- International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
- Published Date:
- April 2018
World Economic Outlook
Cyclical Upswing, Structural Change
©2018 International Monetary Fund
Cover and Design: Luisa Menjivar and Jorge Salazar
Composition: AGS, An RR Donnelley Company
Joint Bank-Fund Library
Names: International Monetary Fund.
Title: World economic outlook (International Monetary Fund)
Other titles: WEO | Occasional paper (International Monetary Fund) | World economic and financial surveys.
Description: Washington, DC : International Monetary Fund, 1980- | Semiannual | Some issues also have thematic titles. | Began with issue for May 1980. | 1981-1984: Occasional paper / International Monetary Fund, 0251-6365 | 1986-: World economic and financial surveys, 0256-6877.
Identifiers: ISSN 0256-6877 (print) | ISSN 1564-5215 (online)
Subjects: LCSH: Economic development—Periodicals. | International economic relations— Periodicals. | Debts, External—Periodicals. | Balance of payments—Periodicals. | International finance—Periodicals. | Economic forecasting—Periodicals.
Classification: LCC HC10.W79
ISBN 978-1-48433-827-8 (paper)
978-1-48434-971-7 (Web PDF)
The World Economic Outlook (WEO) is a survey by the IMF staff published twice a year, in the spring and fall. The WEO is prepared by the IMF staff and has benefited from comments and suggestions by Executive Directors following their discussion of the report on April 2, 2018. The views expressed in this publication are those of the IMF staff and do not necessarily represent the views of the IMF’s Executive Directors or their national authorities.
Recommended citation: International Monetary Fund. 2018. World Economic Outlook: Cyclical Upswing, Structural Change. Washington, DC, April.
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Table B1. Advanced Economies: Unemployment, Employment, and Real GDP per Capita
Table B2. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Real GDP
Table B3. Advanced Economies: Hourly Earnings, Productivity, and Unit Labor Costs in Manufacturing
Table B4. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Consumer Prices
Table B5. Summary of Fiscal and Financial Indicators
Table B6. Advanced Economies: General and Central Government Net Lending/Borrowing and General Government Net Lending/Borrowing Excluding Social Security Schemes
Table B7. Advanced Economies: General Government Structural Balances
Table B8. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: General Government Net Lending/Borrowing and Overall Fiscal Balance
Table B9. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: General Government Net Lending/Borrowing
Table B10. Selected Advanced Economies: Exchange Rates
Table B11. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Broad Money Aggregates
Table B12. Advanced Economies: Export Volumes, Import Volumes, and Terms of Trade in Goods and Services
Table B13. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Region: Total Trade in Goods
Table B14. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Source of Export Earnings: Total Trade in Goods
Table B15. Summary of Current Account Transactions
Table B16. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Summary of External Debt and Debt Service
Table B17. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Region: External Debt by Maturity
Table B18. Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Analytical Criteria: External Debt by Maturity
Table B19. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Ratio of External Debt to GDP
Table B20. Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Debt-Service Ratios
Table B21. Emerging Market and Developing Economies, Medium-Term Baseline Scenario: Selected Economic Indicators
Assumptions and Conventions
A number of assumptions have been adopted for the projections presented in the World Economic Outlook (WEO). It has been assumed that real effective exchange rates remained constant at their average levels during January 26 to February 23, 2018, except for those for the currencies participating in the European exchange rate mechanism II, which are assumed to have remained constant in nominal terms relative to the euro; that established policies of national authorities will be maintained (for specific assumptions about fiscal and monetary policies for selected economies, see Box A1 in the Statistical Appendix); that the average price of oil will be $62.31 a barrel in 2018 and $58.24 a barrel in 2019 and will remain unchanged in real terms over the medium term; that the six-month London interbank offered rate on US dollar deposits will average 2.4 percent in 2018 and 3.4 percent in 2019; that the three-month euro deposit rate will average −0.3 percent in 2018 and 0.0 in 2019; and that the six-month Japanese yen deposit rate will yield on average 0.0 percent in 2018 and 0.1 percent in 2019. These are, of course, working hypotheses rather than forecasts, and the uncertainties surrounding them add to the margin of error that would in any event be involved in the projections. The estimates and projections are based on statistical information available through April 2, 2018.
The following conventions are used throughout the WEO:
. . . to indicate that data are not available or not applicable;
– between years or months (for example, 2017–18 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months; and
/ between years or months (for example, 2017/18) to indicate a fiscal or financial year.
“Billion” means a thousand million; “trillion” means a thousand billion.
“Basis points” refers to hundredths of 1 percentage point (for example, 25 basis points are equivalent to ¼ of 1 percentage point).
Data refer to calendar years, except in the case of a few countries that use fiscal years. Table F in the Statistical Appendix lists the economies with exceptional reporting periods for national accounts and government finance data for each country.
For some countries, the figures for 2017 and earlier are based on estimates rather than actual outturns. Table G in the Statistical Appendix lists the latest actual outturns for the indicators in the national accounts, prices, government finance, and balance of payments indicators for each country.
What is new in this publication:
No changes have been introduced for the April 2018 WEO database. In the tables and figures, the following conventions apply:
If no source is listed on tables and figures, data are drawn from the WEO database.
When countries are not listed alphabetically, they are ordered on the basis of economic size.
Minor discrepancies between sums of constituent figures and totals shown reflect rounding.
As used in this report, the terms “country” and “economy” do not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. As used here, the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states but for which statistical data are maintained on a separate and independent basis.
Composite data are provided for various groups of countries organized according to economic characteristics or region. Unless noted otherwise, country group composites represent calculations based on 90 percent or more of the weighted group data.
The boundaries, colors, denominations, and any other information shown on the maps do not imply, on the part of the International Monetary Fund, any judgment on the legal status of any territory or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
Corrections and Revisions
The data and analysis appearing in the World Economic Outlook (WEO) are compiled by the IMF staff at the time of publication. Every effort is made to ensure their timeliness, accuracy, and completeness. When errors are discovered, corrections and revisions are incorporated into the digital editions available from the IMF website and on the IMF eLibrary (see below). All substantive changes are listed in the online tables of contents.
Print and Digital Editions
Print copies of this World Economic Outlook can be ordered at https://www.bookstore.imf.org/books/title/world-economic-outlook-april-2018.
The WEO is featured on the IMF website at http://www.imf.org/publications/WEO. This site includes a PDF of the report and data sets for each of the charts therein.
The IMF eLibrary hosts multiple digital editions of the World Economic Outlook, including ePub, enhanced PDF, Mobi, and HTML: http://elibrary.imf.org/AR18WEO.
Copyright and Reuse
Information on the terms and conditions for reusing the contents of this publication are at http://www.imf.org/external/terms.htm.
This version of the World Economic Outlook (WEO) is available in full through the IMF eLibrary (www.elibrary. imf.org) and the IMF website (www.imf.org). Accompanying the publication on the IMF website is a larger compilation of data from the WEO database than is included in the report itself, including files containing the series most frequently requested by readers. These files may be downloaded for use in a variety of software packages.
The data appearing in the WEO are compiled by the IMF staff at the time of the WEO exercises. The historical data and projections are based on the information gathered by the IMF country desk officers in the context of their missions to IMF member countries and through their ongoing analysis of the evolving situation in each country. Historical data are updated on a continual basis as more information becomes available, and structural breaks in data are often adjusted to produce smooth series with the use of splicing and other techniques. IMF staff estimates continue to serve as proxies for historical series when complete information is unavailable. As a result, WEO data can differ from those in other sources with official data, including the IMF’s International Financial Statistics.
The WEO data and metadata provided are “as is” and “as available,” and every effort is made to ensure their timeliness, accuracy, and completeness, but these cannot be guaranteed. When errors are discovered, there is a concerted effort to correct them as appropriate and feasible. Corrections and revisions made after publication are incorporated into the electronic editions available from the IMF eLibrary (www.elibrary.imf.org) and on the IMF website (www.imf.org). All substantive changes are listed in detail in the online tables of contents.
For details on the terms and conditions for usage of the WEO database, please refer to the IMF Copyright and Usage website (www.imf.org/external/terms.htm).
Inquiries about the content of the WEO and the WEO database should be sent by mail, fax, or online forum (telephone inquiries cannot be accepted):
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The analysis and projections contained in the World Economic Outlook are integral elements of the IMF’s surveillance of economic developments and policies in its member countries, of developments in international financial markets, and of the global economic system. The survey of prospects and policies is the product of a comprehensive interdepartmental review of world economic developments, which draws primarily on information the IMF staff gathers through its consultations with member countries. These consultations are carried out in particular by the IMF’s area departments—namely, the African Department, Asia and Pacific Department, European Department, Middle East and Central Asia Department, and Western Hemisphere Department—together with the Strategy, Policy, and Review Department; the Monetary and Capital Markets Department; and the Fiscal Affairs Department.
The analysis in this report was coordinated in the Research Department under the general direction of Maurice Obstfeld, Economic Counsellor and Director of Research. The project was directed by Gian Maria Milesi-Ferretti, Deputy Director, Research Department; Oya Celasun, Division Chief, Research Department; and Helge Berger, Assistant Director, Research Department and Head of the IMF’s Spillover Task Force.
The primary contributors to this report were Aqib Aslam, Christian Bogmans, Wenjie Chen, Federica Coelli, Johannes Eugster, Francesco Grigoli, Bertrand Gruss, Giang Ho, Florence Jaumotte, Zsóka Kóczán, Toh Kuan, Nan Li, Weicheng Lian, Akito Matsumoto, Malhar Nabar, Natalija Novta, Carolina Osorio Buitron, Roberto Piazza, Yu Shi, Petia Topalova, and Rachel Yuting Fan.
Other contributors include Jorge Alvarez, Gavin Asdorian, Felicia Belostecinic, Olivier Bizimana, Patrick Blagrave, John Bluedorn, Luisa Calixto, Benjamin Carton, Diego Cerdeiro, Sophia Chen, Pankhuri Dutt, Angela Espiritu, Sung Eun Jung, Emilio Fernandez Corugedo, Chanpheng Fizzarotti, Gregg Forte, Khondoker Haider, Meron Haile, Mandy Hemmati, Benjamin Hilgenstock, Ava Hong, Keiko Honjo, Benjamin Hunt, Hao Jiang, Christopher Johns, Rahel Kidane, Lama Kiyasseh, Jungjin Lee, Yiqun Li, Davide Malacrino, Joannes Mongardini, Mico Mrkaic, Daniela Muhaj, Susanna Mursula, Rachel J. Nam, Cynthia Nyanchama Nyakeri, Emory Oakes, Ilse Peirtsegaele, Evgenia Pugacheva, Marshall Reinsdorf, Daniel Rivera Greenwood, Kadir Tanyeri, Nicholas Tong, Menexenia Tsaroucha, Ke Wang, Shan Wang, Jilun Xing, Yuan Zeng, Fan Zhang, Qiaoqiao Zhang, and Huiyuan Zhao.
Joseph Procopio from the Communications Department led the editorial and production team for the report with support from Linda Kean, Christine Ebrahimzadeh, James Unwin, Lucy Scott Morales, Angela White, and Vector Talent Resources.
The analysis has benefited from comments and suggestions by staff members from other IMF departments, as well as by Executive Directors following their discussion of the report on April 2, 2018. However, both projections and policy considerations are those of the IMF staff and should not be attributed to Executive Directors or to their national authorities.