Front Matter

Front Matter

International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
December 1995
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© 1995 International Monetary Fund

ISBN 1-55775-527-2

ISSN 0258-7440

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The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:

  • … To indicate that data are not available;

  • —To indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;

  • – between years or months (for example, 1993-94 or january-june) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;

  • / between years (for example, 1993/94) to indicate a fiscal or financial year.

“Billion” means a thousand million; “trillion” means a thousand billion.

“Basis points” refer to hundredths of 1 percentage point (for example, 25 basis points are equivalent to ¼ a of 1 percentage point).

Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.

As used in this the term “country” does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. As used here, the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states but for which statistical data are maintained on a separate and independent basis.


This paper was prepared in the official financing operations division of the policy development and review department of the International Monetary Fund, under the direction of Anthony r. Boote. Its authors are Ray Brooks, Mariano Cortes, Paulo Drummond, Christopher Jarvis, Reva Krieger, Toshiro Nishizawa, Doris Ross, and Kamau Thugge. The paper provides information on official financing and the debt situation of developing countries with a particular focus on the heavily indebted poor countries. It updates official financing for developing countries, world economic and financial surveys (washington: international Monetary fund, april 1994), and section v provides a more limited update of Officially supported export credits, recent developments and prospects, world economic and financial surveys (washington: international monetary fund, march 1995).

Thanks are due to benedicte v. Christensen and marco pinon-farah for helpful contributions on aid policies (section iv). The work benefited from comments by staff in other departments of the imf and by members of the executive board. Opinions expressed, however, are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the imf or its executive directors. The paper reflects information available through the end of july 1995.

The authors are grateful to Barbara Dabrowska for research and bogna jezierska for secretarial assistance, and arc particularly indebted to sulochana kamaldinni for coordinating the processing of the document. Simon willson of the external relations department edited the manuscript and coordinated production.

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