Chapter

Statistical Appendix

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
Published Date:
January 1988
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Assumptions and conventions

The statistical tables in this appendix have been compiled on the basis of information available on or before September 14, 1988. The recording of the figures for 1988 and beyond with the same degree of precision as the historical figures is solely a matter of convenience. It is not intended to convey any connotation regarding the degree of accuracy attaching to these estimates and projections.

The estimates and projections for 1988 and 1989 are predicated on a number of assumptions and working hypotheses:

1. for the major currencies, the average exchange rates of August 1988 will remain unchanged in real terms through the end of 1989;

2. “present” policies of national authorities will be maintained; and

3. the price of oil will average $14.50 in 1988, $15.00 in 1989, and will remain constant in real terms thereafter.

A few of the tables include series expressed in SDRs (or based on SDR values). The U.S. dollar/SDR conversion rates are, for the historical period, the geometric averages of daily rates given in the Fund’s International Financial Statistics (IFS). For 1988 and 1989. the exchange rate assumptions specified above imply average U.S. dollar/SDR conversion rates of 1.331 and 1.306, respectively.

Classification of Countries

The classification scheme used in the preparation of this report is as follows.

Industrial countries comprise:

AustraliaGermany, Fed. Rep. ofNew Zealand
AustriaIcelandNorway
BelgiumIrelandSpain
CanadaItalySweden
DenmarkJapanSwitzerland
FinlandLuxembourgUnited Kingdom
FranceNetherlandsUnited States

The seven largest countries in this group in terms of GNP—Canada, the United Stales, Japan, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom—are collectively referred to as the major industrial countries

The developing countries include all other Fund members (as of August 15, 1988). together with certain essentially autonomous dependent territories for which adequate statistics are available.1 The regional breakdowns of data for developing countries conform to the regional classification used in the Fund’s IFS. It should be noted that, in this classification. Egypt and Libyan Arab Jamahiriya are classified as part of the Middle East, not Africa.

The analytical groupings in this classification are (1) countries grouped by predominant export; (2) countries grouped by financial criteria; (3) countries grouped by other criteria; and (4) countries grouped by former classification criteria (Table A). At present, the financial criteria first distinguish among capital exporting and capital importing countries. Countries in the latter, much larger, group are then distinguished on the basis of two additional financial criteria: by predominant type of creditor and by the degree of debt-servicing difficulties they have faced. The country groups shown under the heading of “miscellaneous criteria” include capital importing fuel exporters; fifteen heavily indebted countries; small low-income countries; and sub-Saharan Africa (excluding Nigeria and South Africa). Table A presents a breakdown of these analytical groupings according to the proportion of developing country GDP. exports of goods and services, and level of indebtedness. Further details on the classification scheme are given below.

Table A.Developing Countries: Shares of Various Subgroups in Aggregate GDP, Exports of Goods and Services, and Debt Outstanding, 1984–86(In percent)
GDPExports of

Goods and

Services
DebtMemorandom:

Number of Countries

in Each Subgroup
Developing countries100.0100.0100.0134
By region
Africa12.011.014.748
Asia33.337.124.128
Europe11.011.812.49
Middle East16.122.312.716
Western Hemisphere27.617.736.133
By predominant export
Fuel exporters29.432.727.520
Non-fuel exporters70.667.372.5114
Primary product exporters32.122.541.073
Agricultural exporters26.916.331.655
Mineral exporters5.26.29.418
Exporters of manufactures33.338.122.412
Service and remittance countries5.26.89.129
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries13.317.65.78
Capital importing countries86.782.494.3126
Market borrowers50.457.460.834
Official borrowers7.35.210.360
Diversified borrowers29.019.823.332
Countries with recent debt-servicing problems42.932.258.465
Countries without recent debt-servicing problems43.950.236.061
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters16.115.121.912
Fifteen heavily indebted countries31.620.841.515
Small low-income countries5.83.07.842
Sub-Saharan Africa14.23.86.843
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries22.526.116.212
Non-oil developing countries77.573.983.8122

The first analytical criterion used to group developing countries is by predominant export category. Four categories are distinguished: fuel (SITC (Standard International Trade Classification) 3); other primary commodities (SITC 0,1,2,4, and diamonds and gem-stones); manufactures (SITC 5 to 8, less diamonds and gemstones); and “services and remittances.” On the basis of data for 1980. countries are assigned to the commodity grouping that accounts for 50 percent or more of their exports. Specifically, countries are assigned to the “services and remittances” category if their receipts on these transactions account for at least half of their exports of goods and services. If countries do not meet this criterion, they are assigned to the trade category (of the three listed above) that accounts for at least half of their total merchandise exports.2

Given these definitions, the fuel exporters comprise:

AlgeriaIraqSaudi Arabia
BahrainKuwaitSyrian Arab Rep.
CongoLibyan Arab JamahiriyaTrinidad and Tobago
EcuadorTunisia
GabonMexicoUnited Arab Emirates
IndonesiaNigeria
Iran, Islamic Rep. ofOmanVenezuela
Qatar

The non-fuel exporters are broken down into three categories: primary product exporters, exporters of manufactures, and service and remittance countries.

The primary product exporters, that is. countries whose exports of agricultural and mineral primary products other than fuel accounted for over 50 percent of their total exports in 1980, comprise:

Given these definitions, the fuel exporters comprise:

AfghanistanGambia, ThePeru
ArgentinaGhanaPhilippines
BangladeshGuatemalaRwanda
BelizeGuineaSão Tomé and Principe
BeninGuinea-Bissau
BhutanGuyanaSenegal
BoliviaHaitiSierra Leone
BotswanaHondurasSolomon Islands
BrazilJamaicaSomalia
BurmaKenyaSouth Africa
BurundiLao People’s Dem. Rep.Sri Lanka
CameroonSt. Kitts and Nevis
Central African Rep.Liberia
MadagascarSudan
ChadMalawiSuriname
ChileMalaysiaSwaziland
ColombiaMaliTanzania
ComorosMauritaniaThailand
Costa RicaMauritiusTogo
Côte d’lvoireMoroccoUganda
DjiboutiMozambiqueUruguay
Dominican Rep.NicaraguaViet Nam
El SalvadorNigerZaïre
Equatorial GuineaPapua New GuineaZambia
EthiopiaZimbabwe
FijiParaguay

A further distinction is made among the “primary product exporters” on the basis of whether countries’ exports of primary commodities (other than fuel) consisted primarily of agricultural (SITC 0,1,2 except 27, 28, and 4) or mineral (SITC 27 and 28 and diamonds and gemstones) commodities. The mineral exporters comprise:

BoliviaLiberiaSouth Africa
BotswanaMauritaniaSuriname
ChileMoroccoTogo
GuineaNigerZaïre
GuyanaPeruZambia
JamaicaSierra LeoneZimbabwe

The agricultural exporters are those non-fuel primary product exporters that are not also mineral exporters.

The exporters of manufactures (that is, those countries or areas whose exports of manufactures accounted in 1980 for over 50 percent of total exports) comprise:3

ChinaKoreaTaiwan Province of China
Hong KongPoland
HungaryRomaniaTurkey
IndiaSingaporeYugoslavia
Israel

The service and remittance countries, that is. those countries whose receipts from services (such as tourism) and private transfers (such as workers’ remittances) amount to at least 50 percent of their exports of goods and services, comprise:

Antigua and BarbudaLebanonSeychelles
Bahamas, TheLesothoSt. Lucia
BarbadosMaldivesSt. Vincent
Burkina FasoMaltaTonga
Cape VerdeNepalVanuatu
CyprusNetherlands AntillesWestern Samoa
DominicaYemen Arab Rep.
EgyptPakistan
GreecePanamaYemen, People’s Dem. Rep. of
GrenadaPortugal
Jordan
Kampuchea Dem.

A second set of analytical groupings of developing countries is based on financial criteria. A first distinction is made between those developing countries that have traditionally been capital exporters and those that have traditionally been capital importers. At present, capital exporters are defined as those developing countries that, on average, recorded a current account surplus during the period 1979–81 and were aid donors over the same period. The capital exporting countries comprise:

Iran, Islamic Rep. ofLibyan Arab JamahiriyaSaudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
IraqOman
KuwaitQatar

The capital importing countries comprise all other developing countries.

Within the group of capital importing developing countries and areas, two types of financial distinction are made. The first distinguishes among countries on the basis of their predominant type of creditor. Market borrowers are defined as those countries and areas that obtained at least two thirds of their external borrowings from 1978 to 1982 from commercial creditors. The group comprises:

AlgeriaCôte d’lvoireMexicoSouth Africa
Antigua and BarbudaCyprusNigeriaTaiwan Province of China
EcuadorPanama
ArgentinaGabonPapua New Guinea
Bahamas, TheGreeceTrinidad and Tobago
BoliviaHong KongParaguay
BrazilHungaryPeruUruguay
ChileIndonesiaPhilippinesVenezuela
ColombiaKoreaPortugalYugoslavia
CongoMalaysiaSingapore

Official borrowers comprise those countries, except China and India, that obtained two thirds or more of their external borrowings from 1978 to 1982 from official creditors. The countries are:

AfghanistanFijiMaltaSyrian Arab Rep.
BahrainGambia, TheMauritania
BangladeshGhanaNepalTanzania
BhutanGrenadaNetherlands AntillesTogo
Burkina FasoGuatemalaTonga
BurmaGuineaNicaraguaUganda
BurundiGuinea-BissauPakistanViet Nam
Cape VerdeRwandaWestern Samoa
Central African Rep.GuyanaSão Tomé and Principe
HondurasYemen Arab Rep.
ChadJamaicaSenegal
ComorosJordanSeychellesYemen, People’s Dem. Rep. of
DjiboutiLao People’s Dem. Rep.Sierra Leone
Dominica
Dominican Rep.LiberiaSomaliaZaïre
MadagascarSt. LuciaZambia
El SalvadorMalawiSt. Vincent
Equatorial GuineaMaldivesSudan
MaliSwaziland

Diversified borrowers comprise those capital importing developing countries that are not market or official borrowers. These countries’ external borrowings in 1978–82 were more or less evenly divided between official and commercial creditors. China and India are included in this group. Commercial borrowers comprise those countries classified as either market or diversified borrowers.

A second financial distinction among capital importing developing countries is based on whether countries have or have not experienced debt-servicing difficulties in the recent past. Countries that have experienced debt-servicing problems are defined as those countries which incurred external payments arrears during 1985 or rescheduled their debt during the period from end–1983 to end–1986 as reported in the relevant issues of the Fund’s Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions. Countries classified as not having experienced debt-servicing problems are defined as all other capital importing developing countries.

Several other analytical groups are also used in the report. One of these is the group of capital importing fuel exporters. This group, which is also referred to as the “indebted fuel exporters,” comprises those 12 fuel exporters that are not capital exporters, A second is the group of fifteen heavily indebted countries. This group comprises:

ArgentinaCôte d’lvoirePeru
BoliviaEcuadorPhilippines
BrazilMexicoUruguay
ChileMoroccoVenezuela
ColombiaNigeriaYugoslavia

A third is the group of small low-income countries, comprising those Fund members, excluding China and India, whose per capita GDP, as estimated by the World Bank, did not exceed the equivalent of $410 in 1980. The countries in this group are:

AfghanistanEquatorial GuineaLao People’s Dem. Rep.São Tomé and Principe
Bangladesh
BeninEthiopiaMadagascar
BhutanGambia, TheMalawiSierra Leone
Burkina FasoGhanaMaldivesSomalia
BurmaGuineaMaliSri Lanka
BurundiGuinea-BissauMauritaniaSudan
Cape VerdeMozambiqueTanzania
Central African Rep.GuyanaNepalTogo
HaitiNigerUganda
Kampuchea, DemocraticPakistanViet Nam
ChadRwandaZaïre
ComorosKenya

Reference is also made to sub-Saharan Africa, which comprises all African countries (as defined in IFS) except Algeria. Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, and Tunisia.

Finally, in the classification used in Fund publications through 1984, the developing countries were divided into two groups—”oil exporting countries”4 and “non-oil developing countries.” The countries included under the heading oil exporting countries were:

AlgeriaKuwaitQatar
IndonesiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaSaudi Arabia
Iran, Islamic Rep. ofUnited Arab Emirates
Nigeria
IraqOmanVenezuela

The remaining countries, grouped under the heading non-oil developing countries, were further disaggregated into subgroupings based primarily on the character of the countries’ economic activity and on the predominant composition of their exports.

Except where otherwise specifically indicated, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, nonmember countries of Eastern Europe, Cuba, and North Korea are excluded from the tables in this report. Also, it has not been possible to include in the tables a number of small countries or territories for which trade and payments data are not available.

Tables

Output and employment

Table A1.World Output, 1970–891(Annual changes, in percent)
Average

1970–792
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
World4.12.21.70.52.74.53.43.23.23.83.1
Industrial countries3.31.41.5–0.32.85.03.32.73.33.92.8
United States2.8–0.21.9–2.53.66.83.42.83.44.02.8
Other industrial countries3.72.31.31.02.33.73.32.53.33.92.9
Of which,
Japan5.24.33.73.13.35.04.82.54.25.84.2
Germany, Fed. Rep. of3.11.5–1.01.93.31.92.31.82.91.9
Developing countries5.73.41.81.71.94.03.54.23.43.64.0
Median growth rates5.13.73.01.71.52.93.13.42.73.03.5
By region
Africa4.43.62.01.2–1.30.83.72.12.32.62.8
Asia5.45.55.85.27.67.86.36.46.87.36.3
Europe5.60.11.11.94.32.44.12.52.62.8
Middle East7.3–2.5–2.10.20.9–0.2–1.12.2–0.50.91.8
Western Hemisphere5.76.00.2–1.1–2.43.53.53.92.51.43.4
By analytical criteria
Fuel exporters7.10.90.90.1–1.00.61.21.00.61.22.3
Non-fuel exporters5.14.32.22.43.35.74.75.74.64.54.6
Market borrowers6.15.01.90.4–0.43.53.24.23.62.83.9
Official borrowers3.52.93.12.41.82.53.04.03.35.24.2
Other countries35.54.02.72.63.43.23.44.12.63.43.1
Table A2.Industrial Countries: Real GNP and Total Domestic Demand, 1970–891(Annual changes, in percent)
Fourth Quarter3
Average

1970–792
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989198719881989
Real GNP
Canada44.71.53.7–3.23.26.34.63.24.04.23.26.13.03.0
United States2.8–0.21.9–2.53.66.83.42.83.44.02.85.03.12.7
Japan5.24.33.73.13.35.04.82.54.25.84.25.54.55.1
France44.01.61.22.50.71.41.62.12.22.92.42.82.42.8
Germany, Fed. Rep. of3.11.5–1.01.93.31.92.31.82.91.92.42.21.8
Italy43.33.91.10.21.13.22.92.93.13.02.42.82.92.4
United Kingdom52.3–2.5–1.11.53.22.63.73.24.44.02.54.53.82.3
Other industrial countries3.22.60.40.52.33.63.02.22.82.62.22.92.52.3
All industrial countries3.31.41.5–0.32.85.03.32.73.33.92.84.43.23.0
Of which,
Seven major countries above3.31.21.7–0.42.95.23.42.73.44.12.94.63.23.1
European countries3.21.60.20.71.92.72.52.52.72.92.32.92.62.3
Real total domestic demand
Canada4.91.94.7–6.64.15.35.13.94.75.34.08.53.43.3
United States2.6–1.82.2–1.95.18.73.83.73.03.02.74.42.03.0
Japan5.10.82.22.81.83.83.94.05.17.44.96.85.75.6
France3.81.6–0.13.5–0.70.52.23.93.33.02.43.43.02.2
Germany, Fed. Rep. of3.31.1–2.6–2.02.32.00.83.53.13.22.03.31.82.4
Italy2.87.0–1.20.30.24.03.13.24.73.82.94.83.82.9
United Kingdom2.2–2.9–1.52.24.62.83.03.84.16.12.84.95.02.3
Other industrial countries3.22.1–1.40.40.52.73.23.83.32.92.33.12.72.4
All industrial countries3.20.30.6–0.22.95.33.43.73.64.13.14.73.13.3
Of which,
Seven major countries above3.2–0.11.0–0.33.35.73.43.73.74.23.24.93.23.4
European countries3.11.6–1.80.71.32.12.43.93.63.62.43.73.12.4
Table A3.Industrial Countries: Components of Real GNP, 1970–891(Annual changes, in percent)
Average

1970–792
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Consumer expenditure
Canada4.72.22.3–2.63.44.65.44.34.73.43.2
United States3.2–0.21.21.34.74.84.74.32.72.52.4
Japan5.41.51.24.13.32.72.73.23.95.14.0
France4.41.22.13.50.91.02.33.42.52.21.8
Germany, Fed. Rep. of3.91.2–0.5–1.31.71.51.43.43.53.32.3
Italy3.24.31.51.10.72.43.03.54.33.73.1
United Kingdom2.50.20.84.12.23.96.05.25.83.4
Other industrial countries3.51.2–0.10.90.91.53.13.02.52.42.2
All industrial countries3.70.90.91.43.13.23.73.93.23.32.8
Of which,
Seven major countries above3.70.81.11.53.43.53.84.03.33.42.9
European countries3.61.30.30.81.51.62.63.83.53.32.5
Public consumption
Canada4.32.82.52.41.41.22.71.21.63.01.6
United States0.31.91.51.91.14.47.94.02.61.23.1
Japan5.12.84.81.93.02.81.76.5–0.62.42.6
France3.52.53.13.72.01.22.32.62.32.22.2
Germany, Fed. Rep. of3.72.61.8–0.80.22.42.12.51.61.51.6
Italy3.12.12.72.92.92.63.53.13.42.42.0
United Kingdom2.51.60.30.82.00.91.21.01.01.0
Other industrial countries4.21.02.41.62.81.63.42.62.71.61.2
All industrial countries2.32.02.31.71.83.04.73.71.91.72.3
Of which,
Seven major countries above2.02.22.31.81.63.24.93.81.81.72.5
European countries3.52.42.11.61.81.62.22.42.21.71.6
Gross fixed investment
Canada5.210.011.7–11.0–0.72.18.25.09.612.06.5
United States3.8–7.91.1–9.68.216.85.41.96.44.3
Japan5.1–0.13.30.9–0.24.85.76.110.111.45.9
France3.02.6–1.9–1.4–3.6–2.32.82.93.76.85.4
Germany, Fed. Rep. of2.12.8–4.8–5.33.20.80.13.11.84.91.4
Italy0.59.4–2.3–5.7–0.15.32.51.45.24.52.5
United Kingdom1.2–5.4–9.65.45.18.03.0–0.33.910.53.0
Other industrial countries1.92.7–2.8–1.8–0.73.13.95.64.54.33.3
All industrial countries3.2–1.5–0.5–4.73.48.84.42.34.37.24.2
Of which,
Seven major countries above3.4–2.2–0.1–5.14.09.64.51.84.27.74.3
European countries1.92.2–4.7–1.91.02.52.33.64.05.83.1
Final domestic demand
Canada4.84.04.5–3.72.13.45.53.85.25.33.7
United States2.7–1.21.2–0.44.56.65.43.52.52.82.9
Japan5.31.12.22.92.13.43.54.45.47.04.5
France3.91.81.32.40.20.42.43.12.73.12.6
Germany, Fed. Rep. of3.41.9–1.0–2.11.71.61.23.22.83.32.0
Italy2.55.10.8–0.20.83.12.93.04.43.72.8
United Kingdom2.2–0.7–1.61.63.83.02.93.94.15.92.7
Other industrial countries3.21.60.30.91.83.23.42.92.72.3
All industrial countries3.20.70.90.32.74.14.13.63.43.93.0
Of which,
Seven major countries above3.20.51.00.33.04.44.23.63.44.13.2
European countries3.11.8–0.40.21.41.72.43.53.43.52.5
Stockbuilding3
Canada0.1–1.90.2–2.91.91.8–0.30.2–0.50.2
United States–0.71.0–1.50.62.1–1.50.20.50.1–0.1
Japan–0.1–0.3–0.1–0.1–0.30.40.4–0.3–0.30.40.4
France–0.2–0.1–1.41.0–0.90.1–0.20.80.6–0.1–0.2
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–0.1–0.8–1.60.10.60.5–0.50.20.3
Italy0.31.9–2.00.6–0.60.90.20.20.40.20.1
United Kingdom–2.20.10.60.8–0.20.10.1–0.10.2
Other industrial countries0.6–1.40.1–0.30.90.10.40.40.20.1
All industrial countries–0.4–0.3–0.50.21.2–0.60.20.30.2
Of which,
Seven major countries above–0.6–0.1–0.60.31.2–0.70.10.30.2
European countries–0.1–1.40.5–0.10.40.40.30.1
Foreign balances3
Canada–0.5–0.93.4–0.30.9–0.3–0.7–0.6–1.0–0.7
United States0.11.7–0.2–0.7–1.5–2.0–0.6–0.90.20.9
Japan–0.23.41.50.31.51.31.1–1.4–0.7–1.4–0.7
France0.11.3–0.91.40.9–0.6–1.8–1.2–0.1
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–0.20.42.71.0–0.31.31.1–1.1–1.2–0.2
Italy0.2–2.82.4–0.10.8–0.8–0.3–0.4–1.6–1.0–0.6
United Kingdom0.10.80.5–1.0–1.0–0.70.9–0.8–0.6–2.1–0.3
Other industrial countries0.51.90.11.30.40.1–1.2–0.4–0.2
All industrial countries1.10.9–0.1–0.1–0.4–1.1–0.4–0.1–0.2
Of which,
Seven major countries above0.11.20.8–0.2–0.4–0.6–1.0–0.4–0.1–0.3
European countries2.0–0.10.50.50.2–1.3–1.0–0.6–0.2
Table A4.Industrial Countries: Employment, Unemployment, and Real Per Capita GNP, 1970–89(In percent)
Average

1970–791
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Growth in employment2,3
Canada2.93.02.8–3.30.82.52.82.92.83.42.1
United States2.40.51.1–0.91.34.12.02.32.62.21.6
Japan0.81.00.81.01.70.60.70.81.01.71.0
France0.90.3–0.60.2–0.4–0.9–0.30.20.10.50.3
Germany, Fed. Rep. of0.41.5–0.6–1.9–1.70.20.81.20.90.50.1
Italy1.01.40.3–0.20.30.40.50.6–0.10.60.5
United Kingdom0.2–1.0–3.4–1.9–0.61.81.40.61.81.80.8
Other industrial countries0.70.8–0.7–0.7–0.90.61.21.91.51.10.7
All industrial countries1.50.80.2–0.70.42.11.41.61.71.71.1
Of which,
Seven major countries above1.60.80.4–0.70.72.31.41.61.71.71.1
European countries0.60.7–1.1–1.0–0.80.20.60.90.80.90.5
Unemployment rates4
Canada6.77.47.511.111.911.310.59.68.97.77.6
United States6.27.27.69.79.67.57.27.06.25.55.5
Japan1.72.02.22.42.72.72.62.82.82.62.5
France4.16.37.48.18.39.710.210.410.610.610.8
Germany, Fed. Rep. of2.43.34.66.78.18.18.27.97.97.98.1
Italy6.57.67.98.69.910.010.311.112.012.012.1
United Kingdom3.45.48.59.910.811.111.311.410.38.48.2
Other industrial countries3.46.68.19.611.111.411.411.010.810.610.6
All industrial countries4.25.76.68.08.68.18.07.97.67.17.0
Of which,
Seven major countries above4.45.56.37.78.27.57.47.37.06.56.4
European countries3.85.97.68.99.910.410.610.610.510.110.1
Growth in real per capita GNP3
Canada3.40.42.1–4.42.55.53.82.42.93.32.3
United States1.7–1.30.9–3.52.65.72.41.92.43.01.8
Japan4.03.52.92.42.64.44.21.93.75.23.6
France3.41.10.62.00.21.01.21.71.72.52.0
Germany, Fed. Rep. of2.91.3–0.2–0.92.33.72.22.31.62.91.9
Italy2.73.71.00.72.92.62.72.92.82.2
United Kingdom2.2–2.6–1.81.63.12.43.42.94.23.92.3
Other industrial countries2.31.9–0.1–0.21.83.42.51.72.42.21.8
All industrial countries3.01.70.70.61.93.42.92.12.83.52.5
Of which,
Seven major countries above3.21.71.00.82.03.43.12.23.03.82.7
European countries2.91.80.10.31.52.62.22.12.12.52.0
Table A5.Developing Countries: Real GDP, 1970–891(Annual changes, in percent)
Average

1970–792
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Developing countries5.73.41.81.71.94.03.54.23.43.64.0
Median growth rates5.13.73.01.71.52.93.13.42.73.03.5
By region
Africa4.43.62.01.2–1.30.83.72.12.32.62.8
Asia5.45.55.85.27.67.86.36.46.87.36.3
Europe5.60.11.11.94.32.44.12.52.62.8
Middle East7.3–2.5–2.10.20.9–0.2–1.12.2–0.50.91.8
Western Hemisphere5.76.00.2–1.1–2.43.53.53.92.51.43.4
By predominant export
Fuel exporters7.10.90.90.1–1.00.61.21.00.61.22.3
Non-fuel exporters5.14.32.22.43.35.74.75.74.64.54.6
Primary product exporters5.05.30.3–0.33.72.95.13.32.73.9
Agricultural exporters5.65.5–0.60.60.33.73.55.63.32.74.2
Mineral exporters3.04.43.8–2.0–2.43.80.52.93.02.62.2
Exporters of manufactures5.53.43.94.57.07.96.46.76.36.35.6
Service and remittance countries4.64.62.03.32.13.14.43.82.43.83.0
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries7.8–4.1–3.3–0.30.5–0.5–1.91.8–1.10.11.5
Capital importing countries5.44.52.62.02.14.74.44.64.14.14.3
Market borrowers6.15.01.90.4–0.43.53.24.23.62.83.9
Official borrowers3.52.93.12.41.82.53.04.03.35.24.2
Diversified borrowers4.64.03.54.66.87.47.05.65.16.15.2
Countries with recent debt-servicing problems5.34.20.1–0.3–1.62.83.23.52.32.03.2
Countries without debt-servicing problems5.54.85.24.56.16.75.75.85.96.15.4
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters6.55.14.40.5–2.11.43.60.51.92.13.0
Fifteen heavily indebted countries5.95.40.1–0.5–2.72.33.83.82.51.53.4
Small low-income countries3.53.02.82.61.63.33.74.43.64.94.8
Sub-Saharan Africa33.02.62.91.7–0.61.23.03.62.33.73.6
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries7.4–1.1–1.20.1–0.2–0.20.72.40.51.12.1
Non-oil developing countries5.24.62.72.22.65.34.44.84.24.24.4
Net oil exporters6.16.76.81.2–2.33.62.4–1.31.41.52.7
Net oil importers5.14.32.12.33.45.64.85.84.74.64.7
Table A6.Developing Countries: Real Per Capita GDP, 1970–89(Annual changes, in percent)
Average

1970–791
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Developing countries3.10.7–0.5–0.9–0.41.91.52.01.41.61.9
By region
Africa1.60.9–0.7–1.5–3.9–1.71.1–0.7–0.6–0.1
Asia3.53.63.83.15.76.14.64.85.15.74.6
Europe4.5–1.0–0.80.21.13.51.63.01.61.61.9
Middle East2.9–6.6–5.9–3.9–2.6–3.5–3.8–1.4–3.3–2.1–1.2
Western Hemisphere3.12.6–1.9–3.4–4.71.11.31.60.2–0.80.8
By predominant export
Fuel exporters3.2–2.4–2.4–3.3–3.9–2.4–1.4–2.1–2.2–1.6–0.9
Non-fuel exporters3.12.00.40.41.53.92.93.92.82.72.8
Primary product exporters2.42.1–2.0–2.4–2.71.40.72.90.80.31.5
Agricultural exporters3.02.1–2.9–1.8–2.11.51.23.30.90.41.8
Mineral exporters0.52.31.4–4.6–4.81.2–1.90.50.70.2–0.2
Exporters of manufactures3.71.82.52.95.66.65.25.34.95.04.3
Service and remittance countries4.41.80.41.60.31.32.62.00.92.31.4
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries3.1–8.0–7.2–4.8–3.2–4.0–4.8–2.1–4.0–3.1–1.6
Capital importing countries3.22.00.6–0.20.12.82.52.62.12.32.4
Market borrowers3.82.2–1.7–2.41.51.22.21.61.01.8
Official borrowers1.3–0.50.1–0.5–1.1–0.20.71.10.52.71.4
Diversified borrowers2.52.32.02.85.15.85.53.93.34.43.6
Countries with recent debt-servicing problems2.81.2–1.8–2.6–3.80.81.11.30.1–0.10.8
Countries without debt-servicing problems3.82.93.22.54.34.94.04.04.24.43.7
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters3.32.41.7–2.1–4.5–1.21.2–2.2–0.9–0.3–0.3
Fifteen heavily indebted countries3.32.2–1.9–2.8-4.90.11.71.50.1–0.60.9
Small low-income countries1.2–0.2–0.3–1.10.81.41.50.82.22.0
Sub-Saharan Africa20.2–0.5–0.1–1.0–3.6–1.50.30.6–0.60.70.5
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries3.3–4.5–4.7–3.6–3.4–3.3–1.9–0.9–2.4–2.0–1.0
Non-oil developing countries3.12.20.80.10.63.52.62.92.32.42.5
Net oil exporters3.04.04.2–1.5–4.70.9–3.9–1.3–0.8–0.8
Net oil importers3.22.00.30.41.63.93.14.12.82.82.9
Table A7.Developing Countries: Gross Capital Formation, 1980–881(In percent of GDP)
198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries26.626.324.923.523.123.723.823.323.5
By region
Africa25.726.723.321.119.618.419.419.320.9
Asia29.028.527.227.027.028.927.727.527.6
Europe28.627.127.925.424.925.527.126.326.9
Middle East25.927.026.328.227.226.726.825.924.7
Western Hemisphere23.422.920.617.017.217.918.317.818.1
By predominant export
Fuel exporters26.227.125.524.523.223.523.622.722.8
Non-fuel exporters26.726.024.623.023.023.823.923.623.8
Primary product exporters23.223.320.718.718.217.718.118.118.7
Agricultural exporters22.922.220.318.217.617.518.218.218.8
Mineral exporters24.627.321.920.120.218.717.917.618.0
Exporters of manufactures29.528.027.726.927.829.929.729.129.0
Service and remittance countries28.327.926.523.221.320.620.720.320.9
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries25.426.826.128.928.027.928.327.326.0
Capital importing countries26.726.324.722.622.323.123.222.823.2
Market borrowers27.027.024.521.520.520.220.520.221.1
Official borrowers19.219.418.216.516.816.715.916.116.0
Diversified borrowers27.626.326.226.026.829.729.428.928.5
Countries with recent debt-servicing problems25.524.722.619.018.418.619.018.419.2
Countries without debt-servicing problems27.927.926.926.526.527.827.427.227.1
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters26.727.225.121.419.820.620.519.820.7
Fifteen heavily indebted countries24.624.021.517.416.617.117.817.118.1
Small low-income countries17.516.816.314.314.614.714.815.615.9
Sub-Saharan Africa219.820.519.016.216.117.017.717.618.6
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries25.726.925.925.424.024.025.124.624.8
Non-oil developing countries26.826.224.622.922.823.723.423.023.3
Net oil exporters27.127.925.722.921.822.219.818.318.5
Net oil importers26.725.924.422.923.023.924.123.824.0
Memorandum
Median estimates
Developing countries25.925.425.222.521.721.720.721.021.1
By region
Africa23.323.722.920.618.520.919.420.020.7
Asia30.429.128.627.123.923.523.022.524.0
Europe30.729.731.526.525.825.526.726.526.6
Middle East23.723.426.924.724.422.621.319.821.1
Western Hemisphere24.923.222.619.918.319.018.519.319.3

Inflation

Table A8.Inflation, 1970–89(In percent)
Average

1970–791
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
GNP deflators
Industrial countries28.19.38.87.25.04.23.73.42.92.93.3
United States7.09.19.66.43.83.73.02.73.33.24.1
Other industrial countries29.09.58.37.65.74.64.23.92.72.82.8
Of which,
Japan8.03.83.22.00.71.21.61.8–0.20.91.4
Germany, Fed. Rep. of5.64.84.04.43.32.02.23.12.11.82.2
Consumer prices
Industrial countries27.911.810.07.44.94.74.12.33.03.33.5
United States7.113.510.36.13.24.33.61.93.74.14.5
Other industrial countries28.610.89.98.25.95.04.52.62.42.72.9
Of which,
Japan7.57.75.02.71.92.32.00.60.11.11.6
Germany, Fed. Rep. of4.95.46.35.33.32.42.2–0.20.21.22.4
Developing countries318.126.825.925.433.038.638.929.840.059.029.1
Median inflation rates10.014.613.110.69.910.48.77.88.17.06.0
By region3
Africa12.716.221.213.118.920.413.215.315.814.012.0
Asia9.513.110.56.46.67.37.17.88.88.05.9
Europe12.331.823.633.122.825.425.424.830.341.225.3
Middle East11.616.815.212.712.214.812.211.414.714.412.1
Western Hemisphere34.855.760.766.8108.6131.8143.588.3131.2252.789.4
By analytical criteria3
Fuel exporters12.015.515.916.724.120.314.821.631.930.814.9
Non-fuel exporters20.831.730.529.737.748.752.333.843.772.034.8
Market borrowers25.036.539.338.157.370.070.648.067.8114.048.6
Official borrowers13.025.227.517.821.719.223.240.341.025.913.7
Table A9.Industrial Countries: GNP Deflators and Consumer Prices, 1970–891(Annual changes, in percent)
Fourth Quarter3
Average

1970–792
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989198719881989
GNP deflators
Canada47.710.610.88.75.03.12.92.54.33.93.64.43.93.4
United States7.09.19.66.43.83.73.02.73.33.24.13.13.74.1
Japan8.03.83.22.00.71.21.61.8–0.20.91.4–0.21.11.4
France48.913.211.411.89.77.45.95.12.82.62.22.53.61.9
Germany, Fed. Rep. of5.64.84.04.43.32.02.23.12.11.82.21.61.92.5
Italy413.420.718.516.215.011.38.97.55.65.15.05.55.15.0
United Kingdom412.719.811.57.65.34.35.93.64.85.24.75.55.84.5
Other industrial countries9.58.49.19.77.06.35.55.64.33.83.73.93.73.7
All industrial countries8.19.38.87.25.04.23.73.42.92.93.32.83.23.2
Of which,
Seven major countries above7.99.58.76.84.73.93.43.12.72.83.22.63.23.2
European countries9.311.49.79.27.45.95.34.73.53.43.33.33.63.3
Consumer prices
Canada7.410.212.510.85.84.34.04.24.43.93.54.23.73.4
United States7.113.510.36.13.24.33.61.93.74.14.54.54.54.3
Japan7.57.75.02.