Chapter

APPENDIX II

Author(s):
Martin Mühleisen, Dhaneshwar Ghura, Roger Nord, Michael Hadjimichael, and E. Ucer
Published Date:
June 1995
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Table A2.Sub-Saharan Africa: Selected Economic and Financial Indicators
Est.
19861987198819891990199119921993
(In millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise indicated)
General statistics
Population (in millions)397.5409.2421.5434.2447.1460.5474.2488.2
Real GDP (at 1990 prices)1215,684.8218,364.2226,991.2234,393.7237,250.6239,844.5238,138.2242,331.6
Real GDP growth1.41.24.03.31.21.1–0.71.8
Per capita nominal GDP (U.S. dollars)512.1516.8544.7527.0562.0559.6546.6519.2
Per capita real GDP (U.S. dollars)542.6533.6538.5539.8530.6520.8502.2496.3
Per capita real GDP growth–1.5–1.70.90.2–1.7–1.8–3.6–1.2
Inflation rate (CPI)18.124.728.327.817.5133.9218.9197.7
Monetary indicators
Money supply growth15.726.635.223.830.7144.0234.8125.0
Nominal interest rate211.011.813.717.619.219.020.3
Real interest rate2–7.1–13.0–14.6–10.21.7–114.9–198.6–181.5
External sector indicators
Current account balance
Including official transfers–4,736.9–3,767.1–7,301.8–3,616.2–1,738.5–3,635.5–5,458.0–6,691.1
In percent of GDP–2.3–1.8–3.2–1.6–0.7–1.4–2.1–2.6
Excluding official transfers–6,969.8–6,252.5–10,358.1–7,117.5–5,111.5–6,996.5–8,852.3–10,216.5
In percent of GDP–3.4–3.0–4.5–3.1–2.0–2.7–3.4–4.0
Merchandise exports46,625.951,294.852,446.356,516.463,755.961,469.360,277.056,812.7
In percent of GDP22.924.322.824.725.423.923.322.4
Merchandise imports38,332.642,943.248,009.948,492.352,149.052,815.354,418.251,941.4
In percent of GDP18.820.320.921.220.820.521.020.5
External public debt outstanding94,431.3110,145.4111,989.6116,358.1126,688.4133,431.9131,953.5139,052.3
In percent of GDP46.452.148.850.850.451.850.954.9
In percent of merchandise exports202.5214.7213.5205.9198.7217.1218.9244.8
Real eff. exchange rate (1985=100)85.779.275.873.770.969.968.867.0
Percent change–14.3–7.5–4.3–2.8–3.8–1.4–1.6–2.6
Nominal eff. exch. rate (1985=100)0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
Percent change
Terms of trade (1985=100)0.90.90.90.80.80.80.80.7
Percent change–11.0–3.90.6–3.7–1.4–3.8–4.2–4.2
External assistance (ODA)
In percent of GDP
(In percent of GDP)
Fiscal indicators
Overall budget balance
Including grants–5.0–6.0–6.0–3.8–4.5–5.4–8.0–6.7
Excluding grants–6.1–7.2–7.3–5.3–5.8–6.7–9.3–8.1
Primary budget balance
Including grants–1.1–1.3–1.11.21.00.3–2.2–1.3
Excluding grants–2.2–2.5–2.4–0.3–0.4–1.0–3.5–2.7
Savings and investment balances
Total investment17.418.519.618.818.517.816.917.5
Total national savings15.116.716.417.217.816.414.814.9
Domestically generated savings14.015.615.115.716.515.113.513.5
Grants1.11.21.31.51.31.31.31.4
Government investment7.27.06.66.15.96.35.95.5
Government savings
Including grants2.21.00.72.31.40.9–2.1–1.2
Excluding grants1.1–0.2–0.70.70.1–0.4–3.4–2.6
Nongovernment investment10.311.513.012.712.711.511.012.0
Nongovernment savings12.915.815.714.916.415.516.916.1
Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outbok, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outbok, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Table A3.Sub-Saharan Africa Excluding South Africa: Selected Economic and Financial Indicators
Est.
