Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Peter Heller, and Alan Tait
Published Date:
April 1982
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Appendix
Table 10.Share of Functional Expenditures in Gross Domestic Product, 19771
CountryGeneral Public ServicesDefenseEducationHealthSocial Security and WelfareHousing and Community AmenitiesHealth, Social Security, and WelfareAgriculture, Forestry, and FisheriesMining, Manufacturing, and ConstructionElectricity, Natural Gas, and WaterTransportation and Communications
Argentina1.41.81.30.43.70.44.10.21.11.8
Australia2.02.75.94.56.40.510.90.82.1
Austria5.41.13.74.714.21.219.00.80.42.5
Bahamas3.10.45.13.00.80.13.80.41.31.0
Bahrain4.42.23.23.50.87.04.30.40.15.82.3
Bangladesh1.50.21.40.50.91.42.10.10.9
Barbados4.90.26.43.64.51.58.01.50.64.3
Belgium2.92.77.34.017.70.821.70.40.83.8
Bolivia2.31.83.21.00.30.21.30.40.40.31.7
Botswana8.42.07.92.50.11.92.53.30.51.44.9
Brazil2.71.11.21.67.20.18.70.80.20.21.5
Burma2.53.71.60.80.80.61.72.40.20.6
Burundi3.52.44.51.00.71.82.60.30.52.1
Cameroon5.31.73.01.01.32.31.40.70.23.3
Canada2.11.75.94.99.31.414.21.87.4
Chad3.33.92.00.60.30.10.93.10.10.7
Chile4.63.54.22.08.51.410.50.70.11.2
Costa Rica2.00.85.50.64.50.45.20.52.9
Cyprus4.62.53.11.44.73.46.11.10.10.80.9
Denmark3.22.43.64.814.30.619.12.00.31.0
Dominican Rep.2.21.41.81.41.02.12.41.80.70.41.3
Ecuador1.83.23.50.90.11.01.20.1
Egypt5.64.75.01.76.31.48.02.20.20.70.6
El Salvador2.40.92.91.40.40.51.81.00.21.4
Ethiopia2.71.92.21.00.90.11.82.00.10.12.4
Fiji5.70.55.72.20.71.02.91.80.61.02.1
Finland2.31.47.15.28.50.713.73.30.70.32.6
France2.62.65.85.416.11.121.60.60.40.10.5
Gambia, The11.73.33.01.00.24.05.20.96.5
Germany, Fed. Rep.1.22.94.75.515.11.120.50.73.1
Ghana3.03.61.41.52.81.70.41.6
Greece2.65.93.13.08.80.611.72.00.50.22.4
Grenada1.43.74.33.71.20.34.81.22.8
Guatemala1.51.41.40.81.20.32.00.51.80.9
Honduras4.91.83.62.60.80.53.40.50.1
Iceland3.03.75.64.19.73.51.40.10.91.8
India1.02.90.30.30.40.30.71.1
Iran2.210.03.61.21.31.62.51.31.83.72.1
Ireland1.96.90.16.90.6
Israel2.325.65.42.811.70.614.50.50.90.61.1
Italy3.91.34.96.513.00.819.51.12.52.8
Jamaica4.20.96.22.61.12.03.82.30.30.62.1
Japan4.23.04.31.47.22.92.1
Jordan8.117.35.92.76.00.78.72.34.13.19.3
Kenya3.72.64.81.80.11.82.20.40.82.4
Korea1.75.92.70.30.80.11.10.90.10.20.6
Kuwait4.76.63.72.01.33.43.30.14.12.7
Lesotho8.85.41.40.61.12.14.70.20.61.4
Liberia9.81.24.12.20.40.52.62.20.22.5
Luxembourg4.21.04.10.923.60.524.51.56.5
Madagascar4.70.83.11.62.10.13.72.90.10.11.1
Malawi3.51.72.20.80.41.22.80.22.6
Malaysia5.54.96.62.10.60.12.61.00.11.0
Mali4.83.54.51.20.72.01.50.50.10.7
Malta3.51.23.53.513.21.816.71.02.10.82.6
Mauritius6.90.24.82.74.20.86.94.50.61.2
Mexico1.10.63.40.74.85.52.20.61.3
Morocco13.97.05.91.32.20.93.5
Nepal1.60.91.50.70.10.10.82.40.90.72.8
Netherlands7.83.57.95.620.31.326.0
New Zealand2.41.55.15.110.00.415.11.70.10.11.5
Nicaragua2.02.02.70.63.12.13.81.10.10.1
Niger7.21.35.11.30.61.91.40.50.41.8
Nigeria3.44.52.40.60.30.80.80.63.80.65.8
Norway3.23.27.74.311.72.516.03.40.70.23.6
Oman8.520.71.02.11.72.10.54.14.26.8
Pakistan1.85.40.40.30.40.60.70.60.60.41.7
Panama6.15.74.23.80.58.01.00.81.12.4
Papua New Guinea6.31.36.02.60.11.32.73.00.90.54.7
Paraguay1.71.41.50.31.90.22.20.41.8
Peru2.63.03.51.10.51.11.81.0
Philippines2.63.11.80.70.40.21.11.60.40.42.3
Portugal5.72.63.52.38.01.210.20.60.60.1
Rwanda2.62.22.00.60.20.91.00.40.52.6
Senegal4.01.73.01.00.70.31.70.80.20.2
Sierra Leone5.51.63.41.60.60.22.11.10.20.70.8
Singapore2.26.02.91.50.31.71.80.11.3
Somalia9.87.45.22.20.72.12.95.01.12.1
Spain1.11.12.02.210.30.512.40.90.21.1
Sri Lanka2.40.62.71.45.90.17.31.80.1
Sudan1.53.01.30.40.71.14.02.5
Suriname15.56.73.62.91.66.50.82.10.92.7
Swaziland7.51.85.91.80.11.31.93.60.70.93.4
Sweden3.43.47.76.118.71.124.71.40.60.71.5
Switzerland0.92.10.82.210.30.312.61.00.11.7
Syrian Arab Rep.1.614.43.20.43.51.33.92.210.33.52.8
Tanzania5.43.53.82.00.30.32.33.32.11.51.8
Thailand1.63.33.80.80.60.41.41.80.10.31.8
Tunisia3.21.47.62.44.00.56.42.71.43.0
Turkey2.73.54.90.60.40.61.10.71.92.94.0
United Arab Emirates3.34.31.40.80.30.31.10.10.4
United Kingdom3.14.86.15.09.13.614.10.90.80.12.6
United States0.85.05.03.08.60.711.60.20.5
Upper Volta3.43.32.40.80.50.11.30.30.11.0
Uruguay3.42.42.21.210.10.111.20.30.10.91.4
Venezuela2.52.34.31.52.11.93.63.02.63.23.0
Yemen Arab Rep.5.48.01.60.60.60.31.7
Yugoslavia0.95.25.68.213.90.3
Zambia10.85.82.50.10.62.64.91.20.33.2
Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980); Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, National Accounts of OECD Countries, 1960–78, Vol. 2 (Paris, 1979), and Public Expenditure Trends (Paris, June 1978).

See Table 1 for those countries for which the data relate to earlier years.

Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980); Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, National Accounts of OECD Countries, 1960–78, Vol. 2 (Paris, 1979), and Public Expenditure Trends (Paris, June 1978).

See Table 1 for those countries for which the data relate to earlier years.

Table 11.Functional Expenditures as Percentage of Total Expenditure, 19771
CountryGeneral Public ServicesDefenseEducationHealthSocial Security and WelfareHousing and Community AmenitiesHealth, Social Security, and WelfareAgriculture, Forestry, and FisheriesMining, Manufacturing, and ConstructionElectricity, Natural Gas, and WaterTransportation and Communications
Argentina8.610.87.92.522.12.349.10.90.16.53.9
Australia6.89.020.315.622.21.723.93.11.3
Austria14.73.110.113.039.03.242.22.11.03.4
Bahamas15.20.225.214.74.10.318.82.06.44.9
Bahrain10.95.37.88.62.017.119.10.90.214.33.2
Bangladesh12.94.48.58.519.41.30.2
Barbados14.30.619.010.613.24.517.74.41.99.1
Belgium6.15.715.38.437.21.638.80.81.75.9
Bolivia18.914.725.68.02.71.84.53.03.02.32.9
Botswana21.95.220.56.40.24.85.18.61.43.70.7
Brazil12.75.25.67.333.40.433.83.80.81.02.2
Burma17.526.211.25.96.04.510.517.21.21.2
Burundi16.211.220.64.73.43.412.01.22.24.2
Cameroon27.99.115.75.76.912.07.60.30.917.0
Canada9.77.615.112.523.63.527.14.54.2
Chad22.425.813.54.21.90.42.320.90.50.11.9
Chile14.611.113.36.227.04.331.32.20.10.31.9
Costa Rica9.73.826.63.122.01.923.92.20.21.0
Cyprus17.28.98.95.217.712.630.34.30.52.91.6
Denmark9.97.49.911.835.11.536.64.90.92.5
Dominican Rep.12.79.511.38.96.213.619.911.54.22.87.1
Ecuador13.023.425.76.80.80.89.10.7
Egypt9.07.58.02.710.12.212.43.60.31.10.5
El Salvador15.95.719.59.02.73.66.36.90.11.34.2
Ethiopia11.44.94.40.44.710.30.80.81.8
Fiji23.72.023.89.03.04.17.17.62.64.21.9
Finland7.24.218.313.422.21.723.98.72.20.95.7
France6.76.815.114.242.12.844.91.61.00.21.7
Gambia, The33.19.48.52.80.53.314.72.415.7
Germany, Fed. Rep.3.99.712.114.238.92.941.81.83.8
Ghana3.01.018.77.17.67.68.62.30.10.3
Greece8.018.29.69.127.11.929.06.30.70.61.3
Grenada5.814.717.214.74.71.25.94.711.4
Guatemala13.112.111.87.010.02.412.44.50.215..21.3
Honduras27.610.420.614.64.72.67.33.10.7
Iceland9.511.617.412.94.417.310.90.32.90.6
India5.416.11.71.52.52.54.26.3
Iran4.223.08.62.93.13.97.03.24.28.72.5
Israel3.235.97.63.916.40.817.30.71.20.91.2
Italy5.72.812.616.833.52.135.52.86.4
Jamaica10.82.315.96.82.95.17.95.80.71.52.2
Japan19.013.319.26.425.613.00.2
Jordan11..224.08.23.78.31.012.03.25.74.312.9
Kenya16.111.120.57.70.20.60.79.41.63.32.6
Korea9.130.814.31.54.30.75.04.50.61.30.4
Kuwait12.116.79.35.13.48.612.00.110.57.03.7
Lesotho34.321.15.62.54.57.018.40.92.40.2
Liberia31.74.013.27.01.41.83.17.10.60.11.6
Luxembourg9.12.28.81.851.21.052.33.20.17.9
Madagascar22.84.014.87.810.00.210.213.90.50.30.4
Malawi16.48.010.43.81.60.21.913.30.10.83.2
Malaysia17.415.420.86.61.80.22.03.20.40.4
Mali26.919.325.06.94.111.08.42.80.34.0
Malta8.63.08.78.532.34.436.62.55.12.02.7
Mauritius19.20.613.37.511.72.113.812.30.11.62.0
Mexico6.53.519.34.227.127.112.63.65.3
Morocco32.116.313.73.05.12.17.2
Nepal12.47.111.25.50.60.51.118..36.75.34.2
Netherlands14.66.714.99.838.22.440.6
New Zealand6.33.913.613.526.61.027.54.60.30.21.4
Nicaragua11.411.515.33.718.011.829.86.10.50.810.0
Niger31.85.922.45.82.82.86.32.11.62.9
Nigeria7.71.80.92.63.52.012.21.8
Norway7.06.918.08.621.95.026.96.71.40.43.3
Oman14.735.81.73.72.92.90.97.07.25.7
Pakistan7.923.81.91.11.92.54.52.52.81.95.8
Panama19.918.413.612.31.714.03.42.63.72.3
Papua New Guinea19.94.318.98.20.24.04.29.32.81.66.3
Paraguay15.312.413.22.716.71.718.43.60.40.2
Peru12.714.817.55.50.22.52.79.15.04.5
Philippines16.619.911.94.52.51.07.010.42.72.215.0
Portugal18.514.311.27.225.63.929.52.01.90.35.9
Rwanda19.115.815.04.81.60.21.87.42.93.31.8
Senegal24.010.318.95.94.71.86.45.21.00.1
Sierra Leone26.37.816.07.62.60.910.25.41.13.24.0
Singapore9.425.412.56.31.17.38.50.30.13.8
Solomon Islands34.914.111.61.00.71.714.60.91.14.7
Somalia26.820.114.06.11.95.67.513.63.14.2
Spain4.24.57.88.737.81.839.63.40.90.12.1
Sri Lanka10.22.611.55.925.50.626.17.90.57.8
Sudan5.911.55.11.42.70.12.815.40.18.9
Suriname37.015.98.66.83.710.51.95.12.22.9
Swaziland22.65.418.05.40.33.94.210.92.12.61.0
Sweden7.77.514.111.034.22.036.22.51.41.21.4
Switzerland4.310.23.910.749.51.250.74.80.24.1
Syrian Arab Rep.2.725.05.50.76.02.38.33.817.86.00.5
Tanzania19.212.213.57.01.21.22.411.57.35.40.6
Thailand9.118.321.24.43.52.35.89.80.41.41.0
Tunisia8.84.020.86.510.91.412.37.43.86.0
Turkey10.613.619.12.41.72.34.12.87.211.10.8
United Arab Emirates27.235.811.96.72.42.64.90.80.23.14.9
United Kingdom7.112.614.812.221.88.830.62.01.90.21.6
United States3.621.416.813.329.72.432.10.82.0
Upper Volta14.45.12.70.53.21.60.8
Uruguay14.210.39.14.942.40.447.31.20.43.85.8
Venezuela7.06.512.34.35.85.411.38.67.59.13.2
Yemen Arab Rep.25.237.57.42.91.50.12.4
Yugoslavia3.719.923.634.734.71.3
Zambia27.614.86.50.21.51.612.43.20.95.1
Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980); Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, National Accounts of OECD Countries, 1960–78; Vol. II (Paris, 1979), and Public Expenditure Trends (Paris, June 1978).

See Table 1 for those countries for which the data relate to earlier years.

Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980); Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, National Accounts of OECD Countries, 1960–78; Vol. II (Paris, 1979), and Public Expenditure Trends (Paris, June 1978).

See Table 1 for those countries for which the data relate to earlier years.

Table 12.Share of Economic Expenditures in Gross Domestic Product, 19771
CountryCurrent Expenditures2 (1)Goods and Services3 (2)Wages and Salaries (3)Other Goods and Services (4)Interest (5)Subsidies and Transfers (6)Capital Expenditure4 (7)Acquisition of Capital Assets (8)Capital Transfers (9)
Argentina11.14.51.81.94.32.51.8
Australia32.818.23.011.74.34.2
Austria33.010.14.65.81.321.63.01.41.4
Bahamas16.413.69.93.71.31.52.7
Bahrain15.313.27.06.20.21.921.713.38.0
Barbados25.119.211.27.51.94.08.65.42.9
Belgium43.111.18.03.03.228.84.02.31.4
Bolivia10.28.15.71.80.31.82.11.50.6
Botswana22.315.39.45.61.25.813.813.10.7
Brazil17.04.42.61.81.910.72.42.4
Burma11.82.2
Cameroon11.810.15.84.36.21.56.86.40.4
Canada36.119.84.112.13.23.2
Chad12.42.7
Chile27.312.98.73.12.711.83.43.30.1
Congo, People’s Rep.6.13.50.80.7
Costa Rica15.810.28.22.61.24.44.32.91.1
Cyprus21.314.09.94.11.26.05.64.31.2
Dominican Rep.8.16.54.71.80.21.66.04.61.2
Egypt43.718.910.88.12.322.69.64.83.7
El Salvador9.16.40.22.53.21.81.4
Ethiopia16.014.47.37.10.60.93.43.3
Fiji16.914.08.24.51.21.76.95.71.2
Finland34.019.50.713.84.24.1
France35.69.26.53.10.825.71.70.70.9
Gambia, The21.118.57.311.20.32.312.212.10.1
Germany, Fed. Rep.41.220.01.719.53.33.2
Greece26.821.914.07.71.63.45.34.20.5
Grenada21.018.210.67.60.82.02.5
Guatemala7.25.33.51.70.61.23.51.22.3
Honduras11.210.95.95.00.70.56.34.41.9
Iceland22.110.26.82.91.710.25.72.53.2
India12.04.32.22.11.66.12.31.30.9
Indonesia9.65.60.63.58.87.71.1
Iran27.819.510.78.80.38.015.614.50.5
Ireland38.98.75.83.05.524.73.51.12.5
Israel63.029.27.421.810.423.52.81.31.5
Italy33.27.55.71.94.321.44.51.72.8
Jamaica25.815.010.24.83.57.37.95.02.7
Japan12.42.31.38.73.30.92.2
Jordan43.831.31.111.324.319.83.9
Kenya16.811.97.14.71.43.55.04.2
Korea13.87.82.85.00.85.22.61.41.0
Kuwait26.215.87.08.710.47.54.6
Lesotho18.713.46.96.50.25.16.96.40.4
Liberia17.913.78.94.90.73.49.59.5
Luxembourg40.110.88.81.70.928.44.12.71.0
Madagascar15.811.38.13.10.34.24.74.7
Malawi12.29.63.36.31.41.37.87.30.4
Malaysia22.414.210.43.93.05.25.63.62.0
Mali16.713.410.92.50.13.31.51.5
Malta32.719.912.67.20.812.05.95.9
Mauritius24.012.810.02.81.59.77.24.62.5
Mexico12.87.55.61.91.93.43.82.71.1
Morocco22.015.511.04.51.64.820.920.40.2
Netherlands48.88.65.92.71.738.43.12.0
Nicaragua10.57.94.83.11.11.45.32.62.1
Niger17.912.16.15.91.94.84.03.30.7
Nigeria14.57.33.24.20.51.610.78.32.4
Norway45.718.52.824.31.61.6
Oman32.826.75.021.70.65.525.123.01.7
Pakistan12.98.51.82.63.53.5
Panama24.717.611.46.23.04.15.42.92.4
Papua New Guinea26.623.21.71.73.62.90.6
Paraguay8.46.73.92.80.31.32.82.40.4
Peru13.99.12.22.64.83.31.5
Philippines11.88.84.04.30.62.62.2
Rwanda8.87.84.23.60.11.04.64.6
Senegal14.111.56.84.70.42.31.81.30.5
Sierra Leone17.413.85.68.31.22.33.6
Singapore16.412.86.36.52.70.93.73.2
Somalia28.97.8
South Africa19.610.51.57.63.42.11.0
Spain20.410.67.23.30.49.43.31.81.4
Sri Lanka17.67.35.02.22.87.55.52.92.6
Sudan15.59.92.47.41.24.410.710.7
Suriname27.624.116.08.10.23.414.313.80.2
Swaziland17.815.510.15.30.12.29.89.8
Sweden57.829.62.825.44.74.7
Switzerland30.312.92.215.21.7
Tanzania19.816.07.78.41.32.58.34.04.3
Thailand13.29.53.95.61.12.64.43.80.6
Tunisia22.013.19.52.81.07.912.26.85.4
Turkey17.610.67.12.50.56.57.06.20.5
United Arab Emirates8.83.3
United Kingdom35.212.76.16.23.419.12.00.91.1
United States33.518.92.611.91.71.7
Upper Volta12.610.53.80.90.61.52.70.50.4
Uruguay20.89.76.82.60.410.82.22.00.2
Venezuela16.712.39.42.90.63.815.73.112.6
Yemen Arab Rep.13.812.68.04.60.21.07.6
Yugoslavia25.57.717.80.50.5
Zaire24.819.811.4842.62.46.85.01.8
Zambia29.019.610.49.13.65.85.94.11.9
Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980); Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, National Accounts of OECD Countries, 1960–78, Vol. 2 (Paris, 1979), and Public Expenditure Trends (Paris, June 1979).

See Table 2 for those countries for which the data relate to earlier years.

The sum of columns 2, 5, and 6. Note that where columns 3 and 4 do not round up to column 2, the discrepancy is due to government contributions to employee pension plans.

The sum of columns 3 and 4.

The sum of columns 8 and 9. Note that where columns 8 and 9 do not round up to column 7, the discrepancy is due to the purchases or sales of stocks, land, and intangible assets.

Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980); Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, National Accounts of OECD Countries, 1960–78, Vol. 2 (Paris, 1979), and Public Expenditure Trends (Paris, June 1979).

See Table 2 for those countries for which the data relate to earlier years.

The sum of columns 2, 5, and 6. Note that where columns 3 and 4 do not round up to column 2, the discrepancy is due to government contributions to employee pension plans.

The sum of columns 3 and 4.

The sum of columns 8 and 9. Note that where columns 8 and 9 do not round up to column 7, the discrepancy is due to the purchases or sales of stocks, land, and intangible assets.

Table 13.Economic Expenditures as Percentage of Total Expenditure, 19771
CountryCurrent Expenditures2 (1)Goods and Services3 (2)Wages and Salaries (3)Other Goods and Services (4)Interest (5)Subsidies and Transfers (6)Capital Expenditure4 (7)Acquisition of Capital Assets (8)Capital Transfers (9)
Argentina66.526.810.729.025.715.210.5
Australia88.449.08.031.511.611.2
Austria90.327.711.015.83.559.18.23.93.9
Bahamas81.668.049.518.56.47.213.3
Bahrain37.432.217.215.10.44.753.132.619.5
Barbados74.256.633.022.25.611.925.416.08.5
Belgium90.723.416.86.36.760.58.54.83.0
Bolivia82.665.746.214.62.514.317.312.35.0
Botswana58.039.824.414.63.115.235.834.01.8
Brazil79.320.511.98.69.049.811.411.3
Burma83.915.9
Cameroon61.952.930.222.71.37.835.833.52.3
Canada91.850.510.530.88.28.2
Chad82.517.6
Chile86.741.627.79.98.537.210.810.30.4
Costa Rica76.449.139.89.75.821.420.614.15.3
Cyprus77.451.136.214.94.521.920.315.54.5
Dominican Rep.55.143.731.712.01.410.740.331.08.4
Egypt70.330.417.413.03.736.315.47.76.0
El Salvador60.242.31.616.321.211.99.3
Ethiopia82.174.137.636.53.24.817.217.10.1
Fiji70.558.434.218.65.26.928.823.94.9
Finland89.151.01.936.210.910.8
France92.923.916.98.22.067.04.41.82.5
Gambia, The59.852.420.731.70.86.634.534.30.2
Germany, Fed. Rep.92.544.93.943.77.57.1
Greece82.767.543.423.94.810.316.312.91.4
Grenada84.373.142.730.53.38.09.9
Guatemala61.345.529.614.55.110.729.610.119.5
Honduras63.561.833.628.13.72.736.024.711.0
Iceland69.232.021.49.25.232.118.07.810.1
India65.823.812.311.58.733.312.77.04.9
Indonesia47.927.72.917.343.938.45.5
Iran64.144.924.620.30.718.435.933.31.0
Ireland83.918.912.56.411.853.27.62.35.3
Israel88.440.910.330.514.533.03.91.82.2
Italy73.716.712.54.19.547.510.03.76.3
Jamaica66.238.426.112.39.018.820.312.86.9
Japan77.414.58.354.520.45.813.8
Jordan60.643.41.615.733.727.45.3
Kenya72.451.1.30.520.36.215.021.518.0
Korea72.141.014.626.44.027.113.57.25.3
Kuwait66.740.217.822.226.519.111.7
Lesotho72.351.626.625.00.919.826.724.71.7
Liberia58.044.528.715.82.411.130.830.8
Luxembourg86.923.419.23.72.061.59.06.02.2
Madagascar76.354.639.415.21.320.423.022.70.2
Malawi57.245.015.629.36.45.936.434.42.0
Malaysia71.145.232.812.39.416.517.711.46.3
Mali93.474.760.714.10.518.28.28.2
Malta79.848.530.817.62.129.314.514.5
Mauritius72.038.530.08.54.529.021.613.77.6
Mexico72.842.631.611.010.719.421.615.56.0
Morocco51.136.125.710.43.811.248.547.50.5
Netherlands91.616.211.15.23.372.15.83.8
Nicaragua60.145.427.617.96.68.130.314.712.3
Niger78.652.926.926.08.221.317.514.63.0
Norway96.639.26.051.43.53.5
Oman56.646.18.737.41.09.543.439.72.9
Pakistan56.637.48.011.215.415.30.1
Panama80.257.137.020.09.813.417.49.47.8
Papua New Guinea86.475.35.55.611.79.32.0
Paraguay73.358.934.624.32.711.724.921.53.4
Peru68.945.011.212.723.916.57.3
Philippines76.557.326.228.63.616.614.1
Rwanda65.057.230.926.30.77.133.533.5
Senegal83.868.140.427.72.213.610.87.63.2
Sierra Leone82.266.026.539.55.811.017.2
Singapore70.054.726.827.911.53.916.013.70.2
Solomon Islands68.749.927.720.718.726.021.14.9
Somalia78.821.2
South Africa73.039.65.728.212.77.83.7
Spain81.342.128.813.31.637.613.27.25.7
Sri Lanka75.431.321.79.612.032.223.612.511.1
Sudan58.937.59.228.34.816.740.640.6
Suriname65.857.338.119.20.58.034.032.90.4
Swaziland54.147.030.816.20.46.729.729.7
Sweden92.547.44.540.67.57.5
Tanzania70.156.727.129.64.58.929.314.015.3
Thailand73.552.921.631.36.214.424.721.13.6
Tunisia60.936.426.47.82.721.833.718.714.9
Turkey68.440.927.39.72.125.427.324.21.8
United Arab Emirates72.427.1
United Kingdom91.733.215.816.28.949.65.32.32.8
United States95.153.87.533.84.94.8
Uruguay87.740.828.811.11.645.39.48.41.0
Venezuela48.435.527.28.31.911.045.58.936.5
Yemen Arab Rep.64.559.037.421.70.84.735.5
Yugoslavia98.229.668.61.81.8
Zaire78.462.536.626.5837.621.515.95.6
Zambia73.950.026.623.29.114.815.110.44.7
Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980); Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, National Accounts of OECD Countries, 1960–78, Vol. 2 (Paris, 1979), and Public Expenditure Trends (Paris, June 1978).

See Table 2 for those countries for which the data relate to earlier years.

The sum of columns 2, 5, and 6. Note that where columns 3 and 4 do not round up to column 2, the discrepancy is due to government contribution to employee pension plans.

The sum of columns 3 and 4.

The sum of columns 8 and 9. Note that where columns 8 and 9 do not round up to column 7, the discrepancy is due to purchases or sales of stocks, land, and intangible assets.

Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980); Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, National Accounts of OECD Countries, 1960–78, Vol. 2 (Paris, 1979), and Public Expenditure Trends (Paris, June 1978).

See Table 2 for those countries for which the data relate to earlier years.

The sum of columns 2, 5, and 6. Note that where columns 3 and 4 do not round up to column 2, the discrepancy is due to government contribution to employee pension plans.

The sum of columns 3 and 4.

The sum of columns 8 and 9. Note that where columns 8 and 9 do not round up to column 7, the discrepancy is due to purchases or sales of stocks, land, and intangible assets.

Table 14.Variables Used in Estimating Expenditure Equations: 1977 or Latest Available Year
CountryIncome per Capita (in $)Share of Total Public Expenditure in GDPShare of Total Public Expenditure (Net of Defense) in GDPShare of Population Under 15Share of Population Over 65Infant Mortality RateShare of Population in Urban AreasPopulation Growth Rate in Urban AreasShare of Labor Force in AgricultureShare of Labor Force in Industry
Argentina1,98817142983811.91429
Australia6,84330272791872.0635
Austria6,366373523151530.61241
Bahamas3,86820204144583.3720
Bahrain6,04841394536
Bangladesh8011114632396.3787
Barbados1,95534343293451.31025
Belgium8,066484522141710.5443
Bolivia481121143322304.25123
Botswana524383646423118.9834
Brazil1,46321204239614.54220
Burma133141041415253.85519
Burundi13122194332821.7855
Cameroon412171543327278.0746
Canada8,65722202681781.9630
Benin184462272310.44715
Chad150151139430146.8876
Chile1,40032283455792.52127
Congo, People’s Rep.41843327363.03626
Costa Rica1,49121204133413.33029
Cyprus1,74027242892421.63528
Denmark9,780373421141821.1837
Dominican Rep.816161447310465.45816
Ecuador854141046310424.14724
Egypt358625740418442.75126
El Salvador67315144638403.14715
Ethiopia114191845237127.0817
Fiji1,29524233631393.64416
Finland6,653333121111572.81438
France7,210383624131751.71041
Gambia, The2083542434243.4798
Germany, Fed. Rep.8,420302721141830.8548
Ghana3701948323325.15419
Greece2,822322723131572.44027
Grenada54925214464153121
Guatemala851121043315373.65719
Honduras403181647314325.36315
Iceland7,690322891871.81340
India162181542318213.17311
Indonesia3302041319183.36012
Iran1,950423246314455.04132
Ireland2,8694630111552.32136
Israel3,79071463381873.3837
Italy3,439393723121671.51347
Jamaica1,46639384463463.62427
Japan6,593162481752.41437
Jordan790522847316534.52839
Kenya278232147314127.0799
Korea97119133735495.44533
Kuwait11,55439334822847.8234
Lesotho10625253942138.1884
Liberia396313043323305.67314
Luxembourg9,640464520131742.7844
Madagascar183212045327164.3845
Malawi1632120443272018.4875
Malaysia1,04632274333304.84420
Mali114201744332175.3895
Malta1,80841402311790.7542
Mauritius77336363644441.03025
Mexico1,14918174646634.63425
Morocco566433646217374.15319
Nepal10513124232344.4932
Netherlands7,690535024111760.5645
New Zealand5,02638362991832.21035
Nicaragua826171548217504.54414
Niger144232147232106.8923
Nigeria551312746224184.65618
Norway8,905464323141473.1837
Oman2,22458374342963
Pakistan202231747317264.15820
Panama1,226314243514.13018
Papua New Guinea558323042319138.0848
Paraguay74211104538383.35119
Peru767201744316634.54020
Philippines46715124637343.55115
Portugal1,563312826112282.32736
Rwanda17614114722745.6923
Senegal415161444332242.9779
Sierra Leone206232243327215.66818
Singapore2,954231731411001.6232
Solomon Islands4844.94515
Somalia107372945231275.0837
South Africa1,539274143110482.93030
Spain3,299252426111712.41942
Sri Lanka19523233842243.75415
Sudan349262345331206.97910
Suriname1,575424935503.21924
Swaziland614333145327149.3756
Sweden9,24845412115851.2537
Switzerland9,583211922121561.0648
Syrian Arab Rep.886584346414474.74923
Tanzania19728254632098.5846
Thailand42218154536143.5778
Togo29246327155.56914
Tunisia852373543415483.64323
Turkey1,158262241510434.76214
United Arab Emirates20,840128444296520.5
United Kingdom4,018423723141900.5243
United States8,431231824111701.3333
Upper Volta12517134433283.68411
Uruguay1,47223212893830.41232
Venezuela2,80835334435804.42127
Yemen Arab Rep.40221134533187.37611
Yugoslavia2,02724192592383.04234
Zaire1883043327355.47613
Zambia4843947323345.46911
Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980), and International Financial Statistics; International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Tables (1980, 2nd ed.).
Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980), and International Financial Statistics; International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Tables (1980, 2nd ed.).
Table 15.Variables Used in Estimating Expenditure Equations: 1977 or Latest Available Year
CountryPrimary School Enrollment RateSecondary School Enrollment RatePupil-Teacher Ratio, Primary SchoolIndex of Access to Clean WaterPopulation per Hospital BedShare of GDP in ManufacturingShare of GDP in AgricultureShare of Other Manufacturing and Fuel in Total Exports
Argentina108561866170341216
Australia9273211008021631
Austria10277211009030558
Bahamas13575446523099
Bahrain10025021237
Bangladesh832355534,43085362
Barbados1087833100116101048
Belgium106891910011026259
Bolivia80322334510131796
Botswana92183345340626
Brazil90182277260241016
Burma802252171,22010488
Burundi223317602
Cameroon12017512638014333
Canada106942510011019431
Benin531048207808348
Chad41375261,1407484
Chile117483983300211192
Congo, People’s Rep.155526138190161369
Costa Rica111433377260202321
Cyprus69612695200141239
Denmark103771610010019632
Dominican Rep.110245455350192116
Ecuador102423840430172161
Egypt72424066460202649
El Salvador77214853500153428
Ethiopia2364662,9809474
Fiji110503269340102221
Finland103971910070281050
France108851810010027542
Gambia, The32927121,291251
Germany, Fed. Rep.12966231008038343
Ghana4450303560093822
Greece105833095160161449
Grenada994238381492271
Guatemala3540470
Honduras891335466601530
Iceland101792110070105
India792842331,231153650
Indonesia822030121,560103269
Iran9848315165012998
Ireland10990311009040
Israel12839179017019570
Italy10571181009033857
Jamaica9858398626020977
Japan101922510010030541
Jordan8449365695013728
Kenya105153317760123527
Korea1096349621,430222169
Kuwait93601689210696
Lesotho119155317560119
Liberia6216412069052976
Luxembourg114532010090343
Madagascar92146126410143914
Malawi565613376014435
Malaysia94453262270173023
Mali2872791,35012391
Malta10175219010028577
Mauritius10345246028015192
Mexico116374662860291051
Morocco65174055710161622
Nepal60123196,6301062
Netherlands10192271009027452
New Zealand111852310014016
Nicaragua85213970400202416
Niger21341271,20011453
Nigeria4910341,17083294
Norway10289171007020643
Oman442243264013100
Pakistan501742292,020142962
Panama124533079266151735
Papua New Guinea5812312015093416
Paraguay106202813610173414
Peru110494047500171450
Philippines105562939880252824
Portugal97852765170301157
Rwanda6125335580144236
Senegal45114937730172927
Sierra Leone371132121,08053681
Singapore110553010028026250
Solomon Islands2631325
Somalia40335335709152
South Africa107184115021761
Spain11473297519027949
Sri Lanka77552920330143713
Sudan391339469606411
Suriname105423218061094
Swaziland1033538372902125
Sweden9670181007024438
Switzerland9052241009058
Syrian Arab Rep.103503375980101974
Tanzania703503968494413
Thailand83263022800192817
Togo10323611668082829
Tunisia10020407041091674
Turkey104293475460162623
United Arab Emirates75142198
United Kingdom105812210011025350
United States1091002010015024330
Upper Volta16248101,51811333
Uruguay95622398150261032
Venezuela10438317534016699
Yemen Arab Rep.2643842,0606459
Yugoslavia975522851702914116
Zaire8613421633082610
Zambia95154842250191478
Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980), and International Financial Statistics; and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Tables (1980, 2nd.ed.).
Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980), and International Financial Statistics; and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Tables (1980, 2nd.ed.).

Occasional Papers of the International Monetary Fund

1. International Capital Markets: Recent Developments and Short-Terrn Prospects, by a Staff Team Headed by R.C. Williams, Exchange and Trade Relations Department. 1980.

2. Economic Stabilization and Growth in Portugal, by Hans O. Schmitt. 1981.

3. External Indebtedness of Developing Countries, by a Staff Team Headed by Bahram Nowzad and Richard C. Williams. 1981.

4. World Economic Outlook: A Survey by the Staff of the International Monetary Fund. 1981.

5. Trade Policy Developments in Industrial Countries, by S.J. Anjaria, Z. Iqbal, L.L. Perez, and W.S. Tseng. 1981.

6. The Multilateral System of Payments: Keynes, Convertibility, and the International Monetary Fund’s Articles of Agreement, by Joseph Gold. 1981.

7. International Capital Markets: Recent Developments and Short-Term Prospects, 1981, by a Staff Team Headed by Richard C. Williams, with G.G. Johnson. 1981.

8. Taxation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Part I: Tax Policy and Administration in Sub Saharan Africa, by Carlos A. Aguirre, Peter S. Griffith, and M. Zuhtu Yucelik. Part II: A Statistical Evaluation of Taxation in Sub-Saharan Africa, by Vito Tanzi. 1981.

9. World Economic Outlook: A Survey by the Staff of the International Monetary Fund. 1982.

10. International Comparisons of Government Expenditure, by Alan A. Tait and Peter S. Heller. 1982.

International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C. 20431, U.S.A.

Telephone number: 202 477 2945

Cable address: Interfund

The authors would like to acknowledge the research assistance rendered by Ms. Tarja Papavassiliou and Ms. Erika Kaufman.

See Alan A. Tait, Wilfrid L. M. Gratz, and Barry J. Eichengreen, “International Comparisons of Taxation for Selected Developing Countries, 1972–76,” Staff Papers, Vol. 26, No. 1 (March 1979), pp. 123–56.

For example, Richard A. Musgrave, Fiscal Systems (New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1969), pp. 110–24.

It should be noted that all functional relationships have been estimated to include and exclude net lending (domestic and foreign); no significant difference in ranking occurred. The regressions in this paper have been estimated with net lending omitted.

International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980); hereinafter referred to as the GFS Yearbook. When data are unavailable for 1977, the next nearest available year has been used (see Table 4).

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), World Tables, 1980 (Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980).

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, National Accounts of OECD Countries, 1960–78, Vol. 2 (Paris, 1980).

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Public Expenditure Trends (Paris, 1978).

A. T. Peacock and J. Wiseman, The Growth of Public Expenditure in the United Kingdom (London, Oxford University Press, 1961).

Concentration on only one functional expenditure for a single country, e.g., defense in the United Kingdom, can yield more subtle and much better estimated equations. See R. P. Smith, “The Demand for Military Expenditure,” Economic Journal, Vol. 90, No. 360 (December 1980), pp. 811–20.

A low infant mortality rate could, of course, reflect the effectiveness of high public health expenditures.

It should be noted that European Economic Community agricultural subsidies that do not move through the consolidated national government budgets (for example, adjusted artificial agricultural exchange rates) will not be included in these functional categories.

Presumably, utilities in these countries charge rates that negate the need for recourse to budget financing.

Many developing countries, particularly in Africa, use government employment as a substitute for unemployment relief; as development occurs, this form of hidden welfare payment affects government wages and salaries less and less.

One could, of course, observe a country with B1 < 0 and still find that its share of wages in GDP exceeds what might have been predicted!

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