–681–852–975–924–896–911–990
Volume
Exports8.75.26.07.24.33.7–2.81.84.5
Imports8.04.58.510.02.51.11.76.07.0
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports7.07.813.214.011.7–4.6–3.3–3.01.0
Imports6.89.510.013.811.6–6.2–4.7–4.01.5
Terms of trade0.1–1.62.90.10.11.71.41.0–0.5
Memorandum items
Real GNP44.03.03.53.41.40.8–0.11.73.0
Ratio of import volume to real GNP52.11.32.52.92.11.4–10.03.52.2
Import volume of nonindustrial countries67.56.86.84.36.66.1–2.9–1.74.0
Of which,
Oil exporting countries18.516.33.8–8.512.420.66.5–10.21.0
Non-oil developing countries6.07.78.610.76.83.1–8.3–0.65.5
Market prices of non-oil primary commodities (in U.S. dollar terms)79.514.1–2.717.810.2–12.2–11.45.16.0
Unit labor costs in manufacturing (in U.S. dollar terms)7.18.213.39.010.0–1.1–0.6–2.9–1.0

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Percentage changes are rounded to the nearest 0.5 percent.

Averages of changes for individual countries weighted by the average U.S. dollar value of their respective non-oil imports over the preceding three years.

Ratio of percentage changes of non-oil imports and real GNPs (weighted by non-oil imports).

Total imports.

Average of individual commodity price indices weighted according to the U.S. dollar value of imports of the respective commodities in 1970.

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Percentage changes are rounded to the nearest 0.5 percent.

Averages of changes for individual countries weighted by the average U.S. dollar value of their respective non-oil imports over the preceding three years.

Ratio of percentage changes of non-oil imports and real GNPs (weighted by non-oil imports).

Total imports.

Average of individual commodity price indices weighted according to the U.S. dollar value of imports of the respective commodities in 1970.

Table 13.Industrial Countries: Export and Import Volumes, 1967–841(Percentage changes)
Change from Preceding Year
Average

1967–762
19771978197919801981198219831984
Exports
Canada7.08.910.21.60.73.4–0.47.47.8
United States6.71.210.014.27.0–3.2–11.9–6.81.3
Japan13.08.50.70.217.110.6–2.38.76.0
France9.67.06.78.83.24.4–4.34.04.9
Germany, Fed. Rep. of8.16.04.67.43.95.21.90.44.5
Italy8.87.011.17.3–8.15.50.35.13.4
United Kingdom5.77.82.64.80.9–0.82.61.44.3
Other industrial countries8.05.06.07.92.02.71.24.74.5
All industrial countries8.05.36.17.53.73.4–2.12.04.4
Of which,
Seven major countries above8.05.46.17.34.43.6–3.21.14.3
European countries7.95.86.07.11.34.20.73.04.4
Imports
Canada7.71.24.09.1–4.52.2–15.814.713.5
United States6.912.77.41.0–6.10.6–5.010.015.2
Japan10.42.56.711.3–5.0–2.2–0.51.33.8
France10.21.36.811.75.5–3.52.8–1.6
Germany, Fed. Rep. of8.04.37.99.22.0–3.70.45.44.0
Italy7.1–0.27.913.91.5–9.41.51.04.0
United Kingdom5.21.84.710.7–5.4–2.73.87.16.2
Other industrial countries6.93.91.39.40.8–3.12.20.52.6
All industrial countries7.64.45.18.6–1.5–1.9–0.54.16.6
Of which,
Seven major countries above7.94.66.78.2–2.4–1.5–1.55.47.9
European countries7.52.54.110.71.1–3.92.12.03.1

Trade in goods only. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Trade in goods only. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Table 14.Developing Countries: Merchandise Trade, 1967–841(Percentage changes, except as indicated)
Average

1967–762
19771978197919801981198219831984
Developing countries
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports20.314.87.336.332.7–1.0–12.4–5.39.4
Imports17.518.618.522.528.39.1–7.5–6.35.9
Volume
Exports6.52.44.25.3–2.5–4.1–7.40.67.6
Imports8.710.27.25.28.17.2–4.5–3.44.3
Unit values (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports13.012.22.929.436.03.3–5.5–5.91.6
Imports8.17.710.616.418.71.8–3.2–3.11.5
Terms of trade4.54.1–6.911.214.71.5–2.3–2.90.1
Purchasing power of exports311.36.6–3.017.111.8–2.7–9.5–2.37.8
Memorandum items
Real GNP growth of trading partners4.84.54.54.02.41.90.52.03.4
Market prices (in U.S. dollar terms) of primary commodities (excluding petroleum) exported by developing countries7.421.2–4.116.38.7–14.6–12.06.77.2
Oil exporting countries
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports29.310.1–2.247.540.4–7.8–22.0–17.77.7
Imports27.526.216.83.425.318.22.2–12.52.6
Volume
Exports6.00.5–2.92.3–12.5–15.6–18.4–7.28.6
Imports18.516.33.8–8.512.420.66.5–10.21.1
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports21.99.60.644.260.59.3–4.4–11.3–0.8
Imports7.88.512.513.011.5–2.0–4.0–2.51.5
Terms of trade13.11.0–10.527.643.911.5–0.4–9.0–2.3
Purchasing power of exports320.21.5–13.130.525.9–5.9–18.7–15.66.1
Memorandum items
Oil export volume (in billions of barrels)10.8010.4110.539.127.616.075.555.93
Average oil export price (in U.S. dollars per barrel)12.8212.8718.7930.7333.7932.3628.4628.10
Annual percentage change21.79.30.446.063.510.0–4.2–12.1–1.3
Real GNP growth of trading partners5.14.64.64.02.52.00.82.03.4
Export unit value (in U.S. dollar terms) of manufactures7.58.014.514.011.0–6.0–1.0–3.01.0
Non-oil developing countries4
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports15.019.415.428.226.25.3–4.72.910.3
Imports15.215.619.330.429.36.2–10.9–3.97.1
Volume
Exports6.64.110.08.09.07.81.75.37.1
Imports6.07.78.610.76.83.1–8.3–0.65.5
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports7.914.64.918.715.8–2.3–6.3–2.32.9
Imports8.67.49.817.821.03.0–2.9–3.31.5
Terms of trade–0.76.8–4.50.8–4.3–5.1–3.51.11.4
Purchasing power of exports35.911.25.18.84.32.3–1.96.48.6
Memorandum items
Real GNP growth of trading partners4.54.44.33.92.31.80.21.93.3
Market prices (in U.S. dollar terms) of primary commodities excluding petroleum exported by non-oil developing countries7.325.4–7.214.310.0–14.7–13.27.97.1
Gross reserves (end of period) as percentage of total imports of goods and services526.025.726.422.617.816.416.918.920.0
Memorandum
Major borrowers
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports16.118.311.033.132.11.1–8.00.110.0
Imports16.316.616.424.028.69.7–10.3–11.55.5
Volume
Exports4.96.26.75.92.91.4–1.72.47.0
Imports7.38.66.25.26.46.9–7.5–8.74.2
Unit values (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports10.711.44.025.728.4–0.2–6.4–2.32.8
Imports8.47.39.617.920.92.6–3.1–3.11.3
Terms of trade2.13.8–5.26.66.2–2.8–3.40.81.5
Purchasing power of exports37.210.31.212.89.3–1.4–5.13.28.6
Memorandum item
Gross reserves (end of period) as percentage of total imports of goods and services528.428.027.826.722.216.913.715.416.5

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Export earnings deflated by import prices.

Excluding China prior to 1978.

Gold holdings are valued at SDR 35 an ounce.

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Export earnings deflated by import prices.

Excluding China prior to 1978.

Gold holdings are valued at SDR 35 an ounce.

Table 15.Non-Oil Developing Countries—By Analytical Subgroup: Merchandise Trade, 1967–841(Percentage changes, except as indicated)
Change from Preceding Year
Average

1967–762
19771978197919801981198219831984
Net oil exporters
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports14.020.814.946.339.15.3–0.8–0.510.0
Imports14.612.715.734.534.919.1–16.7–12.713.5
Volume
Exports3.26.810.35.64.77.38.83.16.8
Imports5.16.46.415.813.212.8–14.8–11.911.5
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports10.413.14.238.532.8–1.9–8.8–3.53.0
Imports9.15.88.816.119.25.7–2.1–0.81.8
Terms of trade1.26.9–4.319.311.5–7.1–6.8–2.71.1
Purchasing power of exports34.514.25.626.016.7–0.31.40.38.0
Memorandum items
Real GNP growth of trading partners4.54.84.63.82.22.2–0.12.23.7
Average price of oil (in U.S. dollar terms) exported by major oil exporting countries21.79.30.446.063.510.0–4.2–12.1–1.3
Market prices (in U.S. dollar terms) of primary commodities (excluding petroleum) exported by net oil exporters among non-oil developing countries7.517.22.016.311.1–13.9–14.59.87.3
Gross reserves (end of period) as percentage of total imports of goods and services 422.123.522.121.119.516.514.318.720.2
Net oil importers5
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports15.219.215.525.323.95.3–5.53.610.3
Imports15.216.119.829.828.44.1–9.9–2.36.1
Volume
Exports7.23.710.08.410.07.90.35.77.2
Imports6.27.99.09.95.81.5–7.01.54.6
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports7.514.95.015.612.6–2.4–5.8–2.02.9
Imports8.57.69.918.121.32.5–3.0–3.71.5
Terms of trade–1.06.8–4.5–2.1–7.1–4.8–2.91.81.4
Purchasing power of exports36.510.75.06.22.12.7–2.67.68.7
Memorandum items
Real GNP growth of trading partners4.34.34.23.92.21.70.11.83.2
Market prices (in U.S. dollar terms) of primary commodities (excluding petroleum) exported by net oil importers7.227.7–9.513.89.7–14.9–12.87.47.0
Gross reserves (end of period) as percentage of total imports of goods and services426.626.127.222.917.516.417.519.019.9
Major exporters of manufactures
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports17.721.919.526.927.87.6–6.95.711.2
Imports18.512.719.233.528.16.8–9.8–4.47.0
Volume
Exports9.97.212.39.912.59.1–2.27.58.4
Imports9.44.18.212.35.03.7–7.61.05.7
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports7.113.76.415.513.6–1.5–4.8–1.62.5
Imports8.38.310.118.821.93.0–2.3–5.31.2
Terms of trade–1.15.0–3.3–2.8–6.8–4.4–2.63.91.3
Purchasing power of exports38.712.58.56.84.84.4–4.711.79.8
Memorandum items
Real GNP growth of trading partners4.54.54.34.02.11.81.93.4
Developed countries’ export prices (in U.S. dollar terms) of manufactures7.58.014.514.011.0–6.0–1.0–3.01.0
Gross reserves (end of period) as percentage of total imports of goods and services428.224.227.021.214.814.314.315.517.2
Low-income countries excluding China and India
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports9.121.07.219.214.2–7.2–7.77.311.8
Imports9.315.630.817.522.8–1.6–3.0–1.64.9
Volume
Exports1.3–4.65.22.45.4–5.1–1.16.47.5
Imports0.86.018.10.41.6–4.71.3–0.71.8
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports7.726.91.916.48.3–2.2–6.70.93.9
Imports8.49.010.717.120.83.2–4.3–0.93.1
Terms of trade–0.616.4–7.9–0.6–10.4–5.3–2.61.80.9
Purchasing power of exports30.611.1–3.11.8–5.5–10.1–3.68.38.5
Memorandum items
Real GNP growth of trading partners4.54.04.13.62.11.10.51.63.2
Market prices (in U.S. dollar terms) of primary commodities (excluding petroleum) exported by low-income countries6.329.9–10.19.76.0–12.3–12.59.48.6
Gross reserves (end of period) as percentage of total imports of goods and services420.520.916.015.511.912.011.615.714.8
Other net oil importers
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports13.914.811.421.817.70.2–4.7–1.98.9
Imports14.222.113.223.425.72.8–11.1–1.81.9
Volume
Exports5.20.87.54.25.96.84.60.94.7
Imports4.813.73.65.72.90.8–7.80.70.2
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports8.213.93.616.911.1–6.2–8.9–2.74.1
Imports9.07.49.216.722.21.9–3.6–2.51.6
Terms of trade–0.76.1–5.10.2–9.1–8.0–5.5–0.22.4
Purchasing power of exports34.56.92.04.4–3.7–1.8–1.10.77.2
Memorandum items
Real GNP growth of trading partners4.03.93.63.31.71.0–0.21.42.9
Market prices (in U.S. dollar terms) of primary commodities (excluding petroleum) exported by other net oil importers6.625.6–5.314.67.1–16.3–10.97.97.1
Gross reserves (end of period) as percentage of total imports of goods and services426.425.027.124.721.418.717.516.216.1

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Export earnings deflated by import prices.

Gold holdings are valued at SDR 35 an ounce.

Excluding China prior to 1978.

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Export earnings deflated by import prices.

Gold holdings are valued at SDR 35 an ounce.

Excluding China prior to 1978.

Table 16.Non-Oil Developing Countries—By Region: Merchandise Trade, 1967–841(Percentage changes, except as indicated)
Change from Preceding Year
Average

1967–762
19771978197919801981198219831984
Africa (excluding South Africa)
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports12.315.84.424.716.3–8.0–7.4–1.711.8
Imports14.016.215.817.622.5–3.2–8.4–7.02.4
Volume
Exports3.1–6.32.34.81.8–1.11.83.16.6
Imports5.211.13.61.24.5–0.5–3.5–7.8–0.3
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports8.923.52.119.014.3–6.9–9.0–4.74.9
Imports8.44.611.916.217.2–2.7–5.10.92.7
Terms of trade0.518.1–8.72.4–2.5–4.3–4.1–5.62.2
Purchasing power of exports33.710.7–6.77.3–0.8–5.4–2.4–2.68.9
Memorandum items
Real GNP growth of trading partners4.33.43.73.31.70.50.31.12.5
Market prices (in U.S. dollar terms) of primary commodities (excluding petroleum) exported by developing countries in Africa7.036.4–12.112.8–0.7–16.4–12.29.78.5
Gross reserves (end of period) as percentage of total imports of goods and services416.913.612.712.29.48.48.29.29.7
Asia5
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports17.719.821.030.424.99.5–1.66.511.5
Imports14.818.829.934.730.76.9–5.24.28.9
Volume
Exports10.95.312.211.111.49.53.99.58.6
Imports5.911.518.214.59.12.2–1.58.87.4
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports6.113.87.917.412.1–5.3–2.82.7
Imports8.46.69.917.719.84.6–3.7–4.21.4
Terms of trade–2.26.7–1.9–0.3–6.4–4.5–1.61.51.3
Purchasing power of exports38.512.410.010.84.24.62.211.210.0
Memorandum items
Real GNP growth of trading partners5.05.25.24.83.23.01.12.84.1
Market prices (in U.S. dollar terms) of primary commodities (excluding petroleum) exported by developing countries in Asia5.418.110.116.613.7–15.7–16.612.810.5
Gross reserves (end of period) as percentage of total imports of goods and services429.730.526.221.917.818.622.625.426.4
Europe
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports15.710.614.821.219.612.7–2.00.26.0
Imports16.618.98.726.118.52.9–10.4–4.70.9
Volume
Exports8.53.06.52.55.115.81.45.24.5
Imports7.38.00.68.5–1.84.2–10.10.2–0.9
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports6.67.37.818.313.9–2.7–3.3–4.71.4
Imports8.610.08.116.320.7–1.2–0.3–4.91.8
Terms of trade–1.9–2.5–0.31.8–5.7–1.5–3.00.2–0.3
Purchasing power of exports36.50.56.24.3–0.914.1–1.65.44.1
Memorandum items
Real GNP growth of trading partners3.33.12.72.71.40.30.10.92.1
Market prices (in U.S. dollar terms) of primary commodities (excluding petroleum) exported by developing countries in Europe8.70.26.712.410.3–8.8–15.512.89.0
Gross reserves (end of period) as percentage of total imports of goods and services429.218.320.414.612.810.99.711.713.1
Middle East
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports15.722.99.026.734.54.7–10.0–8.38.0
Imports15.621.413.226.325.511.7–9.63.25.7
Volume
Exports4.39.1–4.13.37.51.0–5.2–5.35.9
Imports6.514.20.24.80.77.6–4.25.84.8
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports10.912.613.622.725.13.6–5.1–3.22.0
Imports8.66.313.020.424.63.8–5.6–2.50.9
Terms of trade2.16.00.51.90.4–0.20.5–0.71.2
Purchasing power of exports36.515.6–3.55.28.00.8–4.7–6.07.1
Memorandum items
Real GNP growth of trading partners4.94.63.94.02.41.2–0.11.23.2
Market prices (in U.S. dollar terms) of primary commodities (excluding petroleum) exported by developing countries in Middle East9.55.40.85.812.1–2.0–23.19.710.0
Gross reserves (end of period) as percentage of total imports of goods and services430.929.733.028.424.421.524.221.119.7
Western Hemisphere
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports13.524.210.628.429.17.4–7.11.011.6
Imports15.410.615.334.534.57.3–22.1–20.710.6
Volume
Exports3.04.514.46.47.911.62.12.56.9
Imports5.93.76.714.911.11.7–20.6–19.09.3
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports10.318.9–3.320.719.7–3.8–9.1–1.44.3
Imports9.06.78.117.021.15.5–1.9–2.01.2
Terms of trade1.111.4–10.63.1–1.2–8.8–7.30.63.1
Purchasing power of exports34.116.42.39.76.61.8–5.33.110.3
Memorandum items
Real GNP growth of trading partners4.04.34.03.51.61.2–1.01.53.2
Market prices (in U.S. dollar terms) of primary commodities (excluding petroleum) exported by developing countries in Western Hemisphere8.227.9–12.613.812.3–14.4–10.75.04.6
Gross reserves (end of period) as percentage of total imports of goods and services424.132.238.734.224.219.515.116.218.0

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Export earnings deflated by import prices.

Gold holdings are valued at SDR 35 an ounce.

Excluding China prior to 1978.

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Compound annual rates of change.

Export earnings deflated by import prices.

Gold holdings are valued at SDR 35 an ounce.

Excluding China prior to 1978.

Balance of Payments

Table 17.Summary of Payments Balances on Current Account, 1977–841(In billions of U.S. dollars)
197719781979198019811982198319842
Industrial countries–2.232.4–5.4–40.41.9–1.4–1.2–22.5
Canada–4.1–4.0–4.2–1.2–5.12.20.6–2.0
United States–11.7–12.32.65.19.1–5.8–34.3–68.0
Japan11.316.9–7.9–9.56.28.122.329.0
France1.08.56.9–2.5–2.8–9.5–2.51.5
Germany, Fed. Rep. of8.513.4–8.30.110.29.010.0
Italy3.17.96.4–9.5–7.5–4.90.91.0
United Kingdom2.05.53.011.816.712.76.15.0
Other industrial countries–12.2–3.5–12.3–26.4–14.9–14.5–3.50.5
Developing countries–1.0–36.60.523.3–55.7–94.2–72.6–58.0
Of which, major borrowers–26.7–37.9–35.4–41.3–79.5–74.9–39.6–31.0
Oil exporting countries29.45.762.5111.053.4–12.0–16.2–8.0
Four “major borrowers”3–7.4–14.90.411.0–4.4–17.1–5.8–3.0
Other countries436.820.662.1100.057.85.1–10.4–5.0
Non-oil developing countries–30.4–42.3–62.0–87.7–109.1–82.2–56.4–50.0
By analytical group5
Net oil exporters–6.3–7.4–7.3–10.2–24.3–14.4–6.9–9.5
Net oil importers–25.0–34.2–52.5–74.2–86.1–73.5–54.5–43.5
Major exporters of manufactures–8.9–10.8–22.9–32.5–37.4–34.6–17.1–12.0
Low-income countries–3.7–8.2–10.5–14.1–15.7–15.1–13.1–12.5
Other net oil importers–12.5–15.2–19.1–27.6–33.0–23.8–24.3–19.0
By area
Africa6–6.6–9.4–9.9–12.9–14.0–12.5–10.8–9.5
Asia–1.5–8.3–16.9–25.4–23.2–14.6–10.7–8.0
Europe–9.1–7.2–10.1–12.7–10.4–6.9–5.5–2.5
Middle East–5.1–5.7–7.2–7.1–11.5–9.3–12.0–12.0
Western Hemisphere–8.5–13.2–21.4–33.1–45.5–35.8–18.5–18.5
Total7–3.2–4.2–4.9–17.1–53.8–95.6–73.8–80.5

On goods, services, and private transfers. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Figures are rounded to the nearest $0.5 billion.

