Back Matter

Back Matter

Naheed Kirmani, Lorenzo Pérez, Shailendra Anjaria, and Zubair Iqbal
Published Date:
November 1982
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    Selected References

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      Australia, Government of, Japanese Agricultural Policies: Their Origins, Nature and Effects on Production and Trade, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Policy Monograph No. 1 (Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1981).

      Australia, Government of, Passenger Motor Vehicles and Components—Post-1984 Assistance Arrangements, Industries Assistance Commission Report No. 267 (Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, June24, 1981).

      Bale, Malcolm D., and Bruce L. Greenshields,“Japanese Agricultural Distortions and Their Welfare Value,”American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 60, No. 1 (February1978), pp. 5964.

      Barichello, Richard R.,The Economics of Canadian Dairy Industry Regulation, Economic Council of Canada, Technical Report No. E/12 (Ottawa, March1981).

      Canada, Government of, Summary of Canada’s Bilateral Restraint ArrangementsTextiles and Clothing, External Affairs of Canada (Ottawa, February1982).

      Commission of the European Communities (CEC), The Agricultural Situation in the Community: 1981 Report (Brussels, 1982). Also, past annual reports.

      Commission of the European Communities (CEC), Fifteenth General Report on the Activities of the European Communities in 1981 (Brussels, 1982). Also, past annual reports.

      Commission of the European Communities (CEC), Bulletin of the European Communities, various issues (Brussels, 1981 and 1982).

      Commission of the European Communities (CEC), “The European Automobile Industry: Commission Statement,” Supplement to the Bulletin of the European Communities, Supp. 2/81 (Brussels, June 16, 1981).

      Commission of the European Communities (CEC), Positive Adjustment Policies in the EEC Dairy Sector, Directorate-General for Agriculture (Brussels, June1981).

      Commission of the European Communities (CEC), Commission Communication to the Council on the Situation and Prospects of the Textile and Clothing Industries in the Community, COM(81) 388 final (Brussels, July27, 1981).

      Commission of the European Communities (CEC), Guidelines for European Agriculture, Memorandum to Complement the Commission’s Report on the Mandate of 30 May 1980, COM(81) 608 final (Brussels, October23, 1981).

      Commission of the European Communities (CEC), Commission Proposals on the Fixing of Prices for Certain Agricultural Products and on Certain Related Measures (1982/83), COM(82) 10 final, Vols. I and II (Brussels, January27 andFebruary5, 1982).

      Commission of the European Communities (CEC), Eleventh Report on Competition Policy (Brussels, 1982).

      Denton, Geoffrey, and SeamusO’Cleireacain,Subsidy Issues in International Commerce, Trade Policy Research Center, Thames Essay No. 5 (London, 1972).

      Fishlow, Albert, JeanCarriere, and SueoSekiguchi,Trade in Manufactured Products with Developing Countries: Reinforcing North-South Partnership, The Trilateral Commission, The Triangle Papers, No. 21 (New York, 1981).

      Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), FAO Commodity Review and Outlook: 1981–82 (Rome, 1982). Also, past annual reports.

      Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), The State of Food and Agriculture 1981, Director-General’s Report to the Twenty-First Session of the Conference on the State of Food and Agriculture1981, Rome, 7–26November1981, Doc. No. C 81/2 (Rome, August1981).

      Franko, Lawrence G.,“Adjusting to Export Thrusts of Newly Industrialising Countries: An Advanced Country Perspective,”Economic Journal (Cambridge, England) Vol. 91 (June1981), pp. 486506.

      Gardner, Bruce L.,The Governing of Agriculture (Lawrence, Kansas: The Regent Press of Kansas, 1981).

      General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), Basic Instruments and Selected Documents, various supplements (Geneva, 1962, 1963, and 1979–81).

      General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), International Trade, 1980/81 (Geneva, 1981). Also, past annual reports.

      General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), The Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, Report by the Director-General of GATT (Geneva, April1979); and Vol. II, Supplementary Report (Geneva, January1980).

      General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), Working Party on Structural Adjustment and Trade Policy: Report to the Council, L/5120 (Geneva, March16, 1981).

      General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), “Extension of Multifibre Arrangement Agreed,” Press Release 1304 (Geneva, December22, 1981).

      General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), “Address by Mr. Arthur Dunkel, Director-General, GATT, at ‘Ostasiatisches Liebesmahl’, Hamburg, 5 March 1982,” Press Release 1312 (Geneva, March5, 1982).

      Greenaway, David, and ChristopherMilner,Protectionism Again…?Causes and Consequences of a Retreat from Freer Trade to Economic Nationalism (London: The Institute of Economic Affairs, 1979).

      Harris, Stuart,“Agricultural Trade and Its International Trade Policy Context,”Center for Resource and Environmental Studies Working Paper R/WP37 (Canberra: Australian National University, 1979), mimeographed.

      Helleiner, G.K., and others, Protectionism or Industrial Adjustment?The Atlantic Institute for International Affairs, The Atlantic Papers, No. 39 (Paris, April1980).

      Houck, James P.,“Agricultural Trade: Protectionism, Policy, and the Tokyo/Geneva Negotiating Round,”American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 61, No. 5 (December1979), pp. 86073.

      International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook: A Survey by the Staff of the International Monetary Fund, IMF Occasional Paper No. 9 (Washington, April1982).

      Jackson, John H.,World Trade and the Law of GATT: A Legal Analysis of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1969).

      Johnson, James D., and others,Provisions of the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Economic Report No. 483 (Washington: Government Printing Office, March1982).

      Lutz, Ernst, and Malcolm D. Bale,“Agricultural Protectionism in Industrialized Countries and Its Global Effects: A Survey of Issues,”Aussenwirtschaft (The Swiss Review of International Economic Relations) (Zurich), Vol. 35, No. 4 (December1980), pp. 33154.

      Lydall, H.F.,Trade and Employment: A Study of the Effects of Trade Expansion on Employment in Developing and Developed Countries, A World Employment Programme Study (Geneva: International Labor Office, 1975).

      Manger, Jon,“A Review of the Literature on Causes, Effects and Other Aspects of Export Instability,” A Report of Wharton EFA, Inc. for the AID Project on Primary Commodity Stabilization and Economic Development (unpublished, Philadelphia, May1979).

      Marsh, John S., and Pamela J. Swanney,Agriculture and the European Community, University Association for Contemporary European Studies (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1980).

      New Zealand Dairy Board, A Survey of the New Zealand Dairy Industry, 4th ed. (Wellington, March1980).

      Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Activities of OECD in 1978: Report by the Secretary-General (Paris, 1979). Also, this report for 1980.

      Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Positive Adjustment Policies, Final Report: Summary and Conclusions, Special Group of the Economic Policy Committee on Positive Adjustment Policies, CPE/PAP (82)2 (Paris, April1982).

      Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Problems of Agricultural Trade (Paris, 1982).

      Page, S.A.B.,“The Revival of Protectionism and Its Consequences for Europe,”Journal of Common Market Studies (London), Vol. 20, No. 1 (September1981), pp. 1740.

      Sampson, Gary P., and Richard H. Snape,“Effects of the EEC’s Variable Import Levies,”Journal of Political Economy (Chicago), Vol. 88, No. 5 (October1980), pp. 102640.

      Sampson, Gary P., and Alexander J. Yeats,“An Evaluation of the Common Agricultural Policy as a Barrier Facing Agricultural Exports to the European Economic Community,”American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 59, No. 1 (February1977), pp. 99106.

      Saxon, Eric, and KymAnderson,“Japanese Agricultural Protection in Historical Perspective,” Australia-Japan Research Center and Department of Economics, Research School of Pacific Studies (unpublished, Australian National University, December1981).

      Thomson, K.J., and D.R. Harvey,“The Efficiency of the Common Agricultural Policy,”European Review of Agricultural Economics (The Hague), Vol. 8, No. 1 (1981), pp. 5783.

      United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Protectionism and Structural Adjustment in the World Economy Report by the UNCTAD Secretariat, Trade and Development Board, Twenty-Fourth Session, TD/B/888 (Geneva, January15, 1982).

      United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Protectionism and Structural Adjustment in the Agricultural and Other Commodity Sectors, Progress Report by the UNCTAD Secretariat, Trade and Development Board, Twenty-Fourth Session, TD/B/885 (Geneva, February 18, 1982).

      United States, Government of, Report of the Japan-United States Economic Relations Group, Prepared for the President of the United States and the Prime Minister of Japan (January1981); and Supplemental Report (October1981).

      United States International Trade Commission (USITC), The Multifiber Arrangement, 1973 to 1980, USITC Publication 1131, Vols. 1 and 2 (Washington, March1981).

      United States International Trade Commission (USITC), Certain Steel Products from Belgium, Brazil, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Romania, the United Kingdom, and West Germany, USITC Publication 1221, Vols. I and II;and USITC Publication 1226 (Washington, February1982).

      United States International Trade Commission (USITC), The Effectiveness of Escape Clause Relief in Promoting Adjustment to Import Competition, USITC Publication 1229 (Washington, March1982).

      United States International Trade Commission (USITC), Summary of Statutory Provisions Related to Import Relief, USITC Publication 1231 (Washington, March1982).

      Valdés, Alberto, and JoachimZietz,Agricultural Protection in OECD Countries: Its Cost to Less-Developed Countries, International Food Policy Research Institute, Research Report 21 (Washington, December1980).

      Warnecke, Steven J.,“The European Community and National Subsidy Policies,” in hisInternational Trade and Industrial Policies: Government Intervention and Open World Economy (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1978), pp. 14174.

      Yeats, Alexander J.,“Agricultural Protectionism: An Analysis of Its International Economic Effects and Options for Institutional Reform,”Trade and Development: An UNCTAD Review (Geneva), No. 3 (Winter1981), pp. 130.

    Appendix I International Framework for the Conduct of Agricultural Trade

    The multilateral rules governing world trade recognize certain differences between trade in primary products and other products. These differences are to be found, to some extent, in the provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and, to a larger extent, in the manner in which these rules have been interpreted and applied.

    Main Provisions of the GATT

    Articles I and II of the General Agreement, which are central to the contractual obligations of GATT members, do not distinguish between agriculture and other sectors. Article I requires contracting parties to apply most-favored-nation treatment with respect to each other in the customs duties and charges levied and in the customs valuation procedures and other formalities applied to trade. Article II obliges contracting parties to levy import duties at rates not in excess of those specified in each country’s schedule of concessions. In successive trade negotiations, these “bound” rates have been lowered, and the proportion of tariff lines included in the schedules of concessions has been increased. In agriculture, however, trade liberalization has lagged behind other sectors. Consequently, the proportion of tariff lines that are GATT-bound is smaller for the agricultural sector than for other sectors. For example, according to preliminary estimates of the GATT Secretariat, post-MTN (Multilateral Trade Negotiations) tariffs for ten major trading nations combined showed that some 66 per cent of tariff lines, representing 81 per cent of most-favored-nation imports, were bound in the agricultural sector, compared with 92 per cent of tariff lines and 96 per cent of imports in industry (excluding petroleum).

    In some other GATT provisions, the text of the General Agreement makes specific reference to agriculture. The practical significance of the “exceptions” for agriculture is difficult to assess, because it is not always known to what extent countries base their agricultural trade policy or practice on these GATT provisions. Even so, the differences are illustrative of the consideration given to agricultural trade issues by the framers of the GATT.

    One instance of an explicit difference in rules for agriculture is found in GATT Article XI, which places a general ban on quantitative import restrictions and prohibitions. However, there are three specific exceptions that may relate to agriculture: (1) temporary export restrictions applied to prevent or relieve food shortages; (2) import or export restrictions necessary to apply standards for the classification, grading, or marketing of commodities; and (3) import restrictions on an agricultural or fisheries product aimed at removing temporary surpluses or restricting the production or marketing of a like domestic product. Among the major trading nations, Canada applies import restrictions on several agricultural products (dairy products, chicken, and eggs) under the latter provision.

