- Joachim Harnack, Sérgio Leite, Stefania Fabrizio, Luisa Zanforlin, Girma Begashaw, and Anthony Pellechio
- Published Date:
- November 2000
© 2000 International Monetary Fund
Production: IMF Graphics Section
Figures: Lai Oy Louie
Typesetting: Alicia Etchebarne-Bourdin
Ghana: economic development in a democratic environment/Sérgio Pereira Leite…[et al.]–Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2000.
p. cm. —(Occasional paper; ISSN 0251–6365; 199)
Includes bibliographical references.
1. Ghana—Economic conditions. 2. Finance—Ghana. I. Pereira Leite, Sérgio. II. Occasional paper (International Monetary Fund); no. 199.
(US$17.50 to full-time faculty members and students at universities and colleges)
Please send orders to:
International Monetary Fund, Publication Services
700 19th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20431, U.S.A.
Tel: (202) 623-7430 Telefax: (202) 623-7201
The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:
… to indicate that data are not available; n.a. to indicate not applicable;
— to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
– between years or months (e.g., 1998–99 or January-June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
/ between years (e.g.. 1998/99) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not States, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.
Agricultural Development Bank
Bank for Housing and Construction
Budget and Public Expenditure Management System
Consumer Price Index
Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire
District Assemblies Common Fund
Divestiture Implementation Committee
Economic Reform Program
Ghana Commercial Bank
Ghana Living Standards Survey
Ghana National Petroleum Corporation
Ghana Universal Salary Structure
Inter-Ministerial Committee on Poverty Reduction
Integrated Personnel and Payroll Database
National Commission for Democracy
National Development Planning Commission
National Investment Bank
National Institutional Renewal Program
National Oversight Committee
National Poverty Reduction Program
Program of Action to Mitigate the Social Costs of Adjustment
Produce Buying Company
Private Sector Adjustment Credit
Public Financial Management Reform Program
Public Sector Reinvention and Modernization Strategy
real effective exchange rate
Structural Adjustment Participatory Review Initiative
special drawing right
State Enterprise Commission
Social Investment Fund
Social Security and National Insurance Trust
Technical Committee on Poverty
Thematic Group on Poverty Reduction
United Nations Development Programme
This occasional paper is based on staff background papers prepared for the 1998 and 1999 consultations between the International Monetary Fund and Ghana. The information in this occasional paper primarily pertains to the period since Ghana’s return to multiparty democracy in 1992 through December 1999. The authors would like to acknowledge the support and encouragement of the Ghanaian authorities and the IMF Executive Director for Ghana, Abbas Miraihor. The paper was prepared by a staff team led by Sérgio Pereira Leite and Anthony Pellechio and composed of Girma Begashaw, Stefania Fabrizio, Joachim Harnack, and Luisa Zanforlin. The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of Andrew Mvumbe, T. Kanai, Ritha Khemani, Périn Saint-Ange, and Dev Kar, as well as the comments of Paul Acquah, Rocio Castro, GuenterHeidenhof, and Amor Tahari and the research assistance of Luca Bandiera. They would like to thank Maureen Burke and John Maynard for invaluable assistance.
The opinions expressed in the paper are those of the authors and should not be construed as necessarily representing the views of the Government of Ghana or the International Monetary Fund.