- Michael Bell, Kalpana Kochhar, and Hoe Khor
- Published Date:
- June 1993
© 1993 International Monetary Fund
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Bell, Michael W.
China at the threshold of a market economy / Michael W. Bell, Hoe Ee Khor, and Kalpana Kochhar with Jun Ma, Simon N’guiamba, and Rajiv Lall.
p. cm. — (Occasional paper, ISSN 0251-6365 ; 107)
Includes bibliographical references.
1. China—Economic policy—1976– 2. China—Economic conditions—1976– I. Khor, Hoe Ee. II. Kochhar, Kalpana. III. Title. IV. Series: Occasional paper (International Monetary Fund) ; no. 107.
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The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:
… to indicate that data are not available;
— to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
– between years or months (e.g., 1991–92 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
/ between years (e.g., 1991/92) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.
This Occasional Paper undertakes a comprehensive review of China’s reform experience since 1978. It identifies special conditions that may have affected China’s capacity to implement reforms and draws implications for the direction of China’s future reform strategy.
It is based on research papers prepared by the authors during 1992–93. Michael Bell, Hoe Ee Khor, Kalpana Kochhar, and Simon N’guiamba are all staff members of the IMF’s Central Asia Department; Rajiv Lall is a staff member of the World Bank; and Jun Ma was a summer intern in 1992. Ms. Kochhar and Messrs. Bell and Khor integrated the material. A major part of the work on regional policies, including the statistical analyses, was carried out by Mr. Ma, while Mr. Lall and Mr. N’guiamba contributed material on the nonstate sector and China’s integration into the global economy, respectively. The authors would like to thank Yusuke Horiguchi, Ichiro Otani, and Douglas Scott for valuable comments and support, and Viola Chou for research assistance. Esha Ray and Elin Knotter of the External Relations Department edited the manuscript and coordinated production of the publication.
The opinions expressed in the paper are those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the views of the IMF, its Executive Directors, or the Chinese authorities.
List of Abbreviations for China’s Provinces, Municipalities, and Autonomous Regions