- Adam Bennett, Eduardo Borensztein, and Tomás Baliño
- Published Date:
- March 1999
The foreign currency is usually, but not always, the U.S. dollar. The term “dollarization” serves as a shorthand in this paper for the use of any foreign currency.
Of the 99 countries that have had IMF arrangements since 1986, 52 reported data on foreign currency deposits (FCD) to the IMF. In those countries reporting data, the median level of FCD over broad money in 1995 was 21.8 percent.
Several of the issues discussed in this paper (for example, foreign currency risks) arise also in other foreign exchange operations, even if the economy is not dollarized in the sense discussed above.
Other special circumstances may lead to dollarization. For instance, European countries that will not initially participate in the euro arrangements but that trade heavily with euro members are likely to see part of the demand for money shift to euros. In addition, very small economies in which tourism from abroad is an important sector are also likely to be dollarized.
This distinction is standard in the literature. See the useful surveys by Calvo and Végh (1996) and Giovannini and Turtelboom (1994). McKinnon (1996) terms the two motives direct currency substitution and indirect currency substitution.
While the discussion in this paper focuses chiefly on the assets of the public, dollarization of deposits has typically been accompanied by dollarization of lending.
Previous empirical studies on dollarization conducted in the IMF include those by Agénor and Khan (1996), Clements and Schwartz (1993), El-Erian (1988), Mueller (1994), Sahay and Végh (1996), Savastano (1992), and Savastano (1996).
Dollarization as asset substitution is also associated with other nonmonetary assets, such as foreign-currency-denominated stocks and bonds and borrowing in foreign currency. But these assets are more removed from monetary developments and are considered more tangentially in this study.
In Africa, (measured) dollarization is less widespread than in other areas because FCD are not allowed or are severely restricted in most cases. However, there are indications of extensive dollarization in banknotes.
Kamin and Ericsson (1993) estimated a money demand function with “ratchet” effects for Argentina for a period that includes a hyperinflation episode.
While it is true that, according to available data, the decline in CBD is less than the increase in FCD in absolute terms, it should be noted that the CBD figures are likely to underestimate the actual stock of CBD. For legal and tax-related reasons, residents of one country may wish to transfer assets to a company based in a third country, which appears to be the holder of the deposit. (In fact, the three top countries of residence of nonbank depositors in the Western Hemisphere are Cayman Islands, Panama, and the Netherlands Antilles.) This means that the actual decline in CBD was probably larger than reported.
These data have been kindly made available by the U.S. Treasury Department (Financial Crime Enforcement Network); this is the first time this information has been released with the exception of the data for Argentina used by Kamin and Ericsson (1993).
For a discussion of this issue for the case of Argentina, see Garcia-Herrero (1997).
The issuance by the Mexican government of the dollar-indexed tesobonos in 1994 signaled a commitment to a fixed exchange rate and raised the risks involved in a potential reversal of capital flows. On balance, it does not appear that tesobonos had a positive effect on credibility. As suggested by Drazen and Masson (1994), one has to distinguish between credibility of policy makers and credibility of policies, and the latter was very low in this case.
The exchange rate instrument could still be effective to induce changes in relative prices if domestic prices are not rigid in dollar terms; that is, if the domestic currency is the predominant unit of account in the economy.
Moreover, unlike with loans in local currency, the burden of foreign currency loans (FCL) could not be reduced through devaluation.
As noted earlier, the problems described in this paragraph would also apply to banking systems exposed to foreign exchange risk because they are heavily engaged in foreign exchange transactions. However, such exposure is likely to be more pervasive in countries in which there is extensive currency or asset substitution.
The magnitude of the seignorage revenues obtained by the United States from the holding of its currency in foreign countries is relatively small. It is estimated that $200 to $250 billion circulated outside the United States in 1995 (Porter and Judson, 1996). If there was no such foreign demand for the U.S. currency, and the United States had to issue an equivalent amount of short-term treasury bills, the annual interest cost would be some $10 billion to $15 billion, less than ¼ of 1 percent of GDP.
For example, in several transition economies, a decline in the acceptability of $100 bills (owing to fears that they would be confiscated during the conversion to the new notes) appears to have briefly raised the demand for domestic currency.
