- International Monetary Fund
- Published Date:
- January 1986
© 1986 International Monetary Fund
International Standard Serial Numbers: ISBN 0-939934-73-6
Price: US$15.00 (US$11.00 to university libraries, faculty members, and students)
Address orders to:
External Relations Department
International Monetary Fund
Washington, D.C. 20431
Tel: (202)–623-7430 Cable: Interfund
Charles Adams, Paul R. Fenton, and F lemming Larsen
Omotunde E.G. Johnson
Peter Isard and Liliana Rojas-Suarez
James M. Boughton, Richard D. Haas, Paul R. Masson, and Charles Adams
David Goldsbrough and Iqbal Zaidi
List of Tables
59. Developing Countries: Long-Run Elasticities of Unit Values of Imports and Exports with Respect to Prices of Fuels, Non-Oil Primary Commodities, and Manufactures, First Half 1962 to Second Half 1979
60. Alternative Estimates of the Elasticities of Developing Countries’ Export Volumes with Respect to Real GNP in Industrial Countries and with Respect to Developing Countries’ Real Effective Exchange Rates
List of Charts
Conventions and Symbols
A number of standard conventions have been employed in arriving at the projections in the report. It has been assumed that the average real exchange rates for the major currencies of a recent period (March 3–7, 1986) will prevail throughout the balance of 1986 and 1987; that “present” policies of national authorities will be maintained; and that the average price of oil will be $15 a barrel from the second quarter of 1986 to the end of 1987. These are, of course, working assumptions rather than forecasts, and the uncertainties surrounding them add to the margins of error that would in any event be involved in the report’s projections. The estimates and projections themselves are based on statistical information available on or before March 21, 1986.
The following symbols have been used throughout this report:
… to indicate that data are not available;
— to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
– between years or months (e.g., 1984–85 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
/ between years (e.g., 1984/85) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
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It should be noted that the term “country” used in this report does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. The terms also covers some teritorial entities that are not states but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.
The Staff Studies for the World Economic Outlook, April 1986, were prepared in the Fund’s Research Department. They have benefited from comments by staff colleagues throughout the Fund as well as by the Fund’s Executive Directors. The views expressed remain the responsibility of the individual authors.