Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Naheed Kirmani, Lorenzo Pérez, Shailendra Anjaria, and Zubair Iqbal
Published Date:
November 1982
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Selected References

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Appendix I International Framework for the Conduct of Agricultural Trade

The multilateral rules governing world trade recognize certain differences between trade in primary products and other products. These differences are to be found, to some extent, in the provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and, to a larger extent, in the manner in which these rules have been interpreted and applied.

Main Provisions of the GATT

Articles I and II of the General Agreement, which are central to the contractual obligations of GATT members, do not distinguish between agriculture and other sectors. Article I requires contracting parties to apply most-favored-nation treatment with respect to each other in the customs duties and charges levied and in the customs valuation procedures and other formalities applied to trade. Article II obliges contracting parties to levy import duties at rates not in excess of those specified in each country’s schedule of concessions. In successive trade negotiations, these “bound” rates have been lowered, and the proportion of tariff lines included in the schedules of concessions has been increased. In agriculture, however, trade liberalization has lagged behind other sectors. Consequently, the proportion of tariff lines that are GATT-bound is smaller for the agricultural sector than for other sectors. For example, according to preliminary estimates of the GATT Secretariat, post-MTN (Multilateral Trade Negotiations) tariffs for ten major trading nations combined showed that some 66 per cent of tariff lines, representing 81 per cent of most-favored-nation imports, were bound in the agricultural sector, compared with 92 per cent of tariff lines and 96 per cent of imports in industry (excluding petroleum).

In some other GATT provisions, the text of the General Agreement makes specific reference to agriculture. The practical significance of the “exceptions” for agriculture is difficult to assess, because it is not always known to what extent countries base their agricultural trade policy or practice on these GATT provisions. Even so, the differences are illustrative of the consideration given to agricultural trade issues by the framers of the GATT.

One instance of an explicit difference in rules for agriculture is found in GATT Article XI, which places a general ban on quantitative import restrictions and prohibitions. However, there are three specific exceptions that may relate to agriculture: (1) temporary export restrictions applied to prevent or relieve food shortages; (2) import or export restrictions necessary to apply standards for the classification, grading, or marketing of commodities; and (3) import restrictions on an agricultural or fisheries product aimed at removing temporary surpluses or restricting the production or marketing of a like domestic product. Among the major trading nations, Canada applies import restrictions on several agricultural products (dairy products, chicken, and eggs) under the latter provision.

Article XVI of the General Agreement, which regulates domestic and export subsidies, also contains a special rule for agriculture, whose effect is to dilute international discipline in the use of export subsidies in the agricultural sector. Under Article XVI:4, export subsidies on products other than primary products are prohibited. Article XVI:3 governs the use of export subsidies for primary products. Governments are only obliged to “seek to avoid” export subsidies on agriculture; and if they apply them, they should avoid doing so in a manner that would give them “more than an equitable share of world export trade” in the product concerned. Under the Code on Subsidies and Countervailing Duties formulated during the MTN, this provision is reaffirmed, and “more than an equitable share of world export trade” is defined somewhat more precisely.

Article XVI also attempts to regulate the use of domestic or production subsidies. Although these are not prohibited, either for agricultural or industrial products, a contracting party is required to notify the GATT of any subsidy and to consult with other contracting parties when so requested. The Code on Subsidies and Countervailing Duties spells out the provisions on subsidies, and in particular suggests that code signatories should weigh their “possible adverse effects on trade.” It is debatable, however, whether the code provisions involve a significant strengthening of international discipline on subsidies other than export subsidies.

Finally, Article XX of the General Agreement contains some “general exceptions” to all other GATT provisions. Included in the exceptions are measures taken or restrictions applied as a result of “obligations under any intergovernmental commodity agreement” that conforms to criteria accepted by the GATT. Article XX is nonetheless subject to the most-favored-nation rule.

Agricultural Trade Policies and Problems

Perhaps of greater significance than the specific provisions of the GATT and the MTN codes and their applicability to agriculture has been the lack of progress toward significant reforms in the protectionist policies of major trading nations. This has had the effect of establishing precedents that perpetuate restrictive trade policies in the agricultural sector and allow countries to formulate domestic agricultural policies without giving sufficient weight to their possible adverse international repercussions.

Historically, a major development that seriously affected perceptions about rights and obligations of GATT members in agriculture was the approval, in 1955, of a waiver for the United States, authorizing it to apply trade restrictions to a wide range of agricultural products. Most current U.S. restrictions in agriculture discussed in Section IV of this paper, except meat, are covered by the 1955 waiver. The request for the waiver arose from the inclusion, in 1951, of language in U.S. legislation that in effect established the precedence of U.S. law over GATT obligations.77 When it became clear that the U.S. Executive would be obliged to carry out the intent of this legislation regardless of whether the waiver was granted, the only way open to safeguard the legal principles of the GATT was for the other contracting parties to agree to the waiver, which has been in application ever since.78 The U.S. waiver has come under continual criticism during the course of the annual reviews conducted in the GATT over the past 27 years.

Another unresolved issue has been the extensive use of the variable import levy as an instrument of agricultural protection. Although the variable import levy operates as a tax on imports, it differs from the tariff in that its height always adjusts to ensure that lower-cost imports cannot compete with domestic production. The GATT permits a contracting party to impose tariff duties of any level on products not included in the list of items “bound” in its schedule of concessions. Accordingly, a foreign supplier of a product subject to a variable import levy can never be confident of maintaining or increasing his share of that market by underselling domestic producers. Moreover, since the levy is not fixed, it is difficult to negotiate its reduction or elimination.

Another critical problem in the agricultural sector concerns “residual” import restrictions, which usually take the form of quantitative restrictions. These are restrictions that do not have any justification under GATT rules.79 They tend to be used more extensively in the agricultural sector than in other sectors. GATT negotiations typically involve the exchange of “concessions” among contracting parties. As long as the trade liberalization actions being requested by a country of its trading partners involve the lowering of a tariff or the raising or elimination of an import quota from a known and multilaterally accepted level, the mutuality of the concessions exchanged between countries can be assessed at least approximately. However, because residual restrictions are by definition illegal under the GATT, in the negotiating context a country is generally unwilling to “pay” for securing removal of a trading partner’s illegal quota or practice by lowering its own legitimate trade restriction. As a result, the reduction of residual restrictions has been impeded by the issue of whether compensation should be sought or granted for reduction or elimination of an unjustified action.80 Attempts in the GATT to prepare inventories of residual restrictions date from at least 1960 and have met with only limited success.81 For similar reasons, past proposals to introduce multilateral formulas to phase out quantitative import restrictions, whether legal or illegal, have not received the general support of GATT members. The increased frequency with which “voluntary” export restraints have been used in recent years suggests that liberalization of these bilateral arrangements may well face some of the same difficulties as those encountered by trade negotiators with residual import restrictions.

Notwithstanding the difficulties of dealing meaningfully with trade restrictions in the agricultural sector, efforts to study agricultural trade problems and develop workable methods of attenuating the specific adverse effects of national policies on world agricultural markets have been continuing since the 1950s. In 1961, Committee II of the GATT adopted a report on agricultural protectionism, identifying the main instruments used to protect domestic agricultural sectors and the effects of the nontariff measures employed on world trade. It concluded that (1) “non-tariff devices have seriously affected international trade” in the agricultural products examined; (2) “the level of protection and resultant increased production in the traditional importing countries . . . place a heavy burden of adjustment on exporting countries;” and (3) “to the extent that income or price support has resulted in an expansion of relatively less efficient production and in a limitation of consumption, this has contributed to impairment of trade and to inefficiency in resource utilization. . . .”82 The Committee also concluded that “a moderation of agricultural protection in both importing and exporting countries is desirable.” It considered that “a moderation of agricultural protection, through its effects on production and consumption, would have a substantial percentage effect on the volume of international trade; by imposing some restraint on protected production in countries where national resources tied in agriculture can be more effectively re-allocated, it would improve resource utilization throughout the world.”

Recent Developments

In the two decades that have elapsed since this Committee II report was published, there have been numerous changes in the regimes governing agricultural trade. However, despite repeated attempts, progress toward liberalization has been slow. Agricultural issues resurfaced strongly during the Kennedy Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations in 1964–67. The European Community originally offered to identify and bind for three years the existing level of overall support for farm products. For grains, the total level of support was to include unified prices at a level approximately halfway between the higher German prices and the lower French prices. In addition to binding the level of domestic support, the Community proposed to establish a set of international reference prices for basic farm commodities; the difference between the domestic and reference prices would be used to determine the level of import levies and, where appropriate, export subsidies. The offers were rejected by the other negotiating countries partly because the proposals contained no commitment on access to the Community market and allowed the variable import levy to continue to operate unimpeded.83 The Kennedy Round resulted in some tariff cuts in agricultural products subject to fixed tariff protection.

The 1973 GATT ministerial declaration that launched the Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations included in its objectives:

as regards agriculture, an approach to negotiations which, while in line with the general objectives of the negotiations, should take account of the special characteristics and problems in this sector.84

However, the lack of precision in the language of the Tokyo Declaration reflected fundamental differences in approach between the United States and the European Community. The United States wanted the negotiations to lead to the liberalization of agricultural trade and increased access to foreign markets for products of which they were efficient producers, while the Community sought the stabilization of agricultural trade through commodity arrangements, a sufficiently high income level for its farmers, and the preservation of an effective Common Agricultural Policy.85 As a result, there were significant divergences of approach between them on the handling of agricultural trade issues. As already noted, the MTN led to international arrangements on dairy products and bovine meat. Although these arrangements have generally been seen as having contributed to a degree of stability in the international markets for the two products, it is evident that they are aimed primarily at stabilizing the markets in the context of existing domestic agricultural support policies and programs, rather than at bringing about a liberalization of agricultural trade per se.

At the ministerial meeting of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in May 1982, Ministers considered an OECD paper entitled Problems of Agricultural Trade, and unanimously endorsed its conclusions. A main finding of the OECD study is that the degree of protection afforded to agriculture is often greater than is necessary to achieve the desired objectives; accordingly, reduced protection may entail smaller modifications to the agriculture of the countries concerned than is often supposed. The study notes that “the implementation of the desirable marginal adjustments in domestic policies can best take place if such moves are planned and coordinated within a concerted multilateral approach aimed at achieving a balanced reduction in protectionism and a liberalization of trade.” It concludes that “whatever approaches are applied, the aim should be to integrate agricultural trade more fully with the open multilateral trading system to which all OECD countries subscribe.”86

Agricultural trade issues have also been examined recently in the GATT Consultative Group of Eighteen. While a decision on the specific work program to be pursued in the GATT following the November 1982 GATT ministerial meeting has not been reached, it is likely that agricultural trade issues will be included on the agenda of that meeting. When the objective of agricultural trade liberalization is agreed, specific decisions in certain key areas will determine the pace and method of possible future negotiations. Apart from decisions concerning notification and examination of national agricultural policies and improvement of conditions of market access, a key area of discussion may be distortions to competition in agricultural trade—that is, direct and indirect export subsidization.

77
In 1951, the U.S. Congress amended Section 22 of the U.S. Agricultural Adjustment Act to include the following provision:

“No trade agreement or other international agreement heretofore or hereafter entered into by the United States shall be applied in a manner inconsistent with the requirements of this section.”

78

John H. Jackson, World Trade and the Law of GATT: A Legal Analysis of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1969), pp. 733–37.

79

Ibid., pp. 313 and 710.

80

GATT, The Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (Geneva, April 1979), p. 49.

81

The interim and final reports of a GATT panel on the adequacy of the notifications of residual restrictions are reproduced in GATT, Basic Instruments and Selected Documents: Eleventh Supplement (Geneva, March 1963), pp. 206–13.

82

GATT, Basic Instruments and Selected Documents: Tenth Supplement (Geneva, March 1962), pp. 135–14.

83

See Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community: 1981 Report (Brussels, 1982), p. 52; and Ernest H. Preeg, Traders and Diplomats: An Analysis of the Kennedy Round of Negotiations Under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1970), pp. 146–50.

