- Arvind Subramanian
- Published Date:
- September 2000
© 2000 International Monetary Fund
Production: IMF Graphics Section
Charts: Sana Elaroussi
Typesetting: Alicia Etchebarne-Bourdin
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Trade and trade policies in eastern and southern Africa/prepared by a staff team led by Arvind Subramanian; with Enrique Gelbard … [et al.].
p. cm —(IMF occasional paper; 196)
Includes bibliographical references.
1. Africa, Eastern—Commerce. 2. Africa, Southern—Commerce. 3. Africa, Eastern—Foreign economic relations. 4. Africa, Southern—Foreign economic relations. I. Subramanian, Arvind. II. Series. III. Occasional Paper (International Monetary Fund); no. 196.
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The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:
… to indicate that data are not available;
— to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
– between years or months (e.g., 1998–99 or January-June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
/ between years (e.g., 1998/99) to indicate a fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.
List of Abbreviations
Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, and Swaziland
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Democratic Republic of Congo
Commission for East African Cooperation
export processing zone
Eastern and Southern Africa
EU-South Africa free trade agreement
free trade agreement
Indian Ocean Commission
International Telecommunications Union
Common Market of the South
North American Free Trade Agreement
Other duties and charges
regional trade arrangement
Southern African Customs Union
Southern African Development Community
Standard International Trade Classification
total factor productivity
West African Economic and Monetary Union
World Trade Organization
This occasional paper analyzes trade and trade policy developments in the countries of eastern and southern Africa during the 1990s, covering regional and multilateral integration issues, and the interaction between trade policies and macroeconomic conditions. It also discusses the main challenges these countries face as they enter a new decade.
The authors are indebted to Anupam Basu for his guidance and support to carry out this work. Jon Shields, Joseph Kakoza, Mwanza Nkusu, Gunnar Jonsson, Berte Esteve-Volart, Anne McGuirk, and John King provided valuable input to the paper. The paper has also benefited from comments by the Fiscal Affairs, Policy Development and Review, and Research Departments of the IMF. The research assistance of Jaouad Sebti, the editorial assistance of Thomas Walter and Jeremy Clift, and the secretarial support of Mariza Arantes are gratefully acknowledged.
The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of other members of the IMF staff or its Executive Directors.