    Article XVI of the General Agreement, which regulates domestic and export subsidies, also contains a special rule for agriculture, whose effect is to dilute international discipline in the use of export subsidies in the agricultural sector. Under Article XVI:4, export subsidies on products other than primary products are prohibited. Article XVI:3 governs the use of export subsidies for primary products. Governments are only obliged to “seek to avoid” export subsidies on agriculture; and if they apply them, they should avoid doing so in a manner that would give them “more than an equitable share of world export trade” in the product concerned. Under the Code on Subsidies and Countervailing Duties formulated during the MTN, this provision is reaffirmed, and “more than an equitable share of world export trade” is defined somewhat more precisely.

    Article XVI also attempts to regulate the use of domestic or production subsidies. Although these are not prohibited, either for agricultural or industrial products, a contracting party is required to notify the GATT of any subsidy and to consult with other contracting parties when so requested. The Code on Subsidies and Countervailing Duties spells out the provisions on subsidies, and in particular suggests that code signatories should weigh their “possible adverse effects on trade.” It is debatable, however, whether the code provisions involve a significant strengthening of international discipline on subsidies other than export subsidies.

    Finally, Article XX of the General Agreement contains some “general exceptions” to all other GATT provisions. Included in the exceptions are measures taken or restrictions applied as a result of “obligations under any intergovernmental commodity agreement” that conforms to criteria accepted by the GATT. Article XX is nonetheless subject to the most-favored-nation rule.

    Agricultural Trade Policies and Problems

    Perhaps of greater significance than the specific provisions of the GATT and the MTN codes and their applicability to agriculture has been the lack of progress toward significant reforms in the protectionist policies of major trading nations. This has had the effect of establishing precedents that perpetuate restrictive trade policies in the agricultural sector and allow countries to formulate domestic agricultural policies without giving sufficient weight to their possible adverse international repercussions.

    Historically, a major development that seriously affected perceptions about rights and obligations of GATT members in agriculture was the approval, in 1955, of a waiver for the United States, authorizing it to apply trade restrictions to a wide range of agricultural products. Most current U.S. restrictions in agriculture discussed in Section IV of this paper, except meat, are covered by the 1955 waiver. The request for the waiver arose from the inclusion, in 1951, of language in U.S. legislation that in effect established the precedence of U.S. law over GATT obligations.77 When it became clear that the U.S. Executive would be obliged to carry out the intent of this legislation regardless of whether the waiver was granted, the only way open to safeguard the legal principles of the GATT was for the other contracting parties to agree to the waiver, which has been in application ever since.78 The U.S. waiver has come under continual criticism during the course of the annual reviews conducted in the GATT over the past 27 years.

    Another unresolved issue has been the extensive use of the variable import levy as an instrument of agricultural protection. Although the variable import levy operates as a tax on imports, it differs from the tariff in that its height always adjusts to ensure that lower-cost imports cannot compete with domestic production. The GATT permits a contracting party to impose tariff duties of any level on products not included in the list of items “bound” in its schedule of concessions. Accordingly, a foreign supplier of a product subject to a variable import levy can never be confident of maintaining or increasing his share of that market by underselling domestic producers. Moreover, since the levy is not fixed, it is difficult to negotiate its reduction or elimination.

    Another critical problem in the agricultural sector concerns “residual” import restrictions, which usually take the form of quantitative restrictions. These are restrictions that do not have any justification under GATT rules.79 They tend to be used more extensively in the agricultural sector than in other sectors. GATT negotiations typically involve the exchange of “concessions” among contracting parties. As long as the trade liberalization actions being requested by a country of its trading partners involve the lowering of a tariff or the raising or elimination of an import quota from a known and multilaterally accepted level, the mutuality of the concessions exchanged between countries can be assessed at least approximately. However, because residual restrictions are by definition illegal under the GATT, in the negotiating context a country is generally unwilling to “pay” for securing removal of a trading partner’s illegal quota or practice by lowering its own legitimate trade restriction. As a result, the reduction of residual restrictions has been impeded by the issue of whether compensation should be sought or granted for reduction or elimination of an unjustified action.80 Attempts in the GATT to prepare inventories of residual restrictions date from at least 1960 and have met with only limited success.81 For similar reasons, past proposals to introduce multilateral formulas to phase out quantitative import restrictions, whether legal or illegal, have not received the general support of GATT members. The increased frequency with which “voluntary” export restraints have been used in recent years suggests that liberalization of these bilateral arrangements may well face some of the same difficulties as those encountered by trade negotiators with residual import restrictions.

    Notwithstanding the difficulties of dealing meaningfully with trade restrictions in the agricultural sector, efforts to study agricultural trade problems and develop workable methods of attenuating the specific adverse effects of national policies on world agricultural markets have been continuing since the 1950s. In 1961, Committee II of the GATT adopted a report on agricultural protectionism, identifying the main instruments used to protect domestic agricultural sectors and the effects of the nontariff measures employed on world trade. It concluded that (1) “non-tariff devices have seriously affected international trade” in the agricultural products examined; (2) “the level of protection and resultant increased production in the traditional importing countries . . . place a heavy burden of adjustment on exporting countries;” and (3) “to the extent that income or price support has resulted in an expansion of relatively less efficient production and in a limitation of consumption, this has contributed to impairment of trade and to inefficiency in resource utilization. . . .”82 The Committee also concluded that “a moderation of agricultural protection in both importing and exporting countries is desirable.” It considered that “a moderation of agricultural protection, through its effects on production and consumption, would have a substantial percentage effect on the volume of international trade; by imposing some restraint on protected production in countries where national resources tied in agriculture can be more effectively re-allocated, it would improve resource utilization throughout the world.”

    Recent Developments

    In the two decades that have elapsed since this Committee II report was published, there have been numerous changes in the regimes governing agricultural trade. However, despite repeated attempts, progress toward liberalization has been slow. Agricultural issues resurfaced strongly during the Kennedy Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations in 1964–67. The European Community originally offered to identify and bind for three years the existing level of overall support for farm products. For grains, the total level of support was to include unified prices at a level approximately halfway between the higher German prices and the lower French prices. In addition to binding the level of domestic support, the Community proposed to establish a set of international reference prices for basic farm commodities; the difference between the domestic and reference prices would be used to determine the level of import levies and, where appropriate, export subsidies. The offers were rejected by the other negotiating countries partly because the proposals contained no commitment on access to the Community market and allowed the variable import levy to continue to operate unimpeded.83 The Kennedy Round resulted in some tariff cuts in agricultural products subject to fixed tariff protection.

    The 1973 GATT ministerial declaration that launched the Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations included in its objectives:

    as regards agriculture, an approach to negotiations which, while in line with the general objectives of the negotiations, should take account of the special characteristics and problems in this sector.84

    However, the lack of precision in the language of the Tokyo Declaration reflected fundamental differences in approach between the United States and the European Community. The United States wanted the negotiations to lead to the liberalization of agricultural trade and increased access to foreign markets for products of which they were efficient producers, while the Community sought the stabilization of agricultural trade through commodity arrangements, a sufficiently high income level for its farmers, and the preservation of an effective Common Agricultural Policy.85 As a result, there were significant divergences of approach between them on the handling of agricultural trade issues. As already noted, the MTN led to international arrangements on dairy products and bovine meat. Although these arrangements have generally been seen as having contributed to a degree of stability in the international markets for the two products, it is evident that they are aimed primarily at stabilizing the markets in the context of existing domestic agricultural support policies and programs, rather than at bringing about a liberalization of agricultural trade per se.

    At the ministerial meeting of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in May 1982, Ministers considered an OECD paper entitled Problems of Agricultural Trade, and unanimously endorsed its conclusions. A main finding of the OECD study is that the degree of protection afforded to agriculture is often greater than is necessary to achieve the desired objectives; accordingly, reduced protection may entail smaller modifications to the agriculture of the countries concerned than is often supposed. The study notes that “the implementation of the desirable marginal adjustments in domestic policies can best take place if such moves are planned and coordinated within a concerted multilateral approach aimed at achieving a balanced reduction in protectionism and a liberalization of trade.” It concludes that “whatever approaches are applied, the aim should be to integrate agricultural trade more fully with the open multilateral trading system to which all OECD countries subscribe.”86

    Agricultural trade issues have also been examined recently in the GATT Consultative Group of Eighteen. While a decision on the specific work program to be pursued in the GATT following the November 1982 GATT ministerial meeting has not been reached, it is likely that agricultural trade issues will be included on the agenda of that meeting. When the objective of agricultural trade liberalization is agreed, specific decisions in certain key areas will determine the pace and method of possible future negotiations. Apart from decisions concerning notification and examination of national agricultural policies and improvement of conditions of market access, a key area of discussion may be distortions to competition in agricultural trade—that is, direct and indirect export subsidization.

    In 1951, the U.S. Congress amended Section 22 of the U.S. Agricultural Adjustment Act to include the following provision:

    “No trade agreement or other international agreement heretofore or hereafter entered into by the United States shall be applied in a manner inconsistent with the requirements of this section.”

    John H. Jackson, World Trade and the Law of GATT: A Legal Analysis of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1969), pp. 733–37.

    Ibid., pp. 313 and 710.

    GATT, The Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (Geneva, April 1979), p. 49.

    The interim and final reports of a GATT panel on the adequacy of the notifications of residual restrictions are reproduced in GATT, Basic Instruments and Selected Documents: Eleventh Supplement (Geneva, March 1963), pp. 206–13.

    GATT, Basic Instruments and Selected Documents: Tenth Supplement (Geneva, March 1962), pp. 135–14.

    See Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community: 1981 Report (Brussels, 1982), p. 52; and Ernest H. Preeg, Traders and Diplomats: An Analysis of the Kennedy Round of Negotiations Under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1970), pp. 146–50.

    GATT, GATT Activities in 1973 (Geneva, 1974), p. 7.

    GATT, The Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (Geneva, April 1979).

    OECD, Problems of Agricultural Trade (Paris, 1982), p. 132.

    Appendix II GATT Classifications

    Classification of Countries and Regions

    Following the definitions used in the GATT publication, International Trade, 1980/81, the trading world is divided into:

    • Industrial countries

      United States, Canada, Japan, European Community member countries, EFTA member countries, Gibraltar, Greece, Malta, Spain, Turkey, and Yugoslavia;

    • Oil exporting developing countries87

      Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela;

    • Non-oil exporting developing countries88

      All developing countries except oil exporting developing countries;

    • Eastern trading countries

      Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, U.S.S.R., China, Mongolia, North Korea, and Viet Nam;

    • Nonindustrial countries

      Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

    For certain commodities, such as shipbuilding and steel, industrial countries are defined to include all members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

    For the discussion on agricultural trade, the definitions in the Food and Agriculture Organization publication, FAO Commodity Review and Outlook: 1981–82 are used, and the trading world is divided into:

    • Developed countries

      Industrial and nonindustrial countries under the GATT definition, Eastern Europe, and the U.S.S.R.;

    • Developing countries

      Oil exporting and non-oil exporting developing countries under the GATT definition, and Asian centrally planned economies;

    • State trading countries89

      U.S.S.R. and Eastern European countries.

    Classification of Commodities

    • Semimanufactures

      Chemicals and other semimanufactures;

    • Engineering goods

      Machinery for specialized industries, office and telecommunications equipment, road motor vehicles, other machinery and transport equipment, and household appliances;

    • Agricultural commodities

      Food, beverages, agricultural material, and other agricultural products, excluding fishery and forestry products;

    • Tropical zone agricultural products

      Agricultural products produced mostly in tropical zone countries;

    • Temperate zone agricultural products

      Agricultural products produced mostly in temperate zone countries;

    • Competing zone agricultural products

      Agricultural products produced both in tropical and temperate zone countries;

    • Total trade

      Includes the categories “not included elsewhere” and “not classified according to kind.”

    Intra-Community Trade

    Unless otherwise specified, trade data include intra-Community trade.

    Import Penetration

    Import penetration is defined as the ratio of imports to apparent consumption (i.e., production plus imports minus exports). Import penetration by developing countries’ markets of manufactures is defined in nominal terms; otherwise it is calculated in volume terms.

    The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:

    • … to indicate that data are not available;

    • — to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;

    • – between years or months (e.g., 1979–81 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;

    • / between years (e.g., 1980/81) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.

    • “Billion” means a thousand million.

    • Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.

    Also referred to in GATT terminology and in this paper as “traditional” oil exporting developing countries.

    Includes the “new” oil exporting developing countries: Bahamas, Bahrain, Brunei, Egypt, Mexico, the Netherlands Antilles, Oman, the Syrian Arab Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Virgin Islands.

    If not identified separately, they are included in the category of developed countries.

    Appendix III Statistical Tables
    Table 1.Production, Commodity, and Regional Composition of World Trade, 1963 and 1973–81(In billions of U.S. dollars and per cent)
    Growth of world output (in per cent)–
    World exports (in billions of U.S. dollars)1545748368739911,1251,3031,6382,0001,970
    (Percentage share in world exports)
    Agricultural products
    Nonfuel minerals18.
    Growth of volume of world exports7.111.13.5–2.911.
    Regional composition of world trade2(Percentage share in total world exports and imports)
    Industrial countries
    Oil exporting developing countries
    Non-oil exporting developing countries
    Eastern trading countries
    Sources: GATT, International Trade, 1969, 1977/78, and 1980/81; and GATT, Press Release, March 23, 1982.
    Table 2.Regional Composition of World Trade in Manufactures, 1973 and 1976–80(In per cent)
    Industrial countriesOil exporting developing countries
    Industrial countries73.667.567.166.868.466.84.610.110.810.58.49.3
    Iron and steel65.159.561.057.658.458.46.310.510.411.19.610.9
    Other semimanufactures79.875.274.474.676.374.
    Engineering products73.364.
    Textiles and clothing76.575.175.376.678.
    Other consumer goods84.979.879.379.180.378.
    Oil exporting developing countries68.455.941.339.734.033.010.520.134.834.534.031.7
    Non-oil exporting developing countries65.463.261.763.761.859.57.98.910.
    Iron and steel51.650.050.046.851.315.818.818.314.619.2
    Other semimanufactures73.566.765.568.363.14.712.511.09.58.1
    Engineering products61.
    Textiles and clothing67.768.767.168.668.
    Other consumer goods75.274.474.075.771.
    Eastern trading countries16.015.716.716.918.719.
    Iron and steel25.420.
    Other semimanufactures28.532.733.638.238.87.613.913.613.011.3
    Engineering products7.
    Textiles and clothing30.335.731.531.736.
    Other consumer goods31.529.830.633.335.
    Total world167.061.761.861.863.
    Iron and steel59.854.455.853.154.454.
    Other semimanufactures75.971.971.472.072.370.
    Engineering products65.257.958.057.959.458.14.911.412.412.09.6
    Textiles and clothing69.969.068.469.571.
    Other consumer goods78.174.073.674.575.
    Source: GATT, International Trade, 1977/78, 1978/79, 1979/80, and 1980/81.
    Non-oil exporting developing countriesEastern trading countriesTotal world1
    Table 3.Non-Oil Exporting Developing Countries: Composition of Trade and Share in World Trade, 1973–80(In per cent and billions of U.S. dollars)
    Commodity composition
    Primary products64.868.367.263.662.158.558.260.835.341.541.140.939.336.538.841.7
    Raw materials11.
    Manufactured products33.930.431.635.435.139.839.738.860.455.556.555.155.560.058.055.6
    Engineering products8.78.59.510.511.112.813.232.628.832.
    Other consumer goods4.
    Total (in billions of U.S. dollars)68.3100.398.8119.1141.8158.7205.7245.082.9131.8138.3148.2172.4201.8265.4335.0
    Share in world trade
    Primary products20.418.818.518.719.418.918.117.413.515.115.715.214.915.015.516.3
    Raw materials22.222.720.621.522.421.923.112.712.913.713.314.415.014.7
    Manufactured products6.
    Engineering products3.
    Other consumer goods13.113.013.415.815.816.
    Source: GATT, International Trade, 1977/78, 1978/79, 1979/80, and 1980/81.
    Table 4.Industrial Countries: Share of Imports in the Apparent Consumption of Manufactured Goods, 1970–801(In per cent)
    Share in Apparent ConsumptionGrowth of Import Shares
    All importsImports from developing countries3All importsImports from developing countries3All importsImports from developing countries4
    European Community20.42.531.
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of19.32.330.
    United Kingdom15.82.826.
    United States5.
    Industrial countries11.61.717.
    Source: Data provided by the World Bank.
    Table 5.India: Trade Measures Affecting Exports1
    CountryProducts AffectedType of Measure
    AustraliaLeather footwear (excluding gum boots and supporting footwear and parts thereof), handicraftsGlobal quota
    Bedsheets, women’s and girls’ blouses and garments, finished outer garments for men and boys, and women’s, girls’, and infants’ costumes and dressesTariff quota
    Power hacksawsAntidumping duty
    CanadaLeather footwear, leather work gloves, leather coatsGlobal quota
    Blouses, dresses, shirts, outerwear, knitted T-shirts, garments made from handloomed fabricsQuantitative restrictions
    European CommunityLeather footwearImport licensing
    Knives with cutting blades, garmentsQuantitative restrictions
    Iron and steel productsMinimum price undertaking
    Shirts and blouses, dressesVoluntary export restraints
    Narrow woven fabrics of jute, jute bags and sacks, silk yarn, woven fabrics of other vegetable textile fibers, carpets and rugs of silk, coir mats and mattingGlobal quota
    JapanLeather footwearQuantitative restrictions
    NorwayJackets (not knitted)Quantitative restrictions
    Blouses, shirts, and bed linenVoluntary export restraints
    PhilippinesV-belts, transmission belts, and conveyor belts of rubberCountervailing duties
    Spanners and wrenchesAntidumping duties on imports of affected products in September 1980
    United StatesIndustrial fasteners (nuts and bolts), iron metal castings, leather footwear, and lasted uppersCountervailing duties
    Dresses, knit shirts and blouses, men’s and boys’ shirts (not knitted), cotton blouses, and trousersQuantitative restrictions
    Source: Data supplied by Indian authorities.
    Table 6.Korea: Trade Measures Affecting Exports1
    CountryProducts AffectedType of MeasureYear of Introduction
    AustraliaPlywoodTariff quota1978
    TextilesTariff quota1974–77
    Tire cords and fabricsTariff quota1977
    FootwearImport quota1976
    Sheets and plates of iron steelTariff quota1978
    RazorsTariff quota1978
    Electric refrigeratorsTariff quota1978
    Chain pulley tackle and hoistsTariff quota1978
    Electric insulatorsTariff quota1977
    Passenger motor vehiclesTariff quota1977
    Fixed registersTariff quota1977
    Sleeping bagsTariff quota1977
    AustriaTextilesBilateral quota1974–76
    Benelux2Knives, forks, and spoonsVoluntary export restraint1978
    CanadaLeather handbagsAntidumping duties1977
    Leather garmentsBilateral quota1976
    AlbumsAntidumping duties1976
    TextilesBilateral quota1970
    Waterproof rubber shoesAntidumping duties1979
    Nonleather footwearGlobal quota1981
    Bicycles, tricycles, and partsAntidumping duties1978
    Ball-type metal furniture castersAntidumping duties1977
    DenmarkKnives, forks, and spoonsImport quota1974
    European CommunitySteel productsBasic price system1978
    TextilesBilateral quota1978
    Canned mushroomsUnilateral quota1978
    FinlandTextilesBilateral quota1975
    FranceNewsprintGlobal quota1978
    Silk fabricsUnilateral quota1974
    Umbrellas and sunshadesUnilateral quota1977
    RadiosUnilateral quota1977
    Television setsUnilateral quota1978
    TilesGlobal quota1978
    SemiconductorsGlobal quota1978
    MicroscopesGlobal quota1978
    Electric measuring instrumentsGlobal quota1978
    WristwatchesAdministrative guidance
    ToysUnilateral quota
    Miscellaneous goodsUnilateral quota1977
    (yachts, chemical products)
    Germany, Fed. Rep. ofKnives, forks, and spoonsVoluntary export restraint1978
    IrelandFootwearVoluntary export restraint1979
    JapanSpecific fishUnilateral quota1960
    Other fishImport quota1977
    Seaweed (dried)Import quota1960
    Seaweed productsImport quota1977
    Leather goodsImport quota
    Baseball gloves and mittsAdministrative guidance1975
    Cotton threadAdministrative guidance
    Raw silkImport quota1974
    Silk yarnImport quota1976
    Silk fabricsImport quota1976
    TextilesAdministrative guidance
    Leather footwearImport quota
    New ZealandNearly all itemsImport licensing1975
    NorwayTires and tubesBilateral quota1974
    Leather garmentsBilateral quota1978
    TextilesBilateral quota1974
    Ski bootsBilateral quota1979
    Tableware of porcelain, china, and potteryBilateral quota1975
    Knives, forks, and spoonsBilateral quota1974
    SwedenTextilesBilateral quota1974
    FootwearGlobal quota1974
    United KingdomSaccharinAntidumping duties1976
    FootwearVoluntary export restraint
    Knives, forks, and spoonsVoluntary export restraint1978
    Monochrome television setsUnilateral quota1977
    United StatesCanned mushroomsTariff increase1980
    Ginseng productsImport prohibition1977
    TextilesBilateral quota1971
    Porcelain on steel cookwareTariff increase1980
    Color television setsOrderly marketing arrangement1979
    Tubes and tires for bicyclesCountervailing duties1979
    Lag screws, bolts, and nutsTariff increase
    Source: Data supplied by the Korean authorities.
    Table 7.Malaysia: Trade Measures Affecting Exports1
    CountryProducts AffectedType of Measure
    AustriaCoffeeGlobal import quota
    Flour, meal of sago and of manioc, tapioca and sago, canned pineapples, preserved fruitsImport levy
    AustraliaFish (fresh, chilled, or frozen), tapioca and sago, wood and wood products, footwear, vegetables, palm oil, palm kernel oil, coconut oilTariff quotas under the Generalized System of Preferences selective internal tax, quantitative regulations
    CanadaMeat and meat products, oleomargarine, butterine or similar substitutes for butterImport prohibition
    Coffee, handbags made of textile fabrics, work gloves, canvas and other nonleather footwear (except rubber and waterproof plastic footwear)Global import quota
    Fabrics, other textiles, and clothing productsImport licensing and surveillance
    Men’s and boys’ shirts, sweatersExport restraint arrangements
    Waterproof rubber footwearAntidumping measures
    European CommunityCut flowers, flour and meal of sago and of manioc, vegetable oils (wholly or partly hydrogenated or solidified or hardened), footwear with outer soles of leatherImport licensing
    Cocoa beans, sugar, rubber tires, timber, wood and timber products (except of plywood), travel goods, footwear, transmission apparatus, diodes and transistors, chairs and other furniture, umbrellas, rubber, rubber tires, tubes, tire flaps, electrical goods including transformers, semiconductors, microcircuits, telecommunications equipmentImport licensing and tariff quotas
    Sugar, pineapple, and other fruit and vegetable juices containing added sugarSugar duty and agricultural duty
    Plywood, footwearQuantitative restrictions
    FinlandOils of olive, soybean, rapeseed, linseed, palm, coconut, and palm kernelQuantitative restrictions and import licensing
    Canned pineapplesImport licensing
    JapanFishLong administrative delays and complex inspection procedures
    Pineapples in cans or bottles containing added sugarQuantitative restrictions
    Other exports, excluding raw materialsTariff quotas, difficulties relating to announcement delays, and nonavailability of regulations in languages other than Japanese
    New ZealandCrustacean and mollusks, pepper, cloves, cocoa paste and powder, canned pineapples, other fruits, rubber, wood, wood products, plywood, children’s footwear with nonleather uppers and solesQuantitative restrictions and import licensing
    Cocoa beans, pineapple juice, plates, sheets and strips of rubber, apparel and clothing accessories of rubber, wooden beadings and molded skirting, wooden picture frames, prefabricated buildings of wood, lamps, footwear with soles of wood or cork or other materials, telephone setsImport licensing
    Fixed vegetable oils, pepperSelective internal tax
    SwedenFixed vegetable oils, coconut oil, palm kernel oilCompensatory fee
    Rubber bootsGlobal quota
    Footwear with outer soles of leatherImport restrictions by type of leather
    United StatesExports other than raw materialsTariff quotas, agricultural products subject to health and sanitary regulations
    Source: Data supplied by the Malaysian authorities.
    Table 8.Philippines: Trade Measures Affecting Exports1
    CountryProducts AffectedType of Measure
    AustriaBananas (fresh or dried), coffee (unroasted), travel goods (of leather, composition leather, vulcanized fiber or cardboard), cocoa butter (flat or oil. whole item)Internal tax
    Beet sugar and cane sugar (solid, whole item)Quantitative restrictions; import levy
    Leaf tobacco (stripped)State trading
    Other unmanufactured tobacco and tobacco refuseState trading/internal tax (general)
    Juices of fruits containing added sugarLicensing requirement
    AustraliaFish (live)Packing and labeling regulations
    Trout (dead) and otherCommerce marking; import quarantine; packing and labeling regulations
    Shrimp and prawns, bananas, pineapples, mangoes, guavas, avocados, mangosteens, coconuts (other than whole)Commerce marking, health and sanitary regulations
    Travel goods and other yarn or yarn of other materials, woven fabrics of jute, hessian, brattice cloth, fabrics wholly of jute, fabrics of other textile bast fibers, footwear with outer soles of leather or rubber or artificial plastic material, fruit (prepared or preserved), citrus fruit juices (no sugar added), juices in packsCommerce marking
    Unmanufactured tobacco, tobacco refuseAdministrative entry procedure; health and sanitary regulations
    Wood in the rough, wood sawn lengthwise (sliced or peeled), veneer sheets and sheets for plywood, plywood, blockboard, and similar laminated wood products, inlaid wood and wood marquetryHealth and sanitary regulations
    Builders’ carpentry and joinery (including prefabricated sectional buildings), assembled parquet flooring panels, household utensils of wood, rolling pins of woodQuarantine
    Coconut oil, oiticica oil, palm kernel oil, palm oil, sesame oil, tung oil, walnut oil, etc., cocoa butter (flat or oil, whole item)Internal tax
    Chewing gum and chewing gum confectioneryMinimum value
    Beet sugar and cane sugar (solid and other)Import prohibition
    CanadaShrimp, fruits, and nuts (preserved, n.o.p.)2, pineapples (pickled or preserved), fruit juices (n.o.p.)Packing and labeling regulations
    Clothing, wearing apparel, and other articles made from woven cotton fabricsPacking and labeling regulations
    Clothing and other articles of woven man-made fiber fabricsExport restraint
    Knitted garments, knitted fabrics, and knitted goods (n.o.p.)Quantitative restrictions
    Boots, shoes, slippers, and insoles of any material (n.o.p.)Packing and labeling regulations; customs valuations
    Single-ply veneers of wood, veneers of wood (taped or jointed), plywoodItems covered by the Canadian sector proposals
    Sugar candy and confectioneryTechnical and administrative (information requirement)
    Unmanufactured tobacco (unstemmed, except Turkish type)Licensing special duties
    Coconut (dessicated)Health and sanitary regulations
    European CommunityFish (fresh, chilled or frozen, dried, salted, or in brine), smoked fish (dried, salted, or in brine), anchovies, crustaceans, lobsters (live)Health and sanitary regulations
    Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, pineapples, avocados, guavas, mangosteens, fresh or dried bananas, dates, coconutsHealth and sanitary regulations; quantitative restrictions; internal tax
    Coffee (unroasted, free of caffeine)Internal tax
    Fixed vegetable oilsSelective internal tax
    Cashew nutsInternal tax
    Pineapple juice and other fruit and vegetable juices with an added sugar contentSugar duty; internal tax; import levy
    Oil cake and other residuesInternal tax; health and sanitary regulations
    Unmanufactured tobacco, tobacco refuseState trading; internal tax
    Wood in the roughHealth and sanitary regulations
    Plywood, blockboard, and similar laminated wood products, inlaid wood and wood marquetryStandards
    Outer garments and other articles (knitted or crocheted, not elastic nor rubberized)Quantitative restrictions (Multifiber Arrangement item)
    PineapplesAdministrative entry procedure; quantitative restrictions
    AvocadosAdministrative entry procedure; health and sanitary regulations
    CoconutsAdministrative entry procedure
    Beet sugar and cane sugar (solid)Administrative entry procedure; import levy
    Cocoa butter (fat or oil, whole item)Import levy; internal tax; selective internal taxes
    Ethyl alcohol or neutral spirits, denatured spiritsQuantitative restrictions; state trading
    FinlandBananas (fresh in bunches), dried bananasHealth and sanitary regulations; internal tax
    Coffee (unroasted), cocoa butter (fat or oil, whole item)Internal tax
    Coconut oil (unfit for human consumption)Quantitative restrictions; internal tax
    Raw sugarImport levy; quantitative restrictions; subsidy; minimum price
    Crystalized sugarSubsidy; minimum price
    PineapplesImport levy; quantitative restrictions
    Fruit mixturesQuantitative restrictions
    Oil cake and other residuesLicensing; quantitative restrictions; internal tax
    Unmanufactured tobaccoState trading
    JapanFish (fresh, chilled, or frozen)Quantitative restrictions
    Fish (dried, salted, or in brine), smoked fish and other fish (in brine or dried), crustaceans and mollusksQuantitative restrictions; health and sanitary regulations
    Dates, bananas, coconuts, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, pineapples, avocados, guavas, fresh or dried mangosteens, dried bananas, dried pineapples, oilseeds and oleaginous fruit, vegetable materials for plaiting, fixed vegetable oilsHealth and sanitary regulations
    Beet sugar and cane sugar (solid), other solid sugarHealth and sanitary regulations; internal tax; minimum import price
    Fruit (prepared or preserved), pineapplesHealth and sanitary regulations; quantitative restrictions
    Fruit juices and vegetable juicesHealth and sanitary regulations; packing and labeling regulations; quantitative restrictions; internal tax (commodity tax)
    Ethyl alcohol or neutral spirits; unmanufactured tobacco, tobacco refuseState trading
    Footwear with outer soles of leather or composition leather, footwear with outer soles of rubber or artificial plastic materialQuantitative restrictions
    Travel goodsInternal tax
    Standard lamps, table lamps, and other lighting; fittings of wood, articles of furniture of wood, basketwork, wickerwork, and other articles of plaiting materialsInternal tax
    Chairs and other seatsInternal tax; administration of ceiling (commodity tax)
    Other furniture and parts thereof (rattan)Internal tax (commodity tax)
    Other furniture and parts thereof (wood)Internal tax; flexible administration of ceiling (commodity tax)
    Coffee (roasted or unroasted), coffee substitutes containing coffee, unroasted coffee beansSelective internal tax
    New ZealandFish (dried, salted, or in brine), smoked fishQuantitative restrictions
    Crustaceans and mollusksHealth and sanitary regulations; quantitative restrictions
    Bananas (fresh)State trading
    Pineapples and pineapple juiceLicensing requirement; quantitative restrictions
    Copra, copra cake, coconut (copra oil)Quantitative restrictions; internal tax
    Coffee (unroasted), castor seedInternal tax
    Veneer sheets and sheets for plywood, plywood, blockboard, and similar laminated wood products, inlaid wood and wood marquetry, builders’ carpentry and joinery, household utensils of wood, other furniture and parts thereofLicensing requirement; quantitative restrictions
    NorwayBananas (fresh), dried bananas, cocoa butter (fat or oil, whole item), unroasted coffeeInternal tax
    Oil cake and other residues resulting from the extraction of vegetable oilState trading
    Pineapples, mixed fruitsHealth and sanitary regulations
    Molasses (whole item) for animal feed, footwear with outer soles of leather or composition leather, footwear with outer soles of rubber or artificial plastic materialState trading
    United StatesCotton, wool, and man-made fiber textilesSpecific limits
    Source: Data supplied by the Philippine authorities.
    Table 9.Pakistan: Trade Measures Affecting Exports1
    CountryProducts AffectedType of Measure
    European CommunityRiceImport levies; labeling restrictions (Benelux); readjustable levy (France); licensing (Germany and United Kingdom)
    Cereal preparationsImport levies (Benelux, France, Germany, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); licensing (Germany)
    Meat and meat productsImport levies (Benelux, France, Germany, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); compensatory levy (France); licensing (Germany and United Kingdom)
    MolassesImport levies; compensatory levy (France); licensing (Germany and United Kingdom)
    Sugar and sugar preparationsImport levies (Benelux, France, Germany, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); compensatory levy (France); licensing (Germany and United Kingdom)
    Animal feedImport levies (Benelux, Germany, and United Kingdom); import duty (France); licensing (United Kingdom)
    Artificial honeyImport levies (Benelux, France, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); licensing (United Kingdom)
    Jams and marmaladesImport levies (Benelux, France, Germany, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); licensing (Germany and United Kingdom)
    Fruit and vegetable juicesImport levies (Benelux, France, Germany, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); compensatory levy (France); licensing (United Kingdom)
    Certain light oilsPacking and labeling restrictions (Benelux); compensatory and turnover taxes (Italy); licensing and levy (Germany)
    Certain oil essencesPacking and labeling restrictions (Benelux); licensing and levy (Germany)
    Fish, prawns, mollusks, and other crustaceansImport levies (Benelux, France, and Germany); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux)
    Manufactured tobaccoImport levies (Benelux, France, and Germany); labeling restrictions (Benelux)
    Certain unmanufactured tobaccoImport levies (Benelux, France, and Germany); quotas under Generalized System of Preferences (Benelux); state monopoly (France and Italy)
    Pickled vegetables and fruitsImport levies (Benelux, France, and Germany); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); licensing and duty (United Kingdom)
    MangoesImport levies (Benelux, France, Germany, and Italy); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux)
    RaisinsImport levies (Benelux and Germany); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux and Germany); discretionary licensing (Italy)
    ApricotsImport levies (Benelux and Germany); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux)
    Preserved fruitsImport levies (Benelux, Germany, and United Kingdom); packing and labeling restrictions (Benelux); import duty and compensatory duty (France); licensing (United Kingdom)
    Cotton yarn and fabrics, knitted shirts, jerseys and pajamas, blouses, skirts, and toilet linenQuotas (Benelux and France); quota (United Kingdom for specific items); specific limits (other countries); duties (France)
    Cotton glovesQuotas (Germany and United Kingdom); ceiling (Benelux)
    Certain sacks and bagsCeiling under surveillance (Benelux); quota or surveillance (France); global quota (Ireland); export restraints (Italy); quotas (Germany and United Kingdom)
    Tarpaulins, sails, awnings, sunblinds, tents, and camping goods of cottonCeiling under surveillance (Benelux); quota or surveillance (France); global quota (Ireland); export restraints (Italy); quotas (Germany and United Kingdom)
    All other textile itemsSurveillance licensing; quotas for specific items (United Kingdom)
    Certain footwearQuotas under Generalized System of Preferences (Benelux); import levy (France and Germany); surveillance licensing (United Kingdom); bilateral quota (Denmark and Italy); compensatory and turnover taxes (Italy)
    Certain bovine cattle leatherQuotas (Benelux); import levy (Germany)
    Certain positive cinefilmsCeiling (Benelux); quotas (Italy); import levy (Germany)
    Travel goods of materials other than artificial plastic sheetingQuotas under Generalized System of Preferences (Benelux); import levy (Germany)
    Scissors, knives, spoons, forks, and certain other cutlerySurveillance licensing (United Kingdom); quotas (Benelux); import levy and licensing (France); ceiling under Generalized System of Preferences (Benelux)
    United StatesMolassesGlobal quota
    Certain surgical instrumentsPacking and labeling restrictions
    Sheeting, duck cloth, towels, knitted shirts, and blousesSpecific limits; packing and labeling restrictions
    Printed cloth, twill and satins, underwear, other apparel, and other cotton manufacturesDesignated consultation levels: packing and labeling requirements for certain goods
    All other textile itemsAggregate limits
    Fish in all formsAdministrative entry procedures
    JapanRiceState trading
    Manufactured tobaccoState trading
    Unmanufactured tobaccoState trading
    Certain leathersDiscretionary licensing
    Leather handbags and travel goodsLicensing requirements; 15–20 per cent commodity tax
    Leather gloves, apparel, and parts of footwearLicensing requirements
    Fish in all formsDiscriminatory licensing; quantitative restrictions
    Motor gasoline and petroleumState trading
    AustraliaFootwearImport licensing/global quotas; general tariff of 46.5 per cent; preferential tariff for United Kingdom, Canada, and Ireland of 31.5 per cent; handmade leather sandals of f.o.b. value less than $2.50/pair, duty free under handicrafts by-law
    Certain animal feedsQuarantine restrictions on all types and embargoes on certain animal feeds
    Butter and butterfat in most formsEmbargoes
    Cheese of all typesQuota restrictions
    Dried, evaporated, and condensed milkEmbargoes
    SugarSugar Agreement Act
    Syrup in all formsSugar Agreement Act
    LactoseImport duty
    Cotton yarn (finer than 30 tex and not finer than 10 tex)Import levy
    Other cottonImport levy
    Cotton yarn (mercerized)Import duty
    Cocoa beans and productsInternational agreement
    Turkey and turkey parts and productsQuota and tariff restrictions
    Eggs and egg productsQuota and tariff restrictions
    Beef and veal in all forms (except offal)Quota and tariff restrictions
    Broadwoven filament polyester fabricsSurveillance and tariff restrictions
    Certain acrylic yarnsQuota and tariff restrictions
    Worsted fabric containing at least 17 per cent by weight of wool from all sources except France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United StatesQuota and tariff restrictions
    Textured polyester filament yarnSurveillance and tariff restrictions
    Cotton terry towels and othersGlobal quota restrictions; import levies
    All specimens of endangered wild fauna and flora and derivatives thereofInternational agreement
    Leather working gloves and mittens of industrial type (made of leather)Import duty
    Cotton bags for packingImport levies
    Leather bagsImport duty
    Most garments of cotton, wool, and leather, including snowsuits, skisuits, jackets and pants, parkas, double-knit and wrap-knit fabrics, leisure suits, jeans, blouses, T-shirts, pajamas, raincoats, sportswear, swimwear, underwear, sweaters, and leather coatsQuota restrictions, surveillance, and tariff restrictions
    Certain footwear, not included elsewhereSurveillance and tariff restrictions
    Certain handbags, not included elsewhereSurveillance and tariff restrictions
    New ZealandMixed fabrics and articles of cotton textileImport licensing
    Scissors and bladesQuantitative restrictions and licensing requirements
    Certain sporting goods, including tennis balls, tennis, badminton, and squash rackets, golf clubs, and cricket batsQuantitative restrictions and licensing requirements
    NorwayCotton yarn, cotton fabrics, ready-made cottons, leather garments, and footwearExcluded from Generalized System of Preferences
    SwedenLeather footwearBilateral quota
    Knitted undergarmentsExport restraint
    Certain other textiles and hosiery, including knitted pullovers, bed linen of cotton, certain towels of cotton, and blousesSpecific limits
    SwitzerlandCotton yarn; cotton fabrics; knotted carpets; cotton embroidery; felt and felt articles; certain garments and textiles, including knitted undergarments and outergarments, and bed and table linenAll these items are allowed a 50 per cent reduction on the normal tariff; import permits are required only for certain specific categories
    Source: Data provided by the Pakistan authorities.
    Table 10.New Zealand: Trade Measures Affecting Exports1
    CountryProducts AffectedType of Measure
    AustriaMeat and dairy productsVariable levy
    Dairy ProductsImport licensing
    MeatQuantitative restriction
    ApplesQuantitative restriction
    CanadaButter and gheeTrade embargo
    CheeseGlobal quota
    Whole milk powderTrade embargo
    Butter milk powderGlobal quota
    Skim milk powderTrade embargo
    Whey powderTrade embargo
    European CommunitySheep meatVoluntary export restraint arrangement
    Beef and vealImport quota and variable levy
    ButterImport quota and variable levy
    ApplesVoluntary export restraint arrangement
    FinlandMeat and dairy productsImport licensing
    Milk powderImport quota
    Apples and pearsSeasonal quota
    Italy2Apples, pears, berries, and sheep meatProhibited imports
    JapanFish, beef, dairy products, citrus fruits, and grainsImport quota
    NorwayApples, dairy products, and meatImport licensing
    PortugalDairy products and wool hidesImport licensing
    SpainDairy products, fish, and meatMinimum price required and import licensing
    SwedenDairy products and meatVariable levy
    SwitzerlandDairy products and meatImport licensing
    Beef, cut flowers, and wineImport quota
    United Kingdom2Plants and shrubsImport licensing
    United StatesDairy productsGlobal import quotas
    Source: Data supplied by the New Zealand authorities.
    Table 11.Commodity Composition of World Trade in Manufactures, 1973–80(In billions of U.S. dollars)
    Iron and steel28.546.545.844.746.857.270.876.5
    Other semimanufactures29.036.537.744.052.565.279.992.0
    Engineering products188.0237.3279.1317.2363.7439.1509.2591.0
    Machinery for specialized industries52.568.183.588.498.0117.5136.4159.0
    Office and telecommunications equipment17.221.423.428.632.038.848.259.0
    Road motor vehicles41.049.258.369.482.299.5115.8127.0
    Other machinery and transport equipment62.079.794.1106.0122.4147.9168.7198.0
    Household appliances15.319.019.824.929.235.440.348.0
    Other consumer goods24.329.432.138.346.257.570.783.0
    Total manufactures347.5458.6500.9567.2647.8788.5945.91,089.0
    Source: GATT, International Trade, 1977/78, 1978/79, 1979/80, and 1980/81.
    Table 12.Motor Vehicles: World Trade by Major Trading Regions, 1973–80(In billions of U.S. dollars)
    OriginYearNorth AmericaJapanWestern EuropeEuropean Community1Developing countriesWorld2
    North America19738.770.090.521.2210.84
    United States1973
    Western Europe19733.680.0914.252.9022.03
    European Community31973
    Developing countries19730.
    Source: GATT, International Trade, 1979/80 and 1980/81.
    Table 13.Motor Vehicles:1 Production, Apparent Consumption, and Share of Imports in Apparent Consumption in Industrial Countries, 1973–80(In thousands of units and per cent)
    Production2Apparent Consumption3Percentage Share of Imports in Apparent Consumption
    Industrial Country197319781979198019731978197919801973197819791980
    European Community412,54712,19312,22111,2769,42210,49710,82110,23534.043.547.047.5
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of3,9494,1864,2503,8782,3953,2203,1762,86733.234.934.737.5
    United Kingdom2,1641,6081,4781,3131,9441,8482,0561,76233.041.354.952.8
    United States12,68112,89611,4758,00814,64715,32814,00010,97717.922.225.434.0
    Source: GATT, International Trade, 1979/80 and 1980/81.
    Table 14.Motor Vehicles: Regional Distribution of World Production, 1973–801(In per cent)
    Industrial countries88858485
    North America35333024
    European Community31272829
    Other Western Europe4544
    Developing countries5611
    Eastern trading countries6777
    Sources: GATT, International Trade, 1979/80; and data supplied by the OECD.
    Table 15.Japan: Regional Breakdown of Passenger Car Exports, 1970 and 1979–80(In thousands of units and per cent)
    DestinationVolumePer cent

    of total
    VolumePer cent

    of total
    VolumePer cent

    of total
    North America404.555.71,648.453.11,986.752.0
    United States339.546.81,587.551.21,850.048.4
    European Community144.66.1630.220.3743.419.5
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of0.40.1175.95.7211.05.5
    United Kingdom5.00.7175.75.7201.15.3
    Other Europe56.57.8179.65.8217.05.7
    Middle East7.71.1149.24.8209.95.5
    Australia and New Zealand86.311.9149.54.8165.04.3
    Latin America29.
    Eastern trading countries0.
    Source: Commission of the European Communities, “The European Automobile Industry,” Bulletin of the European Communities, Supp. 2/81 (June 16, 1981).
    Table 16.Steel: Production, Apparent Consumption, and Employment, 1974 and 1978–81
    Crude Steel Production
    (In millions of tons)
    United States132.2124.3123.3101.7108.8
    European Community2155.6132.6140.2128.9126.0
    Australia and New Zealand8.
    Other OECD331.131.133.832.632.3
    Developing countries430.948.555.957.758.7
    Apparent Consumption6
    (In millions of ingot tons equivalent)
    United States145.6149.2143.9118.4132.5
    European Community2124.3108.8120.4114.6104.4
    Australia and New Zealand8.
    Other OECD340.732.434.234.733.5
    Developing countries474.392.097.3102.9102.8
    (In thousands of workers)
    United States522.0472.0476.3429.3423.0
    European Community800.4706.8687.8646.6577.0
    Other OECD214.3197.5197.0195.7
    Sources: OECD, The Steel Market in 1981 and Outlook for 1982 (May 1982) and Press Release, “OECD Steel Committee Reviews Market Situation” (November 19, 1981).
    Table 17.Steel: Share of Imports in Apparent Consumption and Capacity Utilization, 1978–81(In per cent)
    United StatesEuropean Community1Japan
    Share of imports in apparent consumption18.
    Capacity utilization86.688.
    Memorandum item:
    Installed capacity (millions of tons)143.2140.2139.7140.0202.1203.5202.5200.3151.3154.4159.2158.7
    Sources: OECD, The Steel Market in 1981 and Outlook for 1982 (May 1982); and OECD, Press Release, “OECD Steel Committee Reviews Market Situation” (October 30, 1980).
    Table 18.Steel: Imports, Exports, and Net Trade Balance, 1978–81(In millions of ingot tons equivalent)
    ExportsImportsNet exportsExportsImportsNet exportsExportsImportsNet exportsExportsImportsNet exports
    United States2.924.5–21.63.320.3–17.04.817.9–13.13.423.1–19.7
    Other OECD21.918.23.721.518.92.622.119.42.722.019.52.8
    Rest of the world33.585.5–52.033.783.9–50.236.984.9–48.036.883.1–46.3
    Sources: OECD, The Steel Market in 1981 and Outlook for 1982 (May 1982); and OECD, Press Release, “OECD Steel Committee Reviews Market Situation” (October 30, 1980).
    Table 19.Textiles and Clothing: Production by Regions, 1963–80(Change in volume in per cent)
    Industrial countries4.5–0.55.0–2.5–0.5
    European Community2.0–3.0–5.5–2.5–1.0
    United States4.52.55.5–4.5–0.5
    Developing countries14.
    Eastern trading countries6.
    Industrial countries2.0–1.01.0–4.0–0.5
    European Community7.5–4.55.5–5.0–1.0
    United States2.5–4.51.5
    Developing countries15.
    Eastern trading countries7.
    Sources: United Nations, Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, 1980; OECD, Indicators of Industrial Activity, 1980; and national statistics as reported in GATT, International Trade, 1980/81.
    Table 20.Imports of Textiles and Clothing of Selected Industrial Countries, 1973–76 and 1978–80(Change in value in per cent per annum)
    Of which:
    Industrial countries10.07.524.0–5.515.5–19.023.5–9.5
    Developing countries10.08.523.06.542.
    European Community10.523.527.06.519.022.529.514.5
    Of which:
    Southern Europe17.014.534.53.023.525.033.512.5
    Other industrial countries9.024.525.
    Developing countries15.514.534.512.
    European Free Trade Association (EFTA)18.514.025.012.519.512.526.018.5
    Of which:
    Southern Europe10.045.512.514.55.535.526.0
    Other industrial countries8.
    Developing countries17.54.530.533.539.5–5.517.027.5
    Of which:
    Industrial countries–10.037.544.5–8.48.540.059.5–3.7
    Developing countries9.093.029.5––27.0
    United States1.518.012.518.533.04.513.5
    Of which:
    Industrial countries–3.517.0–9.08.0–1.021.0–16.5
    Developing countries7.515.012.010.525.
    All industrial countries8.
    Of which:
    Southern Europe12.033.533.03.020.522.033.012.5
    Industrial countries7.521.523.05.012.522.523.011.0
    Developing countries9.
    Sources: GATT, International Trade, 1980/81; and data provided by the Japanese authorities.
    Table 21.Textiles and Clothing: Bilateral Agreements to Restrict Trade Under Article 4 of the Multifiber Arrangement Maintained in 19811
    Importing CountryExporting Country and Area
    AustriaEgypt, Hong Kong, India, Korea, Macao, and Pakistan
    CanadaHong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Macao, Malaysia, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Thailand
    European Community2Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Guatemala, Haiti, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Korea, Macao, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Uruguay, and Yugoslavia
    FinlandHong Kong, India, Korea, Macao, Malaysia, Romania, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Thailand
    SwedenBrazil, Hong Kong, India, Korea, Macao, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Yugoslavia
    United StatesBrazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Haiti, Hong Kong, India, Jamaica, Japan, Korea, Macao, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Yugoslavia
    Sources: GATT, Report of the Textiles Surveillance Body to the Textiles Committee for the Major Review of the Operation of the Arrangement, 1980, COM.TEX/SB/610 (October 14, 1980), and Activities of the Textiles Surveillance Body (21 September 1980–31 October 1981), Report to the Textiles Committee by the Textiles Surveillance Body. COM.TEX/SB/742 (November 9, 1981).
    Table 22.Shipbuilding: World Production and Shares of Major Producers, 1975–81

    (In thousands of gross tons1 and per cent)

    ProductionPer cent of world productionProductionPer cent of world productionProductionPer cent of world productionProductionPer cent of world production
    OECD countries29,54186.429,54287.123,28084.613,66277.6
    European Community7,70022.57,76222.95,45019.83,83621.8
    Other Europe5,32315.64,78014.14,80117.42,83416.1
    North America6501.99982.91,2214.41,3167.5
    Rest of the world4,66113.64,38012.94,25215.43,93822.4
    ProductionPer cent of world productionProductionPer cent of world productionProductionPer cent of world production
    OECD countries10,86079.19,61478.612,71177.0
    European Community2,71619.81,78114.62,34414.2
    Other Europe1,99214.51,27010.41,5109.1
    North America1,48510.86705.54913.0
    Rest of the world2,86620.92,61721.43,80123.0
    Sources: OECD, Annual Statistics (various issues) and various OECD Press Releases.
    Table 23.Shipbuilding: Total New Orders, 1976–81(In thousands of gross tons)
    Total OECD countries10,4479,2555,48111,15814,34114,072
    Rest of the world2,4892,5042,8615,745
    Overall total12,93611,7598,34216,903
    Sources: OECD, Annual Statistics (various issues); various OECD Press Releases; and Lloyd’s Register of Shipbuilding, “Annual Summary of Merchant Ships Completed in the World” (1975–80).
    Table 24.Footwear: European Community Production, Trade, Apparent Consumption, and Employment, 1975–80
    (In millions of pairs)
    Imports subject to surveillance218258
    Apparent consumption19389989999601,0411,060
    (In per cent)
    Ratio of imports to apparent consumption19.823.225.124.525.529.5
    Ratio of imports subject to surveillance to total imports82.382.4
    (In thousands)
    Source: Data supplied by the Commission of the European Communities.
    Table 25.Footwear: U.S. Production, Imports, and Apparent Consumption of Nonrubber Footwear, 1978–81
    (In millions of pairs)
    Apparent consumption1792.5802.6759.0748.4
    (In per cent)
    Ratio of imports to apparent consumption47.
    Sources: U.S. International Trade Commission, Nonrubber Footwear: U.S. Production, Imports for Consumption, Apparent U.S. Consumption, Employment, Wholesale Price Index, and Consumer Price Index (Third Calendar Quarter, 1980); and Fund staff estimates.
    Table 26.Commodity and Regional Composition of World Trade in Agricultural Products, Prices, and Terms of Trade, 1973–801
    (In billions of U.S. dollars)
    All agricultural commodities3
    Developing countries30.039.038.943.454.056.261.475.8
    Developed countries65.479.183.586.997.8114.6137.9145.4
    Developing countries19.530.332.431.236.843.850.166.0
    Developed countries82.197.6104.8112.8129.4143.9169.7186.0
    Developing countries16.
    Developed countries46.357.363.
    Developing countries15.024.326.423.927.333.038.152.0
    Developed countries50.663.472.071.777.188.9105.1115.0
    Developing countries6.47.57.712.021.621.824.823.0
    Developed countries
    Developing countries0.
    Developed countries6.17.27.310.618.718.921.3
    Agricultural materials
    Developing countries7.
    Developed countries11.914.012.714.718.120.224.926.0
    Developing countries3.
    Developed countries18.020.418.321.624.427.232.334.0
    Other agriculture
    (1973 = 100)
    Export price index
    Agricultural raw materials100114100112124132159167
    All agricultural commodities100132116124140145166188
    Terms of trade
    Agricultural raw materials10094707880747874
    All agricultural commodities100109849093848487
    Developing countries61009692101112959395
    Developed countries610092848076738486
    Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1973/74—1981/82, and The State of Food and Agriculture 1981, FAO Document No. C81/2, Supp. 1 (November 1981).
    Table 27.Butter: Production, Trade, Stocks, and Price Developments, 1972–811
    (In thousands of tons)
    North America568574560605558549617660
    European Community1,6491,6801,7351,7271,9181,9221,8711,825
    Australia and New Zealand409405412373338356333325
    State trading countries1,8041,8771,9832,1212,2662,1972,1261,925
    Developing countries1,8321,8211,4721,4941,5071,5311,5451,550
    European Community57346174157236246468575525
    Australia and New Zealand240241249231209225254254
    North America3166111
    European Community5794720416313313312310995
    Developing countries182190265294352408514475
    North America503948109122101152200
    European Community309262380372563372240170
    Australia and New Zealand7072857579825150
    (1972–74 = 100)
    Price index5100143152167217259300289
    Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1975/76–1981/82; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.
    Table 28.Cheese: Production, Trade, Stocks, and Price Developments, 1972–811
    (In thousands of tons)
    North America1,8651,8712,1162,1442,0772,2212,3142,500
    European Community2,6412,7682,9893,1453,1173,5833,7183,800
    Australia and New Zealand185204202193198237254225
    State trading countries1,9922,1692,3942,4442,6302,6682,6862,660
    Developing countries2,3452,5911,4461,4521,5071,4591,4951,525
    European Community61746874145216218269303350
    Australia and New Zealand118108123124114115130130
    North America129102117116133134126130
    European Community567461741179378848790
    Developing countries88101152171203238271300
    North America202197240248245276359500
    European Community254339310360306371345350
    Australia and New Zealand3044635868909575
    (1973–75 = 100)
    Price index5
    Netherlands Gouda cheese7788115131122122125
    U.S. cheddar cheese (Wisconsin)109122123133154177
    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1975/76–1981/82.
    Table 29.Bovine Meat: Production, Trade, and Price Developments, 1972–811
    (In thousands of tons)
    Developing countries10,54211,23814,27214,55015,27415,20015,40015,500
    Developed countries430,77134,20933,24232,99833,12332,00031,40031,200
    Developing countries691368585624723625500505
    Developed countries1,6862,1152,0382,3042,4702,7642,5802,355
    Developing countries151185283368529553500495
    Developed countries2,2862,2582,3342,6562,5112,9142,7102,505
    (In millions of U.S. dollars)
    Value of exports3,6043,7723,9014,7955,9517,9678,422
    (1972–74 = 100)
    Price index5100789489127171162150
    Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1976/77–1981/82; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.
    Table 30.Wheat: Production, Trade, Stocks, and Price Developments, 1972–74 and 1975–811
    (In millions of tons)
    Developing countries4109.7122.4138.5124.5143.7161.0150.5158.2
    Developed countries131.1142.7153.8140.4154.8154.8166.9181.8
    State trading countries5120.590.7125.6120.8151.3113.3127.5116.5
    Developing countries42.
    Developed countries57.060.652.964.461.978.486.894.2
    State trading countries54.
    Developing countries437.437.438.245.849.953.057.764.8
    Developed countries13.614.612.113.513.113.713.514.3
    State trading countries512.215.510.212.29.917.321.121.9
    (In millions of U.S. dollars)
    Value of exports7,391.011,346.010,547.09,827.011,236.013,406.018,449.0
    (In U.S. dollars per ton)
    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1976/77–1981/82.
    Table 31.Fats and Oils: Production, Trade, and Price Developments, 1972–811
    (In thousands of tons)
    Developing countries18,48020,74022,69022,62023,78024,23025,78026,920
    Developed countries19,89018,60021,34019,66024,52025,69028,71025,780
    State trading countries7,8708,5307,6408,0508,5007,8807,7707,790
    Developing countries5,0606,1807,2006,7206,9407,0908,100
    Developed countries7,9107,3408,2109,42010,93011,84012,330
    State trading countries1,020990800800720640560
    Developing countries3,3803,7504,4105,8607,0707,4308,710
    Developed countries9,4809,21010,3709,87010,11010,63010,730
    State trading countries7706401,0309901,0601,4401,470
    (In millions of U.S. dollars)
    Value of exports5,8708,0707,6609,63011,42014,51015,100
    (1964–66 = 100)
    FAO price index4213189233268303263250
    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1975/76–1981/82.
    Table 32.Sugar: Production, Trade, Consumption, and Price Developments, 1972–811
    (In millions of tons)
    Developing countries36.141.549.951.650.245.249.3
    Developed countries22.821.625.927.026.826.726.8
    State trading countries17.016.211.614.013.912.311.0
    Developing countries4.
    Developed countries13.912.612.513.811.112.010.3
    State trading countries3.
    Developing countries15.515.316.619.917.618.417.4
    Developed countries5.
    State trading countries1.
    (In billions of U.S. dollars)
    Export value5.610.
    Developing countries3.
    Developed countries1.
    State trading countries0.
    (In millions of tons)
    Developing countries25.427.934.136.638.242.141.742.8
    Developed countries30.729.630.330.829.930.629.629.0
    State trading countries19.620.616.116.316.916.716.916.9
    (1972–74 = 100)
    Average price410013274745063187116
    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1974/75—1981/82.
    Table 33.Agricultural Trade by Principal Commodities and Countries, 1972–81
    Temperate zone products
    Beef and veal3
    Exports (in thousand tons)2,3772,4832,6232,9283,1933,3893,080
    Imports (in thousand tons)2,4372,4432,6173,0243,0403,4673,210
    Exports (in thousand tons)94349804406467455693750900
    Of which: (in per cent)
    European Community60.76462.96438.6750.5454.0767.5366.6758.33
    Australia and New Zealand25.4524.5961.3349.4645.9332.4733.3336.11
    Imports (in thousand tons)93549904457507532731928875
    Of which: (in per cent)
    European Community61.93472.73435.6726.2325.0017.3711.7510.86
    Developing countries19.4719.1957.9958.1966.1758.4155.3954.29
    Exports (in thousand tons)93449994268340332384710745
    Of which: (in per cent)
    European Community66.06468.77454.1063.5365.6670.0542.6846.98
    Australia and New Zealand12.6310.8145.9036.4734.3429.9518.31
    Imports (in thousand tons)91749674448451491537682740
    Of which: (in per cent)
    United States and Canada14.0710.5526.1225.7227.0924.9518.4817.57
    European Community61.83463.81426.1220.6215.8915.6412.7612.16
    Developing countries9.6010.4433.9337.9241.3444.3239.7440.54
    Coarse grains5
    Exports (in million tons)69.3567.9073.1078.7081.2098.30102.30108.80
    Of which: (in per cent)
    European Community4.932.363.420.604.564.682.873.22
    United States57.9750.8163.3464.2964.1664.9573.3668.01
    Developing countries13.3319.0013.6818.0417.1216.448.7315.07
    Imports (in million tons)67.3069.5072.9077.7079.6099.00101.10108.80
    Of which: (in per cent)
    European Community24.3723.3124.4234.2320.1015.7813.4011.49
    State trading countries15.1610.3628.6717.3725.1321.8129.3831.71
    Developing countries14.7117.5515.2314.5419.2227.7325.9827.57
    Exports (in million tons)64.4065.9061.5072.0071.5085.5093.20101.00
    Of which: (in per cent)
    European Community8.7810.5611.997.156.9410.3511.2812.18
    United States43.6846.0647.8041.7943.1944.6243.3551.49
    Imports (in million tons)63.2067.5060.5071.5072.9084.0092.30101.00
    Of which: (in per cent)
    European Community9.047.999.486.947.696.455.454.46
    State trading countries28.7719.6126.3716.8617.0613.5820.6121.68
    Developing countries42.7554.4552.0063.1464.0668.4562.5564.16
    Competing zone products
    Fats and oils
    Exports (in million tons)14.0014.5116.2116.9418.5919.5720.99
    Of which: (in per cent)
    European Community7.939.037.347.446.947.607.81
    North America40.5034.2535.3540.2643.9544.1744.40
    Developing countries35.4341.7044.4239.6737.3336.9338.59
    Imports (in million tons)13.6213.6115.8116.7218.2419.6420.91
    Of which: (in per cent)
    European Community41.6341.0037.1334.8130.6532.4330.94
    Other Europe7.937.797.656.706.095.555.84
    North America6.906.618.796.705.705.354.26
    Developing countries22.3225.2027.8935.0538.7638.0941.65
    Exports (in million tons)22.8321.6222.9528.5426.3226.5527.35
    Of which: (in per cent)
    European Community25.71425.02411.9013.1416.5316.4218.28
    Far East and Oceania10.7314.8017.9117.1711.8213.7110.97
    Latin America51.0351.4846.1045.2347.9148.1744.31
    Other developed countries, excluding Europe713.4914.6212.4213.6712.7310.5113.42
    Imports (in million tons)22.6422.0223.0427.7925.4425.6627.14
    Of which: (in per cent)
    European Community615.3317.0814.1910.8010.189.708.62
    North America25.7520.3521.8822.9619.0321.0416.95
    State trading countries17.5421.3420.4020.6518.2819.1721.22
    Developing countries21.1621.5725.4329.7638.2534.4940.53
    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review and Outlook, 1974/75—1981/82.
    Table 34.Structure of Agricultural Trade of Principal Commodities, 1975–801(In billions of U.S. dollars and per cent)
    Total agricultural exports77.990.0101.3113.5138.0158.7
    Tropical zone product exports7.510.415.
    Natural rubber1.
    Temperate zone product exports30.031.329.836.744.254.2
    Beef and veal23.
    Citrus fruit1.
    Coarse grains410.711.39.612.013.516.8
    Competing zone product exports13.713.215.116.720.325.8
    Fats and oils3.
    Total of the above51.254.960.167.683.699.7
    Per cent of total agricultural exports65.761.059.359.660.662.8
    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Review Outlook, 1974/75—1981/82.
    Table 35.European Community: Target Prices for Selected Commodities, 1972/73 and 1979/80–1981/821
    (Percentage change)
    Cereals (ECU/ton)
    Common wheat137.58201.42214.01230.556.37.767.6
    Rice, husked (ECU/ton)225.69382.28408.16450.506.810.499.6
    Sugar, white (ECU/ton)296.80432.60455.50494.205.38.566.5
    Olive oil (ECU/ton)1,507.562,350.402,479.702,727.705.510.080.5
    Oilseeds (ECU/ton)
    Wine, Type A II (ECU/hl)36.3952.7955.6961.265.510.068.3
    Tobacco, No. 2 (ECU/kg)2.7673.4643.6033.7834.05.036.7
    Fruits and vegetables (ECU/100 kg)
    Tomatoes (open grown)15.9623.2724.7926.51/
    Milk (3.7 per cent fat content)142.29214.00222.60242.604.09.070.5
    Beef animals (live)906.711,545.801,607.601,728.204.07.590.6
    Pig meat997.391,504.461,587.211,761.805.511.076.6
    Sheep meat and goat meat2
    (ECU/100 kg)345.00370.887.5
    Source: Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community, 1981 Report (Brussels, 1982).
    Table 36.European Community: Regional Distribution of Imports of Principal Agricultural Products, 1962 and 1979
    Intra-Community TradeSelected Developed Countries2Developing CountriesEastern Trading Countries
    (In percentage of total Community imports of the product)
    Fresh meat (011)33.573.934.311.825.
    Dried and smoked meat (012)83.696.
    Prepared meat (013)40.970.08.72.834.717.19.26.3
    Milk and cream (022)61.799.817.
    Butter (023)37.083.548.316.
    Cheese and curd (024)51.986.828.
    Unmilled wheat (041)7.157.464.940.520.32.16.0
    Unmilled maize (044)4.135.457.454.322.
    Other unmilled cereals (045)
    Fresh vegetables (054)
    Sugar and honey (061)8.834.912.52.263.755.68.11.6
    Animal oils and fats (411)20.537.736.
    Vegetable oils (421)5.451.09.30.858.634.86.93.1
    (Value of imports in millions of U.S. dollars)
    Fresh meat (011)277.56,062.5284.2971.7213.9549.630.0393.3
    Dried and smoked meat (012)233.7823.
    Prepared meat (013)95.3898.420.235.480.7220.321.380.8
    Milk and cream (022)37.91,346.
    Butter (023)144.01,163.1188.2228.47.820.50.5
    Cheese and curd (024)126.91,356.669.
    Unmilled wheat (041)49.61,285.5453.1908.0141.646.042.11.0
    Unmilled maize (044)26.6995.1376.11,525.3150.1257.641.78.1
    Other unmilled cereals (045)19.2171.3159.029.459.554.413.33.4
    Fresh vegetables (054)363.52,176.637.1155.1167.11,273.026.595.8
    Sugar and honey (061)27.4692.538.743.8198.11,102.925.332.4
    Animal oils and fats (411)25.4265.644.8197.713.843.70.112.4
    Vegetable oils (421)10.0669.917.110.2108.2457.012.741.3
    Total of products listed1,437.017,907.21,699.24,109.01,150.44,008.3264.2700.4
    (As percentage of total agricultural imports)
    Sources: Based on UNCTAD, Protectionism and Structural Adjustment in the World Economy, TD/B/888 (January 15, 1982); and United Nations, Yearbook of International Trade Statistics, 1962 and 1980.
    Table 37.European Agricultural Guarantee and Guidance Fund: Guarantee Section, Expenditures by Sector, 1975–82(In per cent of total)
    Export subsidies7.
    Milk products24.336.838.246.343.442.031.529.7
    Export subsidies17.412.518.618.020.024.317.317.3
    Oil and fats4.
    Export subsidies0.10.10.1
    Export subsidies0.
    Beef and veal20.711.
    Export subsidies3.
    Fruit and vegetables1.
    Export subsidies0.
    Export subsidies0.1
    Accession compensatory amounts (ACAs) in intra-Community trade8.
    Monetary compensatory amounts (MCAs)
    Guidance section expenditures as per cent of guarantee section expenditures1.
    Total agricultural expenditures of the European Community
    As per cent of total EC operating expenditures87.183.783.881.973.9
    As per cent of total EC expenditures75.874.
    Sources: Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community and General Report on the Activities of the European Communities (Brussels, various annual reports).
    Table 38.Australia: Exports,1 Nominal Protection, and Effective Protection for Selected Agricultural Commodities, 1970/71–1979/80
    Exports (in thousand tons)3,8557,1248,2547,9629,5027,91011,52613,049
    Nominal protection (in per cent)212315–9–7–244–1–1
    Effective protection (in per cent)414334–15–13–555–5–5
    Exports (in thousand tons)169137173218257278241413
    Nominal protection (in per cent)2948177162426261414
    Effective protection (in per cent)3974185203337381717
    Apples and pears
    Exports (in thousand tons)1079760677686
    Nominal protection (in per cent)511911131011425
    Effective protection (in per cent)414111519141534
    Citrus fruit
    Exports (in thousand tons)35151920232645
    Nominal protection (in per cent)35333536353626434349
    Effective protection (in per cent)51505555545740696882
    Exports (in thousand tons)581722828628706657
    Nominal protection (in per cent)121833333322
    Effective protection (in per cent)17252232221
    Exports (in thousand tons)501582416548633758814581
    Nominal protection (in per cent)22225431341
    Effective protection (in per cent)22225431341
    Mutton and lamb
    Exports (in thousand tons)100159223198151191
    Nominal protection (in per cent)3421343221
    Effective protection (in per cent)3344311
    Dairy products
    Exports (in thousand tons)195267291201215217
    Nominal protection (in per cent)58382524273526252225
    Effective protection (in per cent)100743941476745423642
    Exports (in thousand tons)2,0841,8001,9962,0002,5562,4781,9292,140
    Nominal protection (in per cent)219–12–20–14–8–6–2–5
    Effective protection (in per cent)3310–5–20–31–23–15–13–7–12
    Total agriculture
    Exports (in millions of Australian dollars)2,0203,5083,8634,2605,2225,2065,9908,480
    Nominal protection (in per cent)161583255754
    Effective protection (in per cent)2422954771062
    Source: Government of Australia, Industries Assistance Commission: Annual Report, 1980–81 (Canberra, 1981).
    Table 39.European Community: Nominal Protection Coefficients, 1975–80(Price in terms of ECUs and per 100 kilograms, excluding value-added tax)
    Domestic price1 PdWorld price2 PwPdPwDomestic price1 PdWorld price2 PwPdPwDomestic price1 PdWorld price2 PwPdPw
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of14.539.651.5016.9710.041.6919.028.352.28
    United Kingdom10.139.651.0512.1310.041.2113.658.351.63
    Weighted avg.313.019.651.3515.1010.041.5016.588.351.99
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of14.0312.031.1716.6111.891.3917.639.041.95
    United Kingdom10.1212.030.8411.6511.890.9812.859.041.42
    Weighted avg.312.6312.031.0514.6811.891.2315.439.041.71
    Sugar beets4
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of26.6936.530.7330.3722.851.3332.4415.712.06
    United Kingdom30.6136.530.8429.2822.851.2830.6015.711.95
    Weighted avg.328.4536.530.7829.3022.851.2829.9115.711.90
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of227.46106.962.13249.80141.401.77268.10132.012.03
    United Kingdom130.92106.961.22160.69141.401.14158.07132.011.19
    Weighted avg.3204.78106.961.91226.04141.401.60236.55132.011.79
    Lamb and sheep5
    United Kingdom133.53120.451.11150.39141.701.06171.53150.851.14
    Weighted avg.3224.24120.451.86239.88141.701.69254.45150.851.69
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of20.057.912.538.449.01
    United Kingdom16.547.912.0917.288.442.05
    Weighted avg.317.767.912.2517.178.442.0318.229.012.02
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of19.6210.031.9511.7412.35
    United Kingdom13.1510.031.3114.9911.741.2812.35
    Weighted avg.317.0910.031.7016.5311.741.4117.8812.351.45
    Sugar beets4
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of34.5513.532.5535.2915.542.2736.0945.390.79
    United Kingdom32.2813.532.3837.2815.542.39
    Weighted avg.332.1613.532.3832.6315.542.1036.6345.390.81
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of275.42167.791.64279.19210.421.33278.11198.221.40
    United Kingdom180.45167.791.08210.17210.420.99243.45198.221.23
    Weighted avg.3248.97167.791.48257.58210.421.22271.54198.221.37
    Lamb and sheep5
    United Kingdom186.02174.131.07215.21175.131.23221.63207.691.07
    Weighted avg.3257.38174.131.48280.39175.131.60284.73207.691.37
    Sources: IMF, International Financial Statistics; and Statistical Office of the European Communities, EUROSTAT (1981). For prices, see footnote 2.
    Table 40.United States: Nominal Protection Coefficients, 1975–80(Price in terms of U.S. dollars)
    Domestic price PdWorld price PwPdPwDomestic price PdWorld price PwPdPwDomestic price PdWorld price PwPdPw
    Domestic price PdWorld price PwPdPwDomestic price PdWorld price PwPdPwDomestic price PdWorld price PwPdPw
    Sources: IMF, International Financial Statistics; and U.S. Department of Agriculture. For prices, see footnotes.
    Table 41.Japan: Nominal Protection Coefficients, 1975–81(Price in terms of Japanese yen)
    ProductDomestic price PdWorld price PwPdPwDomestic price PdWorld price PwPdPwDomestic price PdWorld price PwPdPwDomestic price PdWorld price PwPdPw
    ProductDomestic price PdWorld price PwPdPwDomestic price PdWorld price PwPdPwDomestic price PdWorld price PwPdPw
    Sources: Data provided by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries; and Eric Saxon and Kym Anderson, “Japanese Agricultural Protection in Historical Perspective,” Australia-Japan Research Center and Department of Economics (unpublished, Australian National University, December 1981).
    Table 42.United States: Domestic Support Program for Dairy Products
    Manufacturing Grade Milk
    Support level
    Manufacturing Year (except as noted)Percentage of parity equivalentSupport price1Average price received by farmer1Total milk productionUSDA net market removals2 (milk equiv.)Net expenditure on dairy price support and related programs3
    (In per cent)(In U.S. dollars/cwt)(In billions of pounds)(In millions of U.S. dollars)
    April 1–March 14794.93119.14.9
    March 15–March 31855.295.22
    April 1–August 9755.29
    August 10–March 31805.616.95114.90.7
    April 1–January 4816.57
    January 5–March 31897.246.874115.642.44
    April 1–October 1797.24
    October 2–March 31847.718.124116.440.94
    October 1–March 31818.26
    April 1–September 30829.008.524122.26.94
    October 1–March 31829.00
    April 1–September 30869.439.304121.73.24
    October 1–March 31809.87
    April 1–September 308710.7610.864122.5l.l4
    October 1–March 318011.49
    April 1–September 308612.3611.754127.38.24
    October 1–September 308013.1012.724131.712.74
    Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Dairy Program Fact Sheet.
    Table 43.U.S. Wheat Domestic Support Program
    National Average

    Support Prices
    Crop YearProduction1Target price2Domestic marketing certificate value3Loan rateAverage Price to FarmersFarm ValueGovernment Payments
    (In millions of bushels)(In U.S. dollars per bushel)(In millions of U.S. dollars)
    Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Commodity Fact Sheet, Wheat Program (May 1981).
    Table 44.Internal Terms of Trade of Industrial Countries, 1974–81(In per cent)
    European Community
    Agricultural price
    (wholesale) index100.0109.6126.5141.1145.8155.6167.8186.1
    Manufacturing price
    (wholesale) index100.0102.4111.1119.7124.3134.7150.4165.4
    Internal terms of trade100.0107.0113.9117.9117.3115.5111.6112.5
    Agricultural price
    (wholesale) index100.0108.8117.7121.2125.2126.2137.8144.4
    Manufacturing price
    (wholesale) index100.0102.9102.8104.8104.2104.5107.6109.4
    Internal terms of trade100.0105.7114.5115.6120.4120.8128.1132.0
    United States
    Agricultural price
    (wholesale) index100.0104.0103.3106.7116.6129.5137.9141.9
    Manufacturing price
    (wholesale) index100.0115.7122.6130.3141.3159.3185.2205.2
    Internal terms of trade100.089.984.381.982.581.374.569.2
    Sources: OECD, Main Economic Indicators; and IMF, International Financial Statistics.
    Table 45.European Community: Average Degree of Self-Supply in Selected Agricultural Products, 1956/60, 1968/69, and 1978/791(In per cent)
    Total cereals (excluding rice)858697
    Grain maize644560
    Fresh vegetables1049894
    Fresh fruit (excluding citrus fruits)908077
    Fresh milk products (excluding cream)1001001005
    Total beef and veal9290100
    Poultry meat93101105
    Sheep meat and
    goat meat5667
    Sources: Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community, 1975, 1980, and 1981 Reports.
    Table 46.Japan: Self-Supply Levels of Agricultural Commodities, 1960, 1970, and 1975–78(In per cent of total demand)
    Agricultural products for food907674707473
    Hen eggs1019797979797
    Milk and milk products898982858789
    Meat (excluding whale meat)918977767780
    Source: Bureau of Agricultural Economics of Australia, Japanese Agricultural Policies: Their Origins, Nature, and Effects on Production and Trade (Canberra, 1981), p. 16.
    Table 47.Budget Expenditures on Agriculture, 1974–811
    (In millions of European Currency Units)
    European Community
    EAGGF2 guarantee expenditures3,0944,5135,5876,8308,67310,44111,31510,980
    (In per cent)
    EAGGF guarantee expenditures as per cent of
    Total budget expenditures67.069.369.374.171.472.769.363.3
    Community food expenditures1.
    Community gross national product0.310.410.440.480.550.590.570.523
    United States
    (In millions of U.S. dollars)
    Commodity Credit Corporation
    Total net expenditures1,7451,5191,8054,6706,4654,5873,8255,290
    (In per cent)
    As per cent of federal government budget outlays0.650.470.491.161.430.930.660.81
    As per cent of gross national product0.
    Sources: Commission of the European Communities, The Agricultural Situation in the Community, 1981 Report and Guidelines for European Agriculture, COM(81) 608 final (October 23, 1981); U.S. Office of Management and Budget; and U.S. Department of Agriculture.
    Table 48.Indicators of Market Instability in Agricultural and World Trade, 1972–811(In per cent)
    Quantity of

    Quantity of

    Bovine meat1.584.2612.61
    World trade1.1631.854.47
    Sources: Fund staff estimates, based on data in GATT, International Trade (various issues); and Tables 2730 and 32.
    Table 49.Tariff Reductions Agreed by Industrial Countries Under the Multilateral Trade Negotiations(In per cent)
    Raw MaterialsSemimanufacturesFinished ManufacturesAll Industrial Products
    CountriesDepth of cutPost-MTN averageDepth of cutPost-MTN averageDepth of cutPost-MTN averageDepth of cutPost-MTN average
    Weighted avg.9.00.819.04.713.
    Simple avg.27.01.929.07.332.
    Weighted avg.69.00.530.08.339.08.338.07.9
    Simple avg.48.02.644.06.640.
    European Community
    Weighted avg.
    Simple avg.16.01.630.
    Weighted avg.60.00.313.05.922.
    Simple avg.40.00.510.011.716.
    Weighted avg.67.00.530.04.652.
    Simple avg.45.01.436.06.345.06.442.06.0
    Weighted avg.
    Simple avg.29.00.920.05.422.07.822.06.7
    Weighted avg.
    Simple avg.27.00.415.
    Weighted avg.
    Simple avg.15.01.523.02.825.
    United States
    Weighted avg.
    Simple avg.45.01.839.
    All the above countries
    Weighted avg.64.00.330.
    Simple avg.37.01.636.
    Source: GATT, The Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, Vol. II. Supplementary Report by the Director-General of GATT (January 1980).
    Table 50.Sectoral Tariff Reduction Under the Multilateral Trade Negotiations1(In per cent)
    Depth of CutPost-MTN Average
    Wood, pulp, paper, and furniture40411.74.1
    Raw materials54460.20.7
    Finished manufactures41414.25.1
    Textiles and clothing193111.810.4
    Raw materials25210.82.9
    Finished manufactures193316.711.8
    Leather, rubber, footwear, and travel goods14306.37.2
    Raw materials80501.2
    Finished manufactures112910.210.2
    Basic metals31382.75.0
    Raw materials82610.2
    Finished manufactures37405.96.1
    Finished manufactures43446.06.2
    Transport equipment36355.06.5
    Nonelectrical machinery47464.14.4
    Electrical machinery34426.15.0
    Minerals, precious stones, and metals43392.24.3
    Raw materials69350.31.4
    Finished manufactures40406.96.5
    Manufactured articles not elsewhere specified42455.56.0
    Source: GATT, The Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, Vol. II, Supplementary Report by the Director-General of GATT (January 1980).
    Table 51.United States: Antidumping, Countervailing Duties, and Escape Clause Actions During 1978–8111
    Ampicillin trihydrateC
    Anhydrous sodium metasilicateA
    Bicycle tires and tubesCA
    Bolts, nuts, and large screwsE
    Carbon steel plateA
    Certain amplifier assembliesA
    Certain iron metal castingsC
    Certain industrial electric motorsA
    Certain industrial fastenersC
    Certain steel wire railsA
    Citizens’ band transceiversE
    Clear sheet glassA
    Condenser paperA(2)
    Countertop microwave ovensA
    Dextrins and solubles or chemically treated starches derived from potato starchC
    Ferrochrome, ferromanganese, silicone manganese, and ferrosiliconeC
    Float glassC
    Fresh cut flowersC
    High carbon ferrochromiumE
    Impression fabricA
    Industrial fastenersC
    Iron or steel chainsC
    Leather garmentsC
    Leather wearing apparelC(3)
    Men’s and boys’ apparelC
    Motorcycle batteriesA
    Nonelectric cookwareE
    Nonrubber footwearC
    Optic liquid level sensing systemsC
    Pig ironC
    Plied worsted spun acrylic machine knitting yarnA
    Polyvinyl chloride sheetsA
    Portable electric typewritersA
    Precipitated barium carbonateA
    Railway track maintenance equipmentA
    Textiles and apparel (men’s and boys’)C(4)
    Sodium gluconateC
    Sodium nitrateA
    Spun acrylic yarnA
    Stainless-steel-clad plateA
    Steel wire strandA
    Sugar (raw and refined)C
    Viscose rayon staple fiberAC(2)A(3)
    Source: U.S. Office of the Special Trade Representative, Trade Action Monitoring System (various issues).
    Table 52.United States: Other Trade Actions During 1979–811
    Automatic crankpin grindersUI
    Certain airless paint spray pumpsUI
    Certain airtight cast iron stovesUI
    Certain apparatus for the production of copper rodsUI
    Certain surveying devicesUI
    Marine insuranceU
    Pump-top insulated containersUI
    Television advertisingU
    Wheat flourU
    Source: U.S. Office of the Special Trade Representative, Trade Action Monitoring System (various issues).
    Table 53.European Community: Trade Actions Under Safeguard and Antidumping Provisions, 1971–821
    Number of


    Number of

    Decisions Leading

    to Trade Actions2
    Nature of

    Actions Taken3
    Countries and Areas

    Affected by Trade Actions
    197288444PCzechoslovakia, Japan, Romania, Spain
    19733143363Q3PAll sources of importsJapan, Korea, Taiwan *
    197422333PJapan, Korea, Taiwan*
    19762682246QDp, PBulgaria, German Dem. Rep., Czechoslovakia, U.S.S.R.Hungary and Taiwan*
    197761420614202Q2Dp, 4D, 8PBangladesh, India, Japan, Spain, Thailand, YugoslaviaBrazil, Japan, Mexico, Romania, South Africa, Taiwan*, Turkey
    1978868617374Q*25Dp, 13D, 35PTaiwan*Australia, Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, German Dem. Rep., Finland, Greece, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Poland, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, United States, U.S.S.R.
    197960460626326Q*10Dp, 4D, 12PBangladesh, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Dem. Rep., India, ThailandBrazil, Bulgaria, Greece, Norway, Romania, Spain, United States, U.S.S.R. (plus antisubsidy)
    198031316234362Q6Dp, 4D, 24PUnited StatesAustralia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Dem. Rep., Finland, Hong Kong, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Norway, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan*, United States, U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia