Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Naheed Kirmani, Shailendra Anjaria, and Arne Petersen
Published Date:
July 1985
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Selected References

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Appendices GATT Classifications Statistical Tables
Appendix I GATT Classifications

Classification of countries and regions

Following the definitions used in the GATT publication International Trade, 1983/84, the trading world is divided into:

  • Industrial countries

    United States, Canada, Japan, European Community member countries, EFTA member countries, Gibraltar, Greece, Malta, Spain, Turkey, and Yugoslavia;

  • Oil exporting developing countries1

    Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela;

  • Non-oil exporting developing countries2

    All developing countries except oil exporting developing countries;

  • Eastern trading countries

    Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, U.S.S.R., China, Mongolia, North Korea, and Viet Nam;

  • Nonindustrial countries

    Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

For certain commodities, such as shipbuilding and steel, industrial countries are defined to include all members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

For the discussion on agricultural trade, the definitions in the Food and Agriculture Organization publication FAO Commodity Review and Outlook: 1981–82 are used, and the trading world is divided into:

  • Developed countries

    Industrial and nonindustrial countries under the GATT definition, Eastern Europe, and the U.S.S.R.;

  • Developing countries

    Oil exporting and non-oil exporting developing countries under the GATT definition, and Asian centrally planned economies;

  • State-trading countries3

  • U.S.S.R. and Eastern European countries.

Classification of commodities

  • Semimanufactures

    Chemicals and other semimanufactures;

  • Engineering goods

    Machinery for specialized industries, office and telecommunications equipment, road motor vehicles, other machinery and transport equipment, and household appliances;

  • Agricultural commodities

    Food, beverages, agricultural material, and other agricultural products, excluding fishery and forestry products;

  • Tropical zone agricultural products

    Agricultural products produced mostly in tropical zone countries;

  • Temperate zone agricultural products

    Agricultural products produced mostly in temperate zone countries;

  • Competing zone agricultural products

    Agricultural products from both tropical and temperate zone countries;

  • Total trade

    Includes the categories “not included elsewhere” and “not classified according to kind.”

Intra-Community trade

Unless otherwise specified, trade data include intra-Community trade.

Import penetration

Import penetration is defined as the ratio of imports to apparent consumption (i.e., production plus imports minus exports). Import penetration by developing countries’ markets of manufactures is defined in nominal terms; otherwise it is calculated in volume terms.

Also referred to in GATT terminology and in this paper as “traditional” oil exporting developing countries.

Includes the “new” oil exporting developing countries: Bahamas, Bahrain, Brunei, Egypt, Mexico, the Netherlands Antilles, Oman, the Syrian Arab Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Virgin Islands.

If not identified separately, they are included in the category of developed countries.

Appendix II Statistical Tables

List of Tables

Table 1.Production, Commodity, and Regional Composition of World Trade,1 1963–84
19631973197519771979198019811982198321984
Growth in world output (in percent)5.09.0–1.05.04.01.01.0–2.03.05.0
World exports (in billions of U.S. dollars)1545748731,1251,6351,9901,9631,8421,8071,925
(Percentage share in world exports)
Agricultural products29.021.017.016.016.015.015.014.714.9
Nonfuel minerals6.35.64.74.24.44.83.93.63.8
Fuels10.211.019.019.020.024.024.123.021.2
Manufactures53.061.057.058.058.055.055.557.158.5
Growth of volume of world exports7.011.0–3.04.06.02.0–2.02.09.0
(Percentage share in total world exports and imports)
Regional composition of world trade
Industrial countries
Exports64.168.063.862.663.361.260.961.662.262.1
Imports64.269.664.765.867.266.263.262.763.564.8
Oil exporting developing countries
Exports7.312.913.213.015.014.111.910.19.5
Imports3.66.67.46.46.68.08.37.36.0
Non-oil exporting developing20.4
countries20.9
Exports11.911.312.612.312.913.614.014.715.5
Imports14.515.815.315.816.717.817.617.517.4
Eastern trading countries
Exports12.210.09.89.69.38.99.410.511.110.9
Imports11.79.910.59.49.09.08.79.29.79.6
Sources: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International Trade (Geneva), various issues.

For classification of countries, see Appendix I.

Estimates.

Sources: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International Trade (Geneva), various issues.

For classification of countries, see Appendix I.

Estimates.

Table 2.European Community: Authorization of Article 115 Actions, 1979–84
197919801981198219831984
Benelux
Acceptances442517192214
Of which: textiles321916171612
agricultural products121111
As percent of requests807374100100100
Denmark
Acceptances34
Of which: textiles34
agricultural products
As percent of requests60100
France
Acceptances12410580855739
Of which: textiles826355553926
agricultural products12121
As percent of requests858473765968
Germany, Federal Republic of
Acceptances61224
Of which: textiles51224
agricultural products1
As percent of requests100100100100100
Greece
Acceptances
Of which: textiles
agricultural products
As percent of requests
Ireland
Acceptances335732264859
Of which: textiles335728264757
agricultural products
As percent of requests974956799184
Italy
Acceptances172323293734
Of which: textiles1214117911
agricultural products2
As percent of requests535258536569
United Kingdom
Acceptances33712132019
Of which: textiles326891614
agricultural products12224
As percent of requests482350659576
Total EC acceptances260222166174188165
Of which: textiles199164120116131120
agricultural products253688
Rejected and withdrawn8713489676550
Total requests347356255241253215
Acceptances as percent of requests756265727477
Source: Data provided by the European Commission.
Source: Data provided by the European Commission.
Table 3.Major GATT Justifications for Quantitative Restrictions
Contracting PartyMajor Justification1Number of

Quantitative

Restrictions for

Which No GATT

Article Is Cited
United StatesBy joint action of contracting party (14)10
European CommunitySerious injury to domestic producer (4)25
Benelux15
Denmark6
FranceSecurity (7); conservation of exhaustible resources (9)64
Germany, Federal Republic ofSerious injury to domestic producers (1)9
Greece56
Ireland12
Italy53
United Kingdom20
JapanSecurity (20); general exceptions (20)27
Other industrial2Protocol of accession (310)3877
Developing countries
ArgentinaProtection of human, animal, plant life or health (2)3
BrazilEconomic development and balance of payments (521)10
ChileFees and formalities connected with export and import (24)1
ColombiaFees and formalities connected with export and import (107)425
IndiaEconomic development and balance of payments (122)15
IndonesiaEconomic development and balance of payments (162)
IsraelMarketing regulation and domestic agricultural production (23)10
Ivory CoastFees and formalities connected with export and import (99)
KoreaEconomic development and balance of payments (253)
NigeriaEconomic development and balance of payments (330)
PakistanEconomic development and balance of payments (434)88
PhilippinesAgreement and import licensing procedures (18)4
YugoslaviaEconomic development and balance of payments (253)17
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). See also Table 7.

The justifications are as cited by the countries maintaining the measures and do not necessarily have any implications for the conformity of the measures with the General Agreement. The numbers in parentheses refer to the numbers of quantitative restrictions to which the major justification applies. Each quantitative restriction refers to an affected commodity, where a commodity is defined by 1 of 1,010 four-digit Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature (CCCN). The quantitative restriction may affect all or only part of the four-digit group in question.

Includes Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.

Refers to Spain.

Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). See also Table 7.

The justifications are as cited by the countries maintaining the measures and do not necessarily have any implications for the conformity of the measures with the General Agreement. The numbers in parentheses refer to the numbers of quantitative restrictions to which the major justification applies. Each quantitative restriction refers to an affected commodity, where a commodity is defined by 1 of 1,010 four-digit Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature (CCCN). The quantitative restriction may affect all or only part of the four-digit group in question.

Includes Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.

Refers to Spain.

Table 4.Measures of Import Restrictions for Manufactured Goods in Developed Countries, 1980–831(In percent of 1980 dollar values)
YearUnited

States
European

Common

Market
Japan
Restricted imports (as19806.2010.807.20
a share of total19815.531.38
manufactured19820.690.18
imports)19830.302.50
1981–836.524.08
Restricted imports (as19800.561.300.33
a share of total19810.490.16
consumption of19820.060.02
manufactured goods)19830.030.25
1981–830.580.43
Consumption of re-198020.323.715.7
stricted manufac-198112.42.3
tured goods (as a19822.10.3
share of total19830.22.1
consumption1981–8314.74.7
of manufactured goods)
Source: B. Balassa and C. Balassa, “Industrial Protection in Developed Countries,” The World Economy, Vol. 7 (No. 2, June 1984), p. 187.

Data for 1980 represent restrictions existing in that year. Data for subsequent years represent new restrictions expressed in terms of 1980 dollar values.

Source: B. Balassa and C. Balassa, “Industrial Protection in Developed Countries,” The World Economy, Vol. 7 (No. 2, June 1984), p. 187.

Data for 1980 represent restrictions existing in that year. Data for subsequent years represent new restrictions expressed in terms of 1980 dollar values.

Table 5.Managed Trade by Country(Percentages of 1974 trade)
All GoodsManufactures
197419791980197419791980
Belgium/Luxembourg27.533.434.00.79.110.0
Denmark29.542.843.2021.121.7
France32.842.642.7016.016.2
Germany, Fed. Rep. of37.347.147.3017.918.3
Ireland26.833.534.01.511.011.7
Italy44.152.252.3016.116.4
Netherlands32.539.840.1012.814.8
United Kingdom38.547.447.90.217.017.4
European Community (9)35.844.544.80.115.716.1
Australia17.934.834.87.830.030.0
Austria20.830.330.3013.113.1
Canada22.418.318.311.45.85.8
Finland32.933.633.63.13.53.5
Greece100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Iceland20.631.231.21.315.715.7
Japan56.159.459.404.34.3
Norway16.333.733.7024.624.6
Portugal25.527.527.510.511.711.7
Spain32.252.352.3037.137.1
Sweden24.736.336.33.119.419.4
Switzerland16.918.318.32.13.43.4
Turkey100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
United States36.244.445.85.618.421.0
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (22)36.343.844.34.016.817.4
Other developed countries (3)97.597.997.997.797.897.8
Oil exporting countries (15)54.065.365.345.859.859.8
Non-oil developing countries (81)49.846.846.925.022.722.8
World (122)40.147.547.812.923.023.6
Source: S.A.B. Page, “The Revival of Protectionism and its Consequences for Europe,” Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 20 (September 1981), p. 29.
Source: S.A.B. Page, “The Revival of Protectionism and its Consequences for Europe,” Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 20 (September 1981), p. 29.
Table 6.Multilateral Trade Negotiation Agreements: Status of Acceptances1
AgreementAccepted bySigned (Acceptances Pending) bySigned, Subject to Reservation/Condition/Declaration, by
Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Finland, France, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, YugoslaviaIsraelDenmark, Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan
Protocol Supplementary to the Geneva (1979) Protocol to the GATTAustralia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Israel, Ivory Coast, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Peru, Singapore, Spain, Uruguay, Zaire
Agreement on Technical Barriers to TradeAustria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Egypt, Finland, France, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Romania, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, United States, YugoslaviaArgentina, Greece, and RwandaCzechoslovakia, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Hungary, and United Kingdom2
Agreement on Government ProcurementAustria, Canada, European Community, Finland, Israel, Japan, Norway, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, United StatesUnited Kingdom2
Agreement on Interpretation and Application of Articles VI, XVI, and XXIII of the GATT3Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Egypt, European Community, Finland, India, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United States, UruguayYugoslaviaAustralia, Indonesia, Philippines, Portugal, and United Kingdom2
Agreement on Bovine MeatArgentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Colombia, Egypt, Finland, Hungary, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, United States, Uruguay, YugoslaviaParaguay (prov.)United Kingdom2 and Guatemala
International Dairy Agreement, April 12, 1979Argentina, Australia, Austria,4 Bulgaria, European Community, Hungary, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UruguayEgypt
Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the GATT5Australia, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Finland, Hungary, Japan, Norway, Romania, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, YugoslaviaArgentinaBotswana, Brazil, Canada, India, Korea, Malawi, New Zealand, Spain, and United Kingdom2
Agreement on Import Licensing ProceduresAustralia, Austria, Canada, Chile, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Finland, Hungary, India, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Romania, Singapore, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, YugoslaviaArgentinaPhilippines and United Kingdom2
Agreement on Trade in Civil AircraftAustria, Belgium, Canada, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, United StatesEgypt and GreeceDenmark, Federal Republic of Germany, and United Kingdom2
Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the GATT6Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Finland, Hungary, India, Japan, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, YugoslaviaUnited Kingdom2
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Status of Acceptances of Protocols, Agreements and Arrangements, Document L/5517 (August 25, 1983) and additions.

As of May 1, 1985.

The United Kingdom accepts in respect of some of its territories.

Code on Subsidies and Countervailing Duties.

Withdrawal will become effective June 9, 1985.

Customs Valuation Code, including Protocol.

Amendments to the Anti-Dumping Code.

Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Status of Acceptances of Protocols, Agreements and Arrangements, Document L/5517 (August 25, 1983) and additions.

As of May 1, 1985.

The United Kingdom accepts in respect of some of its territories.

Code on Subsidies and Countervailing Duties.

Withdrawal will become effective June 9, 1985.

Customs Valuation Code, including Protocol.

Amendments to the Anti-Dumping Code.

Table 7.Quantitative Restrictions by GATT Justification 1
CountryYear 2Fees and Formalities Connected with Importation and ExportationTo Prevent or Relieve Critical Exportable ShortagesTo Regulate Marketing and Production of Domestic Agricultural Goods and Other 3State-Trading Enterprises or Government ProcurementEconomic DevelopmentSerious Injury to Domestic ProducersSecurityBalance of PaymentsNondiscriminatory

Quotas
Argentina19831
Australia19833
Austria19831
Bangladesh198354, 21 6
Brazil198316010160,361 6
Cameroon1973
Canada19831311 7
Chile198324
Colombia198310711
Czechoslovakia1982
European
Community19844
Benelux1984
Denmark1984
France19847
Germany, Fed.
Rep. of19841
Greece1984
Ireland1984
Italy1984
United
Kingdom1984
Egypt198344 6
Finland19834
Ghana1983442 6
Hungary198389
India198220122 6
Indonesia198423,139 11
Israel19822311180
Ivory Coast19849974
Jamaica196684
Japan1983113, 5, 7 2 9
Kenya1969156163
Korea198322253 6
Malawi1983
Malaysia19842
Malta1977
New Zealand198329
Nigeria198261330 61
Norway19838
Pakistan198313434 6
Peru1983812 33, 41 61
Philippines198213 6
Portugal198312122
Senegal1984
Singapore1984
South Africa198311, 62 3
Spain19831011 7
Sri Lanka1983131 6
Sweden19841 3
Switzerland19838576
Thailand1983144 32, 3 11 8
Tunisia1983492 6
United States198311 7
Yugoslavia19832261, 192 615
Explanatory NoteThis table uses information contained in a note by the GATT Secretariat for the Group on Quantitative Restrictions and Other Non-Tariff Measures. The data on quantitative restrictions are assembled from self-notifications by the contracting parties contained in the NTM/W/6 documentation. Each quantitative restriction refers to an affected commodity, where a commodity is defined by 1 of 1,010 four-digit Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature (CCCN). The quantitative restriction may affect all or only part of the four-digit group in question. The 53 governments for which information is available account for 97 percent of total trade of the contracting parties (Cuba, Poland, and the United Kingdom for Hong Kong have notified that they do not maintain any quantitative restrictions). For some countries, the notification covers only certain sectors. Because the information may be out of date in a number of cases, the year for which data are available is included in the table. The justifications for imposing quantitative restrictions are broken down by the respective article of agreement. Thus, “Fees and Formalities Connected with Importation and Exportation” refers to Article VIII; “To Prevent or Relieve Critical Exportable Shortages” and “To Regulate Marketing and Production of Domestic Agricultural Goods and Other” both refer to Article XI; “State-Trading Enterprises or Government Procurement” refers to Article XVII; “Economic Development” refers to Article XVIII; “Serious Injury to Domestic Producers” refers to Article XIX; “Security” refers to Article XXI; “Balance of Payments” refers to Article XII and balance of payments exception of the General Agreement; “Nondiscriminatory Quotas” refers to Article XIII; “By Joint Action of Contracting Parties” refers to Article XXV; “General Exceptions” refers to Article XX; and “AILP” refers to the Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures.
Explanatory NoteThis table uses information contained in a note by the GATT Secretariat for the Group on Quantitative Restrictions and Other Non-Tariff Measures. The data on quantitative restrictions are assembled from self-notifications by the contracting parties contained in the NTM/W/6 documentation. Each quantitative restriction refers to an affected commodity, where a commodity is defined by 1 of 1,010 four-digit Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature (CCCN). The quantitative restriction may affect all or only part of the four-digit group in question. The 53 governments for which information is available account for 97 percent of total trade of the contracting parties (Cuba, Poland, and the United Kingdom for Hong Kong have notified that they do not maintain any quantitative restrictions). For some countries, the notification covers only certain sectors. Because the information may be out of date in a number of cases, the year for which data are available is included in the table. The justifications for imposing quantitative restrictions are broken down by the respective article of agreement. Thus, “Fees and Formalities Connected with Importation and Exportation” refers to Article VIII; “To Prevent or Relieve Critical Exportable Shortages” and “To Regulate Marketing and Production of Domestic Agricultural Goods and Other” both refer to Article XI; “State-Trading Enterprises or Government Procurement” refers to Article XVII; “Economic Development” refers to Article XVIII; “Serious Injury to Domestic Producers” refers to Article XIX; “Security” refers to Article XXI; “Balance of Payments” refers to Article XII and balance of payments exception of the General Agreement; “Nondiscriminatory Quotas” refers to Article XIII; “By Joint Action of Contracting Parties” refers to Article XXV; “General Exceptions” refers to Article XX; and “AILP” refers to the Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures.
General Exceptions
By Joint Action of Contracting PartiesProtection of human/animal/plant life or healthIntergovernmental commodity agreementConservation of exhaustible resourcesOtherProtocol of Provisional ApplicationAILPProtocol of AccessionNo GATT Article/Provision Cited 4GATT Justification: Col-6 Unfilled 5Percentage of Contracting Parties’ Trade
2210.5
5371.5
5501.2
10.1
101.4
110.1
13416124.2
5 810.3
47, 9 82971280.2
21.0
25
105
33
92935
41.9
45
2135
93
3320
20
0.3
22 97660.9
0.1
30.6
1022, 8 26 10150.6
111.0
4100.5
2122, 1, 8 3 120.2
11180.1
3205228.7
11 80.1
43911.4
18300.02
917, 2 81010.7
100860.04
665153751860.4
21.2
21131031.1
2880.3
3273, 8 2 90.2
911840.4
20320.4
360.1
31.1
933413, 8 3, 14 5 10531821.2
3101.7
0.1
5155541.8
76, 7, 8 1 142431.9
5269, 14 1 93860.5
0.2
1431015.1
102, 8 1 14170.8
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

Number of restrictions refers to number of goods affected, with goods classified by CCCN categories.

Refers to the year for which data are available.

Necessary for the application of standards or regulations for the classification, grading, or marketing of commodities in international trade.

Restrictions on nontextile industrial products for which contracting parties have decided not to invoke GATT justification.

Restrictions in agriculture and textiles for which contracting parties have decided not to invoke GATT justification.

Imposed for balance of payments reasons related to the process of economic development.

Relating to traffic in military supplies or equipment.

To protect public morals.

On exports to ensure supply to domestic processing industries.

Relating to trade in gold and silver.

To promote the establishment of a particular industry.

Essential to the acquisition or distribution of products in short supply.

Relating to fissionable materials.

To ensure compliance with laws or regulations.

Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

Number of restrictions refers to number of goods affected, with goods classified by CCCN categories.

Refers to the year for which data are available.

Necessary for the application of standards or regulations for the classification, grading, or marketing of commodities in international trade.

Restrictions on nontextile industrial products for which contracting parties have decided not to invoke GATT justification.

Restrictions in agriculture and textiles for which contracting parties have decided not to invoke GATT justification.

Imposed for balance of payments reasons related to the process of economic development.

Relating to traffic in military supplies or equipment.

To protect public morals.

On exports to ensure supply to domestic processing industries.

Relating to trade in gold and silver.

To promote the establishment of a particular industry.

Essential to the acquisition or distribution of products in short supply.

Relating to fissionable materials.

To ensure compliance with laws or regulations.

Table 8.Nontariff Measures Other than Quantitative Restrictions Notified to the GATT1
MeasureTotal NotificationsMaintaining Country (Number Notified)
Government aids43Argentina (1), Australia (2), Austria (1), Brazil (1), Canada (2), European Community (1), Belgium (1), France (4), Fed. Rep. of Germany (1), Greece (1), Ireland (1), Italy (3), Netherlands (1), United Kingdom (2), Egypt (1), Finland (1), India (2), Indonesia (1), Israel (1), Japan (1), New Zealand (2), Norway (1), Pakistan (1), Portugal (1), South Africa (2), Spain (1), Switzerland (1), United States (4), Uruguay (1)
Countervailing duties3Canada (1), New Zealand (1), United States (1)
Government procurement28Austria (1), Brazil (1), Burma (1), Cameroon (1), Canada (2), Belgium (1), Denmark (1), France (1), Greece (1), Italy (1), Luxembourg (1), United Kingdom (1), India (1), Japan (1), Kenya (1), Madagascar (1), Malawi (1), Malaysia (1), New Zealand (1), Norway (1), Portugal (1), South Africa (1) Spain (1), United States (4)
Restrictive practices10Australia (1), Czechoslovakia (1), Ireland (1), Japan (1), Poland (1), Romania (1), United States (4)
State trading26Austria (1), Brazil (2), Canada (1), Colombia (1), Congo (1), France (1), Greece (1), Ireland (1), Italy (1), Finland (1), Haiti (1), Iceland (1), India (2), Kenya (1), Korea (1), Kuwait (1), Mauritania (1), Nordic countries (1), Norway (1), Spain (1), Sri Lanka (1), Tanzania (1), Tunisia (2)
Antidumping duties12Australia (4), Canada (2), European Community (2), South Africa (2), Spain (1), United States (1)
Valuation27Argentina (1), Brazil (3), Cameroon (1), Canada (8), Central African Republic (1), Chad (1), Congo (1), Gabon (1), Ivory Coast (2), New Zealand (1), Peru (2), Sierra Leone (1), South Africa (3), Uruguay (1)
Customs classification3Canada (2), United States (1)
Consular formalities and documentation22Argentina (1), Austria (1), Brazil (3), Dominican Republic (2), Italy (1), Egypt (1), Gabon (1), Haiti (2), Kuwait (1), Malaysia (1), Mauritania (1), Nicaragua (1), Peru (2), Philippines (1), United States (2), Uruguay (1)
Samples1South Africa (1)
Rules of origin1European Community, European Free Trade Association (EFTA) (1)
Customs formalities3Italy (2), India (1)
Technical barriers (general)9Austria (1), European Community (1), France (1), France, Fed. Rep. of Germany, and United Kingdom (1), Italy (1), Finland (1), New Zealand (1), Nordic countries (1), Norway (1)
Technical regulations and standards12Australia (1), Burkina Faso (1), Canada (2), Fed. Rep. of Germany (1), France (1), Pakistan (1), South Africa (1), Sri Lanka (1), United States (3)
Testing and certification arrangements13Brazil (1), Nordic countries and Denmark (1), Belgium (1), France (1), Greece (1), Japan (3), Senegal (1), South Africa (1), United States (3)
Screen-time quotas and other mixing regulations18Argentina (1), Australia (2), Brazil (2), Canada (1), France (2), Greece (1), Italy (2), Netherlands (1), United Kingdom (1), Israel (1), Korea (1), Malaysia (1), Pakistan (1), Spain (1)
Exchange control7Brazil (1), Cameroon (1), Greece (1), Indonesia (1), Nigeria (1), Pakistan (1), Romania (1)
Measures to regulate domestic prices7Austria (2), Brazil (1), Italy (1), Japan (1), Korea (1), Peru (1)
Tariff quotas3Australia (1), Fed. Rep. of Germany (1), United States (1)
Export taxes12Argentina (1), Canada (2), Gabon (1), Ghana (1), Guyana (1), Haiti (1), Malaysia (1), Pakistan (1), Philippines (1), Switzerland (1), Tanzania (1)
Requirements on marking, labeling, and packaging12Australia (3), Canada (1), France (1), United Kingdom (2), Finland (1), Japan (1), Sweden (1), United States (1), Uruguay (1)
Other specific limitations9Japan (3), Korea (3), Kuwait (1), Tunisia (1), United States (1)
Prior import deposits9Dominican Republic (1), Greece (3), Iceland (1), Korea (2), Turkey (1), Uruguay (1)
Surcharges, port taxes, statistical taxes, etc.55Austria (1), Benin (1), Brazil (2), Burkina Faso (6), Burundi (1), Cameroon (1), Central African Republic (1), Chad (1), Congo (1), Greece (1), Italy (2), Egypt (2), Iceland (3), India (1), Indonesia (2), Ivory Coast (2), Korea (1), Madagascar (1), Mauritania (3), Niger (3), Peru (1), Rwanda (2), Senegal (3), Togo (6), Tunisia (1), Turkey (2), United States (1), Uruguay (3)
Discriminatory film taxes, use taxes, etc.20Argentina (1), Barbados (1), Belgium/Luxembourg (1), France (2), Greece (1), Italy (2), Egypt (1), Finland (1), Gabon (1), Israel (1), Malaysia (1), Norway (1), Spain (3), Switzerland (2), Turkey (1)
Discriminatory credit restrictions7Brazil (1), Dominican Republic (1), Finland (1), Greece (1), Indonesia (1), Japan (1), Korea (1)
Border tax adjustments47Argentina (2), Australia (1), Barbados (1), Benin (1), Brazil (1), Burkina Faso (1), Chad (1), European Community (1), Belgium/Luxembourg (1), Denmark (1), Fed. Rep. of Germany (1), Greece (2), Italy (3), Netherlands (1), Finland (4), Gabon (1), Ghana (2), Iceland (1), Israel (2), Ivory Coast (1), Madagascar (1), Mauritania (1), New Zealand (1), Niger (2), Norway (1), Pakistan (1), Portugal (2), Senegal (1), South Africa (1), Spain (1), Switzerland (1), Togo (1), Tunisia (3), Turkey (1)
Emergency action5Australia (1), New Zealand (1), United States (3)
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), Report (1984) of the Group on Quantitative Restrictions and Other Non-Tariff Measures, Document L/5713 (October 26, 1984), Annex 6; and data provided by the GATT Secretariat.

Information available as of May 1, 1985.

Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), Report (1984) of the Group on Quantitative Restrictions and Other Non-Tariff Measures, Document L/5713 (October 26, 1984), Annex 6; and data provided by the GATT Secretariat.

Information available as of May 1, 1985.

Table 9.Recourse to Article XIX of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 1978–84
CountryProductMeasureYear

Introduced

(Terminated)
AustraliaWool worsted yarnsTariff quota1978
Round blunt chainsaw filesQuantitative restriction1978 (1978)
Double-edged safety razor bladesQuantitative restriction1978 (1982)
Sheets and plates of iron and steelQuantitative restriction1978 (1980)
Certain trucks and stackersQuantitative restriction1980 (1982)
Files and raspsQuantitative restriction1976 (1978)
Hoops and strips of iron and steelTariff quota1982 (1983)
Certain filament lampsTariff increase1983
Non-electrical domestic refrigeratorsTariff increase1983
CanadaFootwear other than canvas and rubberQuantitative restriction1977 (1981)
Nonleather footwearQuantitative restriction1981
Leather footwearQuantitative restriction1982
Yellow onionsSpecific surtax1982 (1983)
Fresh, chilled, and frozen beef and vealQuantitative restriction1985
ChileSugarTariff surcharge1984
European CommunityPreserved mushroomsQuantitative restriction1978 (1980)
Yarn of synthetic fibers (United Kingdom only)Quantitative restriction1980 (1980)
Cultivated mushroomsQuantitative restriction1980 (1980)
Frozen cod filletsEmbargo1981 (1981)
Dried grapesCompensatory tax1982
Tableware and other articles of stonewareQuantitative restriction1983 (1983)
Certain electronic quartz watchesQuantitative restriction1984
IcelandFurniture, cupboards and cabinets; windows and doorsImport deposit1979 (1980)

1982
NorwayVarious textile itemsQuantitative restriction1979 (1984)
SpainCheesesQuantitative restriction1980 (1980)1
United StatesCB radio receiversTariff1978 (1981)
High-carbon ferrochromiumTariff1978 (1982)
Lag screws or boltsTariff1979 (1982)
ClothespinsQuantitative restriction1979 (1984)
Porcelain-on-steel cookwareTariff1980 (1984)
Preserved mushroomsTariff1980 (1982)
Heavyweight motorcyclesTariff increase1983
Certain specialty steelsQuantitative restriction1983
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

Replaced by export restraint arrangement.

Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

Replaced by export restraint arrangement.

Table 10.GATT Consultations on Balance of Payments Restrictions, 1978–October 1984
Year of Consultation1
Country1978197919801981198219831984
ArgentinaX
BangladeshXXXX
BrazilXXXX
ChileX
EgyptXXX
FinlandX
GhanaXXXX
GreeceXXX
HungaryXX
IndiaXXXX
IndonesiaX
IsraelXXXX
ItalyX
KoreaXXXX
NigeriaX
PakistanXXX
PeruXXX
PhilippinesXXX
PortugalXXXXXXX
Sri LankaXXX
TunisiaXXXX
TurkeyXXXX
YugoslaviaXXX
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

Some countries consulted more than once in a calendar year.

Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

Some countries consulted more than once in a calendar year.

Table 11.Summary of Countervailing Duty Actions, July 1982–December 1984
Reporting CountryReporting PeriodInitiationProvisional MeasuresDefinitive DutiesOutstanding Countervailing Duty Actions
No.Countries involved1No.Countries involved1No.Countries involved1
United States7/1/82–6/30/8335Argentina, Brazil (4) Canada (2), Colombia Germany, Fed. Rep. of Spain (2), France (3) Luxembourg, Mexico (10) Peru (2), Philippines Singapore

Trinidad and Tobago Taiwan,* South Africa (4)
34Argentina (2) Belgium, Brazil (6) Canada (2), Colombia Germany, Fed. Rep. of Spain (2), France (3) United Kingdom Korea, Mexico (6) Peru (2) South Africa (6)23Argentina Germany, Fed. Rep. of Spain (4), France (4) United Kingdom (2) Italy, Korea Luxembourg Mexico (3), Peru (2) South Africa (3)53
7/1/83–6/30/8422Argentina, Austria Brazil (3), China Czechoslovakia Germany, Dem. Rep. of Spain (2), Israel Italy, Mexico (6) Peru, Pakistan Poland, South Africa17Argentina, Brazil Spain (2), Israel Italy, Mexico (6) Peru, Philippines Pakistan, Singapore Trinidad and Tobago4Italy, Mexico Philippines South Africa56
7/1/84–12/31/8446Argentina (3) Australia, Brazil (3) Canada, Colombia (2) Costa Rica Indonesia (2), Israel Korea (3), Malaysia (2) Mexico (7), Panama (2) Peru (3), Philippines (2) Portugal (2) Singapore (2), Spain (3) Sri Lanka (2) Thailand (2), Turkey (2)29Argentina (3) Brazil (2) Colombia (2) Costa Rica Indonesia (2), Israel Korea (2), Malaysia Mexico (4), Peru (2) Spain (3) Sri Lanka (2) Thailand (2) Turkey (2)10Argentina, Brazil Israel, Korea (2) Mexico (3), Spain (2)n/a
European Community7/1/82–6/30/833Brazil Spain (2)1Braziln/a
7/1/83–6/30/841Brazil1Spain2Brazil Spainn/a
Canada7/1/82–6/30/832Italy (2)1Italy1
7/1/83–6/30/843Denmark, European Community, Netherlands3Denmark, European Community, Netherlands3
7/1/84–12/31/844Denmark European Community Netherlands, Spain1Netherlands2Denmark European Communityn/a
Australia7/1/82–6/30/837New Zealand Germany, Fed. Rep. of Denmark Netherlands (2) United States6Germany, Fed. Rep. of Germany, Dem. Rep. of (2) Netherlands New Zealand United States2
7/1/83–6/30/843France (2) Norway7Germany, Fed. Rep. of (2) Denmark (2), France Netherlands (2)2
7/1/84–12/31/846France, Greece Italy, Norway, New Zealand (2)4France, Greece, Italy, Norwayn/a
Chile7/1/82–6/30/8333Argentina (6) Brazil (12) European Community Colombia, Spain (3) Japan, Korea (5) Peru (2), Taiwan* Uruguay1European Communityn/a
7/1/83–6/30/8420Argentina, Brazil (12) Spain (6), Perun/a
7/1/84–12/31/849Argentina (2), Brazil (3) Colombia, Korea, Peru Taiwan*n/a
Japan7/1/82–6/30/831Pakistann/a
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Report (1984)of the Committee on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, Document L/5719 (November 12, 1984), Annex I.

Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of cases.

Actions taken with respect to the signatories only.

Taiwan Province of China

Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Report (1984)of the Committee on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, Document L/5719 (November 12, 1984), Annex I.

Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of cases.

Actions taken with respect to the signatories only.

Taiwan Province of China

Table 12.Service Sectors Identified in Selected National Studies1
United StatesAdvertising services
Aviation services
Banking and related financial services
Engineering and construction and related consultancy
Franchising services
Insurance services
Lodging services
Maritime services
Motion pictures
Professional services
Telecommunications, data processing, and information
Travel and tourism services
European CommunityAir transport
Auditing services
Banking
Building and construction services
Franchising services
Hotels and restaurants
Inland transport
Insurance
Professional services
Sea transport
Stock exchanges
Telecommunications services
Travel agencies
JapanAdvertising
Aviation
Banking services
Construction engineering
Data processing
Films
Insurance
Leasing
Legal services
Securities
Shipping
Telecommunications services
United KingdomAccountancy
Advertising agencies
Banking
Civil aviation
Commodity trading and other merchanting
Computer services
Construction services
Consultancy services
Distribution services
Educational services
Films and television
Franchising and royalties
Insurance
Legal services
Medical services
Shipping services
Stock exchange
Telecommunications and postal services
Travel and tourism
Sources: Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, U.S. National Study on Trade in Services (Washington: December 1983); European Communities, Study on International Trade in Services (1984); Japan’s National Study on Trade in Services (October 1984); and U.K. Department of Trade and Industry, U.K. National Study of Trade in Services (May 1984).

To the extent possible, the terminology and sectoral definitions used in the national studies have been maintained.

Sources: Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, U.S. National Study on Trade in Services (Washington: December 1983); European Communities, Study on International Trade in Services (1984); Japan’s National Study on Trade in Services (October 1984); and U.K. Department of Trade and Industry, U.K. National Study of Trade in Services (May 1984).

To the extent possible, the terminology and sectoral definitions used in the national studies have been maintained.

Table 13.GATT Panels Established Since 1978
Requested byDate Panel EstablishedSubject of Examination
United StatesOct. 1978Japanese import restrictions on leather
AustraliaNov. 1978European Community (EC) sugar export refunds
BrazilNov. 1978EC sugar export refunds
ChileJuly 1979EC restrictions on imports of apples from Chile
Hong KongJuly 1979Norway’s Article XIX action on certain textile products
CanadaNov. 1979Japanese restrictions on imports of leather
United StatesJan. 1980Spanish measures concerning domestic sale of soybean oil
CanadaMarch 1980U.S. prohibition of imports of tuna and tuna products from Canada
United StatesMarch 1980Japanese measures affecting imports of manufactured tobacco
BrazilJune 1980Spain’s tariff treatment of unroasted coffee
CanadaJune 1980Access of Canadian beef under EC tariff quota established as part of multilateral trade negotiations settlement
United StatesOct. 1980U.K. practices affecting imports of poultry from the United States
IndiaDec. 1980U.S. imposition of countervailing duty without injury criterion on industrial fasteners imported from India
ECJuly 1981U.S. imposition of duty on imports of vitamin B12 of feedgrain quality (considered by the EC to be inconsistent with the General Agreement)
CanadaOct. 1981U.S. exclusion of imports of automotive spring assemblies from Canada
United StatesJan. 1982Subsidies maintained by the EC on the export of wheat flour
United StatesMarch 1982Trade practices under Canadian Foreign Investment Review Act
United StatesMarch 1982EC subsidies on canned fruit
United StatesJune 1982EC subsidies on the export of pasta products
United Kingdom1Oct. 1982Quantitative import restrictions maintained by France over a range of products, including quartz watches
United StatesNov. 1982EC tariff preferences on certain citrus products from Mediterranean countries
ECNov. 1982Finland’s internal regulations having an effect on imports of certain parts of footwear
United StatesFeb. 1983Treatment of value-added tax in EC government procurement contracts
United StatesApril 1983Japanese restraints on leather imports
ECApril 1983“Manufacturing Clause” in U.S. copyright legislation
ECMay 1983U.S. subsidies on exports of wheat flour to Egypt
NicaraguaJuly 1983U.S. decision to reduce Nicaragua’s sugar import quota
CanadaMarch 1984EC reduction of its duty-free newsprint quota
FinlandOct. 1984Imposition of antidumping duties by New Zealand on electrical transformers from Finland
South AfricaNov. 1984Discriminatory application of retail sales tax on gold coins in Canada (Ontario)
ECFeb. 1985Definition of industry concerning wine and grape products contained in the U.S. Trade and Tariff Act of 1984
ECMarch 1985Import distribution and sale of alcoholic drinks by provisional market agencies in Canada
CanadaMarch 1985U.S. restrictions on imports of certain products containing sugar
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

On behalf of Hong Kong.

Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

On behalf of Hong Kong.

Table 14.Regional Composition of World Trade in Manufactures, 1973–83(In percent)
Industrial countriesOil exporting

developing countries
Origin19731980198119821983 219731980198119821983 2
Industrial countries73.666.763.764.867.44.69.311.211.49.5
Iron and steel65.158.457.455.356.56.310.912.614.810.6
Chemicals69.466.666.768.469.24.06.46.96.96.4
Other semimanufactures79.874.470.170.271.52.87.09.28.98.4
Engineering products73.364.361.162.365.95.110.812.813.110.7
Textiles and clothing76.574.969.872.874.03.86.68.77.67.3
Other consumer goods84.978.273.174.075.52.77.79.99.58.6
Oil exporting developing countries68.432.727.024.028.610.532.736.536.841.4
Non-oil exporting developing countries65.458.356.258.061.17.99.810.711.08.4
Iron and steel51.643.945.545.015.820.919.821.5
Chemicals44.346.745.544.46.09.69.99.6
Other semimanufactures73.556.253.554.04.710.611.010.0
Engineering products61.154.552.655.66.810.812.211.0
Textiles and clothing67.764.960.662.56.08.79.89.5
Other consumer goods75.269.869.671.64.16.16.25.5
Eastern trading countries16.019.018.017.316.33.04.76.76.95.8
Iron and steel25.425.024.622.53.14.74.94.5
Chemicals27.738.035.833.91.83.34.55.2
Other semimanufactures28.546.640.039.57.610.014.114.0
Engineering products7.97.77.56.92.54.06.26.7
Textiles and clothing30.337.933.733.63.75.88.27.9
Other consumer goods31.538.336.235.73.78.39.58.9
Total world167.061.758.859.461.54.69.110.911.09.2
Iron and steel59.854.053.150.249.96.211.112.714.3
Chemicals65.263.462.964.064.53.96.47.06.9
Other semimanufactures75.970.665.865.967.33.47.69.89.4
Engineering products65.258.155.556.359.24.910.212.312.4
Textiles and clothing69.968.062.664.465.14.37.29.28.5
Other consumer goods78.173.569.370.372.03.07.69.49.0
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International Trade (Geneva), various issues.

Includes Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

Provisional figures.

Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International Trade (Geneva), various issues.

Includes Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

Provisional figures.

Destination
Non-oil exporting

developing countries
Eastern trading countriesTotal world 1
19731980198119821983 219731980198119821983 219731980198119821983 2
14.116.317.216.215.64.44.84.44.44.682.281.080.179.378.1
15.217.918.816.115.911.411.49.412.015.683.681.580.877.573.7
18.119.916.916.116.25.26.56.35.85.587.185.684.383.483.3
11.412.714.414.414.43.33.83.94.03.680.580.378.678.377.6
17.017.618.617.516.63.73.83.33.33.684.984.083.983.281.8
11.911.212.511.911.44.55.36.55.55.266.961.157.156.455.2
7.69.711.510.910.31.92.33.02.93.176.074.472.672.170.8
15.831.133.333.628.57.41.61.20.80.70.30.60.60.60.7
22.526.626.625.625.33.02.73.43.22.66.79.110.110.211.0
28.429.729.729.43.24.43.02.03.35.96.97.3
40.937.637.637.92.73.64.05.14.36.46.97.0
16.826.728.128.43.54.64.44.711.711.713.613.5
29.831.831.129.50.71.11.81.63.25.86.46.5
17.319.721.019.55.04.25.45.421.927.530.630.6
14.516.917.016.11.61.41.61.313.116.718.719.4
10.413.214.615.014.370.562.860.460.463.310.08.58.59.29.5
9.39.510.613.062.260.759.959.911.49.79.712.6
11.014.716.215.159.543.542.945.36.56.06.77.5
24.121.124.726.739.922.221.119.85.54.95.15.5
8.311.511.211.781.376.875.074.611.39.69.19.6
15.920.027.926.247.934.729.330.49.89.910.811.7
12.015.017.219.651.538.336.235.79.97.27.17.0
14.417.118.117.216.710.99.59.09.49.9100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
15.317.918.916.816.815.713.717.1100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
18.919.218.617.78.68.48.48.6100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
13.015.017.017.35.34.84.94.9100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
14.418.018.917.812.310.69.810.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
13.414.516.916.28.87.88.68.4100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
9.111.413.113.26.84.72.04.8100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Table 15.Commodity Composition of World Trade in Manufactures, 1973–83(In billions of U.S. dollars)
197319751977197919801981198219831
Iron and steel28.545.846.870.876.673.670.263.5
Chemicals41.962.981.0131.1154.0146.9142.1146.5
Other semimanufactures29.037.752.579.992.484.077.879.5
Engineering products188.0279.1363.7509.2593.0607.5589.2595.5
Machinery for specialized industries52.583.598.0136.4158.9158.7148.8139.0
Office and telecommunications equipment17.223.432.048.257.963.565.977.0
Road motor vehicles41.058.382.2115.8127.5128.8125.8130.5
Other machinery and transport equipment62.094.1122.4168.7198.8205.7202.4200.0
Household appliances15.319.829.240.348.250.946.448.5
Textiles23.426.634.149.755.655.351.151.0
Clothing12.616.723.634.640.441.340.541.0
Other consumer goods24.332.146.270.783.381.479.980.5
Total manufactures347.5500.9647.8945.91,095.11,089.81,050.81,057.0
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International Trade (Geneva), various issues.

Provisional figures.

Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International Trade (Geneva), various issues.

Provisional figures.

Table 16.Steel: Production, Apparent Consumption, and Employment, 1973–84
Jan.-sept.
1973197719791980198119821983198319841
(In millions of tons)
Crude steel production
OECD456.6392.4433.6398.3392.4330.1336.3246.0276.1
United States136.8113.7123.7101.7109.667.776.855.465.4
European Community2150.1126.1140.2128.9126.0111.4109.579.889.0
Japan119.3102.4111.7111.4101.799.597.271.478.8
Canada13.413.616.115.914.811.912.8
Australia and New Zealand7.97.68.47.87.96.65.839.442.9
Other OECD329.129.033.532.627.432.934.2
Developing countries434.251.563.766.867.768.970.8
Others5206.4231.9249.3252.0247.1246.4256.6
World697.2675.8746.6717.1707.2645.3663.7
(In millions of ingot tons equivalent)
Apparent consumption6
OECD430.4367.1406.0374.8371.6317.3323.4
United States151.0136.1144.1118.4133.288.199.1
European Community2129.3110.0120.4114.6103.7100.9100.1
Japan91.766.383.985.979.378.775.0
Canada14.513.315.814.015.09.411.5
Australia and New Zealand8.05.77.57.27.46.75.6
Other OECD335.935.734.334.733.033.532.1
Developing countries464.989.3104.6110.5115.2110.7108.3
Others5212.0240.3263.7263.3254.8257.4273.4
World707.3696.7774.5748.6741.6685.4705.1
(In thousands of workers)
Employment7
OECD1,956.21,832.71,740.61,639.01,553.01,390.01,290.0
United States522.0469.9478.5429.3423.6323.6275.0
European Community800.4750.9687.8646.6576.5541.1501.1
Japan323.9314.8281.5271.0269.3268.5266.3
Canada52.549.753.053.254.040.348.0
Australia43.241.542.644.544.540.430.8
Other OECD214.2205.9197.2194.4185.1176.1168.8
Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), The Steel Market in 1983 and the Outlook for 1984 (May 1984), The Steel Market in 1982 and the Outlook for 1983 (May 1983), and Press Release, “Steel Committee, the Steel Market Situation in OECD Countries” (October 11, 1984).

Estimates.

Includes Greece from 1980 on.

Excludes Greece from 1980 on.

Includes oil exporting developing countries.

Includes Eastern Europe, China, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and the U.S.S.R.

Apparent consumption = production + net imports.

The first column figures on employment refer to 1974.

Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), The Steel Market in 1983 and the Outlook for 1984 (May 1984), The Steel Market in 1982 and the Outlook for 1983 (May 1983), and Press Release, “Steel Committee, the Steel Market Situation in OECD Countries” (October 11, 1984).

Estimates.

Includes Greece from 1980 on.

Excludes Greece from 1980 on.

Includes oil exporting developing countries.

Includes Eastern Europe, China, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and the U.S.S.R.

Apparent consumption = production + net imports.

The first column figures on employment refer to 1974.

Table 17.Steel: Capacity Utilization and Import Penetration, 1978–83
CapacityCapacity UtilizationImport Penetration1
United StatesEuropean Community2JapanUnited StatesEuropean Community2JapanUnited StatesEuropean Community;2Japan
(In millions of tons)(In percent)(In percent)
1978143.2202.1151.387666818.112.00.7
1979140.2203.5154.488697215.212.02.4
1980139.7204.9159.273637016.311.71.8
1981140.0201.0158.778636419.29.62.5
1982139.8198.4157.848566321.812.73.3
1983136.5193.0156.756576220.512.64.8
Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, The Steel Market in 1983 and the Outlook for 1984 (May 1984), and The Steel Market in 1982 and the Outlook for 1983 (May 1983).

Share of imports in apparent consumption.

Data for 1978–79 exclude Greece.

Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, The Steel Market in 1983 and the Outlook for 1984 (May 1984), and The Steel Market in 1982 and the Outlook for 1983 (May 1983).

Share of imports in apparent consumption.

Data for 1978–79 exclude Greece.

Table 18.Steel: Exports, Imports, and Net Trade Balance, 1979–83(In millions of ingot tons equivalent)
19791980198119821983
Exports
OECD103.0105.596.7100.6
United States4.83.42.31.5
European Community136.642.433.933.7
Japan38.637.037.240.4
Canada4.64.63.4
Australia and New Zealand23.02.11.81.8
Other OECD216.016.919.8
Developing countries336.915.619.422.2
Other423.923.223.7
World139.9145.0139.3146.5
Imports
OECD52.454.752.653.1
United States17.923.119.319.7
European Community113.510.213.012.6
Japan1.52.02.63.6
Canada3.91.41.3
Australia and New Zealand19.51.51.71.3
Other OECD214.014.514.6
Developing countries384.959.657.255.3
Other427.430.035.9
World137.3141.7139.8144.3
Net exports
OECD51.750.650.844.147.5
United States–16.8–13.1–19.7–17.0–18.2
European Community127.423.132.220.921.1
Japan38.037.135.034.636.8
Canada0.82.60.73.22.1
Australia and New Zealand0.90.80.60.10.5
Other OECD1.40.12.02.35.2
Developing countries3–38.1–40.6–44.0–37.8–33.1
Other4,5–13.6–10.0–6.8–6.3–14.4
Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), The Steel Market in 1983 and the Outlook for 1954 (May 1984), and The Steel Market in 1982 and the Outlook for 1983 (May 1983).

Includes Greece from 1980 onward.

Excludes Greece from 1980 onward.

Includes oil exporting developing countries.

Includes Eastern Europe, China, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and the U.S.S.R.

Includes small amounts from unspecified sources.

Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), The Steel Market in 1983 and the Outlook for 1954 (May 1984), and The Steel Market in 1982 and the Outlook for 1983 (May 1983).

Includes Greece from 1980 onward.

Excludes Greece from 1980 onward.

Includes oil exporting developing countries.

Includes Eastern Europe, China, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and the U.S.S.R.

Includes small amounts from unspecified sources.

Table 19.United States: Volume of Imports of Steel Mill Products, 1981–August 1984(In percent)
Import GrowthImport Penetration
Jan.–Aug.Jan.–Aug.
1981198219831984119811982198319831984
By origin
All sources28–1627218.8721.8320.4419.4725.81
Of which:
European Community65–13–24596.157.354.934.645.67
Japan4–17–18815.906.795.084.746.59
Canada22–3629482.752.412.852.823.21
Korea17–1363511.161.392.072.022.35
Mexico–39176476920.040.150.780.660.97
Venezuela73–753945680.120.040.190.100.52
Brazil2010108240.520.791.511.501.43
Argentina23817463420.060.220.330.310.34
Sweden8572–272290.160.380.260.270.69
Finland247–362870.120.160.240.270.38
Austria118176–661,2350.040.130.040.030.27
Spain58–25122110.690.720.730.641.53
Australia5649160.110.160.220.270.24
South Africa–16435370.350.690.670.630.66
By product
Finished steel25–1727318.6521.3419.9118.8425.23
Of which:
Pipe and tube74–20–4512140.1053.3248.9646.8756.77
Specialty steel274–63516.9621.7417.0419.0619.94
Semifinished Steel417–9157327.5244.6148.6450.7551.07
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce.

Increase in first eight months of 1984 over corresponding period of 1983.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce.

Increase in first eight months of 1984 over corresponding period of 1983.

Table 20.European Community: Planned Capacity Reductions in the Steel Industry, 1980–85 2
Hot-Rolled Products Capacity In 1980Net Reductions Made Since 1980 and Reduction CommitmentsFurther Net Reductions Required in Commission Decisions of June 29, 1983Total Net Reductions Required in 1980–85
Quantity (in thousands of tons)Share (in percent)Quantity (in thousands of tons)Quantity (in thousands of tons)Quantity (in thousands of tons)As percentage of 1980 capacity
Belgium16,0289.51,7051,4003,10519.4
Denmark9410.666667.0
Germany, Fed.
Rep. of53,11731.64,8101,20026,010211.3
France26,86915.94,6816305,31119.7
Ireland(57)3
Italy36,29421.52,3743,4605,83416.1
Luxembourg5,2153.155041096018.4
Netherlands7,2974.325070095013.0
United Kingdom22,84013.54,0005004,50019.7
European Community (9)168,601100.018,4368,30026,73615.9
Source: Commission of the European Communities, Thirteenth Report on Competition Policy (Brussels, 1984), p. 155.

Greece is not included in the figures as it was not a member of the Community in 1980.

Without taking into account the particular case of one company.

The information on which the Commission based its decision is not sufficient to provide precise figures.

Source: Commission of the European Communities, Thirteenth Report on Competition Policy (Brussels, 1984), p. 155.

Greece is not included in the figures as it was not a member of the Community in 1980.

Without taking into account the particular case of one company.

The information on which the Commission based its decision is not sufficient to provide precise figures.

Table 21.Textiles and Clothing: Imports of Selected Industrial Countries, 1973–83(Change in value in percent per annum)
TextilesClothing
1973–7619801981198219831973–761980198119821983
Canada9.5–5.010.2–19.823.830.5–2.518.322.6
Of which:
Industrial countries10.0–5.58.7–20.421.115.5–9.55.0–4.815.0
Developing countries10.06.517.6–20.050.042.02.527.91.823.2
European Community10.56.5–16.8–4.2–1.219.014.5–11.5–5.3–3.8
Of which:
Southern Europe17.03.0–7.5–12.26.423.512.5–9.213.914.3
Other industrial countries9.05.0–17.3–7.9–5.514.011.5–14.6–18.0–9.5
Developing countries15.512.0–24.7–6.9–0.932.021.5–2.4–8.1–8.6
European Free Trade Association (EFTA)18.512.5–17.1–6.6–4.719.518.5–11.0–1.2–3.8
Of which:
Southern Europe12.5–23.57.714.526.0–9.27.77.1
Other industrial countries8.09.5–17.1–5.8–4.016.017.0–12.40.9
Developing countries17.533.5–20.0–6.3–10.039.527.51.3–10.0
Japan–7.0–18.5–1.2–1.8–6.911.5–15.017.61.7–18.0
Of which:
Industrial countries–10.0–8.4–6.7–1.8–9.18.5–3.7–2.3–2.4–17.1
Developing countries9.0–29.02.7–2.6–14.911.0–27.032.90.9–22.8
United States1.512.520.9–7.214.718.513.517.08.318.5
Of which:
Industrial countries–3.58.018.31.511.1–1.010.72.430.6
Developing countries7.510.517.5–13.420.725.015.015.36.317.1
Total of above8.05.5–12.1–5.40.719.012.5–3.7–0.92.1
Of which:
Southern Europe12.03.0–9.911.06.920.512.5–9.612.513.3
Other industrial countries7.55.0–13.1–5.3–0.112.511.0–13.2–2.1
Developing countries9.04.5–10.7–8.53.527.513.51.4–0.13.8
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International Trade (Geneva), various issues.

Excluding Portugal.

Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International Trade (Geneva), various issues.

Excluding Portugal.

Table 22.Textiles and Clothing: Bilateral Agreements Under Article 4 of the Multifiber Arrangement Maintained in 19841
Importing CountryExporting

Country or Area
AustriaBrazil, Hong Kong, India, Korea, Macao, the Philippines, and Singapore
CanadaBrazil, China, Czechoslovakia, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Korea, Macao, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Singapore, Thailand, and Uruguay
European Community2Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Korea, Macao, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Uruguay
FinlandHong Kong, India, Korea, Macao, Malaysia, Pakistan, Romania, and Thailand
SwedenBrazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand
United StatesBrazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Macao, Mexico, Pakistan, the Philippines, Romania, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Uruguay, and Yugoslavia
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Report of the Textiles Surveillance Body to the Textiles Committee for the Major Review of the Operation of the Arrangement Regarding International Trade in Textiles 1984, COM.TEX/SB/984 (October 1, 1984).

Agreements notified to the Textiles Surveillance Body between January 1, 1982 and August 3, 1984.

Not including agreements with countries granted preferential status.

Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Report of the Textiles Surveillance Body to the Textiles Committee for the Major Review of the Operation of the Arrangement Regarding International Trade in Textiles 1984, COM.TEX/SB/984 (October 1, 1984).

Agreements notified to the Textiles Surveillance Body between January 1, 1982 and August 3, 1984.

Not including agreements with countries granted preferential status.

Table 23.Textiles and Clothing: Relative Importance of Employment and Output, 1953–80(In percent)
United StatesWestern Europe
195319631980195319631980
Employment
In textiles relative to
All manufacturing6.75.45.111.48.55.8
Total employment2.01.41.13.32.61.6
In clothing relative to
All manufacturing8.97.86.08.27.24.6
Total employment2.72.01.22.32.31.3
Output
In textiles relative to
All manufacturing4.33.93.09.36.94.1
Gross domestic product1.51.00.73.41.91.0
In clothing relative to
All manufacturing4.53.52.64.13.42.3
Gross domestic product1.60.90.61.50.90.5
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Textiles and Clothing in the World Economy (Geneva, July 1984), p. 11.
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Textiles and Clothing in the World Economy (Geneva, July 1984), p. 11.
Table 24.Motor Vehicles:1 Production, Apparent Consumption, and Import Penetration in Selected Industrial Countries, 1973–83(In thousands of units and percent)
Production 2Apparent Consumption 1Percentage Share of Imports in Apparent Consumption
197319791980198119821983197319791980198119821983197319791980198119821983
Canada1,5741,6321,3681,2811,2361,5031,2261,4461,2131,1878711,21263.160.966.774.780.078.8
European
Community 412,54712,22111,26910,57010,98211,5569,42210,82110,2289,77510,01110,59034.047.047.549.350.449.5
Belgium 21,0511,0799298949971,00946248144141743144659.590.089.791.888.990.6
France3,2183,6133,3783,0193,1493,3362,1772,4762,4722,3822,6762,69823.529.232.438.442.341.5
Germany, Fed.
Rep. of3,9494,2503,8783,8974,0624,1712,3953,1762,8672,7382,5392,92433.234.737.536.334.538.4
Italy1,9581,6321,6101,4341,4531,5761,6981.6252,0421,9221,8811,69426.444.250.151.150.842.4
United Kingdom2,1641,4781,3131,1851,1571,2901,9442,0561,7621,6571,7702,10433.054.952.753.757.556.1
Japan7,0839,63611,04311.18010,73211,1125,0535,1405,1245,1645,1785,4800.81.30.90.60.70.7
Spain8221,1231,1829871,07012,896726917416086066863.34.38.911.512.710.5
Sweden37935529831334939732625122321024826447.973.774.973.874.270.8
United States12,68111,4758,0107,9416,9859,20414,64714,00010,83811,07810,53012,92117.925.433.134.638.234.1
All industrial
countries35,44636,95133,64732,74231,80635,49832,65633,87429,92529,48128,58132,31023.932.235.837.038.036.3
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International Trade (Geneva), various issues.

Including passenger cars, trucks, and buses.

Production includes assembly.

Apparent consumption = production + imports - exports.

Including intra-Community trade.

Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International Trade (Geneva), various issues.

Including passenger cars, trucks, and buses.

Production includes assembly.

Apparent consumption = production + imports - exports.

Including intra-Community trade.

Table 25.Industrial Countries: Exports of Automotive Products1 by Area, 1981–83(In billions of U.S. dollars)
Destination
OriginYearNorth AmericaUnited StatesJapanWestern EuropeEuropean CommunityIndustrial countriesTraditional oil exportersOther developing countriesDeveloping countriesOther areasWorld
Industrial
countries198140.228.70.548.237.488.916.95.832.76.3127.9
198241.831.60.649.418.291.814.93.028.06.2126.0
198352.939.50.750.438.9104.010.82.022.94.9131.8
Of which:
North
America198120.110.20.21.841.4922.23.34.17.40.930.6
198221.812.90.21.701.3323.72.82.95.71.630.4
198329.017.20.21.461.1830.61.62.03.60.535.0
Japan198113.712.64.53.318.34.95.310.12.731.1
198213.312.44.02.817.24.74.49.12.629.0
198315.814.74.83.520.73.74.88.52.531.7
European
Community19815.55.20.337.229.243.08.05.713.72.459.1
19825.85.40.438.830.345.06.75.011.72.459.1
19836.96.50.538.429.745.75.14.49.51.656.9
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International Trade, 1983/84 (Geneva, 1984).

Finished automobiles and parts. Figures may not add up due to rounding.

Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International Trade, 1983/84 (Geneva, 1984).

Finished automobiles and parts. Figures may not add up due to rounding.

Table 26.Shipbuilding: World Production and Shares of Major Producers, 1978–84(In thousands of gross register tons and in percent)
1978197919801981198219831984
ProductionPercent of world productionProductionPercent of world productionProductionPercent of world productionProductionPercent of world productionProductionPercent of world productionProductionPercent of world productionProductionPercent of world production
OECD countries13,66277.610,86079.19,61978.612,78177.412,14272.611,26170.8
European Community3,83621.82,71619.81,78114.62,39514.52,48514.92,81217.72,343
Other Europe2,83416.11,99214.51,27510.41,5299.31,3958.31,5429.71,073
North America1,3167.51,48510.86705.54913.03101.94552.9
Japan5,63032.04,65933.95,88648.18,35750.67.93647.46,44340.59,747
Other460.3870.190.1160.190.1
Rest of the world3,93822.42,86620.92,61221.43,73122.64,58927.44,65029.2
Total17,600100.013,726100.012,231100.016,512100.016,731100.015,911100.0
Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Annual Statistics, various issues, and Press Release, various issues.
Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Annual Statistics, various issues, and Press Release, various issues.
Table 27.Shipbuilding: Total New Orders, 1978–84
1978197919801981198219831984
(In thousands of gross register tons)
Europe12,2924,3454,2884,0612,2631,9592,545
Japan3,1896,81310,05310,0114,88810,8968,350
Total OECD countries25,48111,15814,34114,0727,15112,85510,895
Rest of the world2,8615,7455,5352,7833,8286,362
Overall total8,34216,90319,87616,85510,97919,217
(In percent of total)
Europe127.525.721.624.120.610.2
Japan38.240.350.659.444.556.7
Total OECD countries265.766.072.283.565.166.9
Rest of the world34.334.027.816.534.933.1
Overall total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Annual Statistics, various issues, and Press Release, various issues.

Members of the Association of West European Shipbuilders, which includes countries of the European Community, Norway. Portugal. Spain, and Sweden.

Excluding North America.

Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Annual Statistics, various issues, and Press Release, various issues.

Members of the Association of West European Shipbuilders, which includes countries of the European Community, Norway. Portugal. Spain, and Sweden.

Excluding North America.

Table 28.United States: Production, Trade, and Apparent Consumption of Nonrubber Footwear, and Employment, 1979–83
19791980198119821983
(In millions of pairs)
Production398.9386.3371.9342.4341.2
Imports404.5365.7375.6479.6581.9
Exports9.312.911.28.97.5
Apparent consumption794.2739.1736.4813.1915.6
(In percent)
Ratio of imports to apparent
consumption50.949.551.059.063.6
Ratio of imports to production101.494.7101.0140.1170.5
Unemployment rate in nonrubber
footwear industry8.07.712.519.418.7
(In thousands of persons)
Employment146.4136.8132.7
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission, Nonrubber Footwear, Report to the President on Investigation No. TA. 201–50 Under Section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974, USITC Publication 1545 (Washington. July 1984).
Source: U.S. International Trade Commission, Nonrubber Footwear, Report to the President on Investigation No. TA. 201–50 Under Section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974, USITC Publication 1545 (Washington. July 1984).
Table 29.European Community: Production, Trade, and Apparent Consumption of Footwear, and Employment, 1975–83
1975197719791980198119821983
(In millions of pairs)
Production890886979903928972935
Imports186257265313321315351
Imports subject to surveillance218258263256283
Exports138144203155182186188
Apparent consumption 19389991,0411,0601,0671,1011,098
(In percent)
Ratio of imports to apparent consumption19.825.725.529.530.128.632.0
Ratio of imports subject to surveillance to total imports82.382.481.981.380.6
(In thousands of persons)
Employment349333347331343328311
Source: Data supplied by the Commission of the European Communities.

Apparent consumption = production + imports - exports.

Source: Data supplied by the Commission of the European Communities.

Apparent consumption = production + imports - exports.

Table 30.Industrial Countries’ Trade in Electronic Products,1 1979–83(In billions of U.S. dollars)
ExportsImports
1979198019811982198319791980198119821983
Industrial countries
ADP214.419.220.222.227.513.317.018.220.425.1
Telecommunication equipment14.116.317.317.017.79.110.811.511.312.2
Consumer electronics11.213.815.713.914.910.812.013.613.314.0
Electronic parts8.110.310.310.512.68.711.110.611.112.6
Business electronics8.910.510.910.811.36.68.07.97.88.0
Total56.770.174.474.483.948.458.861.864.071.9
United States
ADP25.77.88.79.210.61.21.41.82.64.8
Telecommunication equipment2.42.73.03.23.32.83.24.14.45.5
Consumer electronics0.60.80.80.60.53.73.75.14.96.1
Electronic parts2.93.83.94.14.72.83.74.04.65.4
Business electronics2.83.43.94.04.01.21.61.81.82.0
Total14.318.520.321.123.111.513.516.818.223.8
Japan
ADP20.70.91.31.93.70.71.01.00.91.0
Telecommunication equipment3.13.84.94.45.20.30.30.40.40.4
Consumer electronics6.38.511.29.811.10.10.10.10.10.1
Electronic parts1.72.32.72.73.70.60.70.80.80.9
Business electronics2.02.52.82.63.00.40.50.50.50.6
Total13.817.922.921.426.82.22.62.72.72.9
European Community
ADP26.68.88.39.111.18.510.711.012.214.6
Telecommunication equipment6.67.56.86.76.44.25.14.84.54.4
Consumer electronics3.53.72.92.62.55.36.26.36.36.0
Electronic parts3.23.73.13.23.64.25.34.44.44.9
Business electronics3.94.34.04.04.24.25.04.64.64.7
Total23.828.025.225.727.826.332.231.232.134.6
Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International Trade, 1983/84 (Geneva, 1984).

Subgroups may not add up because of rounding.

Automatic Data Processing.

Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, International Trade, 1983/84 (Geneva, 1984).

Subgroups may not add up because of rounding.

Automatic Data Processing.

Table 31.Japan: Exports of Selected Products to the European Community, 1981–84
1981198219831984 (Jan.–Aug.)
ProductNo. of itemsPercentage change over previous yearNo. of itemsPercentage change over previous yearNo. of itemsPercentage change over previous yearNo. of itemsPercentage change over previous year
Videotape recorders (in thousands)2,855116.34,94673.34,6466.12,431–11.7
Color television tubes (in thousands)3,06010.0267–12.72,9309.71,670–13.8
Color television sets (in thousands)7692.97358.181911.55356.5
Machine tools
Numerically controlled lathes1,391–33.01,099–21.01,047–4.785230.1
Machining centers1,17117.0799–31.88212.85663.1
Automobiles (in thousands)852–6.8777–8.791617.96827.3
Passenger cars706–7.4641–9.276418.85748.3
Commercial vehicles145–3.5136–6.715413.51972.2
Forklift trucks7,563–30.17,9264.88,4827.06,92920.2
Motorcycles8250.7681–17.5549–19.4262–39.5
Quartz clocks and watches
Watches (in thousands)6,7697.47,47010.99,33124.97,06514.1
Clocks (in thousands)3,870–4.73,735–3.54,25613.92,663–6.9
High-fidelity equipment (in millions of yen)
(Value)(Value)(Value)(Value)
Stereo sets24,4114.817,991–26.314,905–17.26,948–28.0
Stereo components140,146–4.083,01040.889,7418.147,333–14.3
Tape recorders183,8374.4142,11622.7159,53712.388,903–12.2
Source: Data provided by the Japanese authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Japanese authorities.
Table 32.Structure of Agricultural Trade of Principal Commodities, 1975–821
19751976197719781979198019811982
(In billions of U.S. dollars)
Total agricultural exports123132152171202233232212
Tropical zone product exports7.510.415.214.219.119.715.614.5
Cocoa1.82.23.33.64.03.73.83.2
Coffee4.08.011.710.311.111.68.48.8
Natural rubber1.70.20.20.34.04.43.42.5
Temperate zone product exports30.031.329.836.744.254.257.150.0
Beef and veal23.83.94.86.08.08.78.38.0
Butter31.51.71.82.32.93.43.83.5
Cheese31.82.22.63.13.84.14.14.1
Citrus fruit1.41.61.72.02.62.72.62.5
Coarse grains410.711.39.612.013.516.818.313.8
Wheat10.810.69.311.313.418.520.018.1
Competing zone product exports13.713.215.116.720.325.824.919.0
Fats and oils3.35.87.79.211.311.49.98.6
Sugar310.47.47.47.59.014.415.010.4
Total of the above51.254.960.167.683.699.797.983.5
(In percent)
Percent of total agricultural exports41.641.639.539.541.442.842.239.4
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues.

Includes only registered agricultural trade.

Fresh, chilled, and frozen.

Including intra-Community trade.

Trade year ended in the middle of the year indicated by the column heading.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues.

Includes only registered agricultural trade.

Fresh, chilled, and frozen.

Including intra-Community trade.

Trade year ended in the middle of the year indicated by the column heading.

Table 33.Commodity and Regional Composition of World Trade in Agricultural Products, Prices, and Terms of Trade, 1974–82 1
197419751976197719781979198019811982
(In billions of U.S. dollars)
All agricultural commodities2
Exports
Developing countries39.038.943.454.056.261.475.870.063.0
Developed countries79.183.586.997.8114.6137.9145.4162.0149.0
Total118.1122.4130.4151.8170.8199.3221.2232.0212.0
Imports
Developing countries30.332.431.236.843.850.166.074.066.0
Developed countries97.6104.8112.8129.4143.9169.7186.0179.0169.0
Total127.9137.2144.0166.2189.5219.8252.0253.0235.0
Food
Exports
Developing countries24.125.023.327.229.732.438.043.037.0
Developed countries57.363.063.268.280.996.3115.0119.0107.0
Total81.488.086.595.4110.6128.7153.0152.0144.0
Imports
Developing countries24.326.423.927.333.038.152.059.053.0
Developed countries63.472.071.777.188.9105.1115.0116.0107.0
Total87.798.495.6104.4121.9143.2167.0175.0160.0
Beverages3
Exports
Developing countries7.57.712.021.621.824.823.018.018.0
Developed countries
Total7.57.712.021.621.824.823.018.018.0
Imports
Developing countries0.60.71.53.23.23.8
Developed countries7.27.310.618.718.921.3
Total7.88.012.121.922.125.123.318.218.2
Agricultural materials
Exports
Developing countries8.67.38.99.910.912.313.013.010.0
Developed countries14.012.714.718.120.224.926.025.025.0
Total22.620.023.628.031.137.239.038.035.0
Imports
Developing countries4.44.15.06.27.28.010.09.08.0
Developed countries20.418.321.624.427.232.334.033.032.0
Total24.822.426.630.634.440.344.041.040.0
Other agriculture
Exports6.66.78.36.87.38.66.2
Imports7.68.49.79.311.111.217.7
(1973 = 100)
Export price index
Food10897102116117132154136121
Beverages119114204365258263249202192
Agricultural raw materials114100112124132159167154136
All agricultural commodities132116124140145166188168149
Terms of trade
Food1088589948281857972
Beverages1068989262161144122104101
Agricultural raw materials947078807478747265
All agricultural commodities1098490938484878375
Developing countries496921011129593959482
Developed countries5928480767384867974
Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues, and The State of Food and Agriculture, 1981, FAO Document No. C81/2, Supp. 1 (November 1981).

For classification of commodities and countries for agricultural trade, see Appendix I.

Excluding fishery and forestry products.

Including cocoa, coffee, and tea.

Fund staff estimates.

Net barter terms of trade of all agricultural exports for manufactured goods and crude petroleum.

Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues, and The State of Food and Agriculture, 1981, FAO Document No. C81/2, Supp. 1 (November 1981).

For classification of commodities and countries for agricultural trade, see Appendix I.

Excluding fishery and forestry products.

Including cocoa, coffee, and tea.

Fund staff estimates.

Net barter terms of trade of all agricultural exports for manufactured goods and crude petroleum.

Table 34.Agricultural Trade by Principal Commodities and Countries, 1972–83
1972–7411976197819791980198119821983
Temperate zone products
Beef and veal2
Exports (in thousands of tons)2,3772,6233,1935,8825,5476,2696,2856,125
Imports (in thousands of tons)2,4372,6173,0405,7435,5645,8826,2626,100
Butter
Exports (in thousands of tons)9433541560771718920782610
Of which (in percent): European Community60.76329.0243.9360.1842.2053.3651.1550.82
Australia and New Zealand25.4546.0337.3229.3118.1123.7026.4736.07
Imports (in thousands of tons)9353521566756677948829800
Of which (in percent): European Community61.93331.2823.5016.2718.6112.0313.0712.50
Developing countries19.4750.8662.1953.9740.6247.8950.3048.75
Cheese
Exports (in thousands of tons)9343490596641718770803790
Of which (in percent): European Community66,06329.5936.5840.2542.2046.7547.3246.83
Australia and New Zealand12.6325.1019.1317.9418.1117.5317.3116.46
Imports (in thousands of tons)9173541590640677776809815
Of which (in percent): United States and Canada14.0721.6322.5420.9418.6117.1416.8117.18
European Community61.83321.6313.2213.1312.8513.1412.8612.88
Developing countries9.6028.1034.4137.1940.6236.6941.6639.88
Coarse grains4
Exports (in millions of tons)69.3573.1081.2098.30102.30101.7087.2090.00
Of which (in percent): European Community4.933.424.564.682.874.335.392.22
United States57.9763.3464.1664.9573.3660.4760.7866.11
Developing countries13.3313.6817.1216.448.7318.0917.8917.22
Imports (in millions of tons)67.3072.9079.6099.00101.10102.5086.5090.00
Of which (in percent): European Community24.3724.4220.1015.7813.409.177.518.89
Japan19.4718.5221.3620.6518.8717.8520.8120.00
State-trading countries15.1628.6725.1321.8129.3829.4617.3416.67
Developing countries14.7115.2319.2227.7325.9828.2038.8437.33
Wheat
Exports (in millions of tons)64.6061.5071.5085.5093.20101.4096.7096.00
Of which (in percent): Australia9.1711.9915.289.6517.8110.848.3811.46
Canada18.3818.3622.0819.4417.8117.6522.1321.35
European Community8.7811.996.9410.3511.2814.3015.0015.10
United States43.6847.8043.1944.6243.3548.4241.3739.58
Imports (in millions of tons)63.2060.5072.9084.0092.3099.6097.5096.00
Of which (in percent): European Community9.049.487.696.455.454.123.594.17
Japan7.758.747.837.826.915.625.956.04
State-trading countries28.7726.3717.0613.5820.6126.3124.0021.67
Developing countries42.7552.0064.0668.4562.5560.1463.4964.79
Competing zone products
Fats and oils
Exports (in millions of tons)14.0016.2118.5919.5720.9921.5121.48
Of which (in percent): European Community7.937.346.947.607.818.657.82
North America40.5035.3543.9544.1744.4042.544.39
Developing countries35.4344.4237.3336.9338.5940.3539.85
Imports (in millions of tons)13.6215.8118.2419.6420.9121.0021.39
Of which (in percent): European Community41.6337.1330.6532.4330.9428.1430.29
Other Europe7.937.656.095.555.845.575.10
Japan11.3110.259.329.118.808.908.93
North America6.908.795.705.354.264.384.07
Developing countries22.3227.8938.7638.0941.6543.5241.84
Sugar
Exports (in millions of tons)22.8322.9526.3226.5527.3529.7131.04
Of which (in percent); European Community25.71311.9016.5316.4218.2820.0620.04
Far East and Oceania10.7317.9111.8213.7110.9711.2114.92
Latin America51.0346.1047.9148.1744.3143.0542.07
Other developed countries, excluding Europe513.4912.4212.7310.5113.4215.2511.40
Imports (in millions of tons)22.6423.0425.4425.6611.1428.6929.45
Of which (in percent): European Community15.3314.1910.189.708.627.287.33
North America25.7521.8819.0321.0416.9519.0011.78
State-trading countries17.5420.4018.2819.1721.2222.4528.05
Developing countries21.1625.4338.2534.4940.5341.2040.68
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues.

Average.

Fresh, chilled, and frozen in 1972–78. In carcass weight equivalent thereafter.

Including intra-Community trade.

Trade year ended in the middle of the year indicated by the column heading.

Including Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues.

Average.

Fresh, chilled, and frozen in 1972–78. In carcass weight equivalent thereafter.

Including intra-Community trade.

Trade year ended in the middle of the year indicated by the column heading.

Including Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

Table 35.Butter: Production, Trade, Stocks, and Price Developments, 1975–831
1975–7721978197919801981198219833
(In thousands of tons)
Production6,6956,9456,9096,9627,0347,3967,700
Of which:
North America584558545621674705730
European Community1,7661,9181,9181,8611,8742,0312,220
Australia and New Zealand405338354333348323330
State-trading countries2,1252,2662,2072,1902,1142,2242,395
Developing countries1,4561,5071,5201,5811,6641,7451,730
Exports483560771892920782610
Of which:
European Community146246464549491400310
Australia and New Zealand241209226254218207220
Imports496566756881948829800
Of which:
North America2611
European Community42133123109114108100
Japan8222
U.S.S.R.3239174249215151100
Developing countries264352408462454417390
Stocks6347645544434716671,000
Of which:
North America65122101152214249250
European Community338563372240186364700
Australia and New Zealand77798151715450
U.S.S.R.154
(1972–74 = 100)
Price index4154217259300279257220
Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues; and International Monetary Fund, international Financial Statistics.

For classification of countries and areas, see Appendix I.

Average.

Provisional figures.

New Zealand butter quoted in London.

Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues; and International Monetary Fund, international Financial Statistics.

For classification of countries and areas, see Appendix I.

Average.

Provisional figures.

New Zealand butter quoted in London.

Table 36.Cheese: Production, Trade, Stocks, and Price Developments, 1975–83 1
1975–77 2197819791980198119821983 3
(In thousands of tons)
Production9,91010,65111,03011,35111,68511,93512,100
Of which:
North America1,9052,0772,2212,3172,4242,5182,600
European Community2,6873,1173,5833,7063,8413,9123,930
Australia and New Zealand196198237254221264240
State-trading nations2,3762,6302,6682,6502,6882,7142,800
Developing countries1,4501,5071,4591,5131,5571,5831,570
Exports534596641718770803790
Of which:
European Community191218258303360380370
Australia and New Zealand114114115130135139130
Imports522590640677776809815
Of which:
North America113133134126133136140
European Community106788487102104105
Japan56717475717475
U.S.S.R.767132716
Developing countries151203238275308337325
Stocks
North America228245276300503537600
European Community336306309345352345340
Australia and New Zealand55689795102136140
U.S.S.R.
(1973–75 = 100)
Price index 4
Netherlands Gouda cheese111122122125131132133
U.S. cheddar cheese (Wisconsin)118133154177185182180
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues.

For classification of countries and areas, see Appendix I.

Average.

Provisional figures.

Wholesale prices.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues.

For classification of countries and areas, see Appendix I.

Average.

Provisional figures.

Wholesale prices.

Table 37.Wheat: Production, Trade, Stocks, and Price Developments, 1972–83 1
1972–74 2197519761977197819791980198119821983
(In millions of tons)
Production361.3355.8417.9385.7449.8429.2444.9453.8485.8488.9
Developing countries 3109.7122.4138.5124.5143.7161.0150.5161.4180.1188.3
Developed countries131.1142.7153.8140.4154.8154.8166.9186.1189.0187.5
State-trading countries 4120.590.7125.6120.8151.3113.3127.5106.3116.7113.1
Exports64.465.961.572.071.585.593.2101.496.796.0
Developing countries 32.93.46.35.06.45.74.85.18.38.3
Developed countries57.060.652.964.461.978.486.893.685.785.8
State-trading countries 44.51.92.32.63.21.41.62.72.71.9
Imports63.267.560.571.572.984.092.399.697.596.0
Developing countries 337.437.438.245.849.953.057.759.961.962.2
Developed countries13.614.612.113.513.113.713.513.512.213.0
State-trading countries 412.215.510.212.29.917.321.126.223.420.8
Stocks 546.059.085.281.5112.8101.491.7102.4119.6129.6
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Value of exports7,39111,34610,5479,82711,23613,40618,44920,02918,062
(In U.S. dollars per ton)
Price 6142.6157.4122.4124.8155.8206.2206.6209.3191.7188.2
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues.

For classification of countries and areas, see Appendix I.

Average.

Including Asian state-trading countries.

Excluding Asian state-trading countries.

At end of national crop years.

U.S. hard red winter wheat, No. 2, at North Sea ports (c.i.f.).

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues.

For classification of countries and areas, see Appendix I.

Average.

Including Asian state-trading countries.

Excluding Asian state-trading countries.

At end of national crop years.

U.S. hard red winter wheat, No. 2, at North Sea ports (c.i.f.).

Table 38.Bovine Meat: Production, Trade, and Price Developments, 1972–83 1
1972–74 2197519761977197819791980198119821983
(In thousands of tons)
Production41,31345,44747,51447,54848,39747,20046,80046,80047,10047,800
Developing countries10,54211,23814,27214,55015,27415,20015,40015,50015,70016,000
Developed countries 330,77134,20933,24232,99833,12332,00031,40031,30031,40031,800
Exports42,3772,4832,6232,9283,1935,8825,5876,2696,2856,125
Developing countries6913685856247231,5311,3421,5931,7421,725
Developed countries1,6862,1152,0382,3042,4704,3514,2454,6764,5434,400
Imports42,4372,4432,6173,0243,0405,7435,5665,8826,2626,100
Developing countries1511852833685291,1051,0241,2941,4481,450
Developed countries2,2862,2582,3342,6562,5114,6384,5424,5884,8144,650
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Value of exports 43,6043,7723,9014,7955,95112,16312,85712,59412,048
(1972–74 = 100)
Price index 5100789489127171162150145148
Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues; and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.

For classification of countries and areas, see Appendix I.

Average.

Including European state-trading countries.

Fresh, chilled, and frozen in 1972–78. In carcass weight equivalent thereafter.

All origins in U.S. ports.

Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues; and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.

For classification of countries and areas, see Appendix I.

Average.

Including European state-trading countries.

Fresh, chilled, and frozen in 1972–78. In carcass weight equivalent thereafter.

All origins in U.S. ports.

Table 39.Sugar: Production, Trade, and Price Developments, 1972–83 1
1972–74 2197519761977197819791980198119821983
(In millions of tons)
Production75.979.387.492.690.984.287.1100.3100.6
Developing countries36.141.549.951.650.245.249.358.058.5
Developed countries22.821.625.927.026.826.726.831.330.2
State-trading countries17.016.211.614.013.912.311.011.011.9
Imports22.622.023.027.825.425.727.128.729.5
Developing countries4.84.85.98.39.78.811.011.812.0
Developed countries13.912.612.513.811.112.010.310.59.2
State-trading countries3.94.74.75.74.64.95.86.48.3
Exports22.821.623.028.526.326.427.329.731.0
Developing countries15.515.316.619.917.618.417.418.220.1
Developed countries5.95.45.87.87.87.39.310.610.0
State-trading countries1.50.90.60.80.90.70.60.90.9
(In billions of U.S. dollars)
Export value5.610.77.37.47.69.014.415.010.4
Developing countries3.97.65.15.05.26.79.59.27.0
Developed countries1.32.62.02.22.12.14.65.43.1
State-trading countries0.40.50.20.20.30.20.30.40.3
(In millions of tons)
Consumption75.778.180.583.785.089.488.289.791.293.5
Developing countries25.427.934.136.638.242.141.744.345.147.7
Developed countries30.729.630.330.829.930.629.628.628.528.0
State-trading countries19.620.616.116.316.916.716.916.817.617.8
(1972–74 = 100)
Average price 31001327474506318711055
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues.

For classification of countries and areas, see Appendix I.

Average.

International Sugar Agreement daily prices for raw sugar.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues.

For classification of countries and areas, see Appendix I.

Average.

International Sugar Agreement daily prices for raw sugar.

Table 40.Fats and Oils: Production, Trade, and Price Developments, 1972–83 1
1972–74 2197519761977197819791980198119821983
(In thousands of tons)
Production46,24047,87051,67050,33056,80057,80062,26060,01063,90066,340
Developing countries18,48020,74022,69022,62023,78024,23025,78026,81029,64029,580
Developed countries19,89018,60021,34019,66024,52025,69028,71025,65026,65028,710
State-trading countries7,8708,5307,6408,0508,5007,8807,7707,5507,6108,050
Exports13,99014,51016,21016,94018,59019,57020,99021,51021,480
Developing countries5,0606,1807,2006,7206,9407,0908,1008,6808,560
Developed countries7,9107,3408,2109,42010,93011,84012,33012,36012,330
State-trading countries1,020990800800720640560470590
Imports13,63013,60015,81016,72018,24019,50020,91021,00021,390
Developing countries3,3803,7504,4105,8607,0707,4308,7109,1408,950
Developed countries9,4809,21010,3709,87010,11010,63010,73010,20010,740
State-trading countries7706401,0309901,0601,4401,4701,6601,700
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Value of exports5,8708,0707,6609,63011,42014,51015,10014,88013,330
(1964–66 = 100)
FAO price index3213189233268303263221228240
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues.

For classification of countries and areas, see Appendix I.

Average.

All fats and oils, excluding butter.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Commodity Review and Outlook (Rome), various issues.

For classification of countries and areas, see Appendix I.

Average.

All fats and oils, excluding butter.

Table 41.Budget Expenditures on Agriculture, 1979–84 1
19791980198119821983 21984 2
European Community
EAGGF 3 guarantee expenditures
(in millions of European Currency Units)10,44111,31411,14112,40615,92018,401
As percent of
Community budget expenditures73.069.062.060.065.067.0
Community gross national product0.590.560.500.510.610.66
Japan
Budgetary expenditures on agricultural price support programs 4,5 (in billions of yen)881773767761697
As percent of
Total budgetary expenditures1.781.671.621.45
Gross national product0.320.300.280.25
United States
Commodity Credit Corporation
Total net expenditures 4(in millions of U.S. dollars)4,5873,8253,99411,59818,7577,307
As percent of
Federal government net budget outlays0.930.660.611.592.360.87
Gross national product0.190.150.140.380.580.20
Sources: Staff calculations based on data provided by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries, by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Commerce, and by the European Commission.

Data are not strictly comparable between countries because of differences in coverage and methodology.

Estimates.

European Agricultural Guarantee and Guidance Fund.

Data refer to fiscal years.

Information is not available on other elements of government support of the agricultural sector. Price support is estimated to amount to some 25 percent of total budgetary allocation to the agricultural sector.

Sources: Staff calculations based on data provided by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries, by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Commerce, and by the European Commission.

Data are not strictly comparable between countries because of differences in coverage and methodology.

Estimates.

European Agricultural Guarantee and Guidance Fund.

Data refer to fiscal years.

Information is not available on other elements of government support of the agricultural sector. Price support is estimated to amount to some 25 percent of total budgetary allocation to the agricultural sector.

Table 42.European Community: Average Degree of Self-Supply in Selected Agricultural Products, 1956–82 1(In percent)
Product1956–60 21968/69 31978/79 41980/81 51981/82 6
Total cereals (excluding rice)858697103109
Wheat9094108119127
Rye9810010810199
Barley84103112113116
Oats92969898100
Grain maize6445606673
Sugar10482124136144
Fresh vegetables1049894100100
Fresh fruit (excluding citrus fruits)9080778385
Wine899799102 7101 7
Fresh milk products (excluding cream)100100100 8101 9101 10
Cheese10098103 81069107 10
Butter10191111 81189122 10
Eggs9099101102 10102 10
Total beef and veal9290100103 10103 10
Poultry meat93101105110 10110 10
Sheep meat and goat meat566774 1074 10
Sources: Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community (Brussels), various annual reports, and data provided by the European Commission.

Data for 1956–60 and 1968/69 include the six original members of the Community, and those for 1978/79 include nine members of the Community (excluding Greece).

Average of the years 1956 through 1960.

Average of crop years 1967/68, 1968/69, and 1969/70.

Average of crop years 1977/78, 1978/79, and 1979/80.

Average of crop years 1979/80, 1980/81, and 1981/82.

Average of crop years 1980/81, 1981/82, and 1982/83.

Excluding Greece.

Average of crop years 1976/77, 1977/78, and 1978/79.

Average of 1979, 1980, and 1981.

Average of 1980, 1981, and 1982.

Sources: Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community (Brussels), various annual reports, and data provided by the European Commission.

Data for 1956–60 and 1968/69 include the six original members of the Community, and those for 1978/79 include nine members of the Community (excluding Greece).

Average of the years 1956 through 1960.

Average of crop years 1967/68, 1968/69, and 1969/70.

Average of crop years 1977/78, 1978/79, and 1979/80.

Average of crop years 1979/80, 1980/81, and 1981/82.

Average of crop years 1980/81, 1981/82, and 1982/83.

Excluding Greece.

Average of crop years 1976/77, 1977/78, and 1978/79.

Average of 1979, 1980, and 1981.

Average of 1980, 1981, and 1982.

Table 43.European Agricultural Guarantee and Guidance Fund: Guarantee Section, Expenditures by Sector, 1976–84(In millions of European Currency Units)
197619781980198119821983 11984 1
Cereals and rice6361,0161,7141,9431,8752,5342,030
Export subsidy4077611,2191,2241,1061,593855
Intervention2302555097197699411,175
Milk and milk products2,0483,3014,7543,3433,3284,3965,811
Export subsidy6971,3132,7461,8961,5211,3272,129
Intervention1,3542,0532,0061,4571,8063,0693,682
Oils and fats3093346871,0251,2141,6211,636
Export subsidy10048131329
Intervention2993346831,0171,2011,6081,607
Sugar2257695767681,2421,3161,602
Export subsidy565572864097447581,140
Intervention170213289358498558462
Beef, veal, pig meat, and poultry6846391,5631,6751,3742,0052,389
Export subsidy1711828931,0428441,0721,358
Intervention5134576716335309331,031
Fruits and vegetables245996886419141,1961,343
Export subsidy57474143605864
Intervention187536465988551,1381,279
Other5535531,0231,5082,1462,3633,180
All sectors4,7006,76411,00510,90312,09315,43117,991
Accession compensatory amounts (ACAs)36023
Monetary compensatory amounts (MCAs)505717298238313488409
All sectors, including ACAs and MCAs5,5697,51711,31411,14112,40615,92018,401
Sources: Commission of the European Communities, Financial Report on the EAGGF (Guarantee Section and Food Aid Financing), various issues, and data provided by the European Commission.

Estimates.

Sources: Commission of the European Communities, Financial Report on the EAGGF (Guarantee Section and Food Aid Financing), various issues, and data provided by the European Commission.

Estimates.

Table 44.European Agricultural Guarantee and Guidance Fund: Guarantee Section, Expenditure in Relation to Agriculture Value Added, 1976–83(In percent)
1976197819801981198219831
Cereals and rice7.28.412.012.09.814.0
Milk and milk products12.717.722.213.614.514.5
Oils and fats33.329.431.939.340.444.0
Sugar10.331.019.619.832.838.1
Beef, veal, pig meat, and poultry2.11.93.83.72.84.1
Fruits and vegetables2.60.95.24.45.96.9
Other3.43.55.76.77.88.5
All sectors5.57.09.88.48.310.3
Sources: Table 43; and Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community (Brussels), various issues.

Calculated using agriculture value added for the European Community, excluding Luxembourg.

Sources: Table 43; and Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community (Brussels), various issues.

Calculated using agriculture value added for the European Community, excluding Luxembourg.

Table 45.European Community: Target Prices for Selected Commodities, 1980/81–1984/851
1980/811981/821982/831983/841984/85
Commodity1980/811981/821982/831983/841984/851979/801980/811981/821982/831983/84
(Percentage change)
Cereals (ECUs 2 per ton)
Common wheat214.01230.55250.61261.41259.086.37.78.74.3–0.9
Barley194.32210.00228.27238.17236.306.28.18.74.3–0.8
Rye197.31210.00228.27238.17238.372.56.48.74.3–0.1
Rice, husked (ECUs per ton)408.16450.50496.69523.16539.496.810.410.35.33.1
Sugar, white 3(ECUs per ton)432.70469.50514.10534.70534.75.38.59.54.0
Olive oil (ECUs per ton)2,479.702,727.703,027.703,194.23,162.35.510.011.05.5–1.0
Oilseeds (ECUs per ton)
Sunflower426.30477.50544.40577.10582.27.512.014.06.00.94
Colza and rape seed386.90425.60463.90482.20472.66.310.09.04.0–2.0
Wine, Type AII (ECUs per hectoliter)55.6961.2668.0071.7471.025.510.011.05.5–1.0
Tobacco, #2 (ECUs per kilogram)3.6033.7834.1994.5144.6044.05.011.07.52.0
Fruits and vegetables
(ECUs per 100 kilograms)
Cauliflower14.7517.4019.8121.0821.521.618.013.86.42.1
Tomatoes (open grown)24.7926.51/17.2224.38/17.3625.11/19.4424.85/20.706.56.9–8.0/0.83.0/12.0–1.0/6.5
Oranges32.14/19.3835.53/26.2838.27/30.8740.75/35.4940.97/38.325.710.57.7/17.56.5/15.00.5/8.0
Apples20.4222.5428.4929.4929.636.510.426.43.50.5
Milk (3.7 percent fat content)222.60242.60268.10274.3274.34.09.010.52.3
Beef animals (live)1,607.601,728.201,918.702,070.92,050.24.07.511.07.9–1.0
Pig meat1,587.211,761.801,946.802,053.92,033.35.511.010.55.5–1.0
Sheep and goat meat
(ECUs per 100 kilograms)5345.00370.88409.82432.36428.047.510.55.5–1.0
Sources: The Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community (Brussels), various annual reports, and Bulletin of the European Communities (Brussels), various issues.

Beginning of marketing year.

European Currency Units.

Intervention price.

On the basis of a standard quality, having an oil content of 42 percent (previously 40 percent).

Sheep meat and goat meat were not covered by the Common Agricultural Policy prior to 1980/81.

Sources: The Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community (Brussels), various annual reports, and Bulletin of the European Communities (Brussels), various issues.

Beginning of marketing year.

European Currency Units.

Intervention price.

On the basis of a standard quality, having an oil content of 42 percent (previously 40 percent).

Sheep meat and goat meat were not covered by the Common Agricultural Policy prior to 1980/81.

Table 46.European Community: Average Increase in Common Agricultural Prices, 1982/83–1984/85(In percent)
1982/831983/841984/85
Common prices inInflation 1982 3Common prices inInflation 1983 3Common prices inInflation 1984 3
ECUs 1National currency 2ECUs 1National currency 2ECUs 1National currency 2
Germany, Fed. Rep. of10.36.94.74.12.03.2–0.6–0.61.9
France10.113.812.54.09.410.0–0.65.07.5
Italy10.516.117.54.58.715.0–0.46.410.2
Netherlands10.58.25.74.02.61.9–0.50.52.5
Belgium10.416.37.04.47.75.9–0.63.95.5
Luxembourg10.616.57.93.97.27.6–0.54.06.8
United Kingdom10.110.17.24.14.15.1–0.6–0.6