84

GATT, GATT Activities in 1973 (Geneva, 1974), p. 7.

85

GATT, The Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (Geneva, April 1979).

86

OECD, Problems of Agricultural Trade (Paris, 1982), p. 132.

Appendix II GATT Classifications

Classification of Countries and Regions

Following the definitions used in the GATT publication, International Trade, 1980/81, the trading world is divided into:

  • Industrial countriesUnited States, Canada, Japan, European Community member countries, EFTA member countries, Gibraltar, Greece, Malta, Spain, Turkey, and Yugoslavia;
  • Oil exporting developing countries87Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela;
  • Non-oil exporting developing countries88All developing countries except oil exporting developing countries;
  • Eastern trading countriesAlbania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, U.S.S.R., China, Mongolia, North Korea, and Viet Nam;
  • Nonindustrial countriesAustralia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

For certain commodities, such as shipbuilding and steel, industrial countries are defined to include all members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

For the discussion on agricultural trade, the definitions in the Food and Agriculture Organization publication, FAO Commodity Review and Outlook: 1981–82 are used, and the trading world is divided into:

  • Developed countriesIndustrial and nonindustrial countries under the GATT definition, Eastern Europe, and the U.S.S.R.;
  • Developing countriesOil exporting and non-oil exporting developing countries under the GATT definition, and Asian centrally planned economies;
  • State trading countries89U.S.S.R. and Eastern European countries.

Classification of Commodities

  • SemimanufacturesChemicals and other semimanufactures;
  • Engineering goodsMachinery for specialized industries, office and telecommunications equipment, road motor vehicles, other machinery and transport equipment, and household appliances;
  • Agricultural commoditiesFood, beverages, agricultural material, and other agricultural products, excluding fishery and forestry products;
  • Tropical zone agricultural productsAgricultural products produced mostly in tropical zone countries;
  • Temperate zone agricultural productsAgricultural products produced mostly in temperate zone countries;
  • Competing zone agricultural productsAgricultural products produced both in tropical and temperate zone countries;
  • Total tradeIncludes the categories “not included elsewhere” and “not classified according to kind.”

Intra-Community Trade

Unless otherwise specified, trade data include intra-Community trade.

Import Penetration

Import penetration is defined as the ratio of imports to apparent consumption (i.e., production plus imports minus exports). Import penetration by developing countries’ markets of manufactures is defined in nominal terms; otherwise it is calculated in volume terms.

The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:

  • … to indicate that data are not available;
  • — to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
  • – between years or months (e.g., 1979–81 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
  • / between years (e.g., 1980/81) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.
  • “Billion” means a thousand million.
  • Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
87

Also referred to in GATT terminology and in this paper as “traditional” oil exporting developing countries.

88

Includes the “new” oil exporting developing countries: Bahamas, Bahrain, Brunei, Egypt, Mexico, the Netherlands Antilles, Oman, the Syrian Arab Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Virgin Islands.

89

If not identified separately, they are included in the category of developed countries.

Appendix III Statistical Tables
Table 1.Production, Commodity, and Regional Composition of World Trade, 1963 and 1973–81(In billions of U.S. dollars and per cent)
19631973197419751976197719781979198019811
Growth of world output (in per cent)5.48.72.8–1.17.14.64.43.71.01.0
World exports (in billions of U.S. dollars)1545748368739911,1251,3031,6382,0001,970
(Percentage share in world exports)
Agricultural products
29.021.018.017.017.016.016.016.015.0
Nonfuel minerals18.06.06.05.04.04.04.04.05.0
Fuels18.011.020.019.020.019.017.020.024.0
Manufactures53.061.055.057.057.058.060.058.055.0
Growth of volume of world exports7.111.13.5–2.911.24.35.65.61.0
Regional composition of world trade2(Percentage share in total world exports and imports)
Industrial countries
Exports64.168.063.063.862.762.664.963.261.761.7
Imports64.269.669.064.766.565.865.366.967.664.8
Oil exporting developing countries
Exports7.313.012.913.613.211.213.014.813.7
Imports20.43.64.56.66.67.47.66.16.67.6
20.9
Non-oil exporting developing countries
Exports11.912.011.312.012.612.212.612.513.5
Imports14.516.015.814.915.315.516.215.116.3
Eastern trading countries
Exports12.210.09.09.89.59.69.79.38.89.1
Imports11.79.99.010.59.79.49.79.08.58.8
Sources: GATT, International Trade, 1969, 1977/78, and 1980/81; and GATT, Press Release, March 23, 1982.

Estimates.

For regional classifications, see Appendix II.

Sources: GATT, International Trade, 1969, 1977/78, and 1980/81; and GATT, Press Release, March 23, 1982.

Estimates.

For regional classifications, see Appendix II.

Table 2.Regional Composition of World Trade in Manufactures, 1973 and 1976–80(In per cent)
Destination
Industrial countriesOil exporting developing countries
Origin197319761977197819791980197319761977197819791980
Industrial countries73.667.567.166.868.466.84.610.110.810.58.49.3
Iron and steel65.159.561.057.658.458.46.310.510.411.19.610.9
Chemicals69.469.168.467.968.766.84.05.35.95.85.16.2
Other semimanufactures79.875.274.474.676.374.52.86.47.37.26.16.9
Engineering products73.364.264.264.166.066.35.112.48.612.710.110.8
Textiles and clothing76.575.175.376.678.275.33.86.36.86.05.16.6
Other consumer goods84.979.879.379.180.378.62.77.08.28.27.07.6
Oil exporting developing countries68.455.941.339.734.033.010.520.134.834.534.031.7
Non-oil exporting developing countries65.463.261.763.761.859.57.98.910.39.78.79.5
Iron and steel51.650.050.046.851.315.818.818.314.619.2
Chemicals44.347.848.250.061.16.037.37.57.78.4
Other semimanufactures73.566.765.568.363.14.712.511.09.58.1
Engineering products61.156.054.057.466.26.810.413.712.810.1
Textiles and clothing67.768.767.168.668.26.07.28.07.26.9
Other consumer goods75.274.474.075.771.94.15.87.17.56.1
Eastern trading countries16.015.716.716.918.719.63.04.85.15.75.25.1
Iron and steel25.420.122.023.226.53.13.63.54.94.4
Chemicals27.731.533.934.441.51.84.53.53.93.8
Other semimanufactures28.532.733.638.238.87.613.913.613.011.3
Engineering products7.97.98.07.77.92.53.84.44.84.4
Textiles and clothing30.335.731.531.736.23.75.86.37.36.8
Other consumer goods31.529.830.633.335.93.79.19.49.38.5
Total world167.061.761.861.863.261.94.69.510.310.08.39.0
Iron and steel59.854.455.853.154.454.16.29.99.910.69.8
Chemicals65.265.464.964.765.864.33.95.45.85.85.2
Other semimanufactures75.971.971.472.072.370.93.47.58.17.86.8
Engineering products65.257.958.057.959.458.14.911.412.412.09.6
Textiles and clothing69.969.068.469.571.068.74.36.57.26.66.8
Other consumer goods78.174.073.674.575.274.13.07.18.38.47.2
Source: GATT, International Trade, 1977/78, 1978/79, 1979/80, and 1980/81.

Includes Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

Source: GATT, International Trade, 1977/78, 1978/79, 1979/80, and 1980/81.

Includes Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

Destination
Non-oil exporting developing countriesEastern trading countriesTotal world1
197319761977197819791980197319761977197819791980197319761977197819791980
14.114.214.415.015.716.44.45.65.15.15.04.782.281.181.881.681.381.4
15.213.214.115.115.817.911.415.513.215.115.011.483.682.481.982.582.181.7
18.116.716.917.717.818.05.25.96.16.05.76.387.186.186.586.887.086.7
11.412.112.613.112.612.83.33.93.73.33.33.980.580.979.979.479.880.4
17.015.117.718.820.119.93.74.74.34.34.23.884.985.285.184.684.084.2
11.911.411.310.910.611.24.55.54.84.24.05.066.962.863.162.462.061.8
7.67.98.08.68.99.71.92.82.31.91.82.076.073.873.973.874.874.2
15.820.619.622.429.031.77.43.52.22.82.01.70.30.30.40.40.50.6
22.522.023.123.625.026.33.02.62.52.02.12.36.78.17.78.08.68.7
28.428.127.825.929.53.23.02.84.23.93.33.63.94.25.5
40.937.337.436.538.92.76.05.13.93.14.34.75.15.25.0
16.816.719.520.323.23.53.12.22.94.011.710.911.112.112.4
29.829.629.530.130.70.70.40.70.30.63.23.94.34.65.3
17.315.817.418.018.75.04.34.53.62.921.927.126.126.226.7
14.514.914.414.516.01.61.71.20.71.313.115.815.816.216.3
10.410.010.510.611.813.470.569.367.366.763.961.610.09.59.39.28.88.5
9.38.18.38.111.462.267.866.163.458.811.411.911.710.89.6
11.012.812.813.413.259.551.049.548.841.56.56.96.76.36.1
24.122.920.318.821.339.930.630.529.028.85.55.65.65.35.0
8.37.98.68.49.981.380.379.079.177.711.310.510.110.210.0
15.912.614.217.418.447.951.246.941.336.89.89.19.610.09.7
12.016.815.314.413.251.543.843.541.240.69.99.29.28.47.5
14.414.414.815.416.317.110.911.410.610.59.89.3100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
15.313.314.215.316.316.821.118.819.618.5100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
18.917.517.818.518.18.68.98.98.67.7100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
13.013.113.514.214.55.35.25.04.54.6100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
14.415.015.215.817.112.39.611.711.711.3100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
13.411.013.213.413.78.88.18.87.86.8100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
9.19.99.710.110.56.86.36.05.04.6100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Table 3.Non-Oil Exporting Developing Countries: Composition of Trade and Share in World Trade, 1973–80(In per cent and billions of U.S. dollars)
ExportsImports
Products197319741975197619771978197919801197319741975197619771978197919801
Commodity composition
Primary products64.868.367.263.662.158.558.260.835.341.541.140.939.336.538.841.7
Food32.329.631.629.831.029.126.315.714.314.412.711.912.311.9
Raw materials11.39.17.77.77.47.27.75.33.93.33.83.93.93.8
Other21.229.628.426.123.722.224.214.323.323.424.423.520.323.1
Manufactured products33.930.431.635.435.139.839.738.860.455.556.555.155.560.058.055.6
Semimanufactures9.08.38.08.28.39.89.919.320.118.016.516.318.218.1
Engineering products8.78.59.510.511.112.813.232.628.832.232.132.134.432.8
Textiles5.94.94.55.04.44.84.84.73.73.23.43.53.63.4
Clothing5.64.85.46.76.26.66.11.10.80.80.80.91.00.9
Other consumer goods4.73.94.25.15.25.95.62.72.12.22.32.62.92.8
Other1.31.31.20.92.81.72.16.44.33.02.44.05.23.53.22.7
Total (in billions of U.S. dollars)68.3100.398.8119.1141.8158.7205.7245.082.9131.8138.3148.2172.4201.8265.4335.0
Share in world trade
Primary products20.418.818.518.719.418.918.117.413.515.115.715.214.915.015.516.3
Food25.527.527.328.831.228.427.715.117.417.415.914.515.316.1
Raw materials22.222.720.621.522.421.923.112.712.913.713.314.415.014.7
Other15.213.813.213.012.212.812.512.414.315.015.115.214.815.3
Manufactured products6.76.66.37.47.78.08.68.714.416.015.614.414.815.416.317.1
Semimanufactures6.25.65.46.16.57.07.216.117.817.015.115.616.417.0
Engineering products3.13.63.43.94.34.65.314.416.115.915.015.215.817.1
Textiles17.317.616.919.218.518.819.916.817.216.916.817.817.918.2
Clothing30.331.932.338.837.136.936.47.17.26.25.66.66.97.1
Other consumer goods13.113.013.415.815.816.216.39.19.610.09.99.710.110.5
Source: GATT, International Trade, 1977/78, 1978/79, 1979/80, and 1980/81.

Provisional figures.

Source: GATT, International Trade, 1977/78, 1978/79, 1979/80, and 1980/81.

Provisional figures.

Table 4.Industrial Countries: Share of Imports in the Apparent Consumption of Manufactured Goods, 1970–801(In per cent)
Share in Apparent ConsumptionGrowth of Import Shares
1970198021970–803
All importsImports from developing countries3All importsImports from developing countries3All importsImports from developing countries4
Australia22.32.125.95.52.611.0
Canada27.01.331.12.11.75.0
European Community20.42.531.84.64.86.7
Belgium57.55.780.16.23.21.4
France16.21.923.13.83.67.8
Germany, Fed. Rep. of19.32.330.84.84.98.1
Italy16.32.231.65.26.89.3
Netherlands52.33.962.17.52.06.7
United Kingdom15.82.826.64.15.83.8
Japan4.71.36.22.42.45.8
Sweden31.32.837.93.82.53.9
United States5.51.38.62.94.58.6
Industrial countries11.61.717.63.44.37.2
Source: Data provided by the World Bank.

Excludes jewelry.

Preliminary data subject to revision.

Average annual rate of growth estimated by an ordinary-least-square regression.

Includes oil exporting developing countries.

Source: Data provided by the World Bank.

Excludes jewelry.

Preliminary data subject to revision.

Average annual rate of growth estimated by an ordinary-least-square regression.

Includes oil exporting developing countries.

Table 5.India: Trade Measures Affecting Exports1
CountryProducts AffectedType of Measure
AustraliaLeather footwear (excluding gum boots and supporting footwear and parts thereof), handicraftsGlobal quota
Bedsheets, women’s and girls’ blouses and garments, finished outer garments for men and boys, and women’s, girls’, and infants’ costumes and dressesTariff quota
Power hacksawsAntidumping duty
CanadaLeather footwear, leather work gloves, leather coatsGlobal quota
Blouses, dresses, shirts, outerwear, knitted T-shirts, garments made from handloomed fabricsQuantitative restrictions
European CommunityLeather footwearImport licensing
Knives with cutting blades, garmentsQuantitative restrictions
Iron and steel productsMinimum price undertaking
Shirts and blouses, dressesVoluntary export restraints
Narrow woven fabrics of jute, jute bags and sacks, silk yarn, woven fabrics of other vegetable textile fibers, carpets and rugs of silk, coir mats and mattingGlobal quota
JapanLeather footwearQuantitative restrictions
NorwayJackets (not knitted)Quantitative restrictions
Blouses, shirts, and bed linenVoluntary export restraints
PhilippinesV-belts, transmission belts, and conveyor belts of rubberCountervailing duties
Spanners and wrenchesAntidumping duties on imports of affected products in September 1980
United StatesIndustrial fasteners (nuts and bolts), iron metal castings, leather footwear, and lasted uppersCountervailing duties
Dresses, knit shirts and blouses, men’s and boys’ shirts (not knitted), cotton blouses, and trousersQuantitative restrictions
Source: Data supplied by Indian authorities.

As of January 1, 1982.

Source: Data supplied by Indian authorities.

As of January 1, 1982.

Table 6.Korea: Trade Measures Affecting Exports1
CountryProducts AffectedType of MeasureYear of Introduction
AustraliaPlywoodTariff quota1978
TextilesTariff quota1974–77
Tire cords and fabricsTariff quota1977
FootwearImport quota1976
Sheets and plates of iron steelTariff quota1978
RazorsTariff quota1978
Electric refrigeratorsTariff quota1978
Chain pulley tackle and hoistsTariff quota1978
Electric insulatorsTariff quota1977
Passenger motor vehiclesTariff quota1977
Fixed registersTariff quota1977
Sleeping bagsTariff quota1977
AustriaTextilesBilateral quota1974–76
Benelux2Knives, forks, and spoonsVoluntary export restraint1978
CanadaLeather handbagsAntidumping duties1977
Leather garmentsBilateral quota1976
AlbumsAntidumping duties1976
TextilesBilateral quota1970
Waterproof rubber shoesAntidumping duties1979
Nonleather footwearGlobal quota1981
Bicycles, tricycles, and partsAntidumping duties1978
Ball-type metal furniture castersAntidumping duties1977
DenmarkKnives, forks, and spoonsImport quota1974
European CommunitySteel productsBasic price system1978
TextilesBilateral quota1978
Canned mushroomsUnilateral quota1978
FinlandTextilesBilateral quota1975
FranceNewsprintGlobal quota1978
Silk fabricsUnilateral quota1974
Umbrellas and sunshadesUnilateral quota1977
RadiosUnilateral quota1977
Television setsUnilateral quota1978
TilesGlobal quota1978
SemiconductorsGlobal quota1978
MicroscopesGlobal quota1978
Electric measuring instrumentsGlobal quota1978
WristwatchesAdministrative guidance
ToysUnilateral quota
Miscellaneous goodsUnilateral quota1977
(yachts, chemical products)
Germany, Fed. Rep. ofKnives, forks, and spoonsVoluntary export restraint1978
IrelandFootwearVoluntary export restraint1979
JapanSpecific fishUnilateral quota1960
Other fishImport quota1977
Seaweed (dried)Import quota1960
Seaweed productsImport quota1977
Leather goodsImport quota
Baseball gloves and mittsAdministrative guidance1975
Cotton threadAdministrative guidance
Raw silkImport quota1974
Silk yarnImport quota1976
Silk fabricsImport quota1976
TextilesAdministrative guidance
Leather footwearImport quota
New ZealandNearly all itemsImport licensing1975
NorwayTires and tubesBilateral quota1974
Leather garmentsBilateral quota1978
TextilesBilateral quota1974
Ski bootsBilateral quota1979
Tableware of porcelain, china, and potteryBilateral quota1975
Knives, forks, and spoonsBilateral quota1974
SwedenTextilesBilateral quota1974
FootwearGlobal quota1974
United KingdomSaccharinAntidumping duties1976
FootwearVoluntary export restraint
Knives, forks, and spoonsVoluntary export restraint1978
Monochrome television setsUnilateral quota1977
United StatesCanned mushroomsTariff increase1980
Ginseng productsImport prohibition1977
TextilesBilateral quota1971
Porcelain on steel cookwareTariff increase1980
Color television setsOrderly marketing arrangement1979
Tubes and tires for bicyclesCountervailing duties1979
Lag screws, bolts, and nutsTariff increase
Source: Data supplied by the Korean authorities.

As of January 1, 1982.

Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

Source: Data supplied by the Korean authorities.

As of January 1, 1982.

Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

Table 7.Malaysia: Trade Measures Affecting Exports1
CountryProducts AffectedType of Measure
AustriaCoffeeGlobal import quota
Flour, meal of sago and of manioc, tapioca and sago, canned pineapples, preserved fruitsImport levy
AustraliaFish (fresh, chilled, or frozen), tapioca and sago, wood and wood products, footwear, vegetables, palm oil, palm kernel oil, coconut oilTariff quotas under the Generalized System of Preferences selective internal tax, quantitative regulations
CanadaMeat and meat products, oleomargarine, butterine or similar substitutes for butterImport prohibition
Coffee, handbags made of textile fabrics, work gloves, canvas and other nonleather footwear (except rubber and waterproof plastic footwear)Global import quota
Fabrics, other textiles, and clothing productsImport licensing and surveillance
Men’s and boys’ shirts, sweatersExport restraint arrangements
Waterproof rubber footwearAntidumping measures
European CommunityCut flowers, flour and meal of sago and of manioc, vegetable oils (wholly or partly hydrogenated or solidified or hardened), footwear with outer soles of leatherImport licensing
Cocoa beans, sugar, rubber tires, timber, wood and timber products (except of plywood), travel goods, footwear, transmission apparatus, diodes and transistors, chairs and other furniture, umbrellas, rubber, rubber tires, tubes, tire flaps, electrical goods including transformers, semiconductors, microcircuits, telecommunications equipmentImport licensing and tariff quotas
Sugar, pineapple, and other fruit and vegetable juices containing added sugarSugar duty and agricultural duty
Plywood, footwearQuantitative restrictions
FinlandOils of olive, soybean, rapeseed, linseed, palm, coconut, and palm kernelQuantitative restrictions and import licensing
Canned pineapplesImport licensing
JapanFishLong administrative delays and complex inspection procedures
Pineapples in cans or bottles containing added sugarQuantitative restrictions
Other exports, excluding raw materialsTariff quotas, difficulties relating to announcement delays, and nonavailability of regulations in languages other than Japanese
New ZealandCrustacean and mollusks, pepper, cloves, cocoa paste and powder, canned pineapples, other fruits, rubber, wood, wood products, plywood, children’s footwear with nonleather uppers and solesQuantitative restrictions and import licensing
Cocoa beans, pineapple juice, plates, sheets and strips of rubber, apparel and clothing accessories of rubber, wooden beadings and molded skirting, wooden picture frames, prefabricated buildings of wood, lamps, footwear with soles of wood or cork or other materials, telephone setsImport licensing
Fixed vegetable oils, pepperSelective internal tax
SwedenFixed vegetable oils, coconut oil, palm kernel oilCompensatory fee
Rubber bootsGlobal quota
Footwear with outer soles of leatherImport restrictions by type of leather
United StatesExports other than raw materialsTariff quotas, agricultural products subject to health and sanitary regulations
Source: Data supplied by the Malaysian authorities.

As of December 31, 1981.

Source: Data supplied by the Malaysian authorities.

As of December 31, 1981.

Table 8.Philippines: Trade Measures Affecting Exports1
CountryProducts AffectedType of Measure
AustriaBananas (fresh or dried), coffee (unroasted), travel goods (of leather, composition leather, vulcanized fiber or cardboard), cocoa butter (flat or oil. whole item)Internal tax
Beet sugar and cane sugar (solid, whole item)Quantitative restrictions; import levy
Leaf tobacco (stripped)State trading
Other unmanufactured tobacco and tobacco refuseState trading/internal tax (general)
Juices of fruits containing added sugarLicensing requirement
AustraliaFish (live)Packing and labeling regulations
Trout (dead) and otherCommerce marking; import quarantine; packing and labeling regulations
Shrimp and prawns, bananas, pineapples, mangoes, guavas, avocados, mangosteens, coconuts (other than whole)Commerce marking, health and sanitary regulations
Travel goods and other yarn or yarn of other materials, woven fabrics of jute, hessian, brattice cloth, fabrics wholly of jute, fabrics of other textile bast fibers, footwear with outer soles of leather or rubber or artificial plastic material, fruit (prepared or preserved), citrus fruit juices (no sugar added), juices in packsCommerce marking
Unmanufactured tobacco, tobacco refuseAdministrative entry procedure; health and sanitary regulations
Wood in the rough, wood sawn lengthwise (sliced or peeled), veneer sheets and sheets for plywood, plywood, blockboard, and similar laminated wood products, inlaid wood and wood marquetryHealth and sanitary regulations
Builders’ carpentry and joinery (including prefabricated sectional buildings), assembled parquet flooring panels, household utensils of wood, rolling pins of woodQuarantine
Coconut oil, oiticica oil, palm kernel oil, palm oil, sesame oil, tung oil, walnut oil, etc., cocoa butter (flat or oil, whole item)Internal tax
Chewing gum and chewing gum confectioneryMinimum value
Beet sugar and cane sugar (solid and other)Import prohibition
CanadaShrimp, fruits, and nuts (preserved, n.o.p.)2, pineapples (pickled or preserved), fruit juices (n.o.p.)Packing and labeling regulations
Clothing, wearing apparel, and other articles made from woven cotton fabricsPacking and labeling regulations
Clothing and other articles of woven man-made fiber fabricsExport restraint
Knitted garments, knitted fabrics, and knitted goods (n.o.p.)Quantitative restrictions
Boots, shoes, slippers, and insoles of any material (n.o.p.)Packing and labeling regulations; customs valuations
Single-ply veneers of wood, veneers of wood (taped or jointed), plywoodItems covered by the Canadian sector proposals
Sugar candy and confectioneryTechnical and administrative (information requirement)
Unmanufactured tobacco (unstemmed, except Turkish type)Licensing special duties
Coconut (dessicated)Health and sanitary regulations
European CommunityFish (fresh, chilled or frozen, dried, salted, or in brine), smoked fish (dried, salted, or in brine), anchovies, crustaceans, lobsters (live)Health and sanitary regulations
Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, pineapples, avocados, guavas, mangosteens, fresh or dried bananas, dates, coconutsHealth and sanitary regulations; quantitative restrictions; internal tax
Coffee (unroasted, free of caffeine)Internal tax
Fixed vegetable oilsSelective internal tax
Cashew nutsInternal tax
Pineapple juice and other fruit and vegetable juices with an added sugar contentSugar duty; internal tax; import levy
Oil cake and other residuesInternal tax; health and sanitary regulations
Unmanufactured tobacco, tobacco refuseState trading; internal tax
Wood in the roughHealth and sanitary regulations
Plywood, blockboard, and similar laminated wood products, inlaid wood and wood marquetryStandards
Outer garments and other articles (knitted or crocheted, not elastic nor rubberized)Quantitative restrictions (Multifiber Arrangement item)
PineapplesAdministrative entry procedure; quantitative restrictions
AvocadosAdministrative entry procedure; health and sanitary regulations
CoconutsAdministrative entry procedure
Beet sugar and cane sugar (solid)Administrative entry procedure; import levy
Cocoa butter (fat or oil, whole item)Import levy; internal tax; selective internal taxes
Ethyl alcohol or neutral spirits, denatured spiritsQuantitative restrictions; state trading
FinlandBananas (fresh in bunches), dried bananasHealth and sanitary regulations; internal tax
Coffee (unroasted), cocoa butter (fat or oil, whole item)Internal tax
Coconut oil (unfit for human consumption)Quantitative restrictions; internal tax
Raw sugarImport levy; quantitative restrictions; subsidy; minimum price
Crystalized sugarSubsidy; minimum price
PineapplesImport levy; quantitative restrictions
Fruit mixturesQuantitative restrictions
Oil cake and other residuesLicensing; quantitative restrictions; internal tax
Unmanufactured tobaccoState trading
JapanFish (fresh, chilled, or frozen)Quantitative restrictions
Fish (dried, salted, or in brine), smoked fish and other fish (in brine or dried), crustaceans and mollusksQuantitative restrictions; health and sanitary regulations
Dates, bananas, coconuts, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, pineapples, avocados, guavas, fresh or dried mangosteens, dried bananas, dried pineapples, oilseeds and oleaginous fruit, vegetable materials for plaiting, fixed vegetable oilsHealth and sanitary regulations
Beet sugar and cane sugar (solid), other solid sugarHealth and sanitary regulations; internal tax; minimum import price
Fruit (prepared or preserved), pineapplesHealth and sanitary regulations; quantitative restrictions
Fruit juices and vegetable juicesHealth and sanitary regulations; packing and labeling regulations; quantitative restrictions; internal tax (commodity tax)
Ethyl alcohol or neutral spirits; unmanufactured tobacco, tobacco refuseState trading
Footwear with outer soles of leather or composition leather, footwear with outer soles of rubber or artificial plastic materialQuantitative restrictions
Travel goodsInternal tax
Standard lamps, table lamps, and other lighting; fittings of wood, articles of furniture of wood, basketwork, wickerwork, and other articles of plaiting materialsInternal tax
Chairs and other seatsInternal tax; administration of ceiling (commodity tax)
Other furniture and parts thereof (rattan)Internal tax (commodity tax)
Other furniture and parts thereof (wood)Internal tax; flexible administration of ceiling (commodity tax)
Coffee (roasted or unroasted), coffee substitutes containing coffee, unroasted coffee beansSelective internal tax
New ZealandFish (dried, salted, or in brine), smoked fishQuantitative restrictions
Crustaceans and mollusksHealth and sanitary regulations; quantitative restrictions
Bananas (fresh)State trading
Pineapples and pineapple juiceLicensing requirement; quantitative restrictions
Copra, copra cake, coconut (copra oil)Quantitative restrictions; internal tax
Coffee (unroasted), castor seedInternal tax
Veneer sheets and sheets for plywood, plywood, blockboard, and similar laminated wood products, inlaid wood and wood marquetry, builders’ carpentry and joinery, household utensils of wood, other furniture and parts thereofLicensing requirement; quantitative restrictions
NorwayBananas (fresh), dried bananas, cocoa butter (fat or oil, whole item), unroasted coffeeInternal tax
Oil cake and other residues resulting from the extraction of vegetable oilState trading
Pineapples, mixed fruitsHealth and sanitary regulations
Molasses (whole item) for animal feed, footwear with outer soles of leather or composition leather, footwear with outer soles of rubber or artificial plastic materialState trading
United StatesCotton, wool, and man-made fiber textilesSpecific limits
Source: Data supplied by the Philippine authorities.

As of December 31, 1981.

Not otherwise provided for.

Source: Data supplied by the Philippine authorities.

As of December 31, 1981.

Not otherwise provided for.

Table 9.Pakistan: Trade Measures Affecting Exports1
CountryProducts AffectedType of Measure
European CommunityRiceImport levies; labeling restrictions (Benelux); readjustable levy (France); licensing (Germany and United Kingdom)
Cereal preparationsImport levies (Benelux, France, Germany, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); licensing (Germany)
Meat and meat productsImport levies (Benelux, France, Germany, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); compensatory levy (France); licensing (Germany and United Kingdom)
MolassesImport levies; compensatory levy (France); licensing (Germany and United Kingdom)
Sugar and sugar preparationsImport levies (Benelux, France, Germany, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); compensatory levy (France); licensing (Germany and United Kingdom)
Animal feedImport levies (Benelux, Germany, and United Kingdom); import duty (France); licensing (United Kingdom)
Artificial honeyImport levies (Benelux, France, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); licensing (United Kingdom)
Jams and marmaladesImport levies (Benelux, France, Germany, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); licensing (Germany and United Kingdom)
Fruit and vegetable juicesImport levies (Benelux, France, Germany, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); compensatory levy (France); licensing (United Kingdom)
Certain light oilsPacking and labeling restrictions (Benelux); compensatory and turnover taxes (Italy); licensing and levy (Germany)
Certain oil essencesPacking and labeling restrictions (Benelux); licensing and levy (Germany)
Fish, prawns, mollusks, and other crustaceansImport levies (Benelux, France, and Germany); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux)
Manufactured tobaccoImport levies (Benelux, France, and Germany); labeling restrictions (Benelux)
Certain unmanufactured tobaccoImport levies (Benelux, France, and Germany); quotas under Generalized System of Preferences (Benelux); state monopoly (France and Italy)
Pickled vegetables and fruitsImport levies (Benelux, France, and Germany); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); licensing and duty (United Kingdom)
MangoesImport levies (Benelux, France, Germany, and Italy); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux)
RaisinsImport levies (Benelux and Germany); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux and Germany); discretionary licensing (Italy)
ApricotsImport levies (Benelux and Germany); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux)
Preserved fruitsImport levies (Benelux, Germany, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); import duty and compensatory duty (France); licensing (United Kingdom)
Cotton yarn and fabrics, knitted shirts, jerseys and pajamas, blouses, skirts, and toilet linenQuotas (Benelux and France); quota (United Kingdom for specific items); specific limits (other countries); duties (France)
Cotton glovesQuotas (Germany and United Kingdom); ceiling (Benelux)
Certain sacks and bagsCeiling under surveillance (Benelux); quota or surveillance (France); global quota (Ireland); export restraints (Italy); quotas (Germany and United Kingdom)
Tarpaulins, sails, awnings, sunblinds, tents, and camping goods of cottonCeiling under surveillance (Benelux); quota or surveillance (France); global quota (Ireland); export restraints (Italy); quotas (Germany and United Kingdom)
All other textile itemsSurveillance licensing; quotas for specific items (United Kingdom)
Certain footwearQuotas under Generalized System of Preferences (Benelux); import levy (France and Germany); surveillance licensing (United Kingdom); bilateral quota (Denmark and Italy); compensatory and turnover taxes (Italy)
Certain bovine cattle leatherQuotas (Benelux); import levy (Germany)
Certain positive cinefilmsCeiling (Benelux); quotas (Italy); import levy (Germany)
Travel goods of materials other than artificial plastic sheetingQuotas under Generalized System of Preferences (Benelux); import levy (Germany)
Scissors, knives, spoons, forks, and certain other cutlerySurveillance licensing (United Kingdom); quotas (Benelux); import levy and licensing (France); ceiling under Generalized System of Preferences (Benelux)
United StatesMolassesGlobal quota
Certain surgical instrumentsPacking and labeling restrictions
Sheeting, duck cloth, towels, knitted shirts, and blousesSpecific limits; packing and labeling restrictions
Printed cloth, twill and satins, underwear, other apparel, and other cotton manufacturesDesignated consultation levels: packing and labeling requirements for certain goods
All other textile itemsAggregate limits
Fish in all formsAdministrative entry procedures
JapanRiceState trading
Manufactured tobaccoState trading
Unmanufactured tobaccoState trading
Certain leathersDiscretionary licensing
Leather handbags and travel goodsLicensing requirements; 15–20 per cent commodity tax
Leather gloves, apparel, and parts of footwearLicensing requirements
Fish in all formsDiscriminatory licensing; quantitative restrictions
Motor gasoline and petroleumState trading
AustraliaFootwearImport licensing/global quotas; general tariff of 46.5 per cent; preferential tariff for United Kingdom, Canada, and Ireland of 31.5 per cent; handmade leather sandals of f.o.b. value less than $2.50/pair, duty free under handicrafts by-law
Certain animal feedsQuarantine restrictions on all types and embargoes on certain animal feeds
Butter and butterfat in most formsEmbargoes
Cheese of all typesQuota restrictions
Dried, evaporated, and condensed milkEmbargoes
SugarSugar Agreement Act
Syrup in all formsSugar Agreement Act
LactoseImport duty
Cotton yarn (finer than 30 tex and not finer than 10 tex)Import levy
Other cottonImport levy
Cotton yarn (mercerized)Import duty
Cocoa beans and productsInternational agreement
Turkey and turkey parts and productsQuota and tariff restrictions
Eggs and egg productsQuota and tariff restrictions
Beef and veal in all forms (except offal)Quota and tariff restrictions
Broadwoven filament polyester fabricsSurveillance and tariff restrictions
Certain acrylic yarnsQuota and tariff restrictions
Worsted fabric containing at least 17 per cent by weight of wool from all sources except France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United StatesQuota and tariff restrictions
Textured polyester filament yarnSurveillance and tariff restrictions
Cotton terry towels and othersGlobal quota restrictions; import levies
All specimens of endangered wild fauna and flora and derivatives thereofInternational agreement
Leather working gloves and mittens of industrial type (made of leather)Import duty
Cotton bags for packingImport levies
Leather bagsImport duty
Most garments of cotton, wool, and leather, including snowsuits, skisuits, jackets and pants, parkas, double-knit and wrap-knit fabrics, leisure suits, jeans, blouses, T-shirts, pajamas, raincoats, sportswear, swimwear, underwear, sweaters, and leather coatsQuota restrictions, surveillance, and tariff restrictions
Certain footwear, not included elsewhereSurveillance and tariff restrictions
Certain handbags, not included elsewhereSurveillance and tariff restrictions
New ZealandMixed fabrics and articles of cotton textileImport licensing
Scissors and bladesQuantitative restrictions and licensing requirements
Certain sporting goods, including tennis balls, tennis, badminton, and squash rackets, golf clubs, and cricket batsQuantitative restrictions and licensing requirements
NorwayCotton yarn, cotton fabrics, ready-made cottons, leather garments, and footwearExcluded from Generalized System of Preferences
SwedenLeather footwearBilateral quota
Knitted undergarmentsExport restraint
Certain other textiles and hosiery, including knitted pullovers, bed linen of cotton, certain towels of cotton, and blousesSpecific limits
SwitzerlandCotton yarn; cotton fabrics; knotted carpets; cotton embroidery; felt and felt articles; certain garments and textiles, including knitted undergarments and outergarments, and bed and table linenAll these items are allowed a 50 per cent reduction on the normal tariff; import permits are required only for certain specific categories
Source: Data provided by the Pakistan authorities.

As of December 31, 1981.

Source: Data provided by the Pakistan authorities.

As of December 31, 1981.

Table 10.New Zealand: Trade Measures Affecting Exports1
CountryProducts AffectedType of Measure
AustriaMeat and dairy productsVariable levy
Dairy ProductsImport licensing
MeatQuantitative restriction
ApplesQuantitative restriction
CanadaButter and gheeTrade embargo
CheeseGlobal quota
Whole milk powderTrade embargo
Butter milk powderGlobal quota
Skim milk powderTrade embargo
Whey powderTrade embargo
European CommunitySheep meatVoluntary export restraint arrangement
Beef and vealImport quota and variable levy
ButterImport quota and variable levy
ApplesVoluntary export restraint arrangement
FinlandMeat and dairy productsImport licensing
Milk powderImport quota
Apples and pearsSeasonal quota
Italy2Apples, pears, berries, and sheep meatProhibited imports
JapanFish, beef, dairy products, citrus fruits, and grainsImport quota
NorwayApples, dairy products, and meatImport licensing
PortugalDairy products and wool hidesImport licensing
SpainDairy products, fish, and meatMinimum price required and import licensing
SwedenDairy products and meatVariable levy
SwitzerlandDairy products and meatImport licensing
Beef, cut flowers, and wineImport quota
United Kingdom2Plants and shrubsImport licensing
United StatesDairy productsGlobal import quotas
Source: Data supplied by the New Zealand authorities.

As of May 1982.

In addition to restrictions imposed by the European Community.

Source: Data supplied by the New Zealand authorities.

As of May 1982.

In addition to restrictions imposed by the European Community.

Table 11.Commodity Composition of World Trade in Manufactures, 1973–80(In billions of U.S. dollars)
Commodity19731974197519761977197819791980
Iron and steel28.546.545.844.746.857.270.876.5
Chemicals41.965.962.971.881.0100.6131.1151.5
Other semimanufactures29.036.537.744.052.565.279.992.0
Engineering products188.0237.3279.1317.2363.7439.1509.2591.0
Machinery for specialized industries52.568.183.588.498.0117.5136.4159.0
Office and telecommunications equipment17.221.423.428.632.038.848.259.0
Road motor vehicles41.049.258.369.482.299.5115.8127.0
Other machinery and transport equipment62.079.794.1106.0122.4147.9168.7198.0
Household appliances15.319.019.824.929.235.440.348.0
Textiles23.428.126.630.734.140.749.755.0
Clothing12.615.016.720.623.628.434.639.5
Other consumer goods24.329.432.138.346.257.570.783.0
Total manufactures347.5458.6500.9567.2647.8788.5945.91,089.0
Source: GATT, International Trade, 1977/78, 1978/79, 1979/80, and 1980/81.
Source: GATT, International Trade, 1977/78, 1978/79, 1979/80, and 1980/81.
Table 12.Motor Vehicles: World Trade by Major Trading Regions, 1973–80(In billions of U.S. dollars)
Destination
OriginYearNorth AmericaJapanWestern EuropeEuropean Community1Developing countriesWorld2
North America19738.770.090.521.2210.84
197816.580.181.114.2422.66
197919.500.201.801.505.6027.80
198017.400.201.801.406.4026.60
United States1973
1978
197910.000.201.701.405.0016.90
19808.800.201.701.405.6017.00
Japan19732.530.761.124.90
19788.942.925.6719.03
19799.603.202.405.8020.10
198012.104.203.008.7027.00
Western Europe19733.680.0914.252.9022.03
19785.890.3434.388.3250.86
19797.400.5048.0037.6010.5068.70
19807.600.4049.4038.5013.4073.40
European Community31973
1978
19796.800.5043.3034.109.5062.10
19806.900.4044.1034.5012.2065.90
Developing countries19730.100.020.260.38
19780.280.010.170.801.37
19790.330.010.230.951.65
1980
World2197315.090.1815.705.8541.00
197831.750.5238.7819.6798.98
197936.830.7253.2322.85118.25
1980
Source: GATT, International Trade, 1979/80 and 1980/81.

These figures are included in “Western Europe.”

Including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and the centrally planned countries not shown separately.

Includes intra-Community trade.

Source: GATT, International Trade, 1979/80 and 1980/81.

These figures are included in “Western Europe.”

Including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and the centrally planned countries not shown separately.

Includes intra-Community trade.

Table 13.Motor Vehicles:1 Production, Apparent Consumption, and Share of Imports in Apparent Consumption in Industrial Countries, 1973–80(In thousands of units and per cent)
Production2Apparent Consumption3Percentage Share of Imports in Apparent Consumption
Industrial Country197319781979198019731978197919801973197819791980
Canada1,5741,8181,6321,3741,2261,3971,4461,21363.164.460.966.7
European Community412,54712,19312,22111,2769,42210,49710,82110,23534.043.547.047.5
Belgium1,0511,0931,07992946245348144159.588.390.089.6
France3,2183,5083,6133,3782,1772,4352,4762,47223.527.129.232.4
Germany, Fed. Rep. of3,9494,1864,2503,8782,3953,2203,1762,86733.234.934.737.5
Italy1,9581,6571,6321,6121,6981,5421,6252,04426.438.944.250.1
United Kingdom2,1641,6081,4781,3131,9441,8482,0561,76233.041.354.952.8
Japan7,0838,9349,63611,0435,0534,7205,1405,1240.81.11.30.9
Spain8221,1441,1231,1826727676917413.32.64.38.9
Sweden37930535529832625825122347.958.573.774.9
United States12,68112,89611,4758,00814,64715,32814,00010,97717.922.225.434.0
Total35,44637,64436,95133,69132,65634,34733,87429,96723.929.332.235.8
Source: GATT, International Trade, 1979/80 and 1980/81.

Including passenger cars, trucks, and buses.

Production includes assembly.

Apparent consumption = production—exports + imports.

Including intra-Community trade.

Source: GATT, International Trade, 1979/80 and 1980/81.

Including passenger cars, trucks, and buses.

Production includes assembly.

Apparent consumption = production—exports + imports.

Including intra-Community trade.

Table 14.Motor Vehicles: Regional Distribution of World Production, 1973–801(In per cent)
Region1973197819791980
Industrial countries88858485
North America35333024
Japan18202228
European Community31272829
Other Western Europe4544
Developing countries5611
Eastern trading countries6777
Unclassified1221
Total100100100100
Sources: GATT, International Trade, 1979/80; and data supplied by the OECD.

Measured in units.

Sources: GATT, International Trade, 1979/80; and data supplied by the OECD.

Measured in units.

Table 15.Japan: Regional Breakdown of Passenger Car Exports, 1970 and 1979–80(In thousands of units and per cent)
197019791980
DestinationVolumePer cent

of total
VolumePer cent

of total
VolumePer cent

of total
North America404.555.71,648.453.11,986.752.0
United States339.546.81,587.551.21,850.048.4
European Community144.66.1630.220.3743.419.5
Germany, Fed. Rep. of0.40.1175.95.7211.05.5
France1.50.247.61.554.81.4
Italy0.40.11.60.10.32
Benelux32.24.4175.45.6222.65.9
United Kingdom5.00.7175.75.7201.15.3
Other Europe56.57.8179.65.8217.05.7
Asia63.98.8345.111.1485.112.7
Middle East7.71.1149.24.8209.95.5
Australia and New Zealand86.311.9149.54.8165.04.3
Africa39.65.472.32.3117.53.1
Latin America29.84.172.42.3104.12.7
Eastern trading countries0.40.14.50.12.02
Total725.6100.03,102.0100.03,820.8100.0
Source: Commission of the European Communities, “The European Automobile Industry,” Bulletin of the European Communities, Supp. 2/81 (June 16, 1981).

Excluding Greece.

Less than 0.1 per cent of total.

Source: Commission of the European Communities, “The European Automobile Industry,” Bulletin of the European Communities, Supp. 2/81 (June 16, 1981).

Excluding Greece.

Less than 0.1 per cent of total.

Table 16.Steel: Production, Apparent Consumption, and Employment, 1974 and 1978–81
197419781979198019811
Crude Steel Production
(In millions of tons)
OECD457.6412.8433.4398.3391.5
United States132.2124.3123.3101.7108.8
European Community2155.6132.6140.2128.9126.0
Japan117.1102.1111.7111.4101.7
Canada13.614.916.115.914.8
Australia and New Zealand8.07.88.37.87.9
Other OECD331.131.133.832.632.3
Developing countries430.948.555.957.758.7
Others5220.1255.9258.2261.1256.1
World708.6717.2747.5717.1706.3
Apparent Consumption6
(In millions of ingot tons equivalent)
OECD415.7380.4405.8374.8372.0
United States145.6149.2143.9118.4132.5
European Community2124.3108.8120.4114.6104.4
Japan80.770.683.985.979.3
Canada15.614.016.014.014.7
Australia and New Zealand8.85.47.47.27.6
Other OECD340.732.434.234.733.5
Developing countries474.392.097.3102.9102.8
Others5231.0269.9271.1270.9265.6
World721.0742.3774.2748.6740.6
Employment
(In thousands of workers)
OECD1,956.31,772.51,732.41,640.31,556.0
United States522.0472.0476.3429.3423.0
European Community800.4706.8687.8646.6577.0
Japan323.9302.5281.5271.0269.3
Canada52.552.753.053.2
Australia43.241.044.544.5
Other OECD214.3197.5197.0195.7
Sources: OECD, The Steel Market in 1981 and Outlook for 1982 (May 1982) and Press Release, “OECD Steel Committee Reviews Market Situation” (November 19, 1981).

Estimates.

Includes Greece from 1980 on.

Excludes Greece from 1980 on.

Includes oil exporting developing countries.

Includes Eastern Europe, China, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, South Africa, and the U.S.S.R.

Apparent consumption = production + net imports.

Sources: OECD, The Steel Market in 1981 and Outlook for 1982 (May 1982) and Press Release, “OECD Steel Committee Reviews Market Situation” (November 19, 1981).

Estimates.

Includes Greece from 1980 on.

Excludes Greece from 1980 on.

Includes oil exporting developing countries.

Includes Eastern Europe, China, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, South Africa, and the U.S.S.R.

Apparent consumption = production + net imports.

Table 17.Steel: Share of Imports in Apparent Consumption and Capacity Utilization, 1978–81(In per cent)
United StatesEuropean Community1Japan
197819791980198119781979198019811978197919801981
Share of imports in apparent consumption18.115.215.019.312.012.012.19.50.72.41.82.4
Capacity utilization86.688.073.078.065.669.063.063.067.572.070.064.0
Memorandum item:
Installed capacity (millions of tons)143.2140.2139.7140.0202.1203.5202.5200.3151.3154.4159.2158.7
Sources: OECD, The Steel Market in 1981 and Outlook for 1982 (May 1982); and OECD, Press Release, “OECD Steel Committee Reviews Market Situation” (October 30, 1980).

Data for 1978–80 refer to nine members of the European Community (excluding Greece).

Sources: OECD, The Steel Market in 1981 and Outlook for 1982 (May 1982); and OECD, Press Release, “OECD Steel Committee Reviews Market Situation” (October 30, 1980).

Data for 1978–80 refer to nine members of the European Community (excluding Greece).

Table 18.Steel: Imports, Exports, and Net Trade Balance, 1978–81(In millions of ingot tons equivalent)
1978197919801981
ExportsImportsNet exportsExportsImportsNet exportsExportsImportsNet exportsExportsImportsNet exports
OECD108.656.352.3105.255.050.2103.052.450.6104.054.849.5
United States2.924.5–21.63.320.3–17.04.817.9–13.13.423.1–19.7
European
Community143.613.130.540.713.926.837.513.623.941.610.231.4
Japan40.20.539.739.71.937.838.61.537.137.02.035.0
Other OECD21.918.23.721.518.92.622.119.42.722.019.52.8
Rest of the world33.585.5–52.033.783.9–50.236.984.9–48.036.883.1–46.3
Sources: OECD, The Steel Market in 1981 and Outlook for 1982 (May 1982); and OECD, Press Release, “OECD Steel Committee Reviews Market Situation” (October 30, 1980).

Data exclude intra-Community trade; data for 1978–80 refer to nine members of the European Community (excluding Greece).

Sources: OECD, The Steel Market in 1981 and Outlook for 1982 (May 1982); and OECD, Press Release, “OECD Steel Committee Reviews Market Situation” (October 30, 1980).

Data exclude intra-Community trade; data for 1978–80 refer to nine members of the European Community (excluding Greece).

Table 19.Textiles and Clothing: Production by Regions, 1963–80(Change in volume in per cent)
1963–731978197919801973–80
Textiles
World5.01.53.51.5
Industrial countries4.5–0.55.0–2.5–0.5
European Community2.0–3.0–5.5–2.5–1.0
Japan7.51.02.0–1.0–1.5
United States4.52.55.5–4.5–0.5
Developing countries14.53.03.00.52.5
Eastern trading countries6.04.02.03.04.0
Clothing2
World4.01.02.5–0.52.0
Industrial countries2.0–1.01.0–4.0–0.5
European Community7.5–4.55.5–5.0–1.0
Japan7.52.0–2.0–5.5–2.5
United States2.5–4.51.5
Developing countries15.53.01.51.03.0
Eastern trading countries7.03.54.53.55.0
Sources: United Nations, Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, 1980; OECD, Indicators of Industrial Activity, 1980; and national statistics as reported in GATT, International Trade, 1980/81.

Includes oil exporting as well as non-oil exporting developing countries.

Includes leather and footwear.

Sources: United Nations, Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, 1980; OECD, Indicators of Industrial Activity, 1980; and national statistics as reported in GATT, International Trade, 1980/81.

Includes oil exporting as well as non-oil exporting developing countries.

Includes leather and footwear.

Table 20.Imports of Textiles and Clothing of Selected Industrial Countries, 1973–76 and 1978–80(Change in value in per cent per annum)
TextilesClothing
1973–761978197919801973–76197819791980
Canada9.59.024.0–5.030.5–3.523.5–2.5
Of which:
Industrial countries10.07.524.0–5.515.5–19.023.5–9.5
Developing countries10.08.523.06.542.06.016.52.5
European Community10.523.527.06.519.022.529.514.5
Of which:
Southern Europe17.014.534.53.023.525.033.512.5
Other industrial countries9.024.525.05.014.024.525.011.5
Developing countries15.514.534.512.032.017.036.521.5
European Free Trade Association (EFTA)18.514.025.012.519.512.526.018.5
Of which:
Southern Europe10.045.512.514.55.535.526.0
Other industrial countries8.015.024.09.516.018.526.517.0
Developing countries17.54.530.533.539.5–5.517.027.5
Japan–7.072.535.5–18.511.542.545.5–15.0
Of which:
Industrial countries–10.037.544.5–8.48.540.059.5–3.7
Developing countries9.093.029.5–29.011.044.037.5–27.0
United States1.518.012.518.533.04.513.5
Of which:
Industrial countries–3.517.0–9.08.0–1.021.0–16.5
Developing countries7.515.012.010.525.034.07.015.0
All industrial countries8.023.025.05.519.023.524.012.5
Of which:
Southern Europe12.033.533.03.020.522.033.012.5
Industrial countries7.521.523.05.012.522.523.011.0
Developing countries9.024.028.04.527.524.521.013.5
Sources: GATT, International Trade, 1980/81; and data provided by the Japanese authorities.

Excluding Portugal.

Sources: GATT, International Trade, 1980/81; and data provided by the Japanese authorities.

Excluding Portugal.

Table 21.Textiles and Clothing: Bilateral Agreements to Restrict Trade Under Article 4 of the Multifiber Arrangement Maintained in 19811
Importing CountryExporting Country and Area
AustriaEgypt, Hong Kong, India, Korea, Macao, and Pakistan
CanadaHong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Macao, Malaysia, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Thailand
European Community2Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Guatemala, Haiti, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Korea, Macao, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Uruguay, and Yugoslavia
FinlandHong Kong, India, Korea, Macao, Malaysia, Romania, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Thailand
SwedenBrazil, Hong Kong, India, Korea, Macao, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Yugoslavia
United StatesBrazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Haiti, Hong Kong, India, Jamaica, Japan, Korea, Macao, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Yugoslavia
Sources: GATT, Report of the Textiles Surveillance Body to the Textiles Committee for the Major Review of the Operation of the Arrangement, 1980, COM.TEX/SB/610 (October 14, 1980), and Activities of the Textiles Surveillance Body (21 September 1980–31 October 1981), Report to the Textiles Committee by the Textiles Surveillance Body. COM.TEX/SB/742 (November 9, 1981).

Agreements notified to the Textiles Surveillance Body between January 1, 1978 and October 31, 1981. In addition, five bilateral agreements were signed under Article 3:4, including three by Austria with Brazil, Hong Kong, and Korea, one by Canada with Brazil, and one by Finland with Sri Lanka.

Not including agreements with countries granted preferential status.

Sources: GATT, Report of the Textiles Surveillance Body to the Textiles Committee for the Major Review of the Operation of the Arrangement, 1980, COM.TEX/SB/610 (October 14, 1980), and Activities of the Textiles Surveillance Body (21 September 1980–31 October 1981), Report to the Textiles Committee by the Textiles Surveillance Body. COM.TEX/SB/742 (November 9, 1981).

Agreements notified to the Textiles Surveillance Body between January 1, 1978 and October 31, 1981. In addition, five bilateral agreements were signed under Article 3:4, including three by Austria with Brazil, Hong Kong, and Korea, one by Canada with Brazil, and one by Finland with Sri Lanka.

Not including agreements with countries granted preferential status.

Table 22.Shipbuilding: World Production and Shares of Major Producers, 1975–81

(In thousands of gross tons1 and per cent)

1975197619771978
ProductionPer cent of world productionProductionPer cent of world productionProductionPer cent of world productionProductionPer cent of world production
OECD countries29,54186.429,54287.123,28084.613,66277.6
European Community7,70022.57,76222.95,45019.83,83621.8
Other Europe5,32315.64,78014.14,80117.42,83416.1
North America6501.99982.91,2214.41,3167.5
Japan15,80846.215,93547.011,67642.45,63032.0
Other600.2670.21320.5460.3
Rest of the world4,66113.64,38012.94,25215.43,93822.4
Total34,202100.033,922100.027,532100.017,600100.0
197919801981
ProductionPer cent of world productionProductionPer cent of world productionProductionPer cent of world production
OECD countries10,86079.19,61478.612,71177.0
European Community2,71619.81,78114.62,34414.2
Other Europe1,99214.51,27010.41,5109.1
North America1,48510.86705.54913.0
Japan4,65933.95,88648.18,35750.6
Other870.190.1
Rest of the world2,86620.92,61721.43,80123.0
Total13,726100.012,231100.016,512100.0
Sources: OECD, Annual Statistics (various issues) and various OECD Press Releases.

Although compensated gross tons provide a better measure of production and capacity utilization, this table was prepared in gross tons since no data for the “rest of the world” were available in compensated gross tons.

Sources: OECD, Annual Statistics (various issues) and various OECD Press Releases.

Although compensated gross tons provide a better measure of production and capacity utilization, this table was prepared in gross tons since no data for the “rest of the world” were available in compensated gross tons.

Table 23.Shipbuilding: Total New Orders, 1976–81(In thousands of gross tons)
197619771978197919801981
Europe11,7702,8172,2924,3454,2884,061
Japan8,6776,4383,1896,81310,05310,011
Total OECD countries10,4479,2555,48111,15814,34114,072
Rest of the world2,4892,5042,8615,745
Overall total12,93611,7598,34216,903
Sources: OECD, Annual Statistics (various issues); various OECD Press Releases; and Lloyd’s Register of Shipbuilding, “Annual Summary of Merchant Ships Completed in the World” (1975–80).

Members of the Association of West European Shipbuilders, which includes the European Community member countries, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden.

Sources: OECD, Annual Statistics (various issues); various OECD Press Releases; and Lloyd’s Register of Shipbuilding, “Annual Summary of Merchant Ships Completed in the World” (1975–80).

Members of the Association of West European Shipbuilders, which includes the European Community member countries, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden.

Table 24.Footwear: European Community Production, Trade, Apparent Consumption, and Employment, 1975–80
197519761977197819791980
(In millions of pairs)
Production890910886889979903
Imports186231257235265313
Imports subject to surveillance218258
Exports138143144164203155
Apparent consumption19389989999601,0411,060
(In per cent)
Ratio of imports to apparent consumption19.823.225.124.525.529.5
Ratio of imports subject to surveillance to total imports82.382.4
(In thousands)
Employment349329333331347331
Source: Data supplied by the Commission of the European Communities.

Apparent consumption = production + imports—exports.

Source: Data supplied by the Commission of the European Communities.

Apparent consumption = production + imports—exports.

Table 25.Footwear: U.S. Production, Imports, and Apparent Consumption of Nonrubber Footwear, 1978–81
1978197919801981
(In millions of pairs)
Production418.9398.1394.0372.9
Imports373.5404.6355.0375.4
Apparent consumption1792.5802.6759.0748.4
(In per cent)
Ratio of imports to apparent consumption47.050.048.051.0
Sources: U.S. International Trade Commission, Nonrubber Footwear: U.S. Production, Imports for Consumption, Apparent U.S. Consumption, Employment, Wholesale Price Index, and Consumer Price Index (Third Calendar Quarter, 1980); and Fund staff estimates.

Includes exports, which totaled 6.9 million pairs in 1978, 9.3 million in 1979, 11.2 million in 1980, and 11.4 million in 1981.

Sources: U.S. International Trade Commission, Nonrubber Footwear: U.S. Production, Imports for Consumption, Apparent U.S. Consumption, Employment, Wholesale Price Index, and Consumer Price Index (Third Calendar Quarter, 1980); and Fund staff estimates.

Includes exports, which totaled 6.9 million pairs in 1978, 9.3 million in 1979, 11.2 million in 1980, and 11.4 million in 1981.

Table 26.Commodity and Regional Composition of World Trade in Agricultural Products, Prices, and Terms of Trade, 1973–801
197319741975197619771978197919802
(In billions of U.S. dollars)
All agricultural commodities3
Exports
Developing countries30.039.038.943.454.056.261.475.8
Developed countries65.479.183.586.997.8114.6137.9145.4
Total95.4118.1122.4130.4151.8170.8199.3221.2
Imports
Developing countries19.530.332.431.236.843.850.166.0
Developed countries82.197.6104.8112.8129.4143.9169.7186.0
Total101.6127.9137.2144.0166.2189.5219.8252.0
Food
Exports
Developing countries16.024.125.023.327.229.732.438.0
Developed countries46.357.363.063.268.280.996.3115.0
Total62.381.488.086.595.4110.6128.7153.0
Imports
Developing countries15.024.326.423.927.333.038.152.0
Developed countries50.663.472.071.777.188.9105.1115.0
Total65.687.798.495.6104.4121.9143.2167.0
Beverages4
Exports
Developing countries6.47.57.712.021.621.824.823.0
Developed countries
Total6.47.57.712.021.621.824.823.0
Imports5
Developing countries0.50.60.71.53.23.23.8
Developed countries6.17.27.310.618.718.921.3
Total6.67.88.012.121.922.125.123.3
Agricultural materials
Exports
Developing countries7.68.67.38.99.910.912.313.0
Developed countries11.914.012.714.718.120.224.926.0
Total19.522.620.023.628.031.137.239.0
Imports
Developing countries3.34.44.15.06.27.28.010.0
Developed countries18.020.418.321.624.427.232.334.0
Total21.324.822.426.630.634.440.344.0
Other agriculture
Exports7.26.66.78.36.87.38.66.2
Imports8.17.68.49.79.311.111.217.7
(1973 = 100)
Export price index
Food10010897102116117132154
Beverages100119114204365258263249
Agricultural raw materials100114100112124132159167
All agricultural commodities100132116124140145166188
Terms of trade
Food100108858994828185
Beverages1001068989262161144122
Agricultural raw materials10094707880747874
All agricultural commodities100109849093848487
Developing countries61009692101112959395
Developed countries610092848076738486
Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1973/74—1981/82, and The State of Food and Agriculture 1981, FAO Document No. C81/2, Supp. 1 (November 1981).

For classification of commodities and countries for agricultural trade, see Appendix II.

Estimates.

Excluding fishery and forestry products.

Including cocoa, coffee, and tea.

Fund staff estimates.

Net barter terms of trade of all agricultural exports for manufactured goods and crude petroleum.

Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1973/74—1981/82, and The State of Food and Agriculture 1981, FAO Document No. C81/2, Supp. 1 (November 1981).

For classification of commodities and countries for agricultural trade, see Appendix II.

Estimates.

Excluding fishery and forestry products.

Including cocoa, coffee, and tea.

Fund staff estimates.

Net barter terms of trade of all agricultural exports for manufactured goods and crude petroleum.

Table 27.Butter: Production, Trade, Stocks, and Price Developments, 1972–811
1972–74219751976197719781979198019813
(In thousands of tons)
Production6,2626,3576,7006,9106,9456,9296,8316,675
North America568574560605558549617660
European Community1,6491,6801,7351,7271,9181,9221,8711,825
Australia and New Zealand409405412373338356333325
State trading countries1,8041,8771,9832,1212,2662,1972,1261,925
Developing countries1,8321,8211,4721,4941,5071,5311,5451,550
Exports94349804406467455693829779
European Community57346174157236246468575525
Australia and New Zealand240241249231209225254254
Imports93549904457507532708875822
North America3166111
European Community5794720416313313312310995
Japan1821942222
U.S.S.R.8212107639174249249
Developing countries182190265294352408514475
Stocks592539648716764555443420
North America503948109122101152200
European Community309262380372563372240170
Australia and New Zealand7072857579825150
U.S.S.R.163166135160
(1972–74 = 100)
Price index5100143152167217259300289
Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1975/76–1981/82; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

For classification of countries and regions, see Appendix II.

Average.

Provisional figures.

Includes intra-Community trade.

New Zealand butter quoted in London.

Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1975/76–1981/82; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

For classification of countries and regions, see Appendix II.

Average.

Provisional figures.

Includes intra-Community trade.

New Zealand butter quoted in London.

Table 28.Cheese: Production, Trade, Stocks, and Price Developments, 1972–811
1972–74219751976197719781979198019813
(In thousands of tons)
Production9,0289,60310,02710,27010,65110,95211,37611,600
North America1,8651,8712,1162,1442,0772,2212,3142,500
European Community2,6412,7682,9893,1453,1173,5833,7183,800
Australia and New Zealand185204202193198237254225
State trading countries1,9922,1692,3942,4442,6302,6682,6862,660
Developing countries2,3452,5911,4461,4521,5071,4591,4951,525
Exports93449994268340332384433480
European Community61746874145216218269303350
Australia and New Zealand118108123124114115130130
Imports91749674448451491537570606
North America129102117116133134126130
European Community567461741179378848790
Japan4049556571747575
U.S.S.R.8776671111
Developing countries88101152171203238271300
Stocks
North America202197240248245276359500
European Community254339310360306371345350
Australia and New Zealand3044635868909575
U.S.S.R.
(1973–75 = 100)
Price index5
Netherlands Gouda cheese7788115131122122125
U.S. cheddar cheese (Wisconsin)109122123133154177
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1975/76–1981/82.

For classification of countries and regions, see Appendix II.

Average.

Provisional figures.

Includes intra-Community trade.

Wholesale prices.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1975/76–1981/82.

For classification of countries and regions, see Appendix II.

Average.

Provisional figures.

Includes intra-Community trade.

Wholesale prices.

Table 29.Bovine Meat: Production, Trade, and Price Developments, 1972–811
1972–74219751976197719781979198019813
(In thousands of tons)
Production41,31345,44747,51447,54848,39747,20046,80046,700
Developing countries10,54211,23814,27214,55015,27415,20015,40015,500
Developed countries430,77134,20933,24232,99833,12332,00031,40031,200
Exports2,3772,4832,6232,9283,1933,3893,0802,860
Developing countries691368585624723625500505
Developed countries1,6862,1152,0382,3042,4702,7642,5802,355
Imports2,4372,4432,6173,0243,0403,4673,2103,000
Developing countries151185283368529553500495
Developed countries2,2862,2582,3342,6562,5112,9142,7102,505
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Value of exports3,6043,7723,9014,7955,9517,9678,422
(1972–74 = 100)
Price index5100789489127171162150
Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1976/77–1981/82; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

For classification of countries and regions, see Appendix II.

Average.

Provisional figures.

Including European state trading countries.

All origins in U.S. ports.

Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1976/77–1981/82; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.

For classification of countries and regions, see Appendix II.

Average.

Provisional figures.

Including European state trading countries.

All origins in U.S. ports.

Table 30.Wheat: Production, Trade, Stocks, and Price Developments, 1972–74 and 1975–811
1972–74219751976197719781979198019813
(In millions of tons)
Production361.3355.8417.9385.7449.8429.2444.9456.5
Developing countries4109.7122.4138.5124.5143.7161.0150.5158.2
Developed countries131.1142.7153.8140.4154.8154.8166.9181.8
State trading countries5120.590.7125.6120.8151.3113.3127.5116.5
Exports64.465.961.572.071.585.593.2101.0
Developing countries42.93.46.35.06.45.74.85.6
Developed countries57.060.652.964.461.978.486.894.2
State trading countries54.51.92.32.63.21.41.61.1
Imports63.267.560.571.572.984.092.3101.0
Developing countries437.437.438.245.849.953.057.764.8
Developed countries13.614.612.113.513.113.713.514.3
State trading countries512.215.510.212.29.917.321.121.9
Stocks646.059.085.281.5112.8101.491.793.0
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Value of exports7,391.011,346.010,547.09,827.011,236.013,406.018,449.0
(In U.S. dollars per ton)
Price7142.6157.4122.4124.8155.8206.2206.6217.0
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1976/77–1981/82.

For classification of countries and regions, see Appendix II.

Average.

Provisional figures.

Including Asian state trading countries.

Excluding Asian state trading countries.

At end of national crop years.

U.S. hard red winter wheat, No. 2, at North Sea ports (c.i.f.).

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1976/77–1981/82.

For classification of countries and regions, see Appendix II.

Average.

Provisional figures.

Including Asian state trading countries.

Excluding Asian state trading countries.

At end of national crop years.

U.S. hard red winter wheat, No. 2, at North Sea ports (c.i.f.).

Table 31.Fats and Oils: Production, Trade, and Price Developments, 1972–811
1972–74219751976197719781979198019813
(In thousands of tons)
Production46,24047,87051,67050,33056,80057,80062,26060,490
Developing countries18,48020,74022,69022,62023,78024,23025,78026,920
Developed countries19,89018,60021,34019,66024,52025,69028,71025,780
State trading countries7,8708,5307,6408,0508,5007,8807,7707,790
Exports13,99014,51016,21016,94018,59019,57020,990
Developing countries5,0606,1807,2006,7206,9407,0908,100
Developed countries7,9107,3408,2109,42010,93011,84012,330
State trading countries1,020990800800720640560
Imports13,63013,60015,81016,72018,24019,50020,910
Developing countries3,3803,7504,4105,8607,0707,4308,710
Developed countries9,4809,21010,3709,87010,11010,63010,730
State trading countries7706401,0309901,0601,4401,470
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Value of exports5,8708,0707,6609,63011,42014,51015,100
(1964–66 = 100)
FAO price index4213189233268303263250
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1975/76–1981/82.

For classification of countries and regions, see Appendix II.

Average.

Provisional figures.

All fats and oils, excluding butter.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1975/76–1981/82.

For classification of countries and regions, see Appendix II.

Average.

Provisional figures.

All fats and oils, excluding butter.

Table 32.Sugar: Production, Trade, Consumption, and Price Developments, 1972–811
1972–74219751976197719781979198019813
(In millions of tons)
Production75.979.387.492.690.984.287.1
Developing countries36.141.549.951.650.245.249.3
Developed countries22.821.625.927.026.826.726.8
State trading countries17.016.211.614.013.912.311.0
Imports22.622.023.027.825.425.727.1
Developing countries4.84.85.98.39.78.811.0
Developed countries13.912.612.513.811.112.010.3
State trading countries3.94.74.75.74.64.95.8
Exports22.821.623.028.526.326.427.3
Developing countries15.515.316.619.917.618.417.4
Developed countries5.95.45.87.87.87.39.3
State trading countries1.50.90.60.80.90.70.6
(In billions of U.S. dollars)
Export value5.610.77.37.47.69.014.4
Developing countries3.97.65.15.05.26.79.5
Developed countries1.32.62.02.22.12.14.6
State trading countries0.40.50.20.20.30.20.3
(In millions of tons)
Consumption75.778.180.583.785.089.488.288.7
Developing countries25.427.934.136.638.242.141.742.8
Developed countries30.729.630.330.829.930.629.629.0
State trading countries19.620.616.116.316.916.716.916.9
(1972–74 = 100)
Average price410013274745063187116
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1974/75—1981/82.

For classification of countries and regions, see Appendix II.

Average.

Provisional figures.

International Sugar Agreement daily prices for raw sugar.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1974/75—1981/82.

For classification of countries and regions, see Appendix II.

Average.

Provisional figures.

International Sugar Agreement daily prices for raw sugar.

Table 33.Agricultural Trade by Principal Commodities and Countries, 1972–81
1972–74119751976197719781979198019812
Temperate zone products
Beef and veal3
Exports (in thousand tons)2,3772,4832,6232,9283,1933,3893,080
Imports (in thousand tons)2,4372,4432,6173,0243,0403,4673,210
Butter
Exports (in thousand tons)94349804406467455693750900
Of which: (in per cent)
European Community60.76462.96438.6750.5454.0767.5366.6758.33
Australia and New Zealand25.4524.5961.3349.4645.9332.4733.3336.11
Imports (in thousand tons)93549904457507532731928875
Of which: (in per cent)
European Community61.93472.73435.6726.2325.0017.3711.7510.86
Developing countries19.4719.1957.9958.1966.1758.4155.3954.29
Cheese
Exports (in thousand tons)93449994268340332384710745
Of which: (in per cent)
European Community66.06468.77454.1063.5365.6670.0542.6846.98
Australia and New Zealand12.6310.8145.9036.4734.3429.9518.31
Imports (in thousand tons)91749674448451491537682740
Of which: (in per cent)
United States and Canada14.0710.5526.1225.7227.0924.9518.4817.57
European Community61.83463.81426.1220.6215.8915.6412.7612.16
Developing countries9.6010.4433.9337.9241.3444.3239.7440.54
Coarse grains5
Exports (in million tons)69.3567.9073.1078.7081.2098.30102.30108.80
Of which: (in per cent)
European Community4.932.363.420.604.564.682.873.22
United States57.9750.8163.3464.2964.1664.9573.3668.01
Developing countries13.3319.0013.6818.0417.1216.448.7315.07
Imports (in million tons)67.3069.5072.9077.7079.6099.00101.10108.80
Of which: (in per cent)
European Community24.3723.3124.4234.2320.1015.7813.4011.49
Japan19.4718.9918.5220.4621.3620.6518.8717.65
State trading countries15.1610.3628.6717.3725.1321.8129.3831.71
Developing countries14.7117.5515.2314.5419.2227.7325.9827.57
Wheat
Exports (in million tons)64.4065.9061.5072.0071.5085.5093.20101.00
Of which: (in per cent)
Australia9.1711.2711.9913.3315.289.6517.8110.90
Canada18.3817.1818.3620.9822.0819.4417.8116.83
European Community8.7810.5611.997.156.9410.3511.2812.18
United States43.6846.0647.8041.7943.1944.6243.3551.49
Imports (in million tons)63.2067.5060.5071.5072.9084.0092.30101.00
Of which: (in per cent)
European Community9.047.999.486.947.696.455.454.46
Japan7.758.148.749.097.837.826.915.54
State trading countries28.7719.6126.3716.8617.0613.5820.6121.68
Developing countries42.7554.4552.0063.1464.0668.4562.5564.16
Competing zone products
Fats and oils
Exports (in million tons)14.0014.5116.2116.9418.5919.5720.99
Of which: (in per cent)
European Community7.939.037.347.446.947.607.81
North America40.5034.2535.3540.2643.9544.1744.40
Developing countries35.4341.7044.4239.6737.3336.9338.59
Imports (in million tons)13.6213.6115.8116.7218.2419.6420.91
Of which: (in per cent)
European Community41.6341.0037.1334.8130.6532.4330.94
Other Europe7.937.797.656.706.095.555.84
Japan11.3110.4310.259.339.329.118.80
North America6.906.618.796.705.705.354.26
Developing countries22.3225.2027.8935.0538.7638.0941.65
Sugar
Exports (in million tons)22.8321.6222.9528.5426.3226.5527.35
Of which: (in per cent)
European Community25.71425.02411.9013.1416.5316.4218.28
Far East and Oceania10.7314.8017.9117.1711.8213.7110.97
Latin America51.0351.4846.1045.2347.9148.1744.31
Other developed countries, excluding Europe713.4914.6212.4213.6712.7310.5113.42
Imports (in million tons)22.6422.0223.0427.7925.4425.6627.14
Of which: (in per cent)
European Community615.3317.0814.1910.8010.189.708.62
North America25.7520.3521.8822.9619.0321.0416.95
State trading countries17.5421.3420.4020.6518.2819.1721.22
Developing countries21.1621.5725.4329.7638.2534.4940.53
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1974/75—1981/82.

Average.

Provisional figures.

Fresh, chilled, and frozen.

Including intra-Community trade.

Trade year ending in the middle of the year indicated by the column heading.

Including intra-Community trade.

Including Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1974/75—1981/82.

Average.

Provisional figures.

Fresh, chilled, and frozen.

Including intra-Community trade.

Trade year ending in the middle of the year indicated by the column heading.

Including intra-Community trade.

Including Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

Table 34.Structure of Agricultural Trade of Principal Commodities, 1975–801(In billions of U.S. dollars and per cent)
197519761977197819791980
Total agricultural exports77.990.0101.3113.5138.0158.7
Tropical zone product exports7.510.415.214.219.119.7
Cocoa1.82.23.33.64.03.7
Coffee4.08.011.710.311.111.6
Natural rubber1.70.20.20.34.04.4
Temperate zone product exports30.031.329.836.744.254.2
Beef and veal23.83.94.86.08.08.7
Butter31.51.71.82.32.93.4
Cheese31.82.22.63.13.84.1
Citrus fruit1.41.61.72.02.62.7
Coarse grains410.711.39.612.013.516.8
Wheat10.810.69.311.313.418.5
Competing zone product exports13.713.215.116.720.325.8
Fats and oils3.35.87.79.211.311.4
Sugar310.47.47.47.59.014.4
Total of the above51.254.960.167.683.699.7
Per cent of total agricultural exports65.761.059.359.660.662.8
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review Outlook, 1974/75—1981/82.

Includes only registered agricultural trade.

Fresh, chilled, and frozen.

Including intra-Community trade.

Trade year ending in the middle of the year indicated by the column heading.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review Outlook, 1974/75—1981/82.

Includes only registered agricultural trade.

Fresh, chilled, and frozen.

Including intra-Community trade.

Trade year ending in the middle of the year indicated by the column heading.

Table 35.European Community: Target Prices for Selected Commodities, 1972/73 and 1979/80–1981/821
1980/811981/821981/82
1972/731979/801980/811981/821979/801980/811972/73
(Percentage change)
Cereals (ECU/ton)
Common wheat137.58201.42214.01230.556.37.767.6
Barley126.03182.89194.32210.006.28.166.7
Rye127.48192.50197.31210.002.56.464.7
Rice, husked (ECU/ton)225.69382.28408.16450.506.810.499.6
Sugar, white (ECU/ton)296.80432.60455.50494.205.38.566.5
Olive oil (ECU/ton)1,507.562,350.402,479.702,727.705.510.080.5
Oilseeds (ECU/ton)
Sunflower254.48396.60426.30477.507.512.087.6
Soya394.80420.50462.606.510.0
Wine, Type A II (ECU/hl)36.3952.7955.6961.265.510.068.3
Tobacco, No. 2 (ECU/kg)2.7673.4643.6033.7834.05.036.7
Fruits and vegetables (ECU/100 kg)
Cauliflower9.7914.5214.7517.401.618.077.7
Tomatoes (open grown)15.9623.2724.7926.51/17.226.56.966.1
Oranges19.2230.4032.14/19.3835.53/26.285.710.584.9
Apples11.7319.1820.4222.546.510.492.2
Milk (3.7 per cent fat content)142.29214.00222.60242.604.09.070.5
Beef animals (live)906.711,545.801,607.601,728.204.07.590.6
Pig meat997.391,504.461,587.211,761.805.511.076.6
Sheep meat and goat meat2
(ECU/100 kg)345.00370.887.5
Source: Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community, 1981 Report (Brussels, 1982).

Beginning of marketing year.

Sheep meat and goat meat were not covered by the Common Agricultural Policy prior to 1980/81.

Source: Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community, 1981 Report (Brussels, 1982).

Beginning of marketing year.

Sheep meat and goat meat were not covered by the Common Agricultural Policy prior to 1980/81.

Table 36.European Community: Regional Distribution of Imports of Principal Agricultural Products, 1962 and 1979
Intra-Community TradeSelected Developed Countries2Developing CountriesEastern Trading Countries
Product119621979196219791962197919621979
(In percentage of total Community imports of the product)
Fresh meat (011)33.573.934.311.825.86.73.64.8
Dried and smoked meat (012)83.696.20.50.13.00.110.63.5
Prepared meat (013)40.970.08.72.834.717.19.26.3
Milk and cream (022)61.799.817.40.21.20.6
Butter (023)37.083.548.316.42.05.30.1
Cheese and curd (024)51.986.828.50.10.30.20.40.1
Unmilled wheat (041)7.157.464.940.520.32.16.0
Unmilled maize (044)4.135.457.454.322.99.26.40.3
Other unmilled cereals (045)7.265.059.411.122.220.75.01.3
Fresh vegetables (054)51.149.55.23.523.529.03.72.2
Sugar and honey (061)8.834.912.52.263.755.68.11.6
Animal oils and fats (411)20.537.736.228.111.16.20.11.8
Vegetable oils (421)5.451.09.30.858.634.86.93.1
(Value of imports in millions of U.S. dollars)
Fresh meat (011)277.56,062.5284.2971.7213.9549.630.0393.3
Dried and smoked meat (012)233.7823.51.30.68.30.529.630.1
Prepared meat (013)95.3898.420.235.480.7220.321.380.8
Milk and cream (022)37.91,346.69.81.60.70.30.1
Butter (023)144.01,163.1188.2228.47.820.50.5
Cheese and curd (024)126.91,356.669.61.80.63.01.01.3
Unmilled wheat (041)49.61,285.5453.1908.0141.646.042.11.0
Unmilled maize (044)26.6995.1376.11,525.3150.1257.641.78.1
Other unmilled cereals (045)19.2171.3159.029.459.554.413.33.4
Fresh vegetables (054)363.52,176.637.1155.1167.11,273.026.595.8
Sugar and honey (061)27.4692.538.743.8198.11,102.925.332.4
Animal oils and fats (411)25.4265.644.8197.713.843.70.112.4
Vegetable oils (421)10.0669.917.110.2108.2457.012.741.3
Total of products listed1,437.017,907.21,699.24,109.01,150.44,008.3264.2700.4
(As percentage of total agricultural imports)38.116.39.63.76.53.71.50.6
Sources: Based on UNCTAD, Protectionism and Structural Adjustment in the World Economy, TD/B/888 (January 15, 1982); and United Nations, Yearbook of International Trade Statistics, 1962 and 1980.

Numbers in parentheses refer to Standard International Trade Classification (SITC).

Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States.

Imports of SITC categories 0, 1, 2 (excluding subcategories 27 and 28), and 4.

Sources: Based on UNCTAD, Protectionism and Structural Adjustment in the World Economy, TD/B/888 (January 15, 1982); and United Nations, Yearbook of International Trade Statistics, 1962 and 1980.

Numbers in parentheses refer to Standard International Trade Classification (SITC).

Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States.

Imports of SITC categories 0, 1, 2 (excluding subcategories 27 and 28), and 4.

Table 37.European Agricultural Guarantee and Guidance Fund: Guarantee Section, Expenditures by Sector, 1975–82(In per cent of total)
197519761977197819791980198119821
Cereals13.110.98.812.815.014.816.615.4
Export subsidies7.36.84.99.611.310.410.810.0
Intervention5.84.13.93.23.74.45.85.4
Milk products24.336.838.246.343.442.031.529.7
Export subsidies17.412.518.618.020.024.317.317.3
Intervention6.924.319.628.323.417.714.212.4
Oil and fats4.95.54.63.75.86.18.29.2
Export subsidies0.10.10.1
Intervention4.95.44.63.75.86.18.19.1
Sugar6.54.18.110.19.05.16.09.3
Export subsidies0.71.05.57.46.62.52.86.0
Intervention5.83.12.62.72.42.63.23.3
Beef and veal20.711.56.27.47.212.012.810.7
Export subsidies3.02.41.71.72.66.36.86.0
Intervention17.79.14.55.74.65.76.04.7
Fruit and vegetables1.94.42.81.24.26.16.26.4
Export subsidies0.71.00.80.60.30.40.60.6
Intervention1.23.42.00.63.95.75.65.8
Tobacco4.84.13.12.52.22.72.84.7
Export subsidies0.1
Intervention4.84.13.12.52.22.72.84.6
Others5.57.212.75.56.48.614.512.5
Accession compensatory amounts (ACAs) in intra-Community trade8.86.42.60.3
Monetary compensatory amounts (MCAs)9.59.112.910.26.82.61.42.1
Intra-Community9.45.69.87.84.40.5–0.70.7
Extra-Community0.13.53.12.42.42.12.11.4
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Guidance section expenditures as per cent of guarantee section expenditures1.01.41.51.92.22.5
Total agricultural expenditures of the European Community
As per cent of total EC operating expenditures87.183.783.881.973.9
As per cent of total EC expenditures75.874.174.273.165.9
Sources: Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community and General Report on the Activities of the European Communities (Brussels, various annual reports).

Projected figures.

Sources: Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community and General Report on the Activities of the European Communities (Brussels, various annual reports).

Projected figures.

Table 38.Australia: Exports,1 Nominal Protection, and Effective Protection for Selected Agricultural Commodities, 1970/71–1979/80
1970/711971/721972/731973/741974/751975/761976/771977/781978/791979/80
Wheat
Exports (in thousand tons)3,8557,1248,2547,9629,5027,91011,52613,049
Nominal protection (in per cent)212315–9–7–244–1–1
Effective protection (in per cent)414334–15–13–555–5–5
Rice
Exports (in thousand tons)169137173218257278241413
Nominal protection (in per cent)2948177162426261414
Effective protection (in per cent)3974185203337381717
Apples and pears