19861987198819891990199119921993
(In millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise indicated)
General statistics
Population (in millions)363.7374.6386.1398.0410.0422.5435.3448.5
Real GDP (at 1990 prices)1123,894.0124,645.0129,335.7134,495.5137,811.5140,792.2141,203.6144,912.3
Real GDP growth2.40.63.84.02.52.20.32.6
Per capita nominal GDP (U.S. dollars)388.5348.9369.0351.4363.9354.6331.7311.2
Per capita real GDP (U.S. dollars)340.7332.8335.0338.0336.1333.2324.4323.1
Per capita real GDP growth–0.6–2.30.70.9–0.5–0.9–2.7–0.4
Inflation rate (CPI)17.929.236.434.619.1191.3314.9282.1
Monetary indicators
Money supply growth21.629.535.322.039.4206.0339.7176.2
Nominal interest rate210.913.313.717.619.719.823.3
Real interest rate2–7.0–15.9–22.6–17.00.6–171.5–291.6–263.9
External sector indicators
Current account balance
Including official transfers–7,414.3–6,712.0–8,502.2–4,801.4–3,974.9–6,323.7–6,955.7–7,755.1
In percent of GDP–5.2–5.1–6.0–3.4–2.7–4.2–4.8–5.6
Excluding official transfers–9,639.4–9,189.6–11,415.9–8,174.6–7,231.5–9,559.4–10,217.9–11,155.2
In percent of GDP–6.8–7.0–8.0–5.8–4.8–6.4–7.1–8.0
Merchandise exports28,647.029,867.730,053.934,278.240,393.537,721.236,780.035,472.7
In percent of GDP20.322.921.124.527.125.225.525.4
Merchandise imports27,106.028,809.030,875.431,589.735,106.935,365.936,223.836,023.5
In percent of GDP19.222.021.722.623.523.625.125.8
External public debt outstanding84,198.3100,131.4103,574.6108,469.1119,928.4126,665.9125,462.5132,694.3
In percent of GDP59.676.672.777.680.484.686.995.1
In percent of merchandise exports293.9335.2344.6316.4296.9335.8341.1374.1
Real eff. exchange rate (1985=100)82.265.963.860.655.452.349.348.8
Percent change–17.8–19.8–3.2–5.0–8.6–5.6–5.7–1.0
Nominal eff. exch. rate (1985=100)76.756.652.551.052.950.750.348.0
Percent change–23.3–26.2–7.3–2.93.7–4.1–0.8–4.4
Terms of trade (1985=100)0.80.80.80.80.80.70.70.7
Percent change–17.0–6.7–0.2–0.9–0.9–5.4–3.5–4.5
External assistance (ODA)8,448.010,092.511,852.812,807.515,105.015,115.516,313.1
In percent of GDP6.07.78.39.210.110.111.3
(In percent of GDP)
Fiscal indicators
Overall budget balance
Including grants–5.0–6.7–7.6–5.2–4.8–5.9–7.0–5.4
Excluding grants–6.5–8.6–9.7–7.6–7.0–8.0–9.2–7.9
Primary budget balance
Including grants–1.1–1.6–2.30.21.30.3–0.90.5
Excluding grants–2.6–3.5–4.4–2.2–0.9–1.8–3.2–2.0
Savings and investment balances
Total investment16.818.018.417.218.219.018.417.8
Total national savings11.512.912.413.815.514.813.612.3
Domestically generated savings9.911.010.411.413.312.711.49.8
Grants1.61.92.02.42.22.22.32.4
Government investment8.38.78.27.57.68.48.27.3
Government savings
Including grants3.32.00.52.32.72.51.31.8
Excluding grants1.70.1–1.5–0.10.60.4–1.0–0.6
Nongovernment investment8.59.310.29.810.610.710.210.6
Nongovernment savings8.210.811.911.512.812.312.410.4
Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months: real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months: real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Table A4.Sub-Saharan Africa Excluding South Africa and Zaïre: Selected Economic and Financial Indicators
Est.
19861987198819891990199119921993
(In millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise indicated)
General statistics
Population (in millions)332.4342.4352.9363.8374.8386.2398.0410.0
Real GDP (at 1990 prices)1123,209.0123,941.6128,614.7133,770.1137,081.7140,106.2140,572.5144,312.8
Real GDP growth2.40.63.84.02.52.20.32.7
Per capita nominal GDP (U.S. dollars)408.4364.8385.4367.7383.0373.6350.6329.2
Per capita real GDP (U.S. dollars)370.7362.0364.4367.7365.8362.8353.2352.0
Per capita real GDP growth–0.6–2.30.70.9–0.5–0.8–2.6–0.3
Inflation rate (CPI)15.022.731.629.013.715.829.525.9
Monetary indicators
Money supply growth17.722.425.618.125.025.235.720.9
Nominal interest rate29.911.311.713.015.515.617.919.8
Real interest rate2–5.0–11.4–19.9–16.01.8–0.2–11.6–6.1
External sector indicators
Current account balance
Including official transfers–6,999.9–6,066.7–7,923.0–4,190.0–3,333.9–5,652.7–6,503.7–7,030.1
In percent of GDP–5.2–4.9–5.8–3.1–2.3–3.9–4.7–5.2
Excluding official transfers–9,040.7–8,330.8–10,611.7–7,287.4–6,365.8–8,787.2–9,668.3–10,376.9
In percent of GDP–6.7–6.7–7.8–5.4–4.4–6.1–6.9–7.7
Merchandise exports26,801.528,136.227,874.832,077.038,254.536,072.235,334.034,398.7
In percent of GDP19.722.520.524.026.725.025.325.5
Merchandise imports25,577.527,173.228,917.029,586.133,272.933,995.935,163.835,005.5
In percent of GDP18.821.821.322.123.223.625.225.9
External public debt outstanding77,758.292,834.896,433.9100,142.1110,679.5116,671.9115,056.5121,591.3
In percent of GDP57.374.370.974.977.180.982.490.1
In percent of merchandise exports290.1329.9346.0312.2289.3323.4325.6353.5
Real eff. exchange rate (1985=100)80.263.661.057.753.650.647.745.4
Percent change–19.8–20.7–4.0–5.4–7.1–5.6–5.7–4.9
Nominal eff. exch. rate (1985=100)77.058.655.454.657.055.154.352.1
Percent change–23.0–23.9–5.5–1.54.4–3.4–1.4–4.0
Terms of trade (1985=100)0.80.80.70.70.70.70.60.6
Percent change–17.4–8.2–4.3–0.2–1.0–5.2–5.6–2.2
External assistance (ODA)8,025.89,418.011,299.912,076.114,207.314,639.316,041.8
In percent of GDP5.97.58.39.09.910.111.5
(In percent of GDP)
Fiscal indicators
Overall budget balance
Including grants–4.9–6.6–7.2–5.2–4.5–5.0–6.4–4.9
Excluding grants–6.4–8.4–9.2–7.5–6.6–7.1–8.7–7.4
Primary budget balance
Including grants–1.1–1.5–1.90.21.61.1–0.21.2
Excluding grants–2.6–3.3–3.9–2.1–0.5–1.1–2.5–1.3
Savings and investment balances
Total investment17.018.318.717.518.419.418.818.1
Total national savings11.813.412.914.316.115.514.112.9
Domestically generated savings10.311.610.912.014.013.311.810.4
Grants1.51.82.02.32.12.22.32.5
Government investment8.69.18.57.87.88.68.57.4
Government savings
Including grants3.72.51.32.63.33.62.02.6
Excluding grants2.20.7–0.70.21.21.5–0.20.1
Nongovernment investment8.49.210.29.710.610.810.310.7
Nongovernment savings8.110.911.611.812.811.812.110.3
Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Table A5.CFA Franc Countries: Selected Economic and Financial Indicators
Est.
19861987198819891990199119921993
(In millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise indicated)
General statistics
Population (in millions)68.870.872.975.277.479.782.184.5
Real GDP (at 1990 prices)148,541.047,155.046,541.647,362.746,670.446,688.346,360.946,267.7
Real GDP growth0.4–2.9–1.31.8–1.50.0–0.7–0.2
Per capita nominal GDP (U.S. dollars)568.0630.4614.7569.9631.7614.3617.0587.2
Per capita real GDP (U.S. dollars)705.8666.0638.2630.0603.2585.8565.0547.6
Per capita real GDP growth–2.5–5.6–4.2–1.3–4.3–2.9–3.6–3.1
Inflation rate (CPI)3.50.72.41.11.20.60.70.8
Monetary indicators
Money supply growth6.5–7.90.9–1.82.85.7–0.43.0
Nominal interest rate26.76.16.16.97.37.47.88.3
Real interest rate23.25.43.75.76.16.87.27.5
External sector indicators
Current account balance
Including official transfers–3,221.6–3,352.5–3,814.3–2,365.1–2,903.8–3,107.8–3,433.8–3,749.6
In percent of GDP–8.2–7.5–8.5–5.5–5.9–6.3–6.8–7.6
Excluding official transfers–3,936.8–4,225.1–4,712.0–3,427.1–3,930.7–4,093.7–4,409.1–4,704.0
In percent of GDP–10.1–9.5–10.5–8.0–8.0–8.4–8.7–9.5
Merchandise exports9,290.19,630.79,217.39,770.011,727.610,959.010,705.610,449.7
In percent of GDP23.821.620.622.824.022.421.121.1
Merchandise imports7,924.28,367.98,523.48,117.68,958.28,691.88,755.28,577.7
In percent of GDP20.318.719.018.918.317.817.317.3
External public debt outstanding21,849.627,881.628,577.629,874.634,359.238,236.339,157.242,579.0
In percent of GDP55.962.563.869.770.378.177.385.8
In percent of merchandise exports235.2289.5310.0305.8293.0348.9365.8407.5
Real eff. exchange rate (1985=100)108.8112.9109.5103.3104.4100.599.596.2
Percent change8.83.7–3.0–5.71.1–3.8–1.0–3.3
Nominal eff. exch. rate (1985=100)108.1114.2117.7123.8143.2147.7161.1172.2
Percent change8.15.63.15.215.63.19.16.9
Terms of trade (1985=100)0.90.80.80.70.70.70.70.7
Percent change–11.7–11.0–4.5–4.9–2.00.3–4.6–1.0
External assistance (ODA)2,789.23,090.93,538.33,825.24,736.74,364.94,606.7
In percent of GDP7.16.97.98.99.78.99.1
(In percent of GDP)
Fiscal indicators
Overall budget balance
Including grants–4.1–8.4–7.8–7.3–6.2–5.5–6.2–5.3
Excluding grants–5.9–10.4–9.8–9.7–8.3–7.5–8.1–7.2
Primary budget balance
Including grants–0.5–4.9–3.4–2.7–1.4–0.0–0.60.7
Excluding grants–2.4–6.8–5.4–5.2–3.5–2.0–2.5–1.3
Savings and investment balances
Total investment22.921.419.116.015.115.514.814.4
Total national savings14.613.910.610.59.29.18.06.9
Domestically generated savings12.811.98.68.07.17.16.15.0
Grants1.82.02.02.52.12.01.91.9
Government investment8.910.16.35.05.04.44.04.2
Government savings
Including grants4.91.7–1.5–2.3–1.2–1.1–2.2–1.1
Excluding grants3.0–0.3–3.5–4.8–3.3–3.1–4.1–3.0
Nongovernment investment13.911.312.811.110.211.010.810.3
Nongovernment savings9.712.212.112.810.410.210.28.0
Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Table A6.Non-CFA Franc Countries Excluding Zaïre: Selected Economic and Financial Indicators
Est.
19861987198819891990199119921993
(In millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise indicated)
General statistics
Population (in millions)263.6271.6280.0288.6297.4306.5316.0325.5
Real GDP (at 1990 prices)174,668.076,786.682,073.186,407.390,411.393,417.994,211.698,045.1
Real GDP growth3.72.86.95.34.63.30.84.1
Per capita nominal GDP (U.S. dollars)366.7295.6325.7315.0318.3311.0281.4262.3
Per capita real GDP (U.S. dollars)283.3282.7293.1299.4304.0304.8298.2301.2
Per capita real GDP growth0.7–0.23.72.11.50.3–2.21.0
Inflation rate (CPI)19.030.140.637.217.219.937.132.3
Monetary indicators
Money supply growth21.632.633.324.031.230.545.225.5
Nominal interest rate211.113.113.514.817.817.820.622.7
Real interest rate2–8.0–17.0–27.2–22.40.5–2.1–16.5–9.6
External sector indicators
Current account balance
Including official transfers–3,778.3–2,714.2–4,108.6–1,824.9–430.1–2,544.9–3,069.9–3,280.4
In percent of GDP–3.9–3.4–4.5–2.0–0.5–2.7–3.5–3.8
Excluding official transfers–5,103.8–4,105.7–5,899.7–3,860.3–2,435.1–4,693.5–5,259.2–5,672.9
In percent of GDP–5.3–5.1–6.5–4.2–2.6–4.9–5.9–6.6
Merchandise exports17,511.418,505.518,657.522,307.026,526.825,113.224,628.523,949.0
In percent of GDP18.123.120.524.528.026.327.728.1
Merchandise imports17,653.418,805.420,393.621,468.524,314.625,304.126,408.626,427.8
In percent of GDP18.323.422.423.625.726.529.731.0
External public debt outstanding55,908.664,953.267,856.470,267.576,320.378,435.675,899.379,012.3
In percent of GDP57.880.974.477.380.682.385.492.6
In percent of merchandise exports319.3351.0363.7315.0287.7312.3308.2329.9
Real eff. exchange rate (1985=100)70.747.846.844.840.237.934.733.1
Percent change–29.3–32.3–2.2–4.1–10.4–5.7–8.4–4.8
Nominal eff. exch. rate (1985=100)66.140.036.134.133.030.226.121.4
Percent change–33.9–39.6–9.7–5.6–3.1–8.4–13.8–18.0
Terms of trade (1985=100)0.80.70.70.70.70.70.60.6
Percent change–19.4–7.1–4.21.3–0.7–6.7–5.8–2.5
External assistance (ODA)5,236.56,327.17,761.68,251.09,470.610,274.511,435.1
In percent of GDP5.47.98.59.110.010.812.9
(In percent of GDP)
Fiscal indicators
Overall budget balance
Including grants–5.2–5.6–7.0–4.3–3.6–4.7–6.6–4.6
Excluding grants–6.6–7.3–8.9–6.5–5.7–7.0–9.0–7.5
Primary budget balance
Including grants–1.30.4–1.11.63.11.60.01.5
Excluding grants–2.7–1.4–3.1–0.71.0–0.6–2.4–1.3
Savings and investment balances
Total investment14.616.518.518.120.121.421.020.3
Total national savings10.713.114.016.119.718.717.616.4
Domestically generated savings9.311.412.113.917.616.515.113.6
Grants1.41.72.02.22.12.32.52.8
Government investment8.48.59.69.19.310.711.09.4
Government savings
Including grants3.22.92.74.95.76.04.44.7
Excluding grants1.81.20.72.63.63.82.01.9
Nongovernment investment6.28.08.99.010.910.610.010.9
Nongovernment savings7.510.211.411.314.012.713.111.7
Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October I993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October I993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Table A7.Positive Per Capita Growth Countries: Selected Economic and Financial Indicators
Est.
19861987198819891990199119921993
(In millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise indicated)
General statistics
Population (in millions)190.1195.6201.6207.7213.9220.4227.1233.9
Real GDP (at 1990 prices)162,586.664,445.969,385.173,408.677,344.380,496.282,990.285,800.3
Real GDP growth4.23.07.75.85.44.13.13.4
Per capita nominal GDP (U.S. dollars)423.7349.4383.1361.4375.3372.4343.6330.6
Per capita real GDP (U.S. dollars)329.3329.4344.2353.4361.6365.2365.4366.8
Per capita real GDP growth1.10.04.52.72.31.00.10.4
Inflation rate (CPI)16.523.543.036.612.914.531.628.8
Monetary indicators
Money supply growth19.931.132.521.930.128.345.324.1
Nominal interest rate211.013.213.414.817.915.918.220.1
Real interest rate2–5.6–10.3–29.6–21.95.01.4–13.3–8.6
External sector indicators
Current account balance
Including official transfers–3,258.1–1,985.7–3,447.2–985.1248.9–1,564.3–2,344.5–2,750.7
In percent of GDP–4.0–2.9–4.5–1.30.3–1.9–3.0–3.6
Excluding official transfers–4,414.6–3,373.7–4,947.8–2,654.9–1,349.8–3,142.2–3,959.5–4,486.1
In percent of GDP–5.5–4.9–6.4–3.5–1.7–3.8–5.1–5.8
Merchandise exports15,209.816,143.516,011.219,281.623,823.622,472.222,483.221,785.5
In percent of GDP18.923.620.725.729.727.428.828.2
Merchandise imports15,712.916,589.518,059.518,652.621,526.422,327.723,330.323,409.7
In percent of GDP19.524.323.424.826.827.229.930.3
External public debt outstanding44,877.052,231.355,073.156,395.961,081.962,983.458,727.961,394.5
In percent of GDP55.776.471.375.176.176.775.279.4
In percent of merchandise exports295.1323.5344.0292.5256.4280.3261.2281.8
Real eff. exchange rate (1985=100)68.645.945.041.737.935.433.132.2
Percent change–31.4–33.0–2.0–7.3–9.3–6.6–6.5–2.5
Nominal eff. exch. rate (1985=100)64.739.435.331.931.229.327.124.4
Percent change–35.3–39.1–10.4–9.6–2.3–5.9–7.6–9.8
Terms of trade (1985=100)0.70.70.70.70.70.60.60.6
Percent change–26.3–2.3–7.91.33.0–7.8–4.1–3.2
External assistance (ODA)4,100.74,940.25,723.06,627.47,328.27,175.67,322.0
In percent of GDP5.17.27.48.89.18.79.4
(In percent of GDP)
Fiscal indicators
Overall budget balance
Including grants–3.8–4.7–6.6–3.2–2.1–3.4–5.7–4.0
Excluding grants–5.3–6.8–8.5–5.5–4.1–5.3–7.7–6.2
Primary budget balance
Including grants0.01.3–0.72.74.72.90.71.7
Excluding grants–1.4–0.7–2.60.52.71.0–1.4–0.5
Savings and investment balances
Total investment15.316.818.819.020.722.622.320.5
Total national savings11.213.914.417.721.020.719.316.9
Domestically generated savings9.811.912.415.519.018.817.214.7
Grants1.42.01.92.22.01.92.12.2
Government investment9.08.79.99.19.311.111.59.1
Government savings
Including grants5.14.03.35.97.27.75.85.1
Excluding grants3.72.01.43.75.25.83.82.8
Nongovernment investment6.38.18.99.911.411.510.811.4
Nongovernment savings6.19.911.011.813.813.013.511.8
Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Table A8.Negative Per Capita Growth Countries Excluding Zaïre: Selected Economic and Financial Indicators
Est.
19861987198819891990199119921993
(In millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise indicated)
General statistics
Population (in millions)142.3146.7151.3156.1160.9165.8170.9176.1
Real GDP (at 1990 prices)160,622.459,495.659,229.660,361.559,737.459,610.057,582.358,512.5
Real GDP growth0.6–1.9–0.41.9–1.0–0.2–3.41.6
Per capita nominal GDP (U.S. dollars)387.8385.4388.4376.1393.2375.2359.9327.4
Per capita real GDP (U.S. dollars)426.0405.4391.4386.8371.3359.5336.9332.2
Per capita real GDP growth–2.3–4.8–3.5–1.2–4.0–3.2–6.3–1.4
Inflation rate (CPI)12.621.511.815.215.318.525.019.7
Monetary indicators
Money supply growth14.28.213.711.215.219.015.014.0
Nominal interest rate28.38.48.99.810.815.017.219.0
Real interest rate2–4.2–13.1–3.0–5.3–4.5–3.5–7.8–0.7
External sector indicators
Current account balance
Including official transfers–3,741.8–4,081.1–4,475.8–3,204.9–3,582.8–4,088.4–4,159.2–4,279.4
In percent of GDP–6.8–7.2–7.6–5.5–5.7–6.6–6.8–7.4
Excluding official transfers–4,626.0–4,957.2–5,663.9–4,632.5–5,016.0–5,645.0–5,708.8–5,890.9
In percent of GDP–8.4–8.8–9.6–7.9–7.9–9.1–9.3–10.2
Merchandise exports11,591.711,992.711,863.612,795.414,430.913,600.112,850.912,613.2
In percent of GDP21.021.220.221.822.821.920.921.9
Merchandise imports9,864.710,583.810,857.510,933.611,746.511,668.211,833.511,595.8
In percent of GDP17.918.718.518.618.618.819.220.1
External public debt outstanding32,881.240,603.541,360.843,746.249,597.653,688.556,328.660,196.8
In percent of GDP59.671.870.474.578.486.391.6104.4
In percent of merchandise exports283.7338.6348.6341.9343.7394.8438.3477.3
Real eff. exchange rate (1985=100)99.292.889.587.284.782.380.075.0
Percent change–0.8–6.5–3.6–2.6–2.9–2.8–2.9–6.3
Nominal eff. exch. rate (1985=100)96.689.890.395.6106.9107.5112.8112.9
Percent change–3.4–7.10.65.811.80.64.90.1
Terms of trade (1985=100)96.781.983.381.676.376.270.470.3
Percent change–3.3–15.31.7–2.0–6.5–0.1–7.7–0.1
External assistance (ODA)3,925.04,477.85,576.95,448.76,879.17,463.78,719.8
In percent of GDP7.17.99.59.310.912.014.2
(In percent of GDP)
Fiscal indicators
Overall budget balance
Including grants–6.4–8.9–8.1–7.8–7.5–7.1–7.4–6.1
Excluding grants–8.0–10.4–10.1–10.2–9.8–9.6–9.9–8.9
Primary budget balance
Including grants–2.7–4.9–3.5–3.0–2.4–1.4–1.30.6
Excluding grants–4.3–6.4–5.5–5.4–4.6–3.9–3.9–2.2
Savings and investment balances
Total investment19.520.018.615.415.515.114.315.0
Total national savings12.712.811.010.09.98.67.57.6
Domestically generated savings11.111.29.07.57.66.15.04.8
Grants1.61.52.02.42.32.52.52.8
Government investment8.09.56.76.15.95.34.65.3
Government savings
Including grants1.60.6–1.4–1.7–1.6–1.8–2.8–0.8
Excluding grants0.0–0.9–3.4–4.1–3.9–4.3–5.3–3.6
Nongovernment investment11.510.511.99.39.69.89.69.7
Nongovernment savings11.112.212.411.611.510.310.38.4
Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Table A9.Sustained Adjusters: Selected Economic and Financial Indicators
Est.
19861987198819891990199119921993
(In millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise indicated)
General statistics
Population (in millions)127.4130.9134.8138.7142.7146.9151.2155.6
Real GDP (at 1990 prices)133,267.334,571.736,344.937,854.939,114.340,313.740,579.241,934.7
Real GDP growth4.63.95.14.23.33.10.73.3
Per capita nominal GDP (U.S. dollars)304.3283.9291.3273.8283.7278.5275.0247.2
Per capita real GDP (U.S. dollars)261.1264.0269.6272.9274.1274.5268.4269.6
Per capita real GDP growth1.61.12.11.20.40.1–2.20.5
Inflation rate (CPI)27.946.633.322.620.017.519.818.8
Monetary indicators
Money supply growth35.134.231.130.121.722.430.911.4
Nominal interest rate212.113.714.115.116.318.020.318.7
Real interest rate2–15.7–33.0–19.2–7.5–3.70.50.6–0.2
External sector indicators
Current account balance
Including official transfers–1,352.7–1,932.0–1,919.2–2,137.3–2,383.9–2,004.0–1,987.1–2,069.1
In percent of GDP–3.5–5.2–4.9–5.6–5.9–4.9–4.8–5.4
Excluding official transfers–2,216.9–2,907.4–3,186.3–3,582.4–3,906.7–3,565.8–3,531.3–3,844.3
In percent of GDP–5.7–7.8–8.1–9.4–9.7–8.7–8.5–10.0
Merchandise exports5,047.15,151.55,378.55,077.55,624.55,811.85,581.75,650.2
In percent of GDP13.013.913.713.413.914.213.414.7
Merchandise imports7,069.08,269.18,991.59,139.810,332.510,102.010,090.010,625.3
In percent of GDP18.222.222.924.125.524.724.327.6
External public debt outstanding20,954.026,654.327,444.327,532.530,799.832,301.433,421.735,007.1
In percent of GDP54.171.769.972.576.179.080.491.0
In percent of merchandise exports415.2517.4510.3542.2547.6555.8598.8619.6
Real eff. exchange rate (1985=100)86.672.366.963.457.754.852.349.4
Percent change–13.4–16.6–7.4–5.2–9.0–5.1–4.6–5.4
Nominal eff. exch. rate (1985= 100)77.659.254.052.752.750.849.345.2
Percent change–22.4–23.7–8.8–2.4–0.1–3.5–3.0–8.4
Terms of trade (1985=100)101.494.890.682.776.976.872.972.7
Percent change1.4–6.5–4.4–8.6–7.0–0.1–5.2–0.2
External assistance (ODA)4,226.65,171.06,299.26,829.57,816.27,533.28,163.8
In percent of GDP10.913.916.018.019.318.419.6
(In percent of GDP)
Fiscal indicators
Overall budget balance
Including grants–5.6–4.8–3.1–3.4–3.9–2.8–4.2–3.3
Excluding grants–7.9–7.4–6.4–7.2–7.7–6.6–8.0–7.9
Primary budget balance
Including grants–2.9–2.0–0.3–0.2–0.90.2–0.80.1
Excluding grants–5.1–4.6–3.5–4.0–4.7–3.6–4.5–4.5
Savings and investment balances
Total investment14.318.018.819.720.720.218.319.3
Total national savings10.812.813.914.114.815.313.513.9
Domestically generated savings8.610.210.710.311.111.59.89.3
Grants2.22.63.23.83.83.83.74.6
Government investment6.67.48.08.88.48.27.37.6
Government savings
Including grants0.92.74.95.44.55.43.14.3
Excluding grants–1.30.01.61.50.81.6–0.6–0.3
Nongovernment investment7.710.610.810.912.312.011.011.7
Nongovernment savings9.910.29.08.710.39.910.49.6
Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October I993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October I993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Table A10.Low Macroeconomic Imbalances Countries: Selected Economic and Financial Indicators
Est.
19861987198819891990199119921993
(In millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise indicated)
General statistics
Population (in millions)12.512.813.213.513.914.314.615.0
Real GDP (at 1990 prices)112,364.312,702.413,790.314,565.415,188.715,957.615,719.316,129.4
Real GDP growth4.62.78.65.64.35.1–1.52.6
Per capita nominal GDP (U.S. dollars)782.6907.71,052.61,063.51,150.61,147.91,113.51,096.9
Per capita real GDP (U.S. dollars)991.1991.61,047.41,078.11,094.51,119.71,074.51,073.6
Per capita real GDP growth3.50.15.62.91.52.3–4.0–0.1
Inflation rate (CPI)11.49.16.312.513.620.526.017.9
Monetary indicators
Money supply growth7.633.124.224.212.222.720.217.7
Nominal interest rate29.89.510.09.711.321.922.421.2
Real interest rate2–1.60.33.6–2.8–2.31.4–3.63.3
External sector indicators
Current account balance
Including official transfers1,364.6855.2341.6352.1–273.3–109.0–303.0–134.2
In percent of GDP14.07.42.52.5–1.7–0.7–1.9–0.8
Excluding official transfers1,033.1524.969.3122.3–498.1–281.1–501.0–319.3
In percent of GDP10.64.50.50.9–3.1–1.7–3.1–1.9
Merchandise exports5,147.65,440.85,673.66,285.96,298.56,784.36,326.76,174.9
In percent of GDP52.746.840.943.739.441.538.837.5
Merchandise imports3,354.84,276.14,997.55,478.16,358.66,756.16,806.86,627.3
In percent of GDP34.436.836.138.139.841.341.840.2
External public debt outstanding3,942.54,422.34,409.24,329.34,617.04,885.35,681.56,067.7
In percent of GDP40.438.031.830.128.929.934.936.8
In percent of merchandise exports76.681.377.768.973.372.089.898.3
Real eff. exchange rate (1985=100)94.190.085.383.179.172.370.372.7
Percent change–5.9–4.5–5.1–2.6–4.8–8.6–2.83.4
Nominal eff. exch. rate (1985=100)92.488.184.882.578.268.862.159.5
Percent change–7.6–4.6–3.8–2.6–5.3–12.1–9.7–4.2
Terms of trade (1985=100)117.1113.6136.1141.0141.3142.6137.2137.4
Percent change17.1–2.919.83.60.30.9–3.80.2
External assistance (ODA)459.1597.5561.1592.2792.0858.11,173.8
In percent of GDP4.75.14.04.15.05.27.2
(In percent of GDP)
Fiscal indicators
Overall budget balance
Including grants–1.7–1.30.40.92.21.7–0.6–2.1
Excluding grants–5.1–4.1–1.6–0.70.80.6–1.9–3.3
Primary budget balance
Including grants3.13.64.95.36.35.33.11.2
Excluding grants–0.20.82.93.74.94.31.80.1
Savings and investment balances
Total investment18.819.423.923.125.124.824.525.2
Total national savings32.826.726.325.623.424.122.724.4
Domestically generated savings29.423.924.424.022.023.021.523.2
Grants3.42.82.01.61.41.11.21.1
Government investment4.37.67.77.37.78.38.88.0
Government savings
Including grants2.66.38.18.29.910.08.15.9
Excluding grants–0.83.46.16.68.58.96.94.8
Nongovernment investment14.511.816.115.817.416.515.717.2
Nongovernment savings30.220.418.217.413.514.114.518.5
Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Table A11.Protracted Imbalances Countries Excluding Zaïre: Selected Economic and Financial Indicators
Est.
19861987198819891990199119921993
(In millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise indicated)
General statistics
Population (in millions)192.5198.6204.9211.5218.2225.1232.2239.4
Real GDP (at 1990 prices)177,577.476,667.578,479.581,349.782,778.783,835.084,274.086,248.7
Real GDP growth1.2–1.22.43.71.81.30.52.3
Per capita nominal GDP (U.S. dollars)453.0383.2404.4384.9399.1386.6351.9334.4
Per capita real GDP (U.S. dollars)403.0386.0382.9384.6379.3372.4363.0360.2
Per capita real GDP growth–2.0–4.2–0.80.4–1.4–1.8–2.5–0.8
Inflation rate (CPI)8.811.533.534.210.514.435.130.7
Monetary indicators
Money supply growth10.015.122.911.128.127.039.926.5
Nominal interest rate28.810.310.712.315.513.616.120.3
Real interest rate20.0–1.2–22.8–21.95.1–0.8–19.0–10.4
External sector indicators
Current account balance
Including official transfers–7,011.8–4,990.0–6,345.3–2,404.9–676.7–3,539.7–4,213.5–4,826.8
In percent of GDP–8.0–6.6–7.7–3.0–0.8–4.1–5.2–6.0
Excluding official transfers–7,856.9–5,948.4–7,494.8–3,827.3–1,960.9–4,940.3–5,635.9–6,213.3
In percent of GDP–9.0–7.8–9.0–4.7–2.3–5.7–6.9–7.8
Merchandise exports16,606.817,544.016,822.720,713.726,331.523,476.123,425.622,573.6
In percent of GDP19.023.120.325.430.227.028.728.2
Merchandise imports15,153.714,628.014,928.114,968.216,581.717,137.818,267.017,752.9
In percent of GDP17.419.218.018.419.019.722.422.2
External public debt outstanding52,861.661,758.264,580.468,280.275,262.779,485.275,953.380,516.6
In percent of GDP60.681.177.983.986.491.393.0100.6
In percent of merchandise exports318.3352.0383.9329.6285.8338.6324.2356.7
Real eff. exchange rate (1985=100)75.656.355.351.948.645.942.840.2
Percent change–24.4–25.5–1.8–6.2–6.3–5.6–6.7–6.1
Nominal eff. exch. rate (1985=100)75.255.252.952.557.055.956.255.1
Percent change–24.8–26.5–4.2–0.98.6–2.00.6–1.8
Terms of trade (1985=100)69.661.956.059.261.154.651.549.1
Percent change–30.4–11.1–9.45.63.2–10.7–5.6–4.7
External assistance (ODA)3,340.13,649.54,439.64,654.45,599.16,247.96,704.2
In percent of GDP3.84.85.45.76.47.28.2
(In percent of GDP)
Fiscal indicators
Overall budget balance
Including grants–4.9–8.3–10.5–7.2–6.0–7.3–8.7–6.2
Excluding grants–5.9–9.6–11.8–8.9–7.4–8.9–10.4–7.9
Primary budget balance
Including grants–0.7–2.0–3.8–0.51.90.6–0.51.8
Excluding grants–1.7–3.3–5.1–2.20.4–1.0–2.30.0
Savings and investment balances
Total investment18.018.217.815.416.218.017.816.1
Total national savings10.011.710.212.415.413.912.710.1
Domestically generated savings9.010.48.810.713.912.310.98.4
Grants1.01.31.41.71.51.61.71.7
Government investment10.010.18.97.47.68.89.07.2
Government savings
Including grants5.01.8–1.60.31.61.60.31.1
Excluding grants4.10.5–2.9–1.50.1–0.0–1.5–0.7
Nongovernment investment8.08.18.98.08.69.18.98.9
Nongovernment savings4.99.911.712.213.812.312.49.0
Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

Sources: African Economic Trends data base, August 1993; World Economic Outlook, October 1993; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

At average U.S. dollar exchange rates during 1989–91.

Deposit rates 6–12 months; real interest rates are deflated by actual CPI inflation rate.

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