Algeria, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Venezuela. These four countries are included in the group of 25 developing countries classified as major borrowers.

The Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

China, which is classified as a low-income country but is also a net oil exporter, is included in the total but not in the subgroups.

Excluding South Africa.

Reflects errors, omissions, and asymmetries in reported balance of payments statistics on current account, plus balance of listed groups with other countries (mainly the U.S.S.R. and other nonmember countries of Eastern Europe).

On goods, services, and private transfers. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Figures are rounded to the nearest $0.5 billion.

Algeria, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Venezuela. These four countries are included in the group of 25 developing countries classified as major borrowers.

The Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

China, which is classified as a low-income country but is also a net oil exporter, is included in the total but not in the subgroups.

Excluding South Africa.

Reflects errors, omissions, and asymmetries in reported balance of payments statistics on current account, plus balance of listed groups with other countries (mainly the U.S.S.R. and other nonmember countries of Eastern Europe).

Table 18.Industrial Countries: Balance of Payments on Current Account, 1977–841(In billions of U.S. dollars)
197719781979198019811982198319842
Exports (f.o.b.)696.8834.11,031.01,211.41,203.71,136.41,120.31,182.0
Imports (f.o.b.)–715.6–825.8–1,067.6–1,277.6–1,223.0–1,152.6–1,134.7–1,221.5
Trade balance–18.98.4–36.7–66.2–19.2–16.2–14.4–39.5
Services, credits258.8321.6414.0499.1533.8523.0503.6532.0
Services, debits–236.8–290.6–374.3–464.1–504.2–500.6–483.2–508.0
Private transfers–5.3–6.9–8.4–9.2–8.5–7.6–7.2–7.0
Net services and private transfers16.724.031.325.821.114.813.217.0
Balance on current account–2.232.4–5.4–40.41.9–1.4–1.2–22.5
Official transfers–13.2–16.6–19.6–22.4–22.0–23.3–20.5–21.0
Balance on current account including official transfers–15.415.8–25.1–62.9–20.1–24.7–21.7–43.5

For classification of countries, see the introduction to this appendix.

Figures are rounded to the nearest $0.5 billion.

For classification of countries, see the introduction to this appendix.

Figures are rounded to the nearest $0.5 billion.

Table 19.Industrial Countries: Balances on Current Account, Including Official Transfers, 1977–841(In billions of U.S. dollars)
197719781979198019811982198319842
Canada–4.1–4.3–4.1–0.9–4.82.40.6–1.5
United States–14.5–15.4–1.00.44.6–11.2–39.3–73.0
Japan10.916.5–8.8–10.84.86.921.027.5
France–0.47.05.2–4.2–4.8–12.2–3.8
Germany, Fed. Rep. of4.19.0–6.1–15.7–6.53.53.34.0
Italy2.56.45.5–9.7–8.2–5.50.30.5
United Kingdom0.12.2–1.47.513.39.53.12.0
Other industrial countries–14.0–5.7–14.4–29.5–18.5–18.1–6.8–3.0
All industrial countries–15.415.8–25.1–62.9–20.1–24.7–21.7–43.5
Of which,
Seven major countries above–1.421.4–10.7–33.4–1.6–6.6–14.9–40.5
European countries–3.924.0–7.6–46.3–15.0–11.55.714.0

The balances shown in this table cover goods, services, and all (private and official) current transfers. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Figures are rounded to the nearest $0.5 billion.

The balances shown in this table cover goods, services, and all (private and official) current transfers. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Figures are rounded to the nearest $0.5 billion.

Table 20.Developing Countries: Balance of Payments Summaries, 1977–84(In billions of U.S. dollars)
19771978197919801981198219831984
Developing countries
Exports (f.o.b.)318.8342.0466.1618.4612.2536.1507.6555.5
Imports (f.o.b.)281.0333.0407.9523.3571.0528.1494.6523.8
Trade balance37.78.958.294.941.28.013.131.6
Net services and private transfers–38.7–45.7–57.7–71.6–96.9–102.2–85.7–89.5
Balance on current account–1.0–36.60.523.3–55.7–94.2–72.6–58.0
Oil exporting countries
Exports (f.o.b.)146.7143.4211.5297.0273.8213.7175.9189.5
Oil exports138.5134.0197.8280.4257.2196.6157.9166.7
Other exports8.29.413.716.616.617.218.022.8
Imports (f.o.b.)83.497.4100.7126.2149.2152.5133.5137.0
Trade balance63.346.0110.8170.8124.661.242.552.5
Net services and private transfers–33.9–40.4–48.3–59.8–71.2–73.2–58.7–60.5
Receipts18.121.225.636.747.745.640.440.5
Payments52.061.673.996.5118.9118.899.1101.0
Balance on current account29.45.762.5111.053.4–12.0–16.2–8.0
Non-oil developing countries
Exports (f.o.b.)172.1198.6254.6321.4338.4322.4331.7365.8
Imports (f.o.b.)197.6235.6307.2397.1421.8375.6361.1386.8
Trade balance–25.6–37.1–52.7–75.8–83.4–53.3–29.4–21.0
Net services and private transfers–4.8–5.2–9.3–11.9–25.7–28.9–27.0–29.0
Balance on current account–30.4–42.3–62.0–87.7–109.1–82.2–56.4–50.0
Net official transfers8.38.311.512.813.512.913.213.8
Net capital inflows32.448.863.277.893.957.239.144.5
Overall balance210.214.812.72.9–1.8–12.1–4.18.3
Memorandum item
Major borrowers
Exports (f.o.b.)136.5151.4201.5266.1269.1247.6247.7272.4
Imports (f.o.b.)145.7169.6210.4270.6296.9266.2235.6248.6
Trade balance–9.3–18.2–8.9–4.5–27.8–18.612.123.8
Net services and private transfers–17.4–19.7–26.5–36.7–51.7–56.3–51.7–54.9
Balance on current account–26.7–37.9–35.4–41.3–79.5–74.9–39.6–31.1
Net official transfers2.93.13.94.04.33.83.83.7
Net capital inflows28.644.952.051.063.043.226.331.5
Overall balance24.810.020.613.7–12.3–27.9–9.54.1

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Equal, with sign reversed, to sum of use of reserves and change in liabilities constituting foreign authorities’ reserves. (See Table 27.)

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Equal, with sign reversed, to sum of use of reserves and change in liabilities constituting foreign authorities’ reserves. (See Table 27.)

Table 21.Non-Oil Developing Countries—By Analytical Subgroup: Balance of Payments Summaries, 1977–841(In billions of U.S. dollars)
19771978197919801981198219831984
Net oil exporters
Exports (f.o.b.)23.527.039.554.957.857.357.062.7
Imports (f.o.b.)27.031.342.156.867.756.449.255.9
Trade balance–3.6–4.3–2.6–1.9–9.90.97.86.8
Net services and private transfers–2.8–3.0–4.7–8.3–14.4–15.3–14.7–16.2
Balance on current account–6.3–7.4–7.3–10.2–24.3–14.4–6.9–9.4
Net official transfers1.91.52.22.32.52.12.62.7
Net capital inflows5.16.18.811.924.18.35.88.8
Overall balance20.60.33.74.02.3–4.01.52.2
Net oil importers
Exports (f.o.b.)148.6171.7215.2266.5280.6265.1274.7303.0
Imports (f.o.b.)170.6204.3265.1340.3354.1319.2311.9330.9
Trade balance–22.1–32.8–50.1–73.9–73.6–54.2–37.2–27.9
Net services and private transfers–2.0–2.1–4.7–3.5–11.3–13.6–12.4–12.8
Balance on current account–24.1–34.9–54.7–77.5–84.9–67.8–49.6–40.6
Net official transfers6.46.79.310.510.910.810.711.1
Net capital inflows27.342.754.465.969.848.933.435.7
Overall balance29.614.59.0–1.1–4.1–8.1–5.56.1
Major exporters of manufactures
Exports (f.o.b.)78.393.5118.7151.7163.2152.0160.7178.6
Imports (f.o.b.)87.4104.1139.0178.0190.2171.6164.1175.7
Trade balance–9.1–10.6–20.3–26.3–27.0–19.6–3.53.0
Net services and private transfers0.2–0.2–2.6–6.3–10.5–15.0–13.7–14.9
Balance on current account–8.9–10.8–22.9–32.5–37.4–34.6–17.1–11.9
Net official transfers1.41.62.02.32.42.72.83.0
Net capital inflows11.619.625.527.635.724.110.815.0
Overall balance24.210.44.7–2.60.7–7.8–3.66.0
Low-income countries (excluding China and India)
Exports (f.o.b.)10.611.313.515.414.313.214.215.8
Imports (f.o.b.)14.519.022.327.427.026.225.827.0
Trade balance–4.1–7.8–8.9–12.1–12.8–13.1–11.6–11.2
Net services and private transfers–1.3–0.6–1.00.20.31.21.81.4
Balance on current account–5.4–8.5–9.9–11.9–12.5–11.9–9.8–9.8
Net official transfers2.52.73.53.93.94.04.34.4
Net capital inflows3.75.36.57.37.36.55.45.1
Overall balance20.9–0.40.1–0.7–1.3–1.4–0.2–0.3
Other net oil importers
Exports (f.o.b.)45.550.761.772.672.869.368.174.1
Imports (f.o.b.)55.763.177.897.8100.589.487.789.4
Trade balance–10.2–12.3–16.1–25.2–27.8–20.0–19.7–15.2
Net services and private transfers–2.3–2.9–3.0–2.4–5.2–3.8–4.6–3.6
Balance on current account–12.5–15.2–19.1–27.6–33.0–23.8–24.3–18.8
Net official transfers2.22.03.23.84.23.83.43.5
Net capital inflows12.016.418.526.526.116.914.713.7
Overall balance21.73.32.52.7–2.8–3.1–6.1–1.6

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Equal, with sign reversed, to sum of use of reserves and change in liabilities constituting foreign authorities’ reserves. (See Table 28.)

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Equal, with sign reversed, to sum of use of reserves and change in liabilities constituting foreign authorities’ reserves. (See Table 28.)

Table 22.Non-Oil Developing Countries—By Region: Balance of Payments Summaries, 1977–841(In billions of U.S. dollars)
19771978197919801981198219831984
Africa (excluding South Africa)
Exports (f.o.b.)18.319.123.927.825.523.723.326.0
Imports (f.o.b.)19.722.826.932.931.829.227.127.8
Trade balance–1.4–3.7–3.0–5.2–6.3–5.5–3.9–1.8
Net services and private transfers–5.2–5.7–6.9–7.8–7.7–7.0–6.9–7.7
Balance on current account–6.6–9.4–9.9–12.9–14.0–12.5–10.8–9.4
Net official transfers2.32.52.93.33.33.23.33.3
Net capital inflows5.06.46.68.48.47.95.75.3
Overall balance20.7–0.4–0.3–1.2–2.3–1.4–1.8–0.8
Asia
Exports (f.o.b.)68.182.4107.4134.2146.9144.5153.9171.6
Imports (f.o.b.)72.093.6126.1164.9176.3167.2174.2189.7
Trade balance–4.0–11.3–18.8–30.8–29.5–22.8–20.3–18.1
Net services and private transfers2.53.01.95.46.38.29.79.9
Balance on current account–1.5–8.3–16.9–25.4–23.2–14.6–10.7–8.2
Net official transfers1.92.02.62.83.02.72.82.7
Net capital inflows5.110.819.025.424.418.216.412.6
Overall balance25.54.44.82.94.26.48.57.0
Europe
Exports (f.o.b.)24.928.634.741.546.745.845.948.7
Imports (f.o.b.)38.742.053.062.964.758.055.255.7
Trade balance–13.8–13.5–18.4–21.4–18.0–12.2–9.3–7.1
Net services and private transfers4.76.38.38.77.65.33.94.6
Balance on current account–9.1–7.2–10.1–12.7–10.4–6.9–5.5–2.5
Net official transfers0.10.10.10.10.30.60.80.8
Net capital inflows7.57.59.812.88.53.61.81.7
Overall balance2–1.50.4–0.20.2–1.6–2.6–2.90.1
Middle East
Exports (f.o.b.)9.410.212.917.418.216.415.016.2
Imports (f.o.b.)18.520.926.433.137.033.534.536.5
Trade balance–9.1–10.7–13.5–15.7–18.8–17.1–19.5–20.3
Net services and private transfers4.05.06.38.77.37.77.48.4
Balance on current account–5.1–5.7–7.2–7.1–11.5–9.3–12.0–11.9
Net official transfers3.63.25.05.45.85.25.15.7
Net capital inflows1.83.43.23.57.65.75.86.1
Overall balance20.30.91.01.81.91.5–1.1–0.2
Western Hemisphere
Exports (f.o.b.)40.945.358.175.080.674.875.684.4
Imports (f.o.b.)40.847.063.285.191.371.156.462.4
Trade balance0.2–1.7–5.1–10.0–10.73.719.222.0
Net services and private transfers–8.7–11.5–16.2–23.1–34.8–39.5–37.7–40.5
Balance on current account–8.5–13.2–21.4–33.1–45.5–35.8–18.5–18.5
Net official transfers0.30.40.70.80.81.01.11.0
Net capital inflows13.722.127.730.641.820.010.419.2
Overall balance25.59.37.0–1.7–2.8–14.8–7.01.8

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Equal, with sign reversed, to sum of use of reserves and change in liabilities constituting foreign authorities’ reserves. (See Table 28.)

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Equal, with sign reversed, to sum of use of reserves and change in liabilities constituting foreign authorities’ reserves. (See Table 28.)

Table 23.Non-Oil Developing Countries: Selected Components of Balances on Current Account, 1977–841(In billions of U.S. dollars)
19771978197919801981198219831984
All non-oil developing countries
Balance on current account–30.4–42.3–62.0–87.7–109.1–82.2–56.4–50.0
Trade balance–25.6–37.1–52.7–75.8–83.4–53.3–29.4–21.0
Oil trade balance2–18.4–18.6–25.1–38.4–38.9–29.3–21.9–19.7
Non-oil trade balance3–7.2–18.5–27.6–37.4–44.6–24.0–7.5–1.3
Net services and private transfers–4.8–5.2–9.3–11.9–25.7–28.9–27.0–29.0
Interest income, net4–11.5–14.7–20.8–29.9–45.6–56.2–56.7–60.7
Other services and private transfers, net6.79.511.418.019.927.329.631.7
Net oil exporters
Balance on current account–6.3–7.4–7.3–10.2–24.3–14.4–6.9–9.4
Trade balance–3.6–4.3–2.6–1.9–9.90.97.86.8
Oil trade balance25.57.113.323.727.129.427.929.0
Non-oil trade balance3–9.0–11.5–15.9–25.6–37.0–28.4–20.1–22.1
Net services and private transfers–2.8–3.0–4.7–8.3–14.4–15.3–14.7–16.2
Interest income, net4–3.0–3.6–4.0–5.3–8.3–11.2–13.6–14.5
Other services and private transfers, net0.20.5–0.6–3.0–6.1–4.1–1.1–1.7
Net oil importers5
Balance on current account–25.0–34.2–52.5–74.2–86.1–73.5–54.5–43.5
Trade balance–22.5–31.6–47.5–70.3–74.5–58.9–40.5–28.6
Oil trade balance2–24.6–26.6–40.2–65.1–69.3–62.0–52.8–51.6
Non-oil trade balance32.1–5.0–7.3–5.2–5.33.212.423.0
Net services and private transfers–2.6–2.6–5.0–3.9–11.6–14.6–14.0–14.9
Interest income, net4–8.8–11.2–16.7–24.5–37.2–45.3–44.1–47.6
Other services and private transfers, net6.28.611.720.625.630.730.032.7

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix. China, which is classified as a low-income country but is also a net oil exporter, is included in the total but not in the subgroups.

Based on a c.i.f. valuation of oil imports.

Calculated by residual.

Comprises all investment income (including dividends), except payments of income on foreign direct investment.

Excluding China.

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix. China, which is classified as a low-income country but is also a net oil exporter, is included in the total but not in the subgroups.

Based on a c.i.f. valuation of oil imports.

Calculated by residual.

Comprises all investment income (including dividends), except payments of income on foreign direct investment.

Excluding China.

Table 24.Developing Countries: Current Account Balances as Percentage of Exports of Goods and Services, 1967–841
Average

1967–762
19771978197919801981198219831984
Developing countries
Weighted average–7.0–0.3–8.60.13.0–7.2–13.5–10.9–7.9
Median–20.1–20.4–28.8–27.0–27.8–37.5–36.4–31.4–23.3
Oil exporting countries
Weighted average11.017.93.526.433.216.6–4.6–7.5–3.5
Median8.419.33.524.231.85.11.8–1.3–4.3
Non-oil developing countries
Weighted average–18.7–13.7–16.2–18.4–20.5–23.9–18.7–12.6–10.2
Median–22.2–21.3–30.3–29.1–35.1–42.4–39.8–36.2–27.5
By analytical group
Weighted averages
Net oil exporters–22.6–19.1–18.8–13.2–13.6–30.2–18.3–8.8–10.8
Net oil importers–18.1–12.7–15.7–19.4–22.0–22.5–18.8–13.4–10.1
Major exporters of manufactures–15.5–8.7–8.8–14.6–16.4–17.2–16.8–8.0–5.1
Low-income countries–37.6–9.1–26.7–29.6–32.7–25.6–16.8–13.9–15.3
Excluding China and India–46.9–41.9–58.9–57.9–59.7–66.3–66.6–51.9–46.9
Other net oil importers–13.8–21.7–22.9–23.3–27.5–32.2–23.9–25.1–18.1
Medians
Net oil exporters–19.5–21.9–24.2–15.3–8.1–29.8–22.3–18.6–12.5
Net oil importers–22.5–21.3–30.7–30.3–38.2–43.3–43.3–38.6–29.6
Major exporters of manufactures–13.9–2.9–9.7–7.1–18.7–18.6–14.8–5.3–2.7
Low-income countries–39.8–39.5–66.6–63.9–65.9–72.0–85.9–73.9–62.2
Other net oil importers–17.3–17.7–23.8–24.5–27.7–35.9–32.8–30.3–23.0
By area
Weighted averages
Africa (excluding South Africa)–21.1–29.1–38.4–32.7–36.4–42.4–41.0–36.4–28.8
Asia–17.4–1.8–8.0–12.4–14.9–12.2–7.6–5.3–3.7
Europe–8.4–27.6–18.9–21.2–22.3–16.2–11.3–9.2–3.9
Middle East–34.3–32.6–29.9–30.1–21.5–34.3–27.9–37.4–34.3
Western Hemisphere–24.2–15.9–21.7–26.8–32.1–40.6–34.7–18.1–16.3
Medians
Africa (excluding South Africa)–27.9–22.9–49.7–40.8–57.2–56.4–61.1–53.3–41.2
Asia–20.6–20.5–26.6–28.1–35.1–34.3–36.4–29.3–21.4
Europe–7.7–21.5–18.0–20.3–19.3–11.8–9.4–9.3–3.0
Middle East–30.9–28.0–44.5–37.3–41.9–52.1–50.9–55.0–48.8
Western Hemisphere–21.1–20.1–12.7–18.9–25.7–35.5–30.4–26.1–22.0
Memorandum item
Major borrowers
Weighted average–16.3–16.0–19.9–14.1–12.5–23.2–23.7–12.7–9.1
Median–15.7–21.1–23.0–16.2–18.7–30.7–25.8–21.7–13.6

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Excludes China.

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Excludes China.

Table 25.World Payments Balances on Current Account, 1977 - 841(In billions of U.S. dollars)
19771978197919801981198219831984
Industrial countries2–232–5–402–1–1–22
Developing countries2–1–37123–56–94–73–58
Oil exporting countries2966311153–12–16–8
Non-oil developing countries–30–42–62–88–109–82–56–50
Subtotal–3–4–5–17–54–96–74–80
Other countries3–8–9–3–4–4
Total–12–14–8–22–58–96–74–80
Total asymmetry above, by selected categories
Trade balance asymmetry1111212822–42–5
Of which,
Timing asymmetry on trade48193116–3–16110
Residual asymmetry on trade3–8–101225121–15
Asymmetry on account of services and private transfers–23–25–29–50–80–92–76–75

Goods, services, and private transfers.

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

This group comprises a number of countries outside the Fund membership, the most important of which are the U.S.S.R. and other nonmember countries of Eastern Europe. The figures are rough estimates based on incomplete information.

Staff estimates of the difference between the beginning-of-year and end-of-year “float,” that is, the value of those exports that have not yet been recorded as imports (usually because the goods are in transit or because of delays in the processing of the documentation). The estimates should be viewed only as rough orders of magnitude.

Goods, services, and private transfers.

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

This group comprises a number of countries outside the Fund membership, the most important of which are the U.S.S.R. and other nonmember countries of Eastern Europe. The figures are rough estimates based on incomplete information.

Staff estimates of the difference between the beginning-of-year and end-of-year “float,” that is, the value of those exports that have not yet been recorded as imports (usually because the goods are in transit or because of delays in the processing of the documentation). The estimates should be viewed only as rough orders of magnitude.

Table 26.Oil Exporting Countries: Estimated Disposition of Current Account Surplus, 1974–831(In billions of U.S. dollars)
Total
19741975197619771978197919801981198219831974–83
Current account surplus26935392966311153–12–16377
Plus: Oil sector capital transactions (outflow -)3–121–6–12–9–2363–15
Net borrowing423911161077151696
Equals: Cash surplus available for disposition5939423924641166393458
Disposition of cash surplus
Fund and World Bank5432–1–1133620
Loans and grants to non-oil developing countries657789911108781
Bank deposits in industrial countries (net)730111313540422–16–15125
Direct placements7212286432
Eurocurrency deposits2391211332362–20–1593
Other placements82018201811166248145232

For country classification, see the introduction to this appendix.

As shown in Table 20.

Mainly changes in accounts receivable from oil exports.

Total net increase in external liabilities of public and private sectors (including banks). Includes small amounts of official transfer receipts, inward non-oil direct investment capital, and miscellaneous capital items. Excludes borrowing from other oil exporting countries.

Includes lending to the Fund, other changes in the reserve position in the Fund, and direct purchases of World Bank bonds.

Includes contributions and capital subscriptions to multilateral development agencies (other than the World Bank). Estimates are based on highly uncertain information.

Includes deposits in Eurocurrency markets.

Includes net acquisitions of government securities, corporate stocks and bonds, bilateral lending (except to non-oil developing countries), real estate and other direct investments, and prepayments for imports. Also includes unidentified placements and statistical discrepancies.

For country classification, see the introduction to this appendix.

As shown in Table 20.

Mainly changes in accounts receivable from oil exports.

Total net increase in external liabilities of public and private sectors (including banks). Includes small amounts of official transfer receipts, inward non-oil direct investment capital, and miscellaneous capital items. Excludes borrowing from other oil exporting countries.

Includes lending to the Fund, other changes in the reserve position in the Fund, and direct purchases of World Bank bonds.

Includes contributions and capital subscriptions to multilateral development agencies (other than the World Bank). Estimates are based on highly uncertain information.

Includes deposits in Eurocurrency markets.

Includes net acquisitions of government securities, corporate stocks and bonds, bilateral lending (except to non-oil developing countries), real estate and other direct investments, and prepayments for imports. Also includes unidentified placements and statistical discrepancies.

Table 27.Developing Countries—Major Borrowers: Current Account Financing, 1977–841(In billions of U.S. dollars)
19771978197919801981198219831984
Current account deficit226.737.935.441.379.574.939.631.1
Non-debt-creating flows, net7.08.713.010.412.811.58.08.7
Official transfers2.93.13.94.04.33.83.83.7
Direct investment flows, net3.94.96.35.48.87.84.14.8
SDR allocations, valuation adjustments, and gold monetization0.20.72.81.0–0.3–0.20.10.2
Use of reserves–5.9–10.8–18.9–15.28.921.50.9–7.7
Recorded errors and omissions3–6.2–6.8–5.2–20.5–20.8–22.9–12.2–6.1
Net external borrowing431.946.846.466.778.764.842.836.2
Reserve-related liabilities2.61.0–1.21.54.516.19.7–2.5
Liabilities constituting foreign authorities’ reserves51.10.7–1.71.53.46.48.63.6
Use of Fund credit–0.2–0.5–0.51.23.45.79.35.6
Arrears1.50.30.51.19.81.2–6.2
Long-term borrowing from official creditors, net68.98.79.911.813.012.114.015.0
Other net external borrowing720.437.137.753.361.136.619.123.7
Long term11.723.931.330.541.223.239.452.3
From banks86.922.022.722.423.417.835.548.1
Other4.91.88.68.017.85.43.94.2
Short term8.713.36.422.919.913.4–20.3–28.7

For classification of countries, see the introduction to this appendix.

Net total of balances on goods, services, and private transfers, as defined in the yearbook issue of the Fund’s Balance of Payments Statistics (with sign reversed).

Positioned here on the presumption that estimates reflect primarily unrecorded capital outflows. Estimates and projections for 1983–85 assume a gradual reversion to past “normal” levels.

Includes any net use of nonreserve claims on nonresidents (a part from those implicit in “errors and omissions”).

Comprises use of Fund credit and short-term borrowing by monetary authorities from other monetary authorities.

Estimates, based on the debt statistics reported in Table 35, of net disbursements by official creditors (other than monetary institutions).

Residually calculated. Except for minor discrepancies in coverage, amounts shown reflect almost exclusively net external borrowing from private creditors.

Refers only to long-term lending by banks guaranteed by government of debtor country. Bank lending also accounts for large fractions of unguaranteed long-term flows (included in other long-term flows) and short-term flows.

Note: Presentation shown here is changed from that used in preceding Reports in two major respects. First, because of their large size and consistently negative sign, errors and omissions have been excluded from net external borrowing. They are thus taken to reflect primarily capital outflows. Second, within the thereby upward revised estimates of net external borrowing, primary emphasis is now placed on the distinction by type of creditor (monetary institutions, other official creditors, and “other”) instead of by maturity. Other changes of a less general character are noted in the footnotes. Finally, it should be emphasized that, except where otherwise footnoted, estimates shown here are based on national balance of payments statistics, which are not always easily reconcilable with year-to-year changes in debtor-reported debt statistics, mainly because the balance of payments statistics include valuation adjustments and changes in financial assets as well as changes in liabilities.

For classification of countries, see the introduction to this appendix.

Net total of balances on goods, services, and private transfers, as defined in the yearbook issue of the Fund’s Balance of Payments Statistics (with sign reversed).

Positioned here on the presumption that estimates reflect primarily unrecorded capital outflows. Estimates and projections for 1983–85 assume a gradual reversion to past “normal” levels.

Includes any net use of nonreserve claims on nonresidents (a part from those implicit in “errors and omissions”).

Comprises use of Fund credit and short-term borrowing by monetary authorities from other monetary authorities.

Estimates, based on the debt statistics reported in Table 35, of net disbursements by official creditors (other than monetary institutions).

Residually calculated. Except for minor discrepancies in coverage, amounts shown reflect almost exclusively net external borrowing from private creditors.

Refers only to long-term lending by banks guaranteed by government of debtor country. Bank lending also accounts for large fractions of unguaranteed long-term flows (included in other long-term flows) and short-term flows.

Note: Presentation shown here is changed from that used in preceding Reports in two major respects. First, because of their large size and consistently negative sign, errors and omissions have been excluded from net external borrowing. They are thus taken to reflect primarily capital outflows. Second, within the thereby upward revised estimates of net external borrowing, primary emphasis is now placed on the distinction by type of creditor (monetary institutions, other official creditors, and “other”) instead of by maturity. Other changes of a less general character are noted in the footnotes. Finally, it should be emphasized that, except where otherwise footnoted, estimates shown here are based on national balance of payments statistics, which are not always easily reconcilable with year-to-year changes in debtor-reported debt statistics, mainly because the balance of payments statistics include valuation adjustments and changes in financial assets as well as changes in liabilities.
Table 28.Non-Oil Developing Countries: Current Account Financing, 1977–841(In billions of U.S. dollars)
19771978197919801981198219831984
Current account deficit230.442.362.087.7109.182.256.450.0
Non-debt-creating flows, net14.117.023.724.127.223.921.323.0
Official transfers8.38.311.512.813.512.913.213.8
Direct investment flows, net5.47.19.39.413.111.27.99.0
SDR allocations, valuation adjustments, and gold monetization0.41.62.91.90.7–0.20.20.2
Use of reserves–11.5–16.3–11.8–6.8–5.43.8–6.1–13.3
Recorded errors and omissions3–6.5–6.9–3.0–15.4–15.5–18.8–10.0–5.0
Net external borrowing434.448.653.085.9102.973.251.245.3
Reserve-related liabilities2.92.0–0.55.39.815.48.41.0
Liabilities constituting foreign authorities’ reserves51.31.5–0.94.07.28.310.25.0
Use of Fund credit–0.2–0.30.21.56.17.110.26.8
Arrears1.60.50.41.42.67.1–1.8–4.0
Long-term borrowing from official creditors, net613.113.817.020.022.621.622.623.1
Other net external borrowing718.432.836.560.670.536.220.221.2
Long term10.922.831.538.450.922.343.135.2
From banks86.822.023.327.828.815.740.235.6
Other4.10.88.110.722.16.62.9–0.3
Short term7.510.05.022.219.614.0–22.9–14.0

For classification of countries, see the introduction to this appendix.

Net total of balances on goods, services, and private transfers, as defined in the yearbook issue of the Fund’s Balance of Payments Statistics (with sign reversed).

Positioned here on the presumption that estimates reflect primarily unrecorded capital outflows. Estimates and projections for 1983–85 assume a gradual reversion to past “normal” levels.

Includes any net use of nonreserve claims on nonresidents (apart from those implicit in “errors and omissions”).

Comprises use of Fund credit and short-term borrowing by monetary authorities from other monetary authorities.

Estimates, based on the debt statistics reported in Table 35, of net disbursements by official creditors (other than monetary institutions).

Residually calculated. Except for minor discrepancies in coverage, amounts shown reflect almost exclusively net external borrowing from private creditors.

Refers only to long-term lending by banks guaranteed by government of debtor country. Bank lending also accounts for large fractions of unguaranteed long-term flows (included in other long-term flows) and short-term flows.

Note: Presentation shown here is changed from that used in preceding Reports in two major respects. First, because of their large size and consistently negative sign, errors and omissions have been excluded from net external borrowing. They are thus taken to reflect primarily capital outflows. Second, within the thereby upward revised estimates of net external borrowing, primary emphasis is now placed on the distinction by type of creditor (monetary institutions, other official creditors, and “other”) instead of by maturity. Other changes of a less general character are noted in the footnotes. Finally, it should be emphasized that, except where otherwise footnoted, estimates shown here are based on national balance of payments statistics that are not always easily reconcilable with year-to-year changes in debtor-reported debt statistics, mainly because the balance of payments statistics include valuation adjustments and changes in financial assets as well as changes in liabilities.

For classification of countries, see the introduction to this appendix.

Net total of balances on goods, services, and private transfers, as defined in the yearbook issue of the Fund’s Balance of Payments Statistics (with sign reversed).

Positioned here on the presumption that estimates reflect primarily unrecorded capital outflows. Estimates and projections for 1983–85 assume a gradual reversion to past “normal” levels.

Includes any net use of nonreserve claims on nonresidents (apart from those implicit in “errors and omissions”).

Comprises use of Fund credit and short-term borrowing by monetary authorities from other monetary authorities.

Estimates, based on the debt statistics reported in Table 35, of net disbursements by official creditors (other than monetary institutions).

Residually calculated. Except for minor discrepancies in coverage, amounts shown reflect almost exclusively net external borrowing from private creditors.

Refers only to long-term lending by banks guaranteed by government of debtor country. Bank lending also accounts for large fractions of unguaranteed long-term flows (included in other long-term flows) and short-term flows.

Note: Presentation shown here is changed from that used in preceding Reports in two major respects. First, because of their large size and consistently negative sign, errors and omissions have been excluded from net external borrowing. They are thus taken to reflect primarily capital outflows. Second, within the thereby upward revised estimates of net external borrowing, primary emphasis is now placed on the distinction by type of creditor (monetary institutions, other official creditors, and “other”) instead of by maturity. Other changes of a less general character are noted in the footnotes. Finally, it should be emphasized that, except where otherwise footnoted, estimates shown here are based on national balance of payments statistics that are not always easily reconcilable with year-to-year changes in debtor-reported debt statistics, mainly because the balance of payments statistics include valuation adjustments and changes in financial assets as well as changes in liabilities.
Table 29.Non-Oil Developing Countries—By Analytical Subgroup: Current Account Financing, 1977–841(In billions of U.S. dollars)
19771978197919801981198219831984
Net oil exporters
Current account deficit6.37.47.310.224.314.46.99.4
Use of reserves–1.9–1.2–3.5–3.8–2.03.8–2.5–3.5
Non-debt-creating flows, net3.33.76.15.87.85.24.95.3
Errors and omissions–3.4–1.8–0.7–4.1–6.6–12.0–6.4–3.2
Net external borrowing8.36.65.512.325.017.410.810.8
Long-term borrowing from official creditors4.62.42.33.13.83.45.43.8
Reserve-related liabilities1.20.9–0.1–0.2–0.31.9–0.41.0
Other borrowing2.63.23.39.421.512.15.86.0
Major exporters of manufactures
Current account deficit8.910.822.932.537.434.617.111.9
Use of reserves–4.3–10.2–3.11.8–2.44.1–0.4–7.0
Non-debt-creating flows, net4.56.27.46.66.47.25.36.8
Errors and omissions–2.8–5.4–3.8–12.3–10.9–5.7–3.0–1.5
Net external borrowing11.520.122.436.444.328.915.213.6
Long-term borrowing from official creditors2.73.53.92.82.23.53.86.1
Reserve-related liabilities0.1–0.3–1.50.81.77.04.4–2.5
Other borrowing8.616.820.132.840.518.47.110.0
Low-income countries (excluding China and India)
Current account deficit5.48.59.911.912.511.99.89.8
Use of reserves–1.00.2–0.2–0.4–0.10.4–0.7
Non-debt-creating flows, net2.73.04.04.44.44.44.54.7
Errors and omissions0.20.70.20.40.20.40.20.1
Net external borrowing3.54.75.97.68.16.75.95.1
Long-term borrowing from official creditors2.23.45.34.75.75.44.04.3
Reserve-related liabilities0.20.30.11.51.72.11.20.5
Other borrowing1.11.00.51.40.6–0.70.70.3
Other non-oil developing countries
Current account deficit12.515.219.127.633.023.824.318.8
Use of reserves–1.9–4.1–3.2–4.7–0.71.32.8–0.3
Non-debt-creating flows, net3.43.65.46.78.06.86.05.6
Errors and omissions–1.0–1.50.40.81.1–1.8–1.0–0.5
Net external borrowing12.017.116.524.824.617.516.514.0
Long-term borrowing from official creditors3.93.54.77.69.36.97.46.9
Reserve-related liabilities1.71.21.12.95.82.82.21.6
Other borrowing6.412.410.714.29.67.96.85.6

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix. For definitions of stub entries, see Table 27.

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix. For definitions of stub entries, see Table 27.

Table 30.Non-Oil Developing Countries—By Region: Current Account Financing, 1977–841(In billions of U.S. dollars)
19771978197919801981198219831984
Africa (excluding South Africa)
Current account deficit6.69.49.912.914.012.510.89.4
Use of reserves–0.8–0.2–0.20.20.30.20.2–0.4
Non-debt-creating flows, net2.93.33.94.54.5434.24.2
Errors and omissions0.5–0.20.80.70.50.20.1
Net external borrowing4.65.96.47.58.57.66.15.5
Long-term borrowing from official creditors3.03.34.73.95.25.23.42.8
Reserve-related liabilities0.20.80.31.62.42.71.71.1
Other borrowing1.41.71.41.90.9–0.31.01.6
Asia
Current account deficit1.58.316.925.423.214.610.78.2
Use of reserves–5.2–4.3–4.5–4.1–7.4–8.6–10.1–7.5
Non-debt-creating flows, net3.34.55.16.57.86.36.96.9
Errors and omissions–0.6–0.7–0.2–2.9–2.4–4.0–2.1–1.1
Net external borrowing4.08.816.525.825.220.916.19.9
Long-term borrowing from official creditors2.74.55.45.87.27.76.97.2
Reserve-related liabilities–0.3–0.1–0.31.33.22.41.90.6
Other borrowing1.64.411.318.714.710.77.42.1
Europe
Current account deficit9.17.210.112.710.46.95.52.5
Use of reserves1.1–1.01.1–0.71.40.3–1.2
Non-debt-creating flows, net0.80.81.61.01.31.41.61.7
Errors and omissions–1.8–2.2–0.70.11.71.30.70.3
Net external borrowing8.99.68.112.37.52.83.01.6
Long-term borrowing from official creditors1.31.00.13.82.81.61.51.4
Reserve-related liabilities1.80.9–0.30.52.80.81.81.1
Other borrowing5.87.78.37.91.90.3–0.3–0.9
Middle East
Current account deficit5.15.77.27.111.59.312.011.9
Use of reserves–1.7–1.9–1.0–1.7–1.3–1.21.20.2
Non-debt-creating flows, net4.13.76.25.75.96.05.76.3
Errors and omissions–0.3–0.4–1.3–1.21.1–0.2–0.1
Net external borrowing3.04.23.24.15.84.75.25.5
Long-term borrowing from official creditors3.43.34.02.92.63.43.03.0
Reserve-related liabilities1.41.0–0.2–0.6–0.4
Other borrowing–1.7–0.71.43.81.62.22.5
Western Hemisphere
Current account deficit8.513.221.433.145.535.818.518.5
Use of reserves–5.1–8.9–7.10.32.011.72.5–4.3
Non-debt-creating flows, net2.94.97.26.67.95.94.14.1
Errors and omissions–3.2–3.60.2–10.7–16.5–16.8–8.9–4.5
Net external borrowing13.920.821.137.052.235.020.823.2
Long-term borrowing from official creditors2.81.72.83.44.83.67.88.6
Reserve-related liabilities–0.4–0.30.22.21.98.93.0–1.4
Other borrowing11.519.418.131.345.522.510.016.0

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix. For definitions of stub entries, see Table 27.

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix. For definitions of stub entries, see Table 27.

Table 31.Non-Oil Developing Countries: Financing of Current Account Deficits and Reserve Accretions, 1977–841
19771978197919801981198219831984
(In billions of U.S. dollars)
Current account deficit30.442.362.087.7109.182.256.450.0
Increase in official reserves11.516.311.86.85.4–3.86.113.3
Total42.058.673.894.5114.578.462.563.3
Financed by
Non-debt-creating flows, net14.117.023.724.127.223.921.323.0
Long-term borrowing from official creditors, net13.113.817.020.022.621.622.623.1
Borrowing from private creditors, net18.432.836.560.670.536.220.221.2
Reserve-related liabilities2.92.0–0.55.39.815.48.41.0
Errors and omissions–6.5–6.9–3.0–15.4–15.5–18.8–10.0–5.0
(In percent)
Distribution of financing flows
Non-debt-creating flows, net33.628.932.225.523.830.634.136.3
Long-term borrowing from official creditors, net31.323.523.021.119.727.536.136.5
Borrowing from private creditors, net43.855.949.564.161.646.232.333.5
Reserve-related liabilities6.93.4–0.65.78.519.613.41.6
Errors and omissions–15.5–11.8–4.1–16.3–13.6–24.0–15.9–7.9

For classification of countries, see the introduction to this appendix. For definitions of stub entries, see Table 27.

For classification of countries, see the introduction to this appendix. For definitions of stub entries, see Table 27.

Table 32.Non-Oil Developing Countries: Distribution of Financing Flows for Current Account Deficits and Reserve Accretions, 1977–841(In percent)
19771978197919801981198219831984
By analytical group
Net oil exporters
Non-debt-creating flows, net4044564130495341
Long-term borrowing from official creditors5628222214325830
Borrowing from private creditors, net31383067821156246
Reserve-related liabilities1511–1–2–118–47
Errors and omissions–4 2–2 1–7–2 9–2 5–114–68–25
Net oil importers
Non-debt-creating flows, net3226282322283135
Long-term borrowing from official creditors2523232121273238
Borrowing from private creditors, net4759536455362730
Reserve-related liabilities52–17112016
Errors and omissions–9–1 0–4–1 4–1 0–10–7–4
Major exporters of manufactures
Non-debt-creating flows, net3430292216243036
Long-term borrowing from official creditors21171595112232
Borrowing from private creditors, net658077107102604053
Reserve-related liabilities1–1–6342325–13
Errors and omissions–2 1–2 6–14–4 0–2 7–1 9–17–8
Low-income countries (excluding China and India)
Non-debt-creating flows, net4336393635384347
Long-term borrowing from official creditors3441523845473844
Borrowing from private creditors, net17125115–673
Reserve-related liabilities331121418115
Errors and omissions38232421
Other net oil importers
Non-debt-creating flows, net2319242124302829
Long-term borrowing from official creditors2718212427313436
Borrowing from private creditors, net4564484428353229
Reserve-related liabilities126591713108
Errors and omissions–7–8223–8–4–3
By area
Africa (excluding South Africa)
Non-debt-creating flows, net3834393533354043
Long-term borrowing from official creditors4034473138423229
Borrowing from private creditors, net191814156–2916
Reserve-related liabilities3931218221611
Errors and omissions5–265421
Asia
Non-debt-creating flows, net4936242226273344
Long-term borrowing from official creditors4036252024333346
Borrowing from private creditors, net2435536448463513
Reserve-related liabilities–4–114111194
Errors and omissions–9–5–1–1 0–8–1 7–1 0–7
Europe
Non-debt-creating flows, net10918812253046
Long-term borrowing from official creditors161212927302939
Borrowing from private creditors, net73959259186–6–2 4
Reserve-related liabilities2311–4427163530
Errors and omissions–2 2–27–811623139
Middle East
Non-debt-creating flows, net6050766646575354
Long-term borrowing from official creditors4944493420332826
Borrowing from private creditors, net–2 5–1–91630152021
Reserve-related liabilities2013–1–2–4–3
Errors and omissions–4–6–15–1 48–2–1
Western Hemisphere
Non-debt-creating flows, net2122252018242618
Long-term borrowing from official creditors218101011154938
Borrowing from private creditors, net84886495105946370
Reserve-related liabilities–3–21743719–6
Errors and omissions–2 4–1 61–3 3–38–70–56–20

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix. For definitions of stub entries shown here, see Table 27.

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix. For definitions of stub entries shown here, see Table 27.

Table 33.Non-Oil Developing Countries: Reserves and Ratios of Reserves to Imports of Goods and Services, 1977–841
19771978197919801981198219831984
(In billions of U.S. dollars)
Official reserve holdings
All non-oil developing countries68.184.394.595.896.892.499.6112.8
By analytical group
Net oil exporters9.310.413.416.817.313.316.019.5
Net oil importers58.874.081.179.079.579.183.693.3
Major exporters of manufactures28.138.039.935.738.035.836.943.9
Low-income countries12.112.915.114.614.820.426.028.5
Excluding China and India4.04.04.54.24.24.05.35.3
Other net oil importers18.623.126.128.626.722.920.621.0
By area
Africa (excluding South Africa)4.04.45.04.64.13.73.94.2
Asia27.230.534.335.940.848.156.263.7
Europe8.610.69.710.39.57.68.69.7
Middle East7.19.09.810.610.511.210.110.0
Western Hemisphere20.328.934.833.131.021.119.724.0
Memorandum item
Major borrowers256.766.480.286.574.755.856.764.5
(In percent)
Ratios of reserves to imports of goods and services3
All non-oil developing countries25.726.422.617.816.416.918.920.0
By analytical group
Net oil exporters23.522.121.119.516.514.318.720.2
Net oil importers26.127.222.917.516.417.519.019.9
Major exporters of manufactures24.227.021.214.814.314.315.517.2
Low-income countries35.028.025.219.019.228.434.934.8
Excluding China and India20.916.015.511.912.011.615.714.8
Other net oil importers25.027.124.721.418.717.516.216.1
By area
Africa (excluding South Africa)13.612.712.29.48.48.29.29.7
Asia30.526.221.917.818.622.625.426.4
Europe18.320.414.612.810.99.711.713.1
Middle East29.733.028.424.421.524.221.119.7
Western Hemisphere32.238.734.224.219.515.116.218.0
Memorandum item
Major borrowers228.027.826.722.216.913.715.416.5

For this table, official holdings of gold are valued at SDR 35 an ounce. This convention results in a significant underestimate of the reserves of those groups of countries that have substantial holdings of gold. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Includes four oil exporting countries: Algeria, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Venezuela.

Ratio of year-end reserves to imports of goods and services during the year indicated.

For this table, official holdings of gold are valued at SDR 35 an ounce. This convention results in a significant underestimate of the reserves of those groups of countries that have substantial holdings of gold. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Includes four oil exporting countries: Algeria, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Venezuela.

Ratio of year-end reserves to imports of goods and services during the year indicated.

Table 34.Developing Countries: Use of Fund Credit, 1977–831(In billions of U.S. dollars)
1977197819791980198119821983
Developing countries–0.2–0.30.21.56.17.111.7
Of which, major borrowers–0.2–0.5–0.51.23.45.79.3
Non-oil developing countries–0.2–0.30.21.56.17.110.2
By analytical group
Net oil exporters0.2–0.30.10.51.0
Net oil importers–0.3–0.30.31.76.06.69.2
Major exporters of manufactures–0.1–0.6–0.40.51.12.04.2
Low-income countries–0.3–0.20.20.62.12.71.8
Excluding China and India0.10.20.31.31.10.8
Other net oil importers0.50.50.62.91.83.2
By area
Africa (excluding South Africa)0.10.30.40.51.61.21.4
Asia–0.3–0.21.03.22.31.7
Europe0.10.10.61.21.31.4
Middle East0.10.1–0.1–0.3–0.2
Western Hemisphere–0.1–0.60.2–0.20.31.55.7
Memorandum item
Drawings outstanding at end of year2
Developing countries8.08.08.39.514.921.231.3
Non-oil developing countries8.08.08.39.514.921.230.8

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Year-to-year changes in drawings do not necessarily match corresponding use of Fund credit estimates because of valuation adjustments.

For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Year-to-year changes in drawings do not necessarily match corresponding use of Fund credit estimates because of valuation adjustments.

External Debt

Table 35.Developing Countries: External Debt Outstanding, 1977–841(In billions of U.S. dollars)
19771978197919801981198219831984
Developing countries2329.3398.2472.0559.9646.5724.8767.6812.4
Short-term debt51.763.775.8106.5128.1148.2126.297.6
Long-term debt277.7334.5396.3453.4518.4576.6641.4714.8
By type of creditor
Official creditors111.0130.6148.5169.1186.0205.4229.6254.4
Governments79.191.8102.2114.3123.6134.9150.8166.4
International institutions31.938.846.454.862.470.578.988.0
Private creditors166.7203.9247.7284.3332.4371.2411.8460.4
Unguaranteed debt55.156.667.881.0100.8108.4110.5112.3
Guaranteed debt111.6147.3179.9203.2231.6262.8301.3348.1
Financial institutions78.9107.4137.5160.0185.5212.4250.0296.3
Other private creditors32.739.942.443.246.150.451.351.8
Of which,
Major borrowers256.0311.9370.9440.1514.3576.4606.9640.1
Short-term debt47.960.270.399.3121.6140.5120.291.5
Long-term debt208.1251.7300.6340.8392.7435.9486.7548.6
From official creditors75.588.497.9109.5118.5128.3142.2157.3
From private creditors132.7163.3202.7231.4274.2307.6344.5391.3
Non-oil developing countries280.3334.3395.3475.2559.6633.3668.6710.9
Short-term debt43.251.659.184.5103.8125.1102.288.2
Long-term debt237.2282.7336.2390.8455.8508.2566.4622.8
By type of creditor
Official creditors97.6116.3133.4153.2170.2189.3211.9235.0
Governments68.380.590.1101.8111.5123.2138.3153.3
International institutions29.335.843.251.458.666.173.781.7
Private creditors139.6166.4202.8237.6285.6318.9354.5387.8
Unguaranteed debt50.451.762.475.294.2102.0104.2103.4
Guaranteed debt89.2114.7140.4162.4191.4216.9250.2284.4
Financial institutions63.183.7108.0128.9154.7176.4209.6243.2
Other private creditors26.131.032.433.536.740.540.641.2
Long-term and short-term debt by analytical group
Net oil exporters59.768.479.395.4125.4147.7154.9164.1
Net oil importers220.7265.9315.9379.8434.2485.7513.7546.9
Major exporters of manufactures105.3128.4154.0188.1220.2249.9261.3274.8
Low-income countries48.654.862.771.475.281.887.894.8
Excluding China and India28.132.438.144.249.454.658.662.8
Other net oil importers66.882.899.2120.3138.8154.0164.6177.2
Long-term and short-term debt by area
Africa (excluding South Africa)30.836.945.350.955.562.566.370.7
Asia68.778.792.8114.6131.2152.6165.0179.3
Europe37.647.055.067.271.172.374.876.6
Middle East21.926.732.036.340.645.650.756.2
Western Hemisphere109.1132.4157.8192.6246.0283.1294.4310.5

Does not include debt owed to the Fund (shown in Table 34). For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Excludes, for purposes of this table, eight oil exporting countries: the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

Does not include debt owed to the Fund (shown in Table 34). For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Excludes, for purposes of this table, eight oil exporting countries: the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

Table 36.Developing Countries: Long-Term and Short-Term External Debt Relative to Exports and to GDP, 1977 – 841(In percent)
19771978197919801981198219831984
Ratio of external debt to exports of goods and services2
Developing countries3125.0131.7118.8109.0119.6142.3150.8145.4
Of which, major borrowers153.0163.9147.4133.2150.1182.3194.4187.0
Non-oil developing countries126.1127.7117.2111.2122.5144.1149.5144.7
By analytical group
Net oil exporters179.8174.8143.6127.0156.3188.0198.3189.0
Net oil importers116.6119.4112.0107.8115.3134.5139.2135.3
Major exporters of manufactures103.4104.598.194.6101.3121.7122.3116.6
Low-income countries164.4163.6146.0134.8133.3146.5148.9147.0
Excluding China and India217.5225.7221.9221.2261.9305.7308.7300.3
Other net oil importers115.6124.7121.0119.8135.2154.2170.6170.2
By region
Africa (excluding South Africa)135.8151.1149.7143.2168.6204.5223.5215.8
Asia80.775.468.467.569.179.881.479.9
Europe114.9123.6115.8117.7110.8119.4126.0121.0
Middle East138.9140.7134.0110.7120.9136.2157.2161.8
Western Hemisphere202.9217.4198.2187.0219.7274.4288.5273.3
Ratio of external debt to GDP2
Developing countries324.725.625.024.927.732.636.837.9
Of which, major borrowers27.629.128.227.830.736.742.544.3
Non-oil developing countries23.724.123.323.927.132.536.737.5
By analytical group
Net oil exporters38.638.937.233.836.548.155.854.4
Net oil importers21.522.021.322.225.329.633.334.3
Major exporters of manufactures24.625.524.525.629.136.043.245.3
Low-income countries14.013.112.912.713.815.315.715.6
Excluding China and India35.033.835.035.342.847.250.050.8
Other net oil importers26.528.727.229.433.337.743.346.9
By area
Africa (excluding South Africa)35.836.638.035.741.549.559.661.8
Asia15.714.814.715.917.820.721.421.3
Europe21.223.120.925.028.329.234.337.6
Middle East45.047.956.151.752.252.950.649.2
Western Hemisphere27.929.427.927.331.642.154.857.6

Does not include debt owed to the Fund. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Ratio of year-end debt to exports or GDP for year indicated.

Excludes, for purposes of this table, eight oil exporting countries: the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

Does not include debt owed to the Fund. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Ratio of year-end debt to exports or GDP for year indicated.

Excludes, for purposes of this table, eight oil exporting countries: the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

Table 37.Non-Oil Developing Countries: Distribution of Debt by Class of Creditor, End of Year, 1977–841(In percent)
19771978197919801981198219831984
All non-oil developing countries
Total outstanding debt100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Short-term debt15.415.415.017.818.519.815.312.4
Long-term debt84.684.685.082.281.580.284.787.6
To official creditors34.834.833.732.230.429.931.733.1
To governments24.424.122.821.419.919.520.721.6
To international institutions10.410.710.910.810.510.411.011.5
To private creditors49.849.851.350.051.050.453.054.5
To financial institutions22.525.027.327.127.627.931.334.2
To other private creditors27.324.724.022.923.422.521.720.3
By analytical group
Net oil exporters
Total outstanding debt100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Short-term debt10.411.711.516.721.824.313.112.1
Long-term debt89.688.388.583.378.275.786.987.9
To official creditors30.232.030.528.524 A22.324.725.7
To private financial institutions34.737.338.336.034.833.842.944.7
To other private creditors24.719.019.718.819.319.619.317.5
Major exporters of manufactures
Total outstanding debt100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Short-term debt17.916.316.921.921.522.920.614.5
Long-term debt82.183.783.178.178.577.179.485.5
To official creditors19.519.318.516.414.714.114.916.4
To private financial institutions22.225.026.726.629.030.133.039.6
To other private creditors40.439.437.935.034.832.931.529.5
Low-income countries
Total outstanding debt100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Short-term debt4.53.66.25.94.33.32.62.3
Long-term debt95.596.493.894.195.796.797.497.7
To official creditors75.476.175.376.079.081.182.382.9
To private financial institutions9.611.311.912.511.010.09.89.7
To other private creditors10.48.96.55.65.75.65.25.2
Other net oil importers
Total outstanding debt100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Short-term debt23.825.020.219.218.719.015.614.9
Long-term debt76.275.079.880.881.381.084.485.1
To official creditors33.533.833.733.934.735.637.939.0
To private financial institutions21.524.129.329.628.127.929.429.3
To other private creditors21.317.116.817.318.517.417.216.7
By area
Africa (excluding South Africa)
Total outstanding debt100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Short-term debt11.38.97.88.411.112.611.010.2
Long-term debt88.791.192.291.688.987.489.089.8
To official creditors37.339.843.445.246.546.848.749.3
To private financial institutions28.931.631.831.129.428.528.128.3
To other private creditors22.519.617.015.213.012.112.212.2
Asia
Total outstanding debt100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Short-term debt15.615.619.021.320.721.118.416.1
Long-term debt84.484.481.078.779.378.981.683.9
To official creditors53.453.950.045.944.042.443.343.9
To private financial institutions11.714.417.018.119.720.823.024.7
To other private creditors19.216.114.014.715.515.715.315.3
Europe
Total outstanding debt100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Short-term debt30.130.922.120.819.216.913.913.5
Long-term debt69.969.177.979.280.883.186.186.5
To official creditors25.426.124.224.926.027.228.329.4
To private financial institutions20.321.027.728.130.030.431.832.7
To other private creditors24.222.026.026.224.825.626.124.4
Middle East
Total outstanding debt100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Short-term debt7.77.47.99.110.111.812.713.0
Long-term debt92.392.692.190.989.988.287.387.0
To official creditors64.166.067.366.764.863.863.562.6
To private financial institutions9.39.27.87.16.96.56.06.5
To other private creditors19.017.517.117.018.217.817.817.9
Western Hemisphere
Total outstanding debt100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Short-term debt13.414.014.219.320.723.115.510.5
Long-term debt86.686.085.880.779.376.984.589.5
To official creditors19.518.417.115.814.113.615.717.7
To private financial institutions30.233.535.634.634.134.341.246.8
To other private creditors37.034.233.130.331.029.127.525.0

Does not include debt owed to the Fund. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Does not include debt owed to the Fund. For classification of countries in groups shown here, see the introduction to this appendix.

Table 38.Developing Countries: Debt Service Payments on Short-Term and Long-Term External Debt, 1977–841(Values in billions of U.S. dollars; ratios in percent)
19771978197919801981198219831984
Developing countries2
Value of debt service payments40.354.571.287.9113.7124.0114.6122.6
Interest payments15.121.431.546.663.971.667.475.0
Amortization325.233.239.741.349.752.447.347.6
Debt service ratio415.318.017.917.121.024.322.521.9
Interest payments ratio5.77.17.99.111.814.113.213.4
Amortization ratio39.611.010.08.09.210.39.38.5
Of which, major borrowers
Value of debt service payments32.042.957.671.093.6102.193.499.8
Interest payments12.117.326.239.555.362.458.265.1
Amortization319.825.631.431.638.439.735.234.7
Debt service ratio419.122.522.921.527.332.329.929.2
Interest payments ratio7.29.110.411.916.119.718.619.0
Amortization ratio311.913.412.59.611.212.611.310.1
All non-oil developing countries
Value of debt service payments32.847.561.073.497.2107.796.6103.4
Interest payments12.718.125.939.054.763.059.263.7
Amortization320.229.435.134.342.544.637.439.7
Debt service ratio414.818.118.117.221.324.521.621.1
Interest payments ratio5.76.97.79.112.014.313.213.0
Amortization ratio39.111.210.48.09.310.28.48.1
By analytical group
Net oil exporters
Debt service ratio426.430.531.422.628.331.131.030.6
Interest payments ratio8.79.89.911.315.819.920.720.0
Amortization ratio317.720.721.411.312.511.110.410.6
Major exporters of manufactures
Debt service ratio412.215.615.216.220.825.019.419.1
Interest payments ratio5.16.27.39.011.814.512.512.0
Amortization ratio37.19.37.97.29.010.46.97.1
Low-income countries
Debt service ratio412.112.110.510.312.614.613.312.8
Interest payments ratio4.75.14.54.45.15.45.46.0
Amortization ratio37.47.06.06.07.59.28.06.8
Low-income countries (excluding China and India)
Debt service ratio413.213.613.014.318.621.122.422.8
Interest payments ratio5.15.95.86.18.19.59.311.1
Amortization ratio38.17.77.28.210.511.613.111.7
Other net oil importers
Debt service ratio413.918.718.718.621.623.824.022.6
Interest payments ratio5.67.38.710.313.214.513.813.5
Amortization ratio38.311.410.08.38.49.310.29.1
By area</