- George Kopits, and J. Craig
- Published Date:
- February 1998
© 1998 International Monetary Fund
Transparency in government operations / George Kopits and Jon Craig.
p. cm.—(Occasional paper, ISSN 0251-6365 ; 158)
“February 1998.” Includes bibliographical references.
1. Finance, Public—Accounting. 2. Fiscal policy. I. Craig, J.D. (Jon D.) II. International Monetary Fund. III. Title. IV. Series: Occasional paper (International Monetary Fund) ; no. 158.
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The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:
… to indicate that data are not available;
— to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
– between years or months (e.g., 1994–95 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
/ between years (e.g., 1994/95) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.
This paper was prepared by George Kopits, Assistant Director, and Jon Craig, Senior Economist, Fiscal Affairs Department. They wish to acknowledge contributions by Hugh Young and other members of the department’s Fiscal Analysis Division. Also, many colleagues in different departments reviewed the factual accuracy and reasoning at various stages from inception to completion. In particular, the paper has benefited from comments and encouragement from Stanley Fischer, Peter Heller, Flemming Larsen, Thomas McLoughlin, A. Premchand, Vito Tanzi, and Teresa Ter-Minassian. The authors are indebted to Diana Ellyn and Beulah David for secretarial assistance, to Diane Cross for editorial support, to Elisa Diehl of the External Relations Department for editing the final version and coordinating production, and to Alicia Etchebarne-Bourdin for composition.
An earlier draft of the paper was discussed by the Executive Board in October 1997. The present version incorporates the suggestions received on that occasion. However, the opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors, the management, or the staff of the International Monetary Fund.