This conclusion applies not only to exchange rate systems in which the rate is formally pegged but also to exchange-rate-based stabilizations more generally; that is, situations in which macroeconomic policies (monetary policy in particular) are geared to maintaining a stable exchange rate continuously, even though the exchange arrangement is flexible. In Croatia, the anchor was not an explicit, formal one, but ex post this episode can be considered as an instance of exchange-rate-based stabilization.
See Savastano (1996) for a useful review of this literature.
A number of studies, including Estrella and Mishkin (1996), Friedman and Kuttner (1996), and Feldstein and Stock (1994), have used this type of technique to approach the analogous question of which monetary aggregate is the most appropriate focus of targeting.
The finding for Peru may be affected by institutional changes that took place during the sample period. The Central Bank of Peru has found a narrow, purely domestic currency aggregate to be the most useful intermediate target.
It may also be difficult to implement an intermediate target that includes foreign assets. The lack of reliable data on DCC would make it difficult to do so.
For similar reasons (a high degree of indexation), the Central Bank of Chile’s main monetary instrument is an indexed instrument.
For example, preliminary evidence suggests that the short-run offset coefficient for Uruguay is higher than that for Bolivia, which implies that foreign exchange monetary intervention would be a more effective instrument in Bolivia than in Uruguay. Offset coefficients measure the extent to which changes in the net foreign assets of the central bank resulting from open market operations are offset by market-originated opposite changes in those assets.
For a discussion of these issues see Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department (1995).
Thus, in Peru, central bank intervention in the dollar money market is unnecessary, owing to the very high reserve requirements on FCD, and wide limits on banks’ open foreign exchange positions that facilitate arbitrage between the domestic currency and foreign currency financial markets.
The use of dollar sight deposits expanded rapidly in Bolivia after these accounts were authorized in 1988, notwithstanding that interbank clearing and settlement of checks drawn on these accounts was, until 1991, effected on the basis of private arrangements outside the central bank (see Figure 3).
There is some evidence that Argentine branches of foreign banks cut their exposure in the interbank market in the aftermath of the Mexican crisis.
This issue is illustrated by the case of the Philippines, where payments dollarization has been encouraged by the fact that the foreign currency payments system—where dollar transactions are sent on an electronic payments system operated by Citibank in Manila—technically dominates the peso payments system—which depends on the physical delivery of checks.
For example, although primarily motivated by the restrictions imposed by the currency board arrangement rather than by dollarization, the capital adequacy ratio was raised to 11.5 percent in Argentina. Moreover, since Argentina applies more stringent criteria for weighting risky assets, that ratio is equivalent to about 16 percent under the Basle guidelines. In Bolivia, it will gradually be raised to 10 percent, reflecting concerns about dollarization as well as broader concerns about the soundness of the banking system. These compare with a Basle guideline of 8 percent.
These requirements need not exceed those used for nondollarized economies, since foreign exchange exposure depends on a bank’s net, rather than gross, position. Moreover, the risk on the bank’s gross foreign currency position accrues from credit risk, rather than foreign exchange risk. However, to avoid circumvention via derivatives, foreign exchange open positions may need to be assessed on the basis of risk accounting principles (see Garber, 1996).
However, other considerations—e.g., risk of capital flight—limit the scope for unremunerated reserve requirements on FCD.
When liquidity requirements are fulfilled with domestic assets—rather than foreign liquid assets—the central bank needs to have sufficient foreign reserves to maintain the liquidity of these assets in the case of a systemic crisis. Liquidity requirements can take the form of fixed coefficients that can be differentiated by maturity of deposits to reflect differences in volatility (as in Argentina) or of limits on maturity mismatches. While more difficult to monitor, the latter also limit interest rate risk. As countries strengthen their supervisory capacity and banks improve their internal risk controls, liquidity requirements need to be substituted by more flexible and comprehensive methods to assess risk. See Gulde, Nascimento, and Zamalloa (1997).
Mexico’s experience with tesobonos in 1994 suggests that government bonds denominated in foreign currency may be subject to speculative attacks, particularly when they have short maturities and inadequate foreign reserve backing.
Thus, in the wake of the Mexican crisis in 1994, a number of Asian central banks established a protocol for mutual liquidity support. Argentina established an arrangement that facilitates emergency borrowing from foreign commercial banks by local commercial banks. Although these examples are not specific to dollarized economies, similar arrangements can be tailored to them. See Baliño and others (1997).
The “mexdollar” system, which was widely used in Mexico until the forced conversion of deposits in August 1982, and the “Patzam” in Israel provide other illustrations.
Thus, in Bolivia, their demand is mostly limited to public enterprises, which are required by law to hold their deposits in local currency. Similarly, in Nicaragua, dollar-indexed deposits pay a premium over dollar deposits.
In Brazil, both price indexation and interest rate indexation were broadly used. In particular, the indexation of deposits to the overnight interest rate protected the purchasing power of LCD throughout the turbulent inflationary period of the 1980s. However, the need to limit risks incurred by financial intermediaries in the overnight market eventually undermined the monetary anchor, since it induced pervasive monetary accommodation and led to the de facto creation of indexed money. See Garcia (1996).
Price indexation has been facilitated by the introduction in 1967 of a unit of account, the UF, that is published by the central bank daily on the basis of the consumer price index.
Also, since “dedollarization” measures are very difficult to apply to cash, part of the flow out of FCD can move to DCC.
Other countries where financial liberalization may have contributed to limit dollarization include Armenia, Estonia, Lithuania, and Poland (see Sahay and Végh,1996).
A too tight monetary stance, if sustained, can have other adverse macroeconomic and financial implications, including an increase in the burden of public domestic debt.
If the demand for dollar credits is elastic, an increase in unremunerated reserve requirements on FCD should have similar effects. When the demand for dollar credit is inelastic, an increase in unremunerated reserve requirements on FCD would raise dollar deposit rates and induce a capital inflow. Thus, dollarization, measured in terms of deposits, could rise.
Reserve requirements were reduced from a uniform ratio of 50 percent to 30 percent and 20 percent, on demand and term deposits, respectively. While the share of FCL in total loans increased from 2.2 percent at end-1993 to 11 percent at end-April 1996, the share of FCD in total deposits increased from 3.8 percent at end-1993 to only 5.3 percent at end-April 1996.
High reserve requirements on FCD were intended to limit short-term capital inflows and the associated prudential risk of rapid credit growth. In principle, this should also have encouraged the demand for LCD, but so far, probably owing to the low interest elasticity of LCD, growth in FCD has significantly outpaced growth in LCD. Between 1990 and 1996, end-of-year FCD balances increased from the equivalent of almost 3 percent of GDP to close to 14 percent of GDP, while LCD only grew from almost 2 percent of GDP to less than 5 percent over the same period.
In Uruguay, which is an important regional offshore center, the authorities have also expressed the view that attempts to lower dollarization through high reserve requirements and similar measures would drive dollar deposits offshore.
After FCD were later authorized again, Bolivian banks were subject to several incipient runs. The spread over LIBOR (London interbank offered rate) of dollar deposit rates, which reached over 900 basis points in 1987, was still over 400 basis points in December 1996.
In Poland, for instance, although accounts in domestic currency are not convertible into foreign currency, they may be converted by withdrawing zlotys, converting them to dollars and redepositing them.
For example, in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the lack of high-denomination notes contributed to promoting the use of U.S. dollars and the Thai baht. Also, introduction of higher-denominated riel notes in March 1995 prompted a significant increase in the demand for domestic currency banknotes.
Many countries already restrict or do not allow the counting of vault cash in fulfillment of reserve requirements because of the difficulty in monitoring those balances and because those funds are not immediately available for interbank settlement purposes (see Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department, 1995). However, this could be too costly for banks if their required reserves against FCD must be held with an overseas bank.
The spread, of course, would have to be limited so as not to give rise to a multiple-currency practice.
Measures to restrict the use of foreign cash were already in place.
However, to limit disintermediation into cash or deposits abroad, such taxes would need to be small. In Peru, in the late 1980s, a 2 percent transaction tax on both domestic and foreign currency debits encouraged disintermediation because many households and small enterprises resorted to payments in cash.
IMF staff estimates of ratios of FCD to broad money for 48 countries were not available, and these are assumed to proxy for nondollarized economies.
Countries with currency boards (Argentina and Estonia in the sample) and countries that use another country’s currency (such as Panama, which is outside of the sample) have employed different frameworks.
Of course, as highlighted in Section IV, even measures of money including FCD fail to capture foreign currency cash (especially important under currency substitution) and offshore FCD (especially important under asset substitution).
The inflation experience of these four countries does not suggest that major problems were encountered by targeting the broader monetary aggregate.
These three countries have been able to bring down inflation through controlling the domestic component of money despite prima facie evidence of at least some currency substitution. The exclusion of FCD for Peru is consistent with the central bank’s view that domestic aggregates are more appropriate intermediate targets. As noted in Section IV, however, Berg, Borensztein, and Chen (1997) found aggregates including FCD to be better predictors of inflation.
Following Kochhar (1996), a distinction is not made between required and excess reserves, since excess reserves can provide a useful warning of an increase in liquidity and a buildup of potential pressures on inflation, NIR, and the exchange rate. Thus, FCR refers to the sum of required reserves against FCD plus any excess reserves on FCD.
The operating target is important not only where explicit indicative targets are set on reserve money, but more generally in the calculation of NDA ceilings at the level of the central bank, since these are derived from a projection of reserve money (together with the NIR target).
This treatment of required reserves is not, however, intended to impugn the virtue of a system of required reserves for FCD, which remains a valuable prudential tool.
An equivalent definition would be to include the foreign exchange assets obtained by the central bank as the counterpart to FCR within “other foreign assets, net” and therefore outside of the NIR concept typically employed for program monitoring purposes. NFA would thereby be unaffected, since they are the sum of NIR and other “foreign assets, net.”
Valuation is also relevant for NDA targets if the central bank—or banking system, if this is the level of the operational target—has net exposure in foreign exchange. With market price valuation, exchange rate depreciations will generate NDA expansion (via losses) if there are net foreign exchange liabilities. If there are NFA, on the other hand, it will generate NDA contractions (via profits).
Because of data limitations, the measured velocity includes FCD. But, given that it does not include CBD and DCC, dollarization may be a reason for its higher variability.
Agénor, Pierre-Richard, and Mohsin S.Khan,1996, “Foreign Currency Deposits and the Demand for Money in Developing Countries,” Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 50, pp. 101–18.
Baliño, Tomás J.T., CharlesEnoch, AlainIze,VeerathaiSantiprabhob, PeterStella, and 1997, Currency Board Arrangements: Issues, Experiences, and Implications for IMF-Supported Programs, Occasional Paper 151 (Washington, D.C.: IMF).
Berg, Andrew, EduardoBorensztein, and ZhaohuiChen,1997, “Dollarization, Exchange Rates, and Monetary Policy” (unpublished; Washington: IMF).
Bordo, M., and E.Choudri,1982, “Currency Substitution and Demand for Money: Some Empirical Evidence for Canada,” Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol. 14, pp. 48–57.
Calvo, Guillermo, and CarlosVégh,1992, “Currency Substitution in Developing Countries: An Introduction,” Revista de Análisis Económico, Vol. 7, pp. 3–28.
Calvo, Guillermo, and CarlosVégh,1996, “From Currency Substitution to Dollarization and Beyond: Analytical and Policy Issues,”inGuillermo Calvo, Money, Exchange Rates, and Output (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press), pp. 153–75.
Clements, Benedict, and GerardSchwartz,1993, “Currency Substitution: The Recent Experience of Bolivia,” World Development, Vol. 21, pp. 1883–93.
Cuddington, J.,1983, “Currency Substitutability, Capital Mobility and Money Demand,” Journal of International Money and Finance, Vol. 2, pp. 111–33.
Drazen, Allen, and Paul R.Masson,1994, “Credibility of Policies Versus Credibility of Policymakers,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 109, pp. 735–54.
El-Erian, Mohamed, 1988, “Currency Substitution in Egypt and the Yemen Arab Republic: A Comparative Quantitative Analysis,” Staff Papers, IMF, Vol. 35, pp. 85–103.
Estrella, Arturo, and FredericMishkin,1996, “Is There a Role for Monetary Aggregates in the Conduct of Monetary Policy?” NBER Working Paper 5845 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research).
Feldstein, Martin, and James H.Stock,1994, “The Use of Monetary Aggregates to Target Nominal GDP,” in N. GregoryMankiw,ed., Monetary Policy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
Fischer, Stanley,1982, “Seignorage and the Case for a National Money,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 90, pp. 295–313.
Friedman, Benjamin M., and Kenneth N.Kuttner,1996, “A Price Target for U.S. Monetary Policy? Lessons from the Experience with Money Growth Targets,” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: 1, 1996, pp. 77–125.
Garber, Peter,1996, “Managing Risks to Financial Markets from Volatile Capital Flows: The Role of Prudential Regulation,” International Journal of Finance and Economics, Vol. 1, pp. 183–95.
García, Márcio,1996, “Avoiding Some Costs of Inflation and Crawling Toward Hyperinflation: The Case of the Brazilian Domestic Currency Substitute,” Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 51, pp. 139–59.
García-Herrero, Alicia,1997, “Banking Crisis in Latin America in the 1990s: Lessons from Argentina, Paraguay, and Venezuela,” Working Paper 97/140 (Washington: IMF).
Giovannini, AlbertoandBartTurtelboom,1994, “Currency Substitution,” in F.van der Ploeg,ed., Handbook of International Macroeconomics (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell).
Girton, Lance, and DonRoper,1981, “Theory and Implications of Currency Substitution,” Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol. 13, pp. 12–30.
Guidotti, Pablo, and CarlosRodríguez,1992, “Dollarization in Latin America: Gresham’s Law in Reverse?” Staff Papers, IMF, Vol. 39, pp. 518–44.
Gulde, Anne Marie, Jean ClaudeNascimento, and LorenaZamalloa,1997, “Liquid Asset Ratios and Financial Sector Reform,” Working Paper 97/144 (Washington: IMF).
Kamin, Steven, and NeilEricsson,1993, “Dollarization in Argentina,” International Finance Discussion Papers, No. 460 (Washington: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System).
Kiguel, Miguel, and NissanLiviatan,1994, “Exchange-Rate-Based Stabilization in Argentina and Chile: A Fresh Look,” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 1318 (Washington: World Bank).
Kochhar, Kalpana, 1996, “The Definition of Reserve Money: Does It Matter for Financial Programs?” Paper on Policy Analysis and Assessment 96/9 (Washington: IMF).
McKinnon, Ronald I.,1996, “Direct and Indirect Concepts of International Currency Substitution” in PaulMizenandEric J.Pentecost,eds., The Macroeconomics of International Currencies: Theory, Policy, and Evidence (Gloucestershire, U.K.: Edward Elgar), pp. 44–59.
Miles, M.A.,1978, “Currency Substitution, Flexible Exchange Rates, and Monetary Independence,” American Economic Review, Vol. 68, pp. 428–36.
Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department, IMF1995, “Reserve Requirements on Foreign Currency Deposits,” MAE Operational Paper 95/1 (Washington).
Mueller, Johannes,1994, “Dollarization in Lebanon,” Working Paper 94/129 (Washington: IMF).
Obstfeld, Maurice, and KennethRogoff,1996, Foundations of International Macroeconomics (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press).
Porter, Richard, and RuthJudson,1996, “The Location of U.S. Currency: How Much Is Abroad?” Federal Reserve Bulletin, Vol. 82, pp. 883–903.
Sahay, Ratna, and Carlos A.Végh,1996, “Dollarization in Transition Economies: Evidence and Policy Implications,” in PaulMizenandEric J.Pentecost,eds., The Macroeconomics of International Currencies: Theory, Policy, and Evidence (Gloucestershire, U.K.: Edward Elgar), pp. 195–224.
Savastano, M. A.,1992, “The Pattern of Currency Substitution in Latin America: An Overview,” Revista de Análisis Económico, Vol. 7, pp. 29–72.
Recent Occasional Papers of the International Monetary Fund
171. Monetary Policy in Dollarized Economies, by a staff team led by Tomás Baliño, Adam Bennett, and Eduardo Borensztein and comprising Andrew Berg, Zhaohui Chen, Alain Ize, David O. Robinson, Abebe Aemro Selassie, and Lorena Zamalloa. 1999.
170. The West African Economic and Monetary Union: Recent Developments and Policy Issues, by a staff team led by Ernesto Hernández-Catá and comprising Christian A. François, Paul Masson, Pascal Bouvier, Patrick Peroz, Dominique Desruelle, and Athanasios Vamvakidis. 1998.
169. Financial Sector Development in Sub-Saharan African Countries, by Hassanali Mehran, Piero Ugolini, Jean Phillipe Briffaux, George Iden, Tonny Lybek, Stephen Swaray, and Peter Hayward. 1998.
168. Exit Strategies: Policy Options for Countries Seeking Greater Exchange Rate Flexibility, by a staff team led by Barry Eichengreen and Paul Masson with Hugh Bredenkamp, Barry Johnston, Javier Hamann, Esteban Jadresic, and Inci Ötker. 1998.
167. Exchange Rate Assessment: Extensions of the Macroeconomic Balance Approach, edited by Peter Isard and Hamid Faruqee. 1998.
166. Hedge Funds and Financial Market Dynamics, by a staff team led by Barry Eichengreen and Donald Mathieson with Bankim Chadha, Anne Jansen, Laura Kodres, and Sunil Sharma. 1998.
165. Algeria: Stabilization and Transition to the Market, by Karim Nashashibi, Patricia Alonso-Gamo, Stefania Bazzoni, Alain Féler, Nicole Laframboise, and Sebastian Paris Horvitz. 1998.
164. MULTIMOD Mark III: The Core Dynamic and Steady-State Model, by Douglas Laxton, Peter Isard, Hamid Faruqee, Eswar Prasad, and Bart Turtelboom. 1998.
163. Egypt: Beyond Stabilization, Toward a Dynamic Market Economy, by a staff team led by Howard Handy. 1998.
162. Fiscal Policy Rules, by George Kopits and Steven Symansky. 1998.
161. The Nordic Banking Crises: Pitfalls in Financial Liberalization? by Burkhard Dress and Ceyla Pazarbaşioğlu. 1998.
160. Fiscal Reform in Low-Income Countries: Experience Under IMF-Supported Programs, by a staff team led by George T. Abed and comprising Liam Ebrill, Sanjeev Gupta, Benedict Clements, Ronald McMorran, Anthony Pellechio, Jerald Schiff, and Marijn Verhoeven. 1998.
159. Hungary: Economic Policies for Sustainable Growth, by Carlo Cottarelli, Thomas Krueger, Reza Moghadam, Perry Perone, Edgardo Ruggiero, and Rachel van Elkan. 1998.
158. Transparency in Government Operations, by George Kopits and Jon Craig. 1998.
157. Central Bank Reforms in the Baltics, Russia, and the Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union, by a staff team led by Malcolm Knight and comprising Susana Almuina, John Dalton, Inci Otker, Ceyla Pazarbaşioğlu, Arne B. Petersen, Peter Quirk, Nicholas M. Roberts, Gabriel Sensenbrenner, and Jan Willem van der Vossen. 1997.
156. The ESAF at Ten Years: Economic Adjustment and Reform in Low-Income Countries, by the staff of the International Monetary Fund. 1997.
155. Fiscal Policy Issues During the Transition in Russia, by Augusto Lopez-Claros and Sergei V. Alexashenko. 1998.
154. Credibility Without Rules? Monetary Frameworks in the Post–Bretton Woods Era, by Carlo Cottarelli and Curzio Giannini. 1997.
153. Pension Regimes and Saving, by G.A. Mackenzie, Philip Gerson, and Alfredo Cuevas. 1997.
152. Hong Kong, China: Growth, Structural Change, and Economic Stability During the Transition, by John Dodsworth and Dubravko Mihaljek. 1997.
151. Currency Board Arrangements: Issues and Experiences, by a staff team led by Tomás J.T. Baliño and Charles Enoch. 1997.
150. Kuwait: From Reconstruction to Accumulation for Future Generations, by Nigel Andrew Chalk, Mohamed A. El-Erian, Susan J. Fennell, Alexei P. Kireyev, and John F. Wilson. 1997.
149. The Composition of Fiscal Adjustment and Growth: Lessons from Fiscal Reforms in Eight Economies, by G.A. Mackenzie, David W.H. Orsmond, and Philip R. Gerson. 1997.
148. Nigeria: Experience with Structural Adjustment, by Gary Moser, Scott Rogers, and Remold van Til, with Robin Kibuka and Inutu Lukonga. 1997.
147. Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes, by Sheetal K. Chand and Albert Jaeger. 1996.
146. Thailand: The Road to Sustained Growth, by Kalpana Kochhar, Louis Dicks-Mireaux, Balazs Horvath, Mauro Mecagni, Erik Offerdal, and Jianping Zhou. 1996.
145. Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region, by Takatoshi Ito, Peter Isard, Steven Symansky, and Tamim Bayoumi. 1996.
144. National Bank of Poland: The Road to Indirect Instruments, by Piero Ugolini. 1996.
143. Adjustment for Growth: The African Experience, by Michael T. Hadjimichael, Michael Nowak, Robert Sharer, and Amor Tahari. 1996.
142. Quasi-Fiscal Operations of Public Financial Institutions, by G.A. Mackenzie and Peter Stella. 1996.
141. Monetary and Exchange System Reforms in China: An Experiment in Gradualism, by Hassanali Mehran, Marc Quintyn, Tom Nordman, and Bernard Laurens. 1996.
140. Government Reform in New Zealand, by Graham C. Scott. 1996.
139. Reinvigorating Growth in Developing Countries: Lessons from Adjustment Policies in Eight Economies, by David Goldsbrough, Sharmini Coorey, Louis Dicks-Mireaux, Balazs Horvath, Kalpana Kochhar, Mauro Mecagni, Erik Offerdal, and Jianping Zhou. 1996.
138. Aftermath of the CFA Franc Devaluation, by Jean A.P. Clement, with Johannes Mueller, Stéphane Cossé, and Jean Le Dem. 1996.
137. The Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Systemic Transformation and Adjustment, edited by Ichiro Otani and Chi Do Pham. 1996.
136. Jordan: Strategy for Adjustment and Growth, edited by Edouard Maciejewski and Ahsan Mansur. 1996.
135. Vietnam: Transition to a Market Economy, by John R. Dodsworth, Erich Spitaller, Michael Braulke, Keon Hyok Lee, Kenneth Miranda, Christian Mulder, Hisanobu Shishido, and Krishna Srinivasan. 1996.
134. India: Economic Reform and Growth, by Ajai Chopra, Charles Collyns, Richard Hemming, and Karen Parker with Woosik Chu and Oliver Fratzscher. 1995.
133. Policy Experiences and Issues in the Baltics, Russia, and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union, edited by Daniel A. Citrin and Ashok K. Lahiri. 1995.
132. Financial Fragilities in Latin America: The 1980s and 1990s, by Liliana Rojas-Suárez and Steven R. Weisbrod. 1995.
131. Capital Account Convertibility: Review of Experience and Implications for IMF Policies, by staff teams headed by Peter J. Quirk and Owen Evans. 1995.
130. Challenges to the Swedish Welfare State, by Desmond Lachman, Adam Bennett, John H. Green, Robert Hagemann, and Ramana Ramaswamy. 1995.
129. IMF Conditionality: Experience Under Stand-By and Extended Arrangements. Part II: Background Papers. Susan Schadler, Editor, with Adam Bennett, Maria Carkovic, Louis Dicks-Mireaux, Mauro Mecagni, James H.J. Morsink, and Miguel A. Savastano. 1995.
128. IMF Conditionality: Experience Under Stand-By and Extended Arrangements. Part I: Key Issues and Findings, by Susan Schadler, Adam Bennett, Maria Carkovic, Louis Dicks-Mireaux, Mauro Mecagni, James H.J. Morsink, and Miguel A. Savastano. 1995.
127. Road Maps of the Transition: The Baltics, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Russia, by Biswajit Banerjee, Vincent Koen, Thomas Krueger, Mark S. Lutz, Michael Marrese, and Tapio O. Saavalainen. 1995.
126. The Adoption of Indirect Instruments of Monetary Policy, by a staff team headed by William E. Alexander, Tomás J.T. Baliño, and Charles Enoch. 1995.
Note: For information on the title and availability of Occasional Papers not listed, please consult the IMF Publications Catalog or contact IMF Publication Services.