Front Matter

Front Matter

International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
January 1994
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© 1993 International Monetary Fund

ISBN 9781557753373

ISSN 0258-7440

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The following symbols are used throughout this paper:

  • … to indicate that data are not available;

  • – to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;

  • - between years or months (e.g., 1992-93 or January-June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;

  • / between years (e.g., 1992/93) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.

“Billion” means a thousand million.

Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.

The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. The term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.


The Staff Studies for the World Economic Outlook contains background analyses for the World Economic Outlook exercise carried out by the Fund’s Research Department. The papers have benefited from comments by colleagues throughout the Fund and, in some cases, by the Fund’s Executive Directors. However, the views presented in the papers are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the views of the International Monetary Fund.

The authors would like to thank Sungcha H. Cha, Mandy Hemmati, Toh Kuan, Youkyong K. Kwon, Susanna Mursula, Nii Kote Nikoi, and Prem Pillai for research assistance and Susan duff and Nora Mori-Whitehouse for word processing. Juanita Roushdy of the External Relations Department edited the manuscripts and coordinated production of the publication.

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