Chapter

Statistical Appendix

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
Published Date:
January 1987
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Assumptions and Conventions

The statistical tables in this appendix have been compiled on the basis of information available on or before March 19, 1987. The recording of the figures for 1987 and beyond with the same degree of precision as the historical figures is solely a matter of convenience. It is not intended to convey any connotation regarding the degree of accuracy attaching to these estimates and projections.

The estimates and projections for 1987 and 1988 are predicated on a number of assumptions and working hypotheses:

(1) for the major currencies, the average exchange rates of February 23–27, 1987 will remain unchanged in real terms through the end of 1988;

(2) “present” policies of national authorities will be maintained; and

(3) the price of oil will average $15.00 a barrel in 1987, and remain unchanged in real terms in 1988.

A few of the tables include series expressed in SDRs (or based on SDR values). The U.S. dollar/SDR conversion rates used in this report are, for the historical period, the geometric averages of daily rates given in the Fund’s International Financial Statistics (IFS).. For the years prior to 1970, these data impute to the SDR a value of US$1.00. For 1987 and 1988, the exchange rate assumptions specified above imply average U.S. dollar/SDR conversion rates of 1.264 and 1.269, respectively.

Classification of Countries

The classification scheme used in the preparation of this report is as follows.

Industrial countrie. comprise:

AustraliaIcelandNorway
AustriaIrelandSpain
BelgiumItalySweden
CanadaJapanSwitzerland
DenmarkLuxembourgUnited Kingdom
FinlandNetherlandsUnited States
FranceNew Zealand
Germany, Fed. Rep. of

The seven largest countries in this group in terms of GNP—Canada, the United States, Japan, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom—are collectively referred to as the major industrial countries.

The developing countries include all other Fund members (as of January 1, 1987), together with certain essentially autonomous dependent territories for which adequate statistics are available.1 The regional breakdowns of data for developing countries conform to the regional classification used in the Fund’s IFS. It should be noted that, in this classification, Egypt and Libyan Arab Jamahiriya are classified as part of the Middle East, not Africa.

The analytical groupings in this classification are (1) countries grouped by predominant export; (2) countries grouped by financial criteria; (3) countries grouped by other criteria; and (4) countries grouped by former classification criteria. At present, the financial criteria first distinguish among capital exporting and capital importing countries. Countries in the latter, much larger, group are then distinguished on the basis of two additional financial criteria: by predominant type of creditor and by the degree of debt-servicing difficulties they have faced. The country groups shown under the heading of “miscellaneous criteria” include capital importing fuel exporters; 15 heavily indebted countries; small low-income countries; and sub-Saharan Africa (excluding Nigeria and South Africa). The accompanying table presents a breakdown of these analytical groupings according to the proportion of developing country GDP, exports of goods and services, and level of indebtedness. Further details on the classification scheme are given below.

The first analytical criterion used to group developing countries is by predominant export category. Four categories are distinguished: fuel (SITC (Standard International Trade Classification) 3); other primary commodities (SITC 0, 1, 2, 4, and diamonds and gem-stones); manufactures (SITC 5 to 8, less diamonds and gemstones); and “services and remittances.” On the basis of data for 1980, countries are assigned to the commodity grouping that accounts for 50 percent or more of their exports. Specifically, countries are assigned to the “services and remittances” category if their receipts on these transactions account for at least half of their exports of goods and services. If countries do not meet this criterion, they are assigned to the trade category (of the three listed above) that accounts for at least half of their total merchandise exports.2

Table A.Developing Countries: Shares of Various Subgroups in Aggregate GDP, Exports of Goods and Services, and Debt Outstanding, 1984–86(In percent)
GDPExports of

Goods and

Services
Debt1Memorandum:

Number of

Countries in

Each Subgroup
Developing countries100.0100.0100.0133
By region
Africa11.811.114.148
Asia33.737.124.027
Europe8.511.812.49
Middle East17.622.313.116
Western Hemisphere28.417.836.533
By predominant export
Fuel exporters30.832.827.520
Non-fuel exporters69.267.272.5113
Primary product exporters34.024.143.473
Agricultural exporters28.617.933.955
Mineral exporters5.36.29.518
Exporters of manufactures29.136.419.611
Service and remittance countries6.16.89.529
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries13.917.65.78
Capital importing countries86.182.494.3125
Market borrowers51.957.460.634
Official borrowers6.75.210.360
Diversified borrowers27.619.823.331
Countries with recent debt-41.232.358.465
servicing difficulties
Countries without recent debt-44.950.135.860
servicing difficulties
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters17.015.221.812
Fifteen heavily indebted countries32.620.941.415
Small low-income countries5.13.07.941
Sub-Saharan Africa13.73.86.543
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries23.526.116.112
Non-oil developing countries76.573.983.9121

Given these definitions, the fuel exporters comprise:

AlgeriaIraqSaudi Arabia
BahrainKuwaitSyrian Arab Rep.
CongoLibyan ArabTrinidad and
EcuadorJamahiriyaTobago
GabonMexicoTunisia
IndonesiaNigeriaUnited Arab
Iran, IslamicOmanEmirates
Rep. ofQatarVenezuela

The primary product exporters,.that is, countries whose exports of agricultural and mineral primary products other than fuel accounted for over 50 percent of their total exports in 1980, comprise:

AfghanistanGambia, ThePeru
ArgentinaGhanaPhilippines
BangladeshGuatemalaRwanda
BelizeGuineaSão Tomé and
BeninGuinea-BissauPrincipe
BhutanGuyanaSenegal
BoliviaHaitiSierra Leone
BotswanaHondurasSolomon Islands
BrazilJamaicaSomalia
BurmaKenyaSouth Africa
BurundiLao People’sSri Lanka
CameroonDem. Rep.St. Kitts and
Central AfricanLiberiaNevis
Rep.MadagascarSudan
ChadMalawiSuriname
ChileMalaysiaSwaziland
ColombiaMaliTanzania
ComorosMauritaniaThailand
Costa RicaMauritiusTogo
Cote d’lvoireMoroccoTurkey
DjiboutiMozambiqueUganda
Dominican Rep.NicaraguaUruguay
El SalvadorNigerViet Nam
Equatorial GuineaPapua NewZaïre
EthiopiaGuineaZambia
FijiParaguayZimbabwe

A further distinction is made among the “primary product exporters” on the basis of whether countries’ exports of primary commodities (other than fuel) consisted primarily of agricultural (SITC 0, 1, 2 except 27, 28, and 4) or mineral (SITC 27 and 28 and diamonds and gemstones) commodities. The mineral exporters comprise:

BoliviaLiberiaSouth Africa
BotswanaMauritaniaSuriname
ChileMoroccoTogo
GuineaNigerZaïre
GuyanaPeruZambia
JamaicaSierra LeoneZimbabwe

The agricultural exporters are those non-fuel primary product exporters that are not also mineral exporters.

The exporters of manufactures (that is, those countries or areas whose exports of manufactures accounted in 1980 for over 50 percent of total exports) include:

ChinaIsraelSingapore
Hong KongKoreaYugoslavia
HungaryPoland
IndiaRomania

The service and remittance countries, that is, those countries whose receipts from services (such as tourism) and private transfers (such as workers’ remittances) amount to at least 50 percent of their exports of goods and services, comprise:

Antigua andKampuchea,Seychelles
BarbudaDemocraticSt. Lucia
Bahamas, TheLebanonSt. Vincent
BarbadosLesothoTonga
Burkina FasoMaldivesVanuatu
Cape VerdeMaltaWestern Samoa
CyprusNepalYemen Arab
DominicaNetherlandsRep.
EgyptAntillesYemen,
GreecePakistanPeople’s
GrenadaPanamaDem. Rep.
JordanPortugalof

The primary product exporters, exporters of manufactures, and service and remittance countries taken together are referred to as the “non-fuel exporters.”

A second set of analytical groupings of developing countries is based on financial criteria. A first distinction is made between those developing countries that have traditionally been capital exporters and those that have traditionally been capital importers. At present, capital exporters are defined as those developing countries that, on average, recorded a current account surplus during the period 1979–81 and were aid donors over the same period. The capital exporting countries comprise:

Iran, IslamicLibyan ArabSaudi Arabia
Rep. ofJamahiriyaUnited Arab
IraqOmanEmirates
KuwaitQatar

The capital importing countries comprise all other developing countries.

Within the group of capital importing developing countries and areas, two types of financial distinction are made. The first distinguishes among countries and areas on the basis of their predominant type of creditor. Market borrowers are defined as those countries that obtained at least two thirds of their external borrowings from 1978 to 1982 from commercial creditors. The group includes:

AlgeriaCongoKoreaPhilippines
Antigua andCote d’lvoireMalaysiaPortugal
BarbudaCyprusMexicoSingapore
ArgentinaEcuadorNigeriaSouth Africa
Bahamas, TheGabonPanamaTrinidad
BoliviaGreecePapua Newand Tobago
BrazilHong KongGuineaUruguay
ChileHungaryParaguayVenezuela
ColombiaIndonesiaPeruYugoslavia

Official borrower comprise those countries, except China and India, that obtained two thirds or more of their external borrowings from 1978 to 1982 from official creditors. The countries are:

AfghanistanFijiMaltaSwaziland
BahrainGambia, TheMauritaniaSyrian Arab
BangladeshGhanaNepalRep.
BhutanGrenadaNetherlandsTanzania
Burkina FasoGuatemalaAntillesTogo
BurmaGuineaNicaraguaTonga
BurundiGuinea-PakistanUganda
Cape VerdeBissauRwandaViet Nam
CentralGuyanaSao TomWestern
AfricanHondurasandSamoa
Rep.JamaicaPrincipeYemen Arab
ChadJordanSenegalRep.
ComorosLao People’sSeychellesYemen,
DjiboutiDem. Rep.SierraPeople’s
DominicaLiberiaLeoneDem.
DominicanMadagascarSomaliaRep. of
Rep.MalawiSt. LuciaZaïre
El SalvadorMaldivesSt. VincentZambia
EquatorialMaliSudan
Guinea

Diversified borrowers comprise those capital importing developing countries that are not market or official borrowers. These countries’ external borrowings in 1978–82 were more or less evenly divided between official and commercial creditors. China and India are included in this group. Commercial borrowers comprise those countries classified as either market or diversified borrowers.

A second financial distinction among capital importing developing countries is based on whether countries have or have not experienced debt-servicing difficulties in the recent past. Countries that have experienced debt-servicing problems are defined as those countries which incurred external payments arrears during 1985 or rescheduled their debt during the period from end-1983 to end-1986 as reported in the relevant issues of the Fund’s Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions.. Countries classified as not having experienced debt-servicing problems are defined as all other capital importing developing countries.

Several other analytical groups are also used in the report. One of these is the group of capital importing fuel exporters. This group, which is also referred to as the “indebted fuel exporters,” comprises those 12 fuel exporters that are not capital exporters. A second is the group of 15 heavily indebted countries. This group comprises:

ArgentinaCote d’lvoirePeru
BoliviaEcuadorPhilippines
BrazilMexicoUruguay
ChileMoroccoVenezuela
ColombiaNigeriaYugoslavia

A third is the group of low-income countries, which comprises 43 countries whose per capita GDP, as estimated by the World Bank, did not exceed the equivalent of $410 in 1980. The countries in this group are:

AfghanistanComorosKenyaSão Tomé
BangladeshEquatorialLao People’sand
BeninGuineDem. Rep.Principe
BhutanEthiopiaMadagascarSierra Leone
Burkina FasoGambia, TheMalawiSomalia
BurmaGhanaMaldivesSri Lanka
BurundiGuineaMaliSudan
Cape VerdeGuinea-MauritaniaTanzania
CentralBissauMozambiqueTogo
AfricanHaitiNepalUganda
Rep.IndiaNigerViet Nam
ChadKampuchea,PakistanZaïre
ChinaDemocraticRwanda

References to the small or smaller low-income countries refer to the above group, less China and India. Reference is also made to sub-Saharan Africa, which comprises all African countries (as defined in IFS) except Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, and Tunisia.

Finally, in the classification used in Fund publications until recently, the developing countries were divided into two groups—“oil exporting countries”3 and “non-oil developing countries.” The countries included under the heading oil exporting countries were:

AlgeriaKuwaitQatar
IndonesiaLibyan ArabSaudi Arabia
Iran. IslamicJamahiriyaUnited Arab
Rep. ofNigeriaEmirates
IraqOmanVenezuela

The remaining countries, grouped under the heading non-oil developing countries, were further disaggregated into subgroupings based primarily on the character of the countries’ economic activity and on the predominant composition of their exports.

Except where otherwise specifically indicated, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and other non-member countries of Eastern Europe, Cuba, and North Korea are excluded from the tables in this report. Also, it has not been possible to include in the tables a number of small countries or territories for which trade and payments data are not available.

List of Tables

Medium-Term Scenario

Table A1.World Output, 1969–881(Annual changes, in percent)
Average
1969–7821979198019811982198319841985198619871988
World4.33.42.11.80.62.64.43.12.92.73.1
Industrial countries3.43.41.31.4-0.42.74.73.02.42.32.8
United States2.82.5-0.21.9-2.53.66.42.72.52.33.1
Other industrial countries4.03.92.11.10.82.13.63.22.42.42.6
Of which,
Japan5.85.34.33.73.13.25.14.72.52.73.3
Germany, Fed, Rep. of3.54.01.5-1.01.83.02.52.41.92.0
Developing countries6.14.23.52.11.61.44.13.23.53.04.1
Median growth rates5.34.83.43.01.51.63.02.52.83.03.2
By region
Africa5.13.23.71.80.8-1.91.72.01.62.53.2
Asia5.84.45.45.55.07.67.95.95.75.15.4
Europe6.03.81.52.32.41.13.62.13.22.52.8
Middle East8.21.8-2.5-2.0-0.20.20.9-1.0-1.01.7
Western Hemisphere5.86.15.40.7-1.0-3.03.23.54.03.34.7
By analytical criteria
Fuel exporters7.83.71.00.9-0.2-1.91.30.3-0.70.22.4
Non-fuel exporters5.44.54.52.72.53.15.54.65.44.24.7
Market borrowers6.46.04.62.10.4-0.93.52.73.93.44.3
Official borrowers3.92.03.03.22.12.02.92.62.83.34.0
Other countries35.92.53.93.33.64.13.43.54.33.83.5
Table A2.Industrial Countries: Real GNP and Total Domestic Demand, 1969–881(Annual changes, in percent)
AverageFourth Quarter3
1969–7821979198019811982198319841985198619871988198619871988
Real GNP
Canada44.83.91.53.7-3.33.15.54.03.12.03.01.62.63.4
United States2.82.5-0.21.9-2.53.66.42.72.52.33.12.02.93.1
Japan5.85.34.33.73.13.25.14.72.52.73.32.02.83.5
France44.53.31.10.51.80.71.51.42.21.82.11.92.02.2
Germany, Fed. Rep. of3.54.01.5-1.01.83.02.52.41.92.02.41.72.1
Italy43.44.93.90.2-0.5-0.22.82.32.82.92.33.02.72.3
United Kingdom52.22.7-2.5-1.41.53.52.93.42.53.02.33.32.12.2
Other industrial countries3.63.12.30.50.41.73.32.92.02.12.51.92.22.5
All industrial countries3.43.41.31.4-0.42.74.73.02.42.32.82.12.62.8
Of which,
Seven major countries above3.43.41.11.6-0.62.85.03.02.52.42.92.22.62.9
European countries3.53.41.4-0.10.41.62.62.52.42.22.22.52.12.2
Real total domestic demand
Canada4.95.11.94.8-6.43.74.24.63.52.52.81.33.73.0
United States2.81.5-1.82.2-1.95.18.33.43.51.62.62.41.82.8
Japan5.66.50.82.12.81.83.83.84.03.83.93.83.93.8
France4.34.12.1-0.54.1-0.40.72.14.02.22.43.92.22.6
Germany, Fed. Rep. of3.65.51.1-2.6-2.02.31.91.53.73.22.44.12.12.5
Italy3.15.77.0-2.2-0.3-1.13.32.43.64.13.04.93.13.0
United Kingdom1.83.8-3.0-1.72.24.72.82.83.23.72.83.83.92.2
Other industrial countries3.43.42.0-1.30.30.52.53.02.82.32.52.72.22.6
All industrial countries3.33.60.20.6-0.22.95.03.13.52.42.83.12.52.9
Of which,
Seven major countries above3.33.6-0.10.9-0.33.35.43.13.62.52.83.12.62.9
European countries3.34.41.6-2.00.71.31.92.33.73.02.64.12.62.6
Table A3.Industrial Countries: Components of Real GNP, 1969–881(Annual changes in percent)
Average
1969–7821979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Consumer expenditure
Canada5.22.92.22.3-1.83.03.65.04.02.82.9
United States3.42.2-0.21.21.34.74.73.54.11.72.5
Japan5.86.41.41.34.13.22.82.52.73.73.7
France4.93.41.52.03.41.01.12.43.32.02.0
Germany, Fed. Rep. of4.43.61.2-0.5-1.31.71.51.74.23.32.3
Italy3.65.34.30.50.5-0.31.91.92.93.62.6
United Kingdom2.14.5-0.2-0.20.94.02.23.54.83.73.1
Other industrial countries3.72.71.1-0.10.90.91.12.83.12.22.4
All industrial countries3.83.40.80.81.43.03.13.03.72.52.7
Of which,
Seven major countries above3.83.50.81.01.53.43.43.13.82.52.8
European countries3.83.61.30.10.71.51.32.43.82.92.5
Public consumption
Canada4.60.62.82.51.40.83.11.91.21.92.6
United States0.10.81.91.51.91.14.06.83.52.52.0
Japan5.14.42.84.81.92.92.42.36.62.5
France3.51.81.82.42.41.41.31.31.50.50.5
Germany, Fed. Rep. of3.83.32.61.8-0.80.22.52.22.51.91.9
Italy3.21.72.13.32.62.42.42.51.92.52.5
United Kingdom2.02.31.50.21.11.90.80.12.01.51.3
Other industrial countries4.42.92.82.31.92.91.42.82.11.61.6
All industrial countries2.22.12.22.31.61.72.84.13.41.71.9
Of which,
Seven major countries above1.81.92.12.21.61.53.04.33.61.72.0
European countries3.52.82.32.01.41.61.51.71.91.51.5
Gross fixed investment
Canada4.98.310.011.7-10.7-1.90.86.12.62.61.8
United States3.83.7-7.91.1-9.68.216.17.71.9-0.22.2
Japan6.45.33.10.8-0.34.55.96.55.84.2
France3.63.83.2-1.10.7-2.3-1.33.24.44.24.9
Germany, Fed. Rep. of2.47.32.7-4.8-5.33.20.8-0.43.34.03.4
Italy0.75.89.40.6-5.2-3.86.24.12.04.03.5
United Kingdom0.92.6-4.8-9.54.35.79.11.90.63.62.5
Other industrial countries2.50.42.2-2.0-2.4-1.02.93.84.22.72.9
All industrial countries3.44.0-1.6-0.2-4.63.38.65.43.12.33.0
Of which,
Seven major countries above3.54.7-2.20.1-5.04.09.55.73.02.23.0
European countries2.23.62.3-4.0-1.80.82.92.33.93.73.4
Final domestic demand
Canada5.03.54.04.5-3.41.52.94.63.12.62.6
United States2.72.2-1.21.20.44.56.34.83.61.62.4
Japan5.95.91.12.22.82.13.33.54.34.03.8
France4.43.31.91.42.70.30.62.43.32.32.4
Germany. Fed. Rep. of3.84.41.8-1.0-2.11.71.51.43.73.12.4
Italy3.04.84.91.0-0.3-0.52.72.42.63.52.8
United Kingdom1.83.7-0.7-1.81.53.93.12.53.53.32.6
Other industrial countries3.52.21.70.10.20.81.52.83.02.22.4
All industrial countries3.33.30.70.90.32.63.93.73.52.42.7
Of which,
Seven major countries above3.33.50.51.00.32.94.33.83.62.52.7
European countries3.43.51.7-0.40.21.31.62.23.52.82.5
Stock building3
Canada1.6-1.90.3-3.02.11.20.30.2
United States0.1-0.7-0.71.0-1.50.62.0-1.4-0.10.2
Japan-0.20.6-0.3-0.1-0.1-0.30.50.3-0.2-0.20.1
France0.80.2-1.81.4-0.80.1-0.30.7
Germany, Fed. Rep. of-0.11.2-0.8-1.60.10.60.40.10.1
Italy0.10.82.1-3.1-0.60.61.00.70.2
United Kingdom0.2-2.30.20.60.8-0.30.3-0.20.40.2
Other industrial countries-0.11.20.3-1.4-0.31.00.2-0.10.10.2
All industrial countries0.3-0.4-0.3-0.50.21.1-0.50.1
Of which,
Seven major countries above0.1-0.5-0.1-0.60.31.1-0.70.1
European countries1.0-0.1-1.60.50.30.10.20.20.1
Foreign balance3
Canada0.1-1.2-0.5-0.93.21.0-0.2-0.4-0.40.3
United States1.01.7-0.2-0.7-1.5-1.9-0.7-1.10.70.5
Japan-0.1-1.43.41.50.31.51.31.0-1.4-1.0-0.5
France0.2-0.7-1.00.9-2.21.20.9-0.7-1.8-0.5-0.4
Germany, Fed. Rep. of-0.2-1.50.42.71.0-0.41.11.1-1.1-1.1-0.4
Italy0.3-0.5-2.82.3-0.20.9-0.30.1-0.7-1.1-0.6
United Kingdom0.4-1.40.80.5-1.1-0.8-0.60.9-0.7-0.6-0.5
Other industrial countries0.1-0.50.21.80.21.30.50.1-0.6-0.1
All industrial countries0.1-0.31.00.9-0.2-0.1-0.4-0.1-1.1-0.1
Of which,
Seven major countries above0.1-0.21.20.7-0.3-0.4-0.5-0.1-1.1-0.1
European countries0.1-1.0-0.21.9-0.30.40.60.2-1.2-0.7-0.4
Table A4.Industrial Countries: Employment and Unemployment, 1969-881(In percent)
Average
1969–781979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Growth in employment2
Canada2.84.13.02.8-3.30.82.52.82.91.92.4
United States2.42.90.51.1-0.91.34.12.02.32.21.6
Japan0.81.31.00.81.01.70.60.70.90.71.1
France1.00.1-0.60.1-0.5-0.9-0.30.30.30.4
Germany, Fed. Rep. of0.51.81.5-0.6-1.9-1.70.10.81.20.60.8
Italy1.31.01.40.3-0.20.30.40.40.60.70.5
United Kingdom0.11.1-1.8-3.7-2.0-1.20.61.00.40.90.7
Other industrial countries0.80.70.3-0.7-0.8-0.80.31.11.60.80.9
All industrial countries1.51.90.60.2-0.70.41.91.41.61.41.2
Of which,
Seven major countries above1.62.10.70.3-0.70.62.21.41.61.51.3
European countries0.60.90.3-1.1-1.0-0.9-0.10.50.80.60.7
Unemployment rates3
Canada6.47.47.47.511.111.911.310.59.69.28.8
United States6.05.97.27.69.79.67.57.27.06.76.6
Japan1.62.12.02.22.42.72.72.62.83.13.0
France3.76.26.67.78.48.610.010.410.710.811.0
Germany, Fed. Rep. of2.23.33.44.96.88.28.18.27.97.87.6
Italy46.37.77.67.98.69.49.910.311.111.211.4
United Kingdom3.75.46.510.111.811.411.411.311.611.211.0
Other industrial countries3.05.96.78.19.611.011.611.711.411.311.0
All industrial countries4.05.15.86.78.28.68.18.08.07.97.8
Of which,
Seven major countries above4.25.05.66.58.08.27.57.47.47.37.2
European countries3.65.66.27.99.310.010.610.710.810.710.6
Table A5.Developing Countries: Real GDP, 1969–881(Annual changes, in percent)
Average
1969–7821979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries6.14.23.52.11.61.44.13.23.53.04.1
Median growth rates5.34.83.43.01.51.63.02.52.83.03.2
By region
Africa5.13.23.71.80.8-1.91.72.01.62.53.2
Asia5.84.45.45.55.07.67.95.95.75.15.4
Europe6.03.81.52.32.41.13.62.13.22.52.8
Middle East8.21.8-2.5-2.0-0.20.20.9-1.0-1.01.7
Western Hemisphere5.86.15.40.7-1.0-3.03.23.54.03.34.7
By predominant export
Fuel exporters7.83.71.00.9-0.2-1.91.30.3-0.70.22.4
Non-fuel exporters5.44.54.52.72.53.15.54.65.44.24.7
Primary product exporters5.24.64.41.00.3-0.43.63.25.23.94.7
Agricultural exporters5.84.84.20.30.90.13.63.75.74.15.0
Mineral exporters3.13.74.93.8-2.2-2.73.90.82.72.92.7
Exporters of manufactures6.04.34.64.84.97.48.26.36.05.05.1
Service and remittance countries4.84.44.72.13.03.13.44.03.92.23.1
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries8.91.4-4.1-3.2-0.9-0.60.6-1.9-0.6-1.71.3
Capital importing countries5.74.74.63.02.01.74.74.04.23.74.5
Market borrowers6.46.04.62.10.4-0.93.52.73.93.44.3
Official borrowers3.92.03.03.22.12.02.92.62.83.34.0
Diversified borrowers5.13.05.14.55.17.07.67.05.14.65.0
Countries with recent debt-servicing problems5.55.24.51.1-0.1-2.52.62.73.23.14.2
Countries without debt-servicing problems5.94.14.84.94.26.26.95.35.14.44.7
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters7.05.55.24.20.4-3.01.92.1-0.81.73.4
Fifteen heavily indebted countries6.16.15.00.5-0.4-3.42.23.13.53.24.5
Small low-income countries3.82.83.02.72.22.23.93.64.64.34.4
Sub-Saharan Africa33.42.13.02.40.6-0.72.03.04.03.23.7
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries8.42.4-1.1-1.2-0.3-1.10.8-0.30.2-0.32.1
Non-oil developing countries5.54.84.83.12.22.25.24.34.64.04.6
Net oil exporters6.06.96.86.41.0-2.53.82.3-1.02.03.1
Net oil importers5.44.54.52.62.43.15.54.75.54.34.8
Table A6.Developing Countries: Per Capita Real GDP, 1969–881(Annual changes, in percent)
Average
1969–7821979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries3.41.81.0-0.3-1.0-0.81.91.11.31.01.9
By region
Africa2.20.10.6-1.1-2.2-5.0-1.4-0.6-1.2-0.20.3
Asia3.52.53.43.62.85.76.04.14.03.43.7
Europe4.82.70.51.21.40.22.71.02.11.31.6
Middle East4.0-2.1-6.2-5.7-4.2-2.7-2.4-3.8-3.1-3.7-1.4
Western Hemisphere3.33.73.1-1.3-3.2-5.20.91.31.71.22.5
By predominant export
Fuel exporters3.90.2-2.3-2.4-3.6-4.6-1.9-2.4-3.5-2.5-0.6
Non-fuel exporters3.32.52.50.80.41.13.62.73.62.32.7
Primary product exporters2.82.21.9-1.3-2.1-2.81.30.93.01.62.3
Agricultural exporters3.42.51.8-1.9-1.4-2.21.41.43.51.82.7
Mineral exporters0.61.02.51.3-5.0-5.60.7-1.60.20.30.1
Exporters of manufactures4.22.73.03.33.35.96.84.94.63.53.6
Service and remittance countries3.02.03.00.61.61.61.82.42.20.51.2
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries4.2-2.9-7.9-7.0-5.2-3.7-3.0-4.9-4.0-4.5-1.9
Capital importing countries3.32.52.40.9-0.2-0.32.72.12.21.82.5
Market borrowers4.03.72.3-1.8-2.91.40.71.91.42.3
Official borrowers1.2-0.80.10.4-0.9-0.80.2-0.10.51.2
Diversified borrowers2.81.23.22.83.25.35.95.33.32.73.0
Countries with recent debt-servicing problems3.12.82.1-1.1-2.5-4.70.30.51.00.92.0
Countries without debt-servicing problems3.72.22.83.12.24.35.03.63.32.62.8
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters3.82.62.21.4-2.4-5.3-1.0-0.3-3.2-0.70.8
Fifteen heavily indebted countries3.63.62.6-1.6-2.7-5.5-0.10.91.41.22.4
Small low-income countries1.2-0.10.1-0.1-0.8-0.51.20.91.71.51.6
Sub-Saharan Africa30.6-0.9-0.2-0.5-2.2-3.6-0.80.10.90.20.5
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries4.3-1.4-4.6-4.7-4.0-4.0-2.5-3.1-2.9-3.0-1.0
Non-oil developing countries3.22.72.71.20.33.32.42.62.12.6
Net oil exporters3.04.24.23.7-1.7-4.61.4-3.3-0.40.6
Net oil importers3.32.52.50.80.41.23.62.83.72.42.9
Table A7.Developing Countries: Gross Capital Formation, 1979-871(In percent of GDP)
197919801981198219831984198519861987
Developing countries25.925.925.524.323.322.922.422.522.6
By region
Africa24.024.827.123.721.320.019.019.620.6
Asia29.228.427.227.026.927.127.627.026.8
Europe31.630.329.127.724.824.023.124.023.9
Middle East21.922.723.523.827.325.523.823.422.9
Western Hemisphere23.023.422.720.817.417.416.917.317.8
By predominant export
Fuel exporters23.924.425.724.124.323.222.122.422.6
Non-fuel exporters26.826.525.524.422.822.722.622.522.6
Primary product exporters21.222.222.020.618.417.716.817.217.8
Agricultural exporters21.221.720.820.318.317.316.617.117.8
Mineral exporters21.524.126.821.518.819.717.718.017.8
Exporters of manufactures33.531.529.428.928.129.130.029.528.9
Service and remittance countries27.427.226.825.522.620.620.319.119.2
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries20.221.722.923.327.926.224.524.423.8
Capital importing countries26.826.526.024.522.522.322.122.222.4
Market borrowers27.026.926.924.621.520.719.519.720.2
Official borrowers15.815.715.615.014.414.615.015.115.9
Diversified borrowers29.228.526.926.626.527.428.928.628.0
Countries with recent debt-servicing problems25.024.924.822.318.918.317.217.618.3
Countries without debt-servicing problems28.628.127.126.826.326.426.826.526.2
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters26.826.527.924.721.520.820.220.821.6
Fifteen heavily indebted countries24.924.724.522.318.217.416.516.817.6
Small low-income countries13.113.212.612.612.012.412.513.514.7
Sub-Saharan Africa217.317.617.716.714.714.715.117.118.9
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries23.223.324.824.625.423.522.222.822.8
Non-oil developing countries26.726.625.824.222.622.622.522.422.5
Net oil exporters26.027.428.624.322.222.721.921.622.0
Net oil importers26.826.525.424.222.722.622.622.522.6
Memorandum
Median estimates
Developing countries24.824.623.522.821.119.919.519.319.2
By region
Africa22.722.021.921.117.516.315.318.018.8
Asia25.425.427.225.323.021.519.819.321.0
Europe30.531.428.431.525.026.322.323.222.9
Middle East23.722.322.024.124.123.621.820.119.7
Western Hemisphere25.024.922.921.219.918.317.918.718.2
Table A8.Inflation, 1969–881(In percent)
Average
1969–7821979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Industrial countries37.88.19.38.87.35.04.33.83.42.93.4
United States6.78.89.19.66.53.83.93.32.62.83.4
Other industrial countries38.67.69.48.37.75.74.54.24.13.03.4
Of which,
Japan8.23.03.83.21.90.81.31.41.81.12.6
Germany, Fed. Rep. of5.64.04.84.04.43.21.92.23.32.52.6
Developing countries416.721.527.226.425.034.039.440.628.630.129.5
Median inflation rates9.111.514.513.310.39.410.18.88.08.06.0
By region4
Africa11.616.716.421.911.419.520.312.814.812.610.5
Asia8.78.013.110.76.36.67.27.45.95.45.6
Europe11.725.937.924.123.723.128.028.627.422.716.6
Middle East10.811.716.815.212.712.314.912.211.111.19.9
Western Hemisphere31.046.554.659.768.4106.3129.3150.386.597.798.8
By analytical criteria4
Fuel exporters11.312.115.616.117.625.019.813.419.422.215.3
Non-fuel exporters19.025.732.531.328.838.950.455.933.133.835.6
Market borrowers22.631.836.739.339.857.969.873.147.452.351.8
Official borrowers11.519.422.129.814.122.518.724.427.118.313.4
Table A9.Industrial Countries: GNP Deflators and Consumer Prices, 1969–881(Annual changes, in percent)
AverageFourth Quarter3
1969–7821979198019811982198319841985198619871988198619871988
GNP deflator
Canada47.210.010.610.88.94.93.63.42.83.53.23.03.33.2
United States6.78.89.19.66.53.83.93.32.62.83.42.13.53.4
Japan8.23.03.83.21.90.81.31.41.81.12.61.11.52.3
France48.510.412.211.912.59.67.25.85.33.02.64.92.93.0
Germany, Fed. Rep. of5.64.04.84.04.43.21.92.23.32.52.63.22.62.6
Italy412.215.920.718.317.814.910.88.89.15.75.29.54.25.6
United Kingdom411.814.519.911.57.75.04.16.13.64.65.02.34.85.2
Other industrial countries9.07.79.19.49.77.76.75.65.64.14.05.23.84.1
All industrial countries7.88.19.38.87.35.04.33.83.42.93.43.03.23.4
Of which,
Seven major countries above7.68.29.38.76.94.53.93.63.12.73.32.73.13.3
European countries8.89.011.19.79.47.45.75.35.03.63.64.63.43.8
Consumer prices
Canada6.99.210.212.510.85.84.34.04.24.03.34.33.63.2
United States6.511.313.510.46.13.24.33.61.93.43.51.34.03.5
Japan10.73.77.74.92.71.92.32.00.60.12.9-0.20.82.9
France8.410.813.313.411.89.67.45.82.22.52.62.12.72.9
Germany, Fed. Rep. of4.64.15.46.35.33.32.42.2-0.30.72.6-1.12.12.6
Italy10.914.821.218.716.314.610.89.25.94.75.05.05.24.8
United Kingdom11.713.418.011.98.64.65.06.13.44.44.83.44.84.9
Other industrial countries8.67.810.210.49.77.66.35.84.94.04.04.53.94.5
All industrial countries7.89.111.79.97.44.94.64.12.32.83.51.73.33.6
Of which,
Seven major countries above7.69.312.09.97.04.44.43.81.92.63.41.33.23.5
European countries8.38.811.711.19.57.26.15.32.83.83.52.33.33.8
Table A10.Industrial Countries: Hourly Earnings, Productivity, and Unit Labor Costs in Manufacturing, 1969–881(Annual changes, in percent)
Average
1969–7821979198019811982198319841985198614871988
Hourly earnings
Canada9.88.810.112.011.74.34.93.93.14.84.5
United States8.09.711.79.68.53.13.65.12.93.23.7
Japan16.15.97.15.85.63.33.64.53.32.43.8
France14.514.814.115.718.212.68.86.24.43.02.5
Germany. Fed. Rep, of11.16.98.67.05.93.63.34.25.55.53.7
Italy19.119.118.428.621.418.99.810.47.57.07.0
United Kingdom15.917.320.414.310.28.17.87.46.87.47.5
Other industrial countries13.710.911.010.69.59.26.66.76.56.05.4
All industrial countries11.310.211.510.79.65.94.95.54.14.04.2
Of which,
Seven major countries above11.010.111.610.79.65.44.65.33.83.74.1
European countries14.412.412.813.111.59.06.86.65.95.64.9
Output per manhour
Canada4.02.7-0.40.30.16.811.11.60.81.71.1
United States2.5-0.12.22.25.74.14.42.71.72.9
Japan7.26.73.40.30.13.08.53.10.33.0
France6.05.01.64.26.44.75.24.04.53.33.2
Germany, Fed. Rep. of4.74.81.11.81.74.74.24.21.42.62.1
Italy5.28.43.17.32.53.45.32.81.62.02.2
United Kingdom3.00.6-1.54.75.27.94.63.12.04.13.2
Other industrial countries5.25.02.63.13.35.44.83.82.22.42.3
All industrial countries4.03.11.32.52.54.95.53.82.22.02.7
Of which,
Seven major countries above3.82.71.12.42.44.85.63.82.21.42.8
European countries5.04.71.93.73.75.14.93.72.52.42.5
Unit labor costs
Canada5.66.010.611.711.7-2.3-5.62.22.32.92.9
United States5.49.811.77.26.2-2.5-0.60.60.31.40.7
Japan8.3-0.83.65.55.50.3-4.51.33.32.10.8
France8.09.312.311.011.17.63.42.2-0.1-0.3-0.8
Germany, Fed. Rep. of6.02.07.45.14.1-1.1-0.94.02.81.6
Italy13.29.914.819.918.414.94.37.45.84.94.7
United Kingdom12.616.522.29.04.80.23.14.24.73.24.1
Other industrial countries8.25.78.37.36.23.61.82.84.23.53.0
All industrial countries7.17.010.17.97.01.0-0.61.61.92.01.5
Of which,
Seven major countries above6.97.210.58.07.10.6-0.91.51.61.81.3
European countries9.07.410.78.97.63.71.92.83.42.72.3
Table A11.Developing Countries: Consumer Prices—Weighted Averages, 1969-881(Annual changes, in percent)
Average
1969–7821479198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries16.721.527.226.425.034.039.440.628.630.129.5
By region
Africa11.616.716.421.911.419.520.312.814.812.610.5
Asia8.78.013.110.76.36.67.27.45.95.45.6
Europe11.725.937.924.123.723.128.028.627.422.716.6
Middle East10.811.716.815.212.712.314.912.211.111.19.9
Western Hemisphere31.046.554.659.768.4106.3129.3150.386.597.798.8
By predominant export
Fuel exporters11.312.115.616.117.625.019.813.419.422.215.3
Non-fuel exporters19.025.732.531.328.838.950.455.933.133.835.6
Primary product exporters26.243.552.052.349.772.699.4113.660.664.470.3
Agricultural exporters26.548.159.260.457.785.5119.7131.568.473.781.7
Mineral exporters24.525.423.321.420.928.832.547.826.322.117.6
Exporters of manufactures8.68.615.012.810.010.612.413.69.68.08.0
Service and remittance
countries10.615.118.316.014.514.715.513.915.314.510.5
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries10.28.611.811.78.67.85.83.06.38.18.4
Capital importing countries17.623.629.828.928.039.146.248.232.734.133.1
Market borrowers22.631.836.739.339.857.969.873.147.452.351.8
Official borrowers11.519.422.129.814.122.518.724.427.118.313.4
Diversified borrowers8.911.420.411.911.311.414.214.710.08.58.1
Countries with recent debt-
servicing problems22.934.439.845.247.472.789.497.362.869.668.2
Countries without debt-
servicing problems10.513.520.414.110.310.512.011.99.37.67.5
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel
exporters12.115.018.719.825.240.132.122.431.235.221.9
Fifteen heavily indebted
countries28.540.847.453.257.790.8116.4126.976.286.387.2
Small low-income countries11.721.324.134.615.827.420.923.020.115.210.0
Sub-Saharan Africa313.526.525.432.413.530.522.618.018.715.210.5
By alternative analytical
categories
Oil exporting countries11.111.113.313.48.59.910.64.97.59.68.3
Non-oil developing countries18.324.731.630.630.943.250.554.736.137.136.2
Net oil exporters11.717.724.224.443.970.951.951.552.656.533.9
Net oil importers19.525.832.731.628.738.650.355.333.634.236.5
Table A12.Developing Countries: Consumer Prices—Median Estimates, 1969–88(Annual changes, in percent)
Average
1969–781979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries9.111.514.513.310.39.410.18.88.08.06.0
By region
Africa9.111.912.513.712.610.911.410.59.38.08.0
Asia6.87.213.412.47.37.96.65.05.55.05.1
Europe8.19.615.820.021.020.215.015.111.89.59.0
Middle East9.910.610.58.99.15.26.44.19.05.04.5
Western Hemisphere10.414.918.114.79.08.811.915.011.011.810.0
By predominant export
Fuel exporters9.410.311.213.310.58.99.55.98.08.56.3
Non-fuel exporters8.912.114.713.310.39.410.49.78.08.06.0
Primary product exporters9.312.216.414.212.311.512.412.611.010.010.0
Agricultural exporters9.212.117.112.712.511.311.911.29.49.28.0
Mineral exporters8.912.813.815.711.915.019.115.612.213.710.0
Exporters of manufactures6.89.011.513.87.97.38.35.65.23.65.5
Service and remittance
countries8.712.614.711.56.45.74.64.64.03.54.0
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries9.79.910.08.37.43.71.21.74.74.04.0
Capital importing countries9.011.714.713.810.49.410.49.58.08.06.5
Market borrowers10.215.317.715.010.111.112.59.48.99.77.5
Official borrowers9.111.814.712.59.69.410.610.28.68.06.0
Diversified borrowers8.49.912.513.011.48.48.48.78.08.07.0
Countries with recent debt-
servicing problems9.412.418.015.212.314.112.815.112.515.010.0
Countries without debt-
servicing problems8.710.613.512.58.77.16.95.75.55.55.1
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel
exporters8.910.612.514.711.69.711.48.010.010.49.0
Fifteen heavily indebted
countries15.219.926.426.319.040.950.330.723.020.019.0
Small low-income countries9.212.213.812.712.511.511.110.58.08.27.2
Sub-Saharan Africa19.312.513.313.512.711.211.210.59.28.08.0
By alternative analytical
categories
Oil exporting countries9.310.810.611.77.87.28.64.67.07.04.6
Non-oil developing countries9.111.714.713.510.69.410.49.58.08.06.0
Net oil exporters9.39.015.114.615.113.612.810.213.412.59.2
Net oil importers8.912.114.713.310.29.410.19.57.58.06.0
Table A13.Summary Financial Indicators, 1979–88(In percent)
1979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Major industrial countries
Fiscal balances of central governments1
Seven major countries-2.8-3.3-3.6-4.6-5.4-5.0-4.9-4.6-4.1-3.9
Of which,
United States-1.1-2.3-2.4-4.1-5.6-4.9-5.1-5.0-4.0-3.6
Japan-6.1-6.2-5.9-5.9-5.6-4.9-4.1-4.3-4.7-4.6
Germany, Fed. Rep. of-1.8-1.6-2.1-2.1-2.0-1.8-1.1-0.7-0.8-0.9
Fiscal impulses of central governments2
Seven major countries-0.3-0.1-0.20.80.2-0.4-0.6-0.2
Of which,
United States-0.80.40.31.60.40.3-0.2-1.0-0.4
Japan1.10.1-0.5-0.3-0.5-0.4-0.6-0.30.1-0.2
Germany, Fed. Rep. of0.1-0.5-0.5-1.10.20.6-0.5-0.3-0.10.1
Growth of monetary aggregates3
Narrow money
Seven major countries9.85.66.46.710.07.08.611.4
Of which,
United States7.86.27.06.611.17.09.213.4
Japan10.72.63.35.83.62.85.06.97.07.5
Germany, Fed. Rep. of7.52.41.13.610.23.34.78.34.93.0
Broad money
Seven major countries10.79.410.09.510.57.89.18.5
Of which,
United States8.38.09.49.312.57.99.18.09.08.1
Japan11.99.28.99.27.47.88.48.77.07.5
Germany. Fed. Rep. of8.95.36.46.56.63.94.96.15.03.3
Interest rates
Six-month Eurodollars411.914.016.713.69.911.38.66.86.56.5
Developing countries
Fiscal balances of central governments1
Weighted averages-2.4-1.5-3.6-5.4-5.6-4.7-4.6-6.0-4.9
Medians-3.5-4.6-5.6-6.6-6.7-4.9-4.6-5.1-4.7
Growth of monetary aggregates5
Weighted averages33.937.537.535.937.849.446.231.527.1
Medians17.420.518.917.916.916.115.115.111.9
Table A14.Major Industrial Countries: Monetary Aggregates, 1979-871(Annual changes, in percent)
Fourth Quarter2
19791980198119821983198419851986148519861987
Narrow money (M1)3
Canada7.06.23.4-0.110.03.44.24.98.45.4
United States7.86.27.06.611.17.09.213.412.115.3
Japan10.72.63.35.83.62.85.06.93.09.06.0
France13.67.711.811.110.311.46.17.56.68.56.0
Germany, Fed. Rep. of7.52.41.13.610.23.34.78.35.37.72.0
Italy24.216.110.911.815.112.313.710.110.49.58.0
United Kingdom12.24.410.78.612.814.720.822.318.621.516.5
Seven major countries above9.85.66.46.710.07.08.611.49.712.7
Four major European countries above12.76.47.68.111.79.710.411.69.611.47.4
Broad money4
Canada15.718.915.09.25.74.49.48.710.79.0
United States8.38.09.49.312.57.99.18.08.88.98.4
Japan11.99.28.99.27.47.88.48.78.78.56.0
France13.710.711.811.510.010.36.75.55.85.05.0
Germany, Fed. Rep. of8.95.36.46.56.63.94.96.15.16.93.0
Italy21.014.410.712.316.512.313.99.011.110.28.0
United Kingdom12.615.217.311.710.59.215.018.113.619.116.5
Seven major countries above10.79.410.09.510.57.89.18.58.79.1
Four major European countries above12.810.110.810.010.18.39.39.28.39.87.4
Table A15.Major Industrial Countries: Interest Rates, 1979-January 19871(In percent per annum)
January
197919801981198219831984198519861987
Short-term interest rates2
Canada11.913.418.314.49.511.39.69.28.0
United States11.213.115.912.49.110.48.06.55.9
Japan5.911.07.77.16.76.36.75.14.3
France9.512.215.414.612.411.79.97.78.5
Germany. Fed. Rep. of6.69.512.08.85.76.05.44.64.5
Italy12.017.520.020.018.017.114.912.611.4
United Kingdom13.616.613.812.310.19.912.210.911.0
Seven major countries above9.912.714.211.79.29.78.56.96.4
Four major European countries above9.612.814.612.910.410.29.88.38.2
Long-term interest rates3
Canada10.212.515.214.311.812.811.09.58.9
United States9.411.513.913.011.112.410.67.77.1
Japan7.78.98.48.37.87.36.55.25.1
France9.513.015.815.713.612.510.98.58.9
Germany. Fed. Rep. of7.48.510.48.97.97.86.95.95.8
Italy14.116.120.620.918.014.913.010.48.3
United Kingdom13.013.814.712.910.810.710.69.910.0
Seven major countries above9.511.313.212.410.811.09.77.57.1
Four major European countries above10.112.014.313.511.710.99.98.38.0
Table A16.Major Industrial Countries: Central Government Fiscal Balances and Impulses, 1979–881(In percent of GNP)
1979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Fiscal balance
(+ surplus, - deficit.
Canada2-3.4-3.4-2.1-5.4-6.2-6.9-6.8-4.9-4.2-3.7
United States3-1.1-2.3-2.4-4.1-5.6-4.9-5.1-5.0-4.0-3.6
Japan4-6.1-6.2-5.9-5.9-5.6-4.9-4.1-4.3-4.7-4.6
France5-1.5-1.1-2.6-2.8-3.3-3.4-3.3-2.9-2.5-2.3
Germany, Fed. Rep. of6-1.8-1.6-2.1-2.1-2.0-1.8-1.1-0.7-0.8-0.9
Italy7-10.8-10.8-12.8-15.1-16.4-15.5-16.3-14.2-13.1-13.1
United Kingdom2-2.3-2.5-2.9-2.7-3.1-3.2-2.4-2.6-2.4-2.3
Seven major countries above-2.8-3.3-3.6-4.6-5.4-5.0-4.9-4.6-4.1-3.9
Seven major countries except
the United States-4.1-4.1-4.5-5.0-5.3-5.1-4.7-4.3-4.2-4.2
Fiscal impulse
(+ expansionary, -contractionary.
Canada2-0.4-0.1-1.11.40.61.50.5-1.5-0.6-0.2
United States3-0.80.40.31.60.40.3-0.2-1.0-0.4
Japan41.10.1-0.5-0.3-0.5-0.4-0.6-0.30.1-0.2
France50.1-0.81.10.1-0.1-0.3-0.5-0.5-0.2
Germany, Fed. Rep. of60.1-0.5-0.5-1.10.20.6-0.5-0.3-0.10.1
Italy7-1.70.10.70.6-1.00.8-1.9-0.9-0.1
United Kingdom2-0.8-1.7-1.4-0.70.60.3-0.40.20.3-0.1
Seven major countries above-0.3-0.1-0.20.80.2-0.4-0.6-0.2
Seven major countries except
the United States0.1-0.4-0.3-0.2-0.3-0.5-0.2-0.1
Table A17.Major Industrial Countries: General Government Fiscal Balances and Impulses, 1979-881(in percent of GNP)
1979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Fiscal balance
(+ surplus, -deficit.
Canada-2.0-2.8-1.5-5.7-6.6-6.6-6.6-5.4-4.6-4.1
United States0.5-1.3-1.0-3.5-3.8-2.9-3.5-3.2-2.9-2.5
Japan-4.7-4.4-3.5-3.6-3.7-2.1-1.0-1.1-1.4-1.3
France-0.70.2-1.8-2.7-3.1-2.9-2.6-2.8-2.8-2.6
Germany, Fed. Rep. of-2.6-2.9-3.7-3.3-2.5-1.9-1.1-1.0-1.0-1.1
Italy-9.5-8.0-11.9-12.6-11.7-13.0-14.0-12.3-11.5-11.5
United Kingdom-3.2-3.5-2.8-2.3-3.7-3.9-2.8-2.9-2.7-2.6
Seven major countries above-1.7-2.5-2.6-3.9-4.1-3.4-3.4-3.2-2.9-2.7
Seven major countries except
the United States-3.6-3.4-3.8-4.3-4.4-3.9-3.3-3.1-3.0-2.9
Fiscal impulse
(+ expansionary, -contractionary.
Canada-0.20.5-0.71.10.91.50.9-0.8-0.6-0.2
United States-0.50.7-0.50.50.60.60.7-0.4-0.5-0.2
Japan-0.5-0.4-1.2-0.1-0.2-1.2-0.9-0.5-0.1-0.3
France-1.0-1.80.60.3-0.5-0.6-0.70.2-0.3-0.2
Germany. Fed. Rep. of0.8-0.2-0.5-1.9-0.50.4-0.6-0.2-0.1
Italy0.4-1.32.2-1.1-2.41.01.0-1.4-0.6-0.1
United Kingdom-0.8-1.9-2.8-1.01.70.4-0.50.10.3-0.1
Seven major countries above-0.4-0.1-0.5-0.10.20.20.1-0.4-0.3-0.2
Seven major countries except
the United States-0.2-0.8-0.6-0.6-0.2-0.1-0.4-0.4-0.2-0.2
Table A18.Developing Countries: Broad Money Aggregates, 1979-861(Annual changes, in percent)
19791980198119821983198419851986
Developing countries33.937.537.535.937.849.446.231.5
By region
Africa15.426.219.417.516.418.917.712.3
Asia25.327.320.218.619.524.718.216.4
Europe30.135.637.930.219.831.233.731.6
Middle East27.032.731.420.516.620.413.77.9
Western Hemisphere61.059.174.682.6102.4141.4150.085.1
By predominant export
Fuel exporters23.130.728.429.321.322.218.519.5
Non-fuel exporters38.740.341.839.247.365.461.837.5
Primary product exporters51.652.762.859.078.4110.0114.859.3
Agricultural exporters58.256.871.568.695.7130.1134.267.2
Mineral exporters26.134.428.223.823.944.145.825.4
Exporters of manufactures26.828.622.220.221.732.622.719.5
Service and remittance
countries26.428.027.026.721.219.621.117.9
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries23.427.027.914.89.29.26.55.1
Capital importing countries35.639.139.139.843.657.754.336.5
Market borrowers42.146.249.052.058.976.577.349.4
Official borrowers15.221.022.525.923.520.832.923.1
Diversified borrowers30.331.826.721.921.935.322.818.3
Countries with recent debt-
servicing problems41.947.153.858.167.991.597.760.7
Countries without debt-
servicing problems29.431.325.222.421.829.621.417.1
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel
exporters22.933.828.842.031.433.329.132.5
Fifteen heavily indebted
countries51.855.264.069.386.7117.7125.473.9
Small low-income countries16.522.824.927.625.020.434.819.9
Sub-Saharan Africa217.821.622.822.319.921.730.819.8
By alternative analytical
categories
Oil exporting countries20.730.823.920.312.712.29.37.4
Non-oil developing countries38.039.441.941.347.564.360.940.3
Net oil exporters33.036.941.557.048.759.057.552.8
Net oil importers38.839.842.038.847.365.361.538.2
Memorandum
Median estimates
Developing countries17.420.518.917.916.916.115.115.1
By region
Africa14.620.218.416.314.516.615.115.2
Asia19.820.917.119.019.215.112.312.0
Europe18.720.128.626.417.814.223.820.0
Middle East21.330.534.619.317.115.29.48.0
Western Hemisphere16.916.314.414.816.116.320.520.4
Table A19.Developing Countries: Central Government Fiscal Balances, 1979-871(In percent of GDP)
197919801981198219831984198519861987
Developing countries-2.4-1.5-3.6-5.4-5.6-4.7-4.6-6.0-4.9
By region
Africa-5.5-4.3-6.0-7.0-8.0-5.3-4.6-5.3-4.9
Asia-3.7-3.4-3.2-4.4-3.5-3.0-3.8-4.2-3.7
Europe-2.7-3.4-3.1-2.6-2.7-2.6-3.6-3.0-2.8
Middle East0.14.3-3.4-7.4-9.5-10.3-9.1-12.9-9.5
Western Hemisphere-0.7-0.6-3.2-5.6-5.1-3.3-3.1-5.0-4.1
By predominant export
Fuel exporters0.62.7-2.9-6.3-7.4-5.8-6.0-10.1-7.4
Non-fuel exporters-3.6-3.2-3.9-4.9-4.6-4.1-4.0-4.1-3.8
Primary product exporters-2.4-2.3-3.8-5.3-4.9-3.9-3.3-3.8-3.5
Agricultural exporters-1.9-2.1-3.7-5.4-4.5-3.5-2.9-3.6-3.2
Mineral exporters-4.2-3.1-4.4-4.9-6.6-5.5-4.7-5.3-5.4
Exporters of manufactures-3.8-3.4-2.5-3.0-2.8-2.5-2.7-2.7-2.7
Service and remittance
countries-10.1-8.1-11.1-12.7-11.8-13.6-14.4-12.3-10.4
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries3.68.0-1.0-5.1-8.0-8.4-7.9-12.7-9.1
Capital importing countries-3.3-2.9-4.0-5.4-5.1-4.0-4.1-4.9-4.2
Market borrowers-1.3-1.2-3.7-5.5-5.0-3.1-3.2-4.7-3.9
Official borrowers-5.9-6.6-6.7-8.1-7.2-7.4-7.5-7.2-6.2
Diversified borrowers-6.1-5.1-3.9-4.7-4.8-5.1-4.8-4.7-4.3
Countries with recent debt-
servicing problems-2.4-1.8-4.1-5.6-5.3-3.6-3.6-5.0-4.1
Countries without debt-
servicing problems-4.2-4.1-3.9-5.2-4.9-4.5-4.6-4.8-4.3
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel
exporters-1.7-1.6-4.5-7.2-6.9-3.7-4.5-8.1-6.1
Fifteen heavily indebted
countries-0.8-0.8-3.7-5.4-5.2-3.1-2.7-4.5-3.6
Small low-income countries-6.3-5.9-6.0-6.8-6.1-5.6-5.9-6.0-5.7
Sub-Saharan Africa2-6.5-6.4-6.6-6.9-5.8-4.8-5.0-5.5-5.4
By alternative analytical
categories
Oil exporting countries1.64.3-1.9-5.7-7.3-5.7-5.7-9.6-6.9
Non-oil developing countries-3.5-3.2-4.1-5.3-5.0-4.3-4.3-4.9-4.2
Net oil exporters-5.1-3.9-7.7-9.8-8.8-7.6-8.4-12.5-10.0
Net oil importers-3.3-3.1-3.5-4.5-4.3-3.7-3.6-3.6-3.3
Memorandum
Median estimates
Developing countries-3.5-4.6-5.6-6.6-6.7-4.9-4.6-5.1-4.7
By region
Africa-6.9-6.3-6.9-7.2-7.7-5.3-5.2-5.8-5.0
Asia-2.9-3.2-4.0-5.2-4.1-3.5-2.9-4.7-3.3
Europe-1.9-1.3-1.3-2.1-2.1-2.2-1.4-2.3-1.8
Middle East-0.1-5.6-11.8-9.1-9.2-12.7-9.8-14.8-10.7
Western Hemisphere-2.6-3.1-5.3-5.4-5.2-4.7-3.3-2.7-2.4
Table A20.Summary of World Trade Volumes and Prices, 1969-881(Annual changes, in percent)
Average
1969-7821979198019811982198319841985198619871988
World trade3
Volume6.76.41.20.7-2.22.98.63.24.93.34.4
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)10.718.620.1-1.2-4.2-4.7-2.3-2.14.59.23.8
(in SDR terms)48.314.919.39.12.3-1.61.8-1.2-9.61.43.3
Volume of trade
Exports
Industrial countries7.37.23.93.7-2.02.89.74.42.93.44.6
Developing countries4.64.4-4.2-6.0-7.63.27.11.08.22.85.8
Fuel exporters3.21.9-13.5-15.1-16.2-3.20.5-5.79.8-0.44.6
Non-fuel exporters6.16.98.55.21.18.211.65.27.73.96.2
Imports
Industrial countries6.98.9-1.6-2.3-0.34.812.45.08.94.34.6
Developing countries7.23.57.37.8-4.0-2.41.8-0.2-3.1-0.22.9
Fuel exporters15.0-4.613.418.7-1.5-10.2-6.1-11.7-21.5-12.2-1.1
Non-fuel exporters4.87.44.93.2-5.21.75.34.53.93.34.0
Unit value of trade
(in SDR terms)4
Exports
Industrial countries7.411.712.25.62.7-0.71.4-1.93.23.4
Developing countries12.124.936.415.52.0-4.53.8-3.8-25.0-2.12.7
Fuel exporters19.639.962.023.13.1-8.72.9-3.0-47.7-1.02.9
Non-fuel exporters7.313.012.37.20.8-1.04.5-4.3-12.1-2.52.7
Imports
Industrial countries8.115.020.87.90.6-2.31.1-0.9-10.42.63.6
Developing countries8.113.617.311.53.0-1.02.7-2.4-9.80.73.8
Fuel exporters7.510.812.410.63.2-0.12.0-0.6-3.72.54.1
Non-fuel exporters8.114.919.311.92.9-1.53.1-3.2-12.00.23.7
Terms of trade
Industrial countries-0.6-2.9-7.1-2.12.11.60.30.99.40.6-0.1
Developing countries3.710.016.33.6-1.0-3.51.1-1.4-16.8-2.7-1.0
Fuel exporters11.226.344.011.3-8.70.8-2.4-45.7-3.4-1.1
Non-fuel exporters-0.8-1.7-5.9-4.2-2.10.61.4-1.1-0.2-2.6-1.0
Memorandum
World trade prices (in U.S. dollar terms) for major commodity groups5
Manufactures9.613.610.4-3.9-2.1-2.8-3.11.218.011.03.1
Oil22.845.963.69.8-4.3-11.4-2.5-4.3-48.38.73.1
Non-oil primary commodities10.317.95.5-13.5-9.96.94.1-12.9-1.1-4.95.1
Table A21.Industrial Countries: Merchandise Trade, 1969-88(Changes, in percent)
Average
1969-7811979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Total merchandise trade
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports17.923.617.5-0.8-5.8-1.26.63.416.614.98.7
Imports18.229.319.7-4.5-6.1-0.88.93.112.815.28.8
Volume
Exports7.37.23.93.7-2.02.89.74.42.93.44.6
Imports6.98.9-1.6-2.3-0.34.812.45.08.94.34.6
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports9.915.313.1-4.3-3.9-3.9-2.8-0.913.311.13.9
Imports10.618.721.7-2.3-5.8-5.4-3.1-1.83.610.54.0
Terms of trade-0.6-2.9-7.1-2.12.11.60.30.99.40.6-0.1
Non-oil trade
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports17.822.316.5-1.3-6.2-1.26.93.319.915.28.9
Imports17.025.014.2-5.4-3.52.311.45.222.416.49.1
Volume
Exports7.57.14.53.8-2.72.59.94.32.83.44.8
Imports7.310.22.51.02.26.914.86.68.84.74.8
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports9.514.211.5-4.9-3.6-3.6-2.7-0.916.611.44.0
Imports9.013.511.4-6.4-5.6-4.3-3.0-1.312.511.24.1
Terms of trade0.50.70.11.62.10.70.30.43.60.1-0.1
Memorandum
Real GNP23.63.41.50.8-0.22.13.82.82.42.22.6
Apparent income elasticity of
non-oil imports32.03.01.71.3-13.83.33.92.33.72.11.9
Import volume of developing
countries7.23.57.37.8-4.0-2.41.8-0.2-3.1-0.22.9
Market prices of non-oil primary commodities (in U.S. dollar terms)48.724.25.8-13.0-8.45.42.2-12.00.5-3.35.2
Unit labor costs in manufacturing (in U.S. dollar terms)8.79.510.2-0.9-1.0-3.3-5.2-0.417.78.31.6
Table A22.Industrial Countries: Export Volumes, Import Volumes, and Terms of Trade, 1969-881(Annual changes, in percent).
Average
1969-7821974198019811982198319841985198619871988
Export volumes3
Canada6.84.02.64.9-0.87.418.55.92.63.34.0
United States6.814.19.8-1.6-10.9-3.87.51.67.812.713.4
Japan11.40.217.110.6-2.38.716.04.4-1.44.02.5
France10.18.73.34.1-3.83.45.71.70.23.04.1
Germany, Fed. Rep. of5.95.11.46.52.9-0.29.66.41.20.52.4
Italy8.17.7-7.85.5-0.53.56.67.52.22.53.5
United Kingdom5.64.80.9-0.82.61.88.45.53.72.42.4
Other industrial countries7.18.21.92.21.05.68.84.94.03.43.5
All industrial countries7.37.23.93.7-2.02.89.74.42.93.44.6
Of which,
Seven major countries
above7.36.84.64.2-3.01.910.04.22.53.35.0
European countries7.06.70.74.00.63.27.85.02.92.43.1
Import volumes4
Canada7.514.65.110.1-16.29.519.39.36.04.93.3
United States7.51.6-7.90.6-3.713.024.35.114.61.84.0
Japan7.811.3-5.0-2.2-0.51.210.80.413.58.57.0
France8.811.65.8-3.93.3-1.32.74.97.94.85.4
Germany, Fed. Rep. of10.17.8-0.2-5.01.04.15.54.66.13.63.5
Italy6.213.22.6-11.13.32.09.18.96.07.56.0
United Kingdom3.613.6-5.4-3.75.48.111.13.46.26.04.6
Other industrial countries6.29.41.0-3.41.31.07.15.67.04.04.4
All industrial countries6.98.9-1.6-2.3-0.34.812.45.08.94.34.6
Of which,
Seven major countries above7.18.7-2.6-1.9-0.96.214.14.89.64.44.7
European countries6.510.70.9-5.12.12.86.45.47.24.84.6
Terms of trade3
Canada0.38.67.81.7-2.3-0.1-0.5-1.5-3.70.4-0.6
United States-1.7-3.9-13.51.93.03.32.0-1.00.9-5.40.3
Japan-1.1-15.9-19.51.50.92.92.44.640.35.20.5
France-0.2-0.5-6.3-4.81.92.60.92.610.90.7-0.3
Germany, Fed. Rep. of0.7-5.4-6.4-6.73.81.7-2.31.415.13.3-0.9
Italy-1.8-1.8-6.2-10.56.84.6-1.50.616.93.1
United Kingdom-1.34.34.70.90.10.3-2.21.3-5.40.90.6
Other industrial countries-0.4-1.0-4.0-2.11.5-0.81.00.43.30.10.3
All industrial countries-0.6-2.9-7.1-2.12.11.60.30.99.40.6-0.1
Of which,
Seven major countries above-0.7-3.6-8.2-2.22.32.40.11.111.60.7-0.2
European countries-0.4-1.5-3.8-4.32.61.1-0.51.38.01.6
Table A23.Developing Countries: Merchandise Trade, 1969-881(Annual changes, in percent)
Average
1969-7821979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports19.834.631.7-1.7-11.8-4.66.6-3.8-6.28.49.2
Imports18.421.326.88.9-7.5-6.40.2-3.60.98.37.4
Volume
Exports4.64.4-4.2-6.0-7.63.27.11.08.22.85.8
Imports7.23.57.37.8-4.0-2.41.8-0.2-3.1-0.22.9
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports14.628.937.44.6-4.5-7.6-0.4-4.7-13.35.53.2
Imports10.517.218.21.0-3.6-4.2-1.5-3.44.28.44.3
Terms of trade3.710.016.33.6-1.0-3.51.1-1.4-16.8-2.7-1.0
Purchasing power of exports38.514.911.4-2.7-8.5-0.58.2-0.4-10.04.7
Memorandum
Real GNP growth of trading partners4.94.12.62.20.72.64.32.72.92.83.1
Market prices (in U.S. dollar terms) of primary commodities (excluding petroleum) exported by developing countries10.317.95.5-13.5-9.96.94.1-12.9-1.1-4.95.1
Fuel exporters
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports26.147.141.2-5.3-19.1-14.4-0.8-9.4-33.66.38.2
Imports26.59.028.418.9-4.9-13.1-8.2-13.1-12.6-3.03.5
Volume
Exports3.21.9-13.5-15.1-16.2-3.20.5-5.79.8-0.44.6
Imports15.0-4.613.418.7-1.5-10.2-6.1-11.7-21.5-12.2-1.1
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports22.344.363.111.5-3.4-11.6-1.4-3.9-39.66.73.4
Imports9.914.313.30.2-3.4-3.3-2.2-1.511.310.44.6
Terms of trade11.226.344.011.3-8.70.8-2.4-45.7-3.4-1.1
Purchasing power of exports314.728.724.7-5.5-16.2-11.61.4-8.0-40.4-3.83.4
Memorandum
Oil export volume (in billions of barrels)49.710.59.17.66.15.65.55.15.85.55.9
Average oil export price (in U.S. dollars per barrel)47.018.830.733.732.328.627.926.713.815.015.5
Annual percentage change22.845.963.69.8-4.3-11.4-2.5-4.3-48.38.73.1
Real GNP growth of trading
partners5.04.12.72.20.72.34.22.82.92.83.2
Export unit value (in U.S.
dollar terms) of manufactures59.613.610.4-3.9-2.1-2.8-3.11.218.011.03.1
Non-fuel exporters
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports16.424.722.72.2-4.63.711.8-0.39.39.29.6
Imports15.927.326.14.6-8.7-3.14.00.25.611.58.3
Volume
Exports6.16.98.55.21.18.211.65.27.73.96.2
Imports4.87.44.93.2-5.21.75.34.53.93.34.0
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports9.716.613.1-2.8-5.7-4.10.2-5.21.55.13.2
Imports10.518.620.21.4-3.7-4.6-1.2-4.l1.77.94.2
Terms of trade-0.8-1.7-5.9-4.2-2.10.61.4-1.1-0.2-2.6-1.0
Purchasing power of exports35.35.12.10.8-0.98.813.14.07.51.25.1
Memorandum
Real GNP growth of trading partners4.94.12.62.20.72.84.42.62.82.83.1
Market price (in U.S. dollar terms) of primary commodities (excluding petroleum) exported by non-fuel exporters10.817.36.7-13.4-11.16.73.9-13.0-1.4-5.45.4
Gross reserves (end of period) as percentage of total imports of goods and services631.922.017.215.816.818.720.723.026.626.827.2
Table A24.Developing Countries: Export Volumes, 1969-881(Annual changes, in percent)
Average
1969-7821979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries4.64.4-4.2-6.0-7.63.27.11.08.22.85.8
By region
Africa3.18.4-1.2-14.9-5.13.45.67.12.21.63.9
Asia10.89.08.88.51.110.713.65.017.16.16.3
Europe3.3-1.73.93.11.78.313.44.22.43.24.9
Middle East4.80.4-15.2-17.6-19.7-9.3-4.4-8.816.6-3.25.4
Western Hemisphere1.77.61.26.0-2.48.28.5-8.80.17.2
By predominant export
Fuel exporters3.21.9-13.5-15.1-16.2-3.20.5-5.79.8-0.44.6
Non-fuel exporters6.16.98.55.21.18.211.65.27.73.96.2
Primary product exporters4.67.37.13.21.25.79.05.8-1.60.76.0
Agricultural exporters5.05.46.19.42.36.811.85.4-2.1-0.47.1
Mineral exporters4.211.39.0-8.4-1.13.31.77.1-0.33.53.4
Exporters of manufactures8.25.510.47.21.110.113.84.414.16.36.0
Service and remittance
countries3.416.33.72.50.97.19.28.76.6-1.59.4
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries5.10.3-16.5-18.7-21.3-10.0-6.1-10.217.8-2.74.0
Capital importing countries5.06.53.81.5-0.98.011.03.97.03.66.1
Market borrowers6.58.33.50.8-2.110.011.63.66.73.16.2
Official borrowers0.84.51.0-4.9-3.71.4-1.11.66.47.98.7
Diversified borrowers2.81.96.16.34.13.712.45.48.04.15.1
Countries with recent debt-
servicing problems2.34.63.1-4.4-4.05.98.11.9-3.60.46.3
Countries without debt-
servicing problems8.48.44.56.81.69.613.15.214.05.45.9
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel
exporters0.85.3-7.0-7.7-6.57.38.9-0.53.02.05.2
Fifteen heavily indebted
countries2.87.30.6-2.2-5.16.49.61.8-6.5-1.37.1
Small low-income countries0.14.07.0-1.3-1.02.5-0.87.610.18.26.0
Sub-Saharan Africa31.43.31.9-1.92.80.76.21.68.25.33.8
By alternative analytical
categories
Oil exporting countries3.41.9-15.1-17.6-19.1-5.5-1.0-6.113.2-1.44.5
Non-oil developing countries6.06.58.25.71.78.311.24.27.03.96.1
Net oil exporters3.75.62.55.28.38.810.2-0.61.2-2.25.0
Net oil importers6.36.79.35.80.48.211.35.17.84.76.3
Table A25.Developing Countries: Import Volumes, 1969-881(Annual changes, in percent)
Average
1969-7821979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries7.23.57.37.8-4.0-2.41.8-0.2-3.1-0.22.9
By region
Africa7.2-3.58.711.3-8.1-10.1-0.4-7.3-11.0-4.01.6
Asia8.612.39.57.20.98.35.37.44.34.94.3
Europe1.3-2.5-1.4-8.32.66.76.15.62.84.4
Middle East15.1-4.18.816.75.6-2.4-6.1-14.9-18.3-12.5-1.0
Western Hemisphere6.48.39.73.5-17.8-22.52.82.2-4.8-0.82.4
By predominant export
Fuel exporters15.0-4.613.418.7-1.5-10.2-6.1-11.7-21.5-12.2-1.1
Non-fuel exporters4.87.44.93.2-5.21.75.34.53.93.34.0
Primary product exporters4.67.16.61.1-8.6-5.11.9-4.20.21.52.9
Agricultural exporters5.78.45.6-3.1-6.2-1.50.7-1.70.51.33.2
Mineral exporters2.03.59.512.7-14.4-14.25.5-11.5-0.52.11.9
Exporters of manufactures4.86.73.33.7-4.26.48.210.97.76.04.7
Service and remittance
countries5.910.65.77.71.53.73.01.2-3.8-4.23.1
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries19.3-7.513.021.57.6-4.8-9.3-19.6-22.6-15.2-2.7
Capital importing countries5.95.66.45.5-6.2-1.84.13.41.73.5
Market borrowers8.87.48.96.7-7.3-5.42.2-1.30.93.74.7
Official borrowers4.01.9-0.4-0.6-1.5-0.31.9-0.7-3.0-0.71.5
Diversified borrowers1.33.13.35.0-5.17.29.415.3-0.7-1.31.8
Countries with recent debt-
servicing problems3.92.53.73.0-14.3-13.91.9-0.5-5.20.13.4
Countries without debt-
servicing problems8.28.48.67.60.16.45.35.52.72.53.6
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel
exporters11.9-1.713.716.2-10.2-16.2-2.1-2.4-20.3-9.10.4
Fifteen heavily indebted
countries8.47.27.94.3-16.7-21.2-2.41.1-8.50.53.9
Small low-income countries3.0-0.12.7-3.61.7-2.95.12.52.0-0.42.1
Sub-Saharan Africa34.1-2.55.30.1-4.2-8.0-2.4-0.33.02.41.7
By alternative analytical
categories
Oil exporting countries17.7-8.912.220.45.0-7.8-9.3-15.2-22.6-15.2-1.7
Non-oil developing countries4.98.15.94.0-7.1-0.25.74.52.43.13.8
Net oil exporters6.416.812.612.2-13.7-10.69.30.1-16.1-4.12.1
Net oil importers4.76.94.92.6-5.91.65.15.25.34.14.0
Table A26.Developing Countries: Export Unit Values, 1969-881(Annual changes, in percent, in terms of U.S. dollars)
Average
1969-7821979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries14.628.937.44.6-4.5-7.6-0.4-4.7-13.35.53.2
By region
Africa13.327.939.0-1.7-9.5-6.4-2.3-7.4-13.02.13.1
Asia10.120.116.2-0.1-4.3-4.41.9-6.0-5.36.53.3
Europe9.415.011.8-1.7-2.3-7.0-5.2-2.55.45.22.9
Middle East22.043.963.213.4-2.3-12.1-2.1-2.0-40.37.93.2
Western Hemisphere13.923.928.60.5-7.2-6.01.8-5.2-10.12.93.5
By predominant export
Fuel exporters22.344.363.111.5-3.4-11.6-1.4-3.9-39.66.73.4
Non-fuel exporters9.716.613.1-2.8-5.7-4.10.2-5.21.55.13.2
Primary product exporters10.319.014.8-7.3-9.5-2.61.3-8.32.03.23.6
Agricultural exporters11.517.011.4-5.9-9.0-3.23.8-7.80.83.13.5
Mineral exporters7.923.521.6-9.7-10.4-1.2-4.5-9.85.33.44.1
Exporters of manufactures9.114.810.80.9-2.6-4.8-0.4-2.91.36.12.9
Service and remittance
countries9.015.219.9-0.9-6.3-7.4-2.0-6.21.06.13.6
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries23.245.866.113.8-2.2-12.6-2.2-1.8-44.98.63.2
Capital importing countries11.721.723.6-0.2-5.7-5.60.1-5.4-6.35.03.2
Market borrowers12.624.527.60.5-5.8-6.20.3-5.8-8.35.53.2
Official borrowers11.217.716.41.4-6.7-2.63.0-5.6-3.5-0.83.1
Diversified borrowers10.115.513.3-2.9-4.9-4.4-1.6-4.2-0.24.93.4
Countries with recent debt-
servicing problems12.123.526.4-0.6-7.0-5.5-0.2-5.7-7.43.83.1
Countries without debt-
servicing problems11.220.121.00.3-4.6-5.70.3-5.2-5.55.73.3
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel
exporters20.341.357.17.1-5.7-10.1-0.3-6.2-34.14.73.7
Fifteen heavily indebted
countries14.527.934.11.5-6.8-6.31.4-5.1-11.54.33.2
Small low-income countries10.915.18.8-6.5-8.51.66.7-8.8-0.60.52.7
Sub-Saharan Africa311.118.314.0-9.0-8.5-2.31.8-4.8-5.00.61.3
By alternative analytical
categories
Oil exporting countries23.244.765.112.1-3.0-12.5-1.6-4.0-42.37.43.3
Non-oil developing countries10.018.315.5-2.0-5.7-4.40.2-5.0-1.45.03.2
Net oil exporters12.539.533.50.8-7.3-5.40.2-6.8-24.26.54.1
Net oil importers9.615.212.4-2.6-5.4-4.20.2-4.72.94.83.1
Table A27.Developing Countries: Import Unit Values, 1969-881(Annual changes, in percent, in terms of U.S. dollars)
Average
1969-7821979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries10.517.218.21.0-3.6-4.2-1.5-3.44.28.44.3
By region
Africa10.918.319.7-2.9-4.6-3.7-4.1-3.811.211.64.5
Asia10.317.218.12.6-4.2-4.20.7-4.20.47.34.4
Europe10.318.718.2-1.8-2.2-6.2-4.1-2.81.96.73.7
Middle East10.215.915.7-0.1-4.3-3.8-2.2-1.810.511.34.6
Western Hemisphere10.416.420.05.0-1.9-3.3-1.3-3.63.68.04.2
By predominant export
Fuel exporters9.914.313.30.2-3.4-3.3-2.2-1.511.310.44.6
Non-fuel exporters10.518.620.21.4-3.7-4.6-1.2-4.11.77.94.2
Primary product exporters10.818.623.93.3-3.8-4.0-2.5-4.82.48.34.8
Agricultural exporters10.617.323.44.7-3.7-4.6-1.8-4.30.77.64.8
Mineral exporters11.122.125.3-0.4-3.8-2.7-4.4-6.58.110.24.6
Exporters of manufactures10.418.318.20.5-3.6-4.3-0.2-3.60.77.23.9
Service and remittance
countries10.320.117.3-1.5-3.8-7.5-1.6-4.24.410.24.6
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries9.714.212.0-1.7-3.9-4.0-2.3-1.213.810.54.2
Capital importing countries10.517.819.21.5-3.5-4.2-1.3-3.72.88.24.3
Market borrowers10.417.417.93.0-3.0-3.9-0.9-4.13.28.74.1
Official borrowers10.817.524.15.1-4.4-4.5-1.4-3.90.97.24.8
Diversified borrowers10.618.820.4-3.6-4.7-5.1-2.4-2.92.57.54.6
Countries with recent debt-
servicing problems10.517.720.01.9-3.3-3.3-2.0-3.95.18.74.2
Countries without debt-
servicing problems10.417.918.51.1-3.7-4.9-0.9-3.61.67.94.3
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters10.114.514.51.9-3.0-2.4-2.0-1.88.810.35.0
Fifteen heavily indebted
countries10.216.618.34.4-2.8-2.9-0.8-3.35.59.54.4
Small low-income countries10.717.819.91.5-4.9-4.9-0.9-3.61.87.54.8
Sub-Saharan Africa310.917.719.1-3.7-4.7-3.8-2.5-2.37.97.93.6
By alternative analytical
categories
Oil exporting countries9.613.911.7-1.7-3.9-3.7-2.2-1.413.111.14.6
Non-oil developing countries10.618.520.21.9-3.5-4.4-1.2-3.91.97.94.2
Net oil exporters10.616.219.25.6-2.1-2.3-2.5-3.46.910.14.7
Net oil importers10.618.820.31.3-3.7-4.7-1.1-4.01.17.64.2
Table A28.Developing Countries: Terms of Trade, 1969-881(Annual changes, in percent)
Average
1969-7821979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries3.710.016.33.6-1.0-3.51.1-1.4-16.8-2.7-1.0
By region
Africa2.28.116.21.3-5.2-2.81.9-3.7-21.8-8.5-1.3
Asia-0.12.4-1.6-2.6-0.1-0.21.3-1.9-5.7-0.7-1.1
Europe-0.9-3.2-5.50.1-0.1-0.8-1.20.33.5-1.4-0.7
Middle East10.624.141.113.62.1-8.50.1-0.2-46.0-3.1-1.4
Western Hemisphere3.26.47.2-4.3-5.4-2.83.1-1.6-13.2-4.7-0.6
By predominant export
Fuel exporters11.226.344.011.3-8.70.8-2.4-45.7-3.4-1.1
Non-fuel exporters-0.8-1.7-5.9-4.2-2.10.61.4-1.1-0.2-2.6-1.0
Primary product exporters-0.40.3-7.4-10.3-5.91.53.9-3.7-0.5-4.7-1.1
Agricultural exporters0.8-0.3-9.8-10.2-5.51.55.7-3.70.1-4.2-1.3
Mineral exporters-2.91.1-3.0-9.3-6.81.6-0.1-3.5-2.6-6.1-0.5
Exporters of manufactures-1.1-2.9-6.20.31.0-0.6-0.20.80.6-1.1-1.0
Service and remittance
countries-1.2-4.12.20.6-2.60.1-0.5-2.1-3.3-3.7-0.9
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries12.327.748.315.71.7-9.00.1-0.6-51.6-1.7-1.0
Capital importing countries1.13.33.6-1.6-2.2-1.41.4-1.7-8.8-2.9-1.0
Market borrowers2.06.08.2-2.4-2.9-2.41.2-1.8-11.2-2.9-0.9
Official borrowers0.40.2-6.2-3.6-2.41.94.4-1.7-4.4-7.5-1.6
Diversified borrowers-0.5-2.8-5.90.7-0.20.60.8-1.3-2.6-2.4-1.2
Countries with recent debt-
servicing problems1.54.95.3-2.5-3.8-2.31.8-1.9-11.9-4.5-1.1
Countries without debt-
servicing problems0.71.92.1-0.8-0.9-0.81.3-1.6-7.0-2.1-1.0
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel
exporters9.323.537.25.0-2.8-7.81.8-4.4-39.5-5.1-1.3
Fifteen heavily indebted
countries3.99.713.4-2.8-4.1-3.52.2-1.9-16.1-4.7-1.2
Small low-income countries0.2-2.2-9.2-7.9-3.86.87.7-5.3-2.3-6.5-2.0
Sub-Saharan Africa30.20.4-4.3-5.6-4.01.64.5-2.5-12.0-6.8-2.2
By alternative analytical
categories
Oil exporting countries12.427.147.814.00.9-9.10.6-2.6-49.0-3.4-1.2
Non-oil developing countries-0.5-0.2-3.9-3.8-2.31.4-1.1-3.2-2.7-1.0
Net oil exporters1.720.112.0-4.5-5.3-3.22.7-3.5-29.1-3.2-0.6
Net oil importers-0.8-3.0-6.6-3.8-1.80.61.2-0.71.7-2.6-1.1
Table A29.Developing Countries: Non-Oil Commodity Prices, 1969-881(Annual changes, in percent)
Average
1969-7821979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Non-oil primary commodities10.317.95.5-13.5-9.96.94.1-12.9-1.1-4.95.1
By commodity group3
Food and beverages11.68.70.3-12.9-11.19.78.7-15.32.2-12.96.4
Food8.813.113.2-6.5-19.211.22.9-18.6-11.6-1.57.8
Beverages14.94.7-12.4-21.11.17.915.9-11.616.2-21.65.2
Agricultural raw materials11.632.711.8-13.2-6.64.84.3-14.8-1.06.43.4
Metals5.530.79.7-16.8-10.34.4-7.5-3.5-10.03.73.8
By region4
Africa9.715.84.8-16.1-9.76.03.7-9.13.0-7.44.5
Asia8.819.59.3-11.7-16.68.210.9-20.9-12.02.46.1
Europe7.826.57.2-6.5-4.65.11.2-10.8-6.31.73.6
Middle East8.911.317.1-7.4-15.811.00.1-14.5-5.511.03.5
Western Hemisphere9.515.95.1-14.4-8.16.0-0.4-8.55.2-10.55.6
By predominant export4
Fuel exporters11.021.73.5-16.8-9.07.05.4-13.12.1-3.34.5
Non-fuel exporters9.217.36.7-13.4-11.16.73.9-13.0-1.4-5.45.4
Primary product exporters9.317.86.1-14.6-10.96.93.2-12.2-0.5-6.75.6
Agricultural exporters10.615.24.1-14.5-10.37.45.8-13.6-8.35.8
Mineral exporters5.229.013.5-15.0-13.15.3-6.0-6.1-2.4-0.25.1
Exporters of manufactures8.416.08.1-7.1-10.24.910.6-19.0-6.25.0
Service and remittance
countries8.09.915.8-4.7-17.67.90.3-13.0-5.96.83.1
By financial criteria4
Capital exporting countries7.78.414.8-6.8-21.910.83.8-20.00.46.94.6
Capital importing countries9.417.96.3-13.8-10.86.74.1-13.0-1.0-5.25.3
Market borrowers9.621.13.8-14.9-9.56.84.4-13.2-1.9-5.95.7
Official borrowers8.914.08.4-16.0-12.27.31.3-8.13.3-6.04.7
Diversified borrowers9.010.713.0-8.5-13.96.25.4-16.3-1.7-2.34.5
Countries with recent debt-
servicing problems8.917.95.1-14.3-10.17.31.2-10.30.7-6.35.2
Countries without debt-
servicing problems10.017.87.9-13.1-11.86.08.3-16.6-3.3-3.65.5
By miscellaneous criteria4
Capital importing fuel
exporters11.122.13.2-17.1-8.56.95.4-12.92.2-3.64.5
Fifteen heavily indebted
countries9.317.52.7-14.1-8.86.32.5-10.81.5-8.55.5
Small low-income countries9.69.41.5-13.9-11.08.99.7-13.71.6-6.24.6
Sub-Saharan Africa10.313.6-0.1-17.9-8.58.05.1-8.73.4-7.74.1
By alternative analytical
categories4
Oil exporting countries10.925.14.6-18.1-9.56.86.4-15.10.1-1.74.8
Non-oil developing countries9.217.36.6-13.4-11.06.73.9-12.8-1.0-5.55.4
Net oil exporters10.324.95.4-15.2-12.57.55.9-15.8-8.01.25.7
Net oil importers9.015.76.7-13.0-10.76.63.5-12.20.4-6.75.3
Memorandum
Oil export unit value522.845.963.69.8-4.3-11.4-2.5-4.3-48.38.73.1
Export unit value of
manufactures69.613.610.4-3.9-2.1-2.8-3.11.218.011.03.1
Table A30.Summary of Payments Balances on Current Account, 1979-881(In billions of U.S. dollars)
1979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Industrial countries-23.3-62.0-20.0-22.1-22.0-61.7-54.7-9.3-17.9-25.0
United States-1.01.96.3-9.1-46.6-106.5-117.7-140.6-138.9-129.4
Other industrial countries-22.4-63.8-26.4-12.924.644.862.9131.3121.1104.3
Of which,
Japan-8.8-10.74.86.920.835.049.286.083.082.0
Germany, Fed. Rep. of-6.0-15.7-5.24.14.27.013.336.034.928.7
Developing countries6.130.1-48.7-87.3-63.8-34.2-23.8-47.6-41.3-29.2
By region
Africa-3.5-1.9-22.6-21.7-12.5-7.4-0.3-7.0-6.7-5.6
Asia-10.0-14.6-19.2-17.5-15.4-4.2-12.92.11.73.6
Europe-13.6-15.6-14.2-8.6-5.7-3.5-3.2-1.7-2.3-2.4
Middle East54.292.449.92.9-19.3-16.4-2.6-24.9-18.1-13.3
Western Hemisphere-21.1-30.2-42.7-42.4-10.9-2.6-4.7-16.1-15.9-11.4
By analytical criteria
Fuel exporters51.495.934.8-18.2-18.7-5.42.6-35.7-20.7-14.6
Non-fuel exporters-45.3-65.8-83.5-69.1-45.1-28.8-26.5-11.9-20.5-14.6
Market borrowers-29.2-35.8-71.8-73.6-30.1-3.06.82.3-1.04.5
Official borrowers-6.0-9.3-12.1-10.6-9.0-10.1-9.7-8.9-9.1-8.6
Other countries2-2.7-1.9-3.02.83.14.43.20.70.10.3
Total3-20.0-33.7-71.7-106.6-82.8-91.4-75.4-56.2-59.0-53.9
Memorandum
Total, by selected categories
Trade balance19.129.017.3-2.72.39.88.010.16.616.3
Timing asymmetry423.811.1-3.3-9.20.8-0.611.93.712.610.7
Residual asymmetry-4.717.920.66.51.510.4-3.96.4-6.05.6
Balance on services-29.3-48.5-76.6-88.8-74.0-90.6-72.2-53.1-41.9-42.6
(in percent of service payments)-5.0-6.6-9.1-10.6-9.6-11.2-8.9-6.0-4.2-4.1
Private transfers net1.60.70.4-1.7-0.51.41.22.4-1.5-3.1
Official transfers net-11.3-14.9-12.8-13.3-10.5-12.0-12.4-15.7-22.2-24.4
Table A31.Industrial Countries: Balance of Payments on Current Account, 1979-881(in billions of U.S. dollars)
1979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Balance on current account
Canada-4.2-1.0-5.52.42.42.6-0.4-6.3-8.8-10.0
United States-1.01.96.3-9.1-46.6-106.5-117.7-140.6-138.9-129.4
Japan-8.8-10.74.86.920.835.049.286.083.082.0
France5.2-4.2-4.8-12.1-4.7-0.8-0.23.73.62.1
Germany, Fed. Rep. of-6.0-15.7-5.24.14.27.013.336.034.928.7
Italy5.5-9.7-8.2-5.50.8-2.9-4.24.73.81.4
United Kingdom-1.56.812.56.94.81.73.8-1.6-4.9-5.8
Other industrial countries-12.6-29.4-19.9-15.5-3.62.21.58.89.45.8
All industrial countries-23.3-62.0-20.0-22.1-22.0-61.7-54.7-9.3-17.9-25.0
Of which,
Seven major countries
above-10.8-32.6-0.1-6.6-18.4-63.9-56.2-18.1-27.3-30.9
European countries-6.0-47.2-15.9-12.67.617.224.661.555.139.4
All industrial countries
except the United States-22.4-63.8-26.4-12.924.644.862.9131.3121.1104.3
Memorandum
Balance on goods and services
Canada-4.6-1.9-6.61.21.52.0-1.0-7.3-9.4-10.4
United States4.78.913.2-0.2-37.1-94.3-102.7-125.4-124.4-114.4
Japan-7.6-9.26.48.222.336.550.888.184.883.8
France9.2-0.5-7.5-0.92.12.58.08.77.4
Germany, Fed. Rep. of4.7-3.25.614.613.917.423.948.655.252.6
Italy5.0-10.9-8.9-6.4-0.4-4.2-5.35.94.82.4
United Kingdom3.311.616.510.37.94.88.41.9-0.1-1.3
Other industrial countries-10.8-26.6-16.3-12.0-0.35.13.211.114.111.2
All industrial countries3.9-31.29.38.37.1-30.6-20.330.833.731.4
Of which,
Seven major countries
above14.7-4.625.620.37.4-35.7-23.519.719.620.2
European countries14.4-24.55.78.326.234.843.686.291.680.0
All industrial countries
except the United States-0.8-40.2-3.98.544.263.782.4156.2158.2145.7
Official transfers, net
Canada0.10.30.30.2-0.2-0.20.1-0.2-0.3
United States-3.5-4.7-4.5-5.5-6.3-8.5-11.2-11.8-10.9-11.4
Japan-0.9-1.3-1.4-1.3-1.4-1.4-1.4-1.8-1.5-1.5
France-1.7-1.7-2.0-2.7-2.1-1.9-1.3-2.2-2.6-2.8
Germany, Fed. Rep. of-5.3-6.6-6.0-6.1-5.4-6.4-6.2-7.7-12.1-13.9
Italy-1.0-0.2-0.7-0.6-0.2-0.2-0.3-2.7-2.7-2.6
United Kingdom-4.3-4.1-3.3-3.2-3.0-2.9-4.4-3.4-4.6-4.2
Other industrial countries-1.9-2.9-3.3-3.5-3.0-2.7-2.1-1.5-3.4-3.6
All industrial countries-18.5-21.3-20.9-22.6-21.4-24.1-27.1-30.9-38.0-40.4
Of which,
Seven major countries
above-16.6-18.4-17.6-19.1-18.3-21.4-25.0-29.4-34.6-36.8
European countries-13.6-14.8-14.6-15.2-13.0-13.1-14.1-17.8-25.5-27.4
All industrial countries
except the United States-15.0-16.5-16.4-17.1-15.1-15.5-15.9-19.1-27.1-29.0
Table A32.Industrial Countries: Current Account Transactions, 1979-88(In billions of U.S. dollars)
1979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Exports (f.o.b.)1,027.61,207.01,197.31,127.81,114.11,188.11,228.81,433.31,646.51,790.6
Imports (f.o.b.)1,063.81,273.61,216.11,141,41,131,81,232.51,270.11,432.71,651.01,796.5
Trade balance-36.2-66.6-18.8-13.6-17.4-44.4-41.30.6-4.5-5.9
Services receipts429.8526.9577.5570.3526.9547.2569.0667.1770.1819.4
Services payments389.7491.5549.4548.4502.4533.5548.0637.0731.9782.1
Balance on services40.135.428.121.924.513.821.030.238.237.3
Balance on
goods and services3.9-31.29.38.37.1-30.6-20.330.833.731.4
Private transfers, net-8.7-9.5-8.4-7.8-7.7-7.0-7.3-9.2-13.6-16.0
Official transfers, net-18.5-21.3-20.9-22.6-21.4-24.1-27.1-30.9-38.0-40.4
Balance on current account-23.3-62.0-20.0-22.1-22.0-61.7-54.7-9.3-17.9-25.0
Memorandum
Current account balance
as percentage of GNP-0.3-0.8-0.3-0.3-0.3-0.7-0.6-0.1-0.2-0.2
Current account balance
as percentage of exports
of goods and services-1.6-3.6-1.1-1.3-1.3-3.6-3.0-0.4-0.7-1.0
Exports of goods and services1,457.41,733.91,774.81,698.11,641,31,735.41,797.82,100.52,416.62,610.0
Oil trade balance1-174.4-247.3-237.4-193.3-163.5-160.5-142.5-93.3-96.8-103.8
Table A33.Developing Countries: Summary of Payments Balances on Current Account, 1979-881(In billions of U.S. dollars)
1979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries6.130.1-48.7-87.3-63.8-34.2-23.8-47.6-41.3-29.2
By region
Africa-3.5-1.9-22.6-21.7-12.5-7.4-0.3-7.0-6.7-5.6
Asia-10.0-14.6-19.2-17.5-15.4-4.2-12.92.11.73.6
Europe-13.6-15.6-14.2-8.6-5.7-3.5-3.2-1.7-2.3-2.4
Middle East54.292.449.92.9-19.3-16.4-2.6-24.9-18.1-13.3
Western Hemisphere-21.1-30.2-42.7-42.4-10.9-2.6-4.7-16.1-15.9-11.4
By predominant export
Fuel exporters51.495.934.8-18.2-18.7-5.42.6-35.7-20.7-14.6
Non-fuel exporters-45.3-65.8-83.5-69.1-45.1-28.8-26.5-11.9-20.5-14.6
Primary product exporters-24.0-40.5-58.2-55.7-38.3-26.4-15.0-16.8-21.5-18.1
Agricultural exporters-24.3-38.8-41.5-43.1-33.0-19.6-14.0-15.5-19.3-16.9
Mineral exporters0.4-1.7-16.7-12.6-5.2-6.8-1.0-1.3-2.2-1.3
Exporters of manufactures-15.5-19.0-15.1-4.01.36.3-2.810.78.810.8
Service and remittance
countries-5.9-6.4-10.2-9.4-8.1-8.7-8.6-5.8-7.8-7.3
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries56.393.954.57.3-12.8-10.30.8-21.1-11.9-8.1
Capital importing countries-50.3-63.8-103.2-94.6-51.0-23.8-24.6-26.5-29.3-21.1
Market borrowers-29.2-35.8-71.8-73.6-30.1-3.06.82.3-1.04.5
Official borrowers-6.0-9.3-12.1-10.6-9.0-10.1-9.7-8.9-9.1-8.6
Diversified borrowers-15.0-18.7-19.2-10.4-11.9-10.7-21.7-19.9-19.2-17.0
Countries with recent debt-
servicing problems-35.4-42.8-72.4-66.7-23.6-10.5-7.6-21.1-23.4-18.3
Countries without debt-
servicing problems-14.8-21.0-30.8-27.9-27.4-13.4-17.0-5.4-5.9-2.8
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel
exporters-4.92.0-19.7-25.5-5.95.01.9-14.6-8.8-6.5
Fifteen heavily indebted
countries-24.6-29.5-50.3-50.6-15.2-0.6-0.1-11.8-14.0-10.5
Small low-income countries-7.1-9.0-9.2-8.9-5.9-6.9-7.2-7.2-7.2-7.5
Sub-Saharan Africa2-5.5-8.4-9.9-8.6-5.9-3.5-3.3-5.9-6.3-6.2
By alternative analytical
categories
Oil exporting countries56.8104.049.9-9.6-21.3-7.53.5-30.0-16.8-11.5
Non-oil developing countries-50.7-74.0-98.5-77.8-42.5-26.7-27.3-17.7-24.4-17.7
Net oil exporters-5.5-8.8-21.2-16.6-3.3-2.1-4.8-11.3-11.2-10.0
Net oil importers-45.2-65.1-77.3-61.1-39.2-24.6-22.5-6.4-13.2-7.7
Table A34.Developing Countries: Summary of Payments balances on Goods, Services, and Private Transfers, 1979-88(In billions of U.S. dollars)
1979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries-0.224.7-55.8-95.5-73.7-45.2-37.6-61.9-56.0-44.2
By region
Africa-6.6-5.5-26.2-25.0-16.0-10.8-4.3-11.0-11.6-10.6
Asia-12.6-17.4-21.9-20.4-18.1-7.1-15.6-0.7-1.50.5
Europe-13.6-15.8-14.8-9.4-6.9-4.6-4.5-3.6-4.5-4.5
Middle East54.494.350.62.6-20.7-18.9-7.0-28.9-21.1-16.8
Western Hemisphere-21.8-30.9-43.4-43.3-12.0-3.8-6.2-17.7-17.3-12.8
By predominant export
Fuel exporters54.5100.839.0-15.2-16.3-3.84.2-34.0-19.2-13.2
Non-fuel exporters-54.7-76.1-94.7-80.4-57.4-41.5-41.8-27.9-36.8-30.9
Primary product exporters-28.6-45.5-63.5-61.2-44.2-32.3-21.6-23.4-29.3-25.8
Agricultural exporters-27.5-42.5-45.1-47.2-37.7-24.3-19.2-20.9-25.9-23.2
Mineral exporters-1.1-3.1-18.4-14.0-6.6-8.0-2.4-2.5-3.4-2.6
Exporters of manufactures-17.8-21.5-17.6-5.9-1.23.1-7.76.14.97.1
Service and remittance
countries-8.3-9.1-13.6-13.3-12.0-12.2-12.5-10.6-12.4-12.2
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries61.6101.061.012.1-8.8-7.23.7-18.4-9.4-5.8
Capital importing countries-61.8-76.3-116.8-107.6-65.0-38.1-41.3-43.5-46.6-38.4
Market borrowers-30.4-37.3-73.5-75.5-32.3-5.04.5-0.7-4.31.4
Official borrowers-12.2-16.2-19.5-17.8-15.5-16.4-15.8-15.1-16.2-15.7
Diversified borrowers-19.2-22.8-23.8-14.3-17.2-16.6-30.0-27.8-26.1-24.1
Countries with recent debt-
servicing problems-38.9-46.6-76.9-71.1-28.6-15.4-13.6-27.4-30.4-25.3
Countries without debt-
servicing problems-22.9-29.7-39.8-36.5-36.3-22.7-27.7-16.1-16.1-13.0
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel
exporters-7.1-0.2-22.0-27.3-7.53.40.5-15.6-9.8-7.4
Fifteen heavily indebted
countries-25.5-30.1-51.2-51.3-16.0-1.2-1.1-12.5-14.8-11.1
Small low-income countries-10.4-12.8-13.1-13.1-10.2-11.2-11.8-12.1-13.1-13.5
Sub-Saharan Africa1-8.1-11.6-13.0-11.8-9.2-6.8-6.9-9.8-11.1-11.0
By alternative analytical
categories
Oil exporting countries61.9110.956.2-4.8-17.4-4.36.4-27.4-14.4-9.3
Non-oil developing countries-62.0-86.2-111.9-90.7-56.3-40.9-43.9-34.5-41.6-34.9
Net oil exporters-7.7-11.1-23.6-18.6-6.0-4.6-7.5-13.6-13.2-12.2
Net oil importers-54.3-75.1-88.3-72.1-50.4-36.2-36.5-20.9-28.4-22.7
Table A35.Developing Countries: Current Account Balances as Percentage of Exports of Goods and Services, 1969-881(In percent)
Average

1969-78
1979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries-4.41.03.9-6.2-12.3-9.5-4.8-3.5-7.3-5.9-3.8
Memorandum: Median estimate-12.3-14.1-19.0-28.9-25.0-22.0-13.9-14.2-15.3-15.0-11.9
By region
Africa-12.7-4.4-1.8-24.5-27.3-16.3-9.5-0.4-9.8-9.0-7.1
Asia-4.9-6.6-7.6-9.1-8.4-7.0-1.7-5.30.80.61.1
Europe-19.7-21.8-21.3-19.0-11.9-8.0-4.6-4.1-2.0-2.5-2.4
Middle East15.927.133.218.31.3-10.2-9.3-1.7-20.7-14.7-10.2
Western Hemisphere-19.1-22.2-23.9-31.1-34.8-9.3-2.0-3.8-14.9-14.3-9.3
By predominant export
Fuel exporters7.919.225.49.4-6.0-7.0-2.01.1-21.0-11.7-7.7
Non-fuel exporters-13.5-14.2-16.5-20.1-17.2-11.1-6.5-5.9-2.5-3.9-2.6
Primary product exporters-18.2-18.1-24.5-36.1-37.2-25.3-16.0-9.2-10.2-12.6-9.7
Agricultural exporters-20.2-27.0-35.7-36.8-40.6-30.7-16.0-11.5-12.7-15.4-12.3
Mineral exporters-14.50.9-2.9-34.4-29.1-12.1-15.9-2.4-3.1-4.8-2.6
Exporters of manufactures8.6-10.1-10.0-7.3-1.90.62.7-1.24.02.93.3
Service and remittance
countries-17.7-17.7-14.1-21.8-20.5-18.4-19.3-19.2-12.2-15.6-13.3
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries20.631.938.222.93.8-8.1-7.20.6-23.6-13.0-8.4
Capital importing countries-13.2-12.2-12.0-18.8-18.3-9.9-4.2-4.44.7-4.8-3.2
Market borrowers-12.3-10.3-9.6-18.4-20.58.4-0.81.70.6-0.21.0
Official borrowers-20.1-18.0-23.6-31.3-29.5-25.5-28.3-27.7-24.6-23.5-20.2
Diversified borrowers-12.7-15.9-16.0-15.9-8.6-9.8-8.1-16.4-14.2-12.7-10.4
Countries with recent
debt-servicing problems-18.2-18.3-16.9-29.2-30.5-11.0-4.5-3.4-10.2-10.9-7.8
Countries without debt-
servicing problems-7.8-6.8-7.6-10.2-9.4-9.1-4.0-5.1-1.5-1.5-0.6
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel
exporters-13.2-5.41.6-14.7-22.3-5.44.21.7-18.1-10.3-7.0
Fifteen heavily indebted
countries-16.1-20.5-18.3-30.6-35.6-11.2-0.4-0.1-9.2-10.6-7.2
Small low-income countries-28.7-38.6-41.4-45.7-47.7-31.0-34.6-36.4-33.3-30.9-29.6
Sub-Saharan Africa2-14.3-21.8-28.4-36.8-34.2-23.8-13.5-13.1-21.9-21.9-20.6
By alternative analytical
categories
Oil exporting countries12.524.031.215.5-3.7-9.7-3.51.8-22.6-12.2-7.9
Non-oil developing countries-14.2-14.5-16.7-21.1-17.3-9.3-5.4-5.5-3.4-4.3-2.9
Net oil exporters-17.1-9.9-11.8-26.2-21.8-4.2-2.4-6.0-16.8-16.0-13.1
Net oil importers-13.7-15.3-17.7-20.0-16.4-10.4-6.0-5.5-1.4-2.7-1.4
Table A36.Developing Countries—by Region: Current Account Transactions, 1979-88(In billions of U.S. dollars)
1979198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries