Front Matter

Front Matter

Naheed Kirmani, Shailendra Anjaria, and Arne Petersen
Published Date:
July 1985
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© 1985 International Monetary Fund

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Anjaria, Shailendra J.

Trade policy issues and developments.

(Occasional paper, ISSN 0251–6365 ; no. 38)

“July 1985.”

Bibliography: p.

1. Commercial policy. I. Kirmani, Naheed. II. Petersen, Arne B. III. Title. IV. Series: Occasional paper (International Monetary Fund) ; no. 38.

HF1411.A544 1985 382 85–14544

ISBN 9780939934461

Price: US$7.50 (US$4.50 to university libraries, faculty members, and students)

Address orders to:

External Relations Department, Attention Publications International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C. 20431


The authors are indebted to a number of colleagues, both in the Fund and in other national and international agencies, for their willingness to exchange views and provide information. In preparing the study, the authors were assisted, among others, by Division staff members Clemens Boonekamp, Jorge Guzman, Pierluigi Molajoni; by Julian Berengaut and Bernard Nivollet; and by other Fund staff colleagues. The paper benefited particularly from the growing body of information and studies available in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the World Bank. The authors are grateful to the editor, Juanita Roushdy, of the External Relations Department.

To obtain information and collect views for this paper, staff teams held discussions with trade and economics officials in Bonn, Brasilia, Brussels (the Commission of the European Communities), Canberra, London, New Delhi, Ottawa, Paris, Seoul, Tokyo, Washington, and Wellington. In addition, a staff team visited Geneva and Paris for discussions with GATT and OECD officials. Staff members of the Western Hemisphere Department participated in the discussions held in Brasilia and Washington. Staff members of the European Department contributed to the discussions in Canberra, London, and Wellington. Staff members of the Asian Department participated in the discussions in Seoul and Tokyo. While in Europe, the staff team was assisted by the Fund Office in Europe and the Fund Office in Geneva.


The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:

… to indicate that data are not available;

— to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;

– between years or months (e.g., 1979–81 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;

/ between years (e.g., 1980/81) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.

“Billion” means a thousand million.

Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.

Note: The term ‘country,’ as used in this publication, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity which is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis. All references to Taiwan are to Taiwan Province of China.

Prefatory Note

This study was prepared in the Trade and Payments Division of the Exchange and Trade Relations Department of the International Monetary Fund by Shailendra J. Anjaria, Division Chief, Naheed Kirmani, Assistant Chief, and Arne B. Petersen, Senior Economist. It reviews recent developments in trade and outlines the main issues facing governments in the international trade policy field. It follows the pattern of the Fund staff surveys prepared in 1978, 1981, and 1982.* As in the latter paper, emphasis is on policy developments in the major trading nations as they relate to trade in both industrial and agricultural products. In addition, this survey includes a review of trade policies in developing countries and refers to available quantitative evidence on protectionism wherever possible.

The study is in two parts. Part One draws together the salient features of recent developments and outlines the prospects for trade policy by highlighting the main issues that will determine the scope and timing of liberalization under a possible new GATT round of multilateral trade negotiations. Part Two provides extensive background analysis and statistical information. Section I of Part Two describes recent trade trends, briefly reviews the overall stance of trade policies in major industrial countries, discusses examples of recent trade legislation, and presents quantitative estimates of the extent and costs of protection. Section II describes the recent evolution in the framework for international trade. Sections III and IV describe trade actions by major industrial countries in individual manufacturing and agricultural sectors, respectively, including quantitative estimates of the costs of protection in individual sectors. The trade policies of developing countries, and the implications for them of trade restrictions in foreign markets, are reviewed in Section V. The role of the Fund in trade, and its collaboration with the GATT, is described in Section VI. Unless otherwise specified, trade data and the classifications of countries and regions used in this paper are those of the GATT and are given in Appendix I. Statistical tables are included in Appendix II.

The study was completed in February 1985. In the light of subsequently available information, certain data have been updated and a few major developments have been referred to in footnotes. The authors alone are responsible for the study; any opinions expressed are theirs and do not necessarily represent the views of the Fund.

International Monetary Fund, The Rise in Protectionism, IMF Pamphlet Series, No. 24 (Washington, 1978); Trade Policy Developments in Industrial Countries, Occasional Paper No. 5 (Washington, July 1981), and Developments in International Trade Policy, Occasional Paper No. 16 (Washington, second printing, 1983). See also Selected References at the end of the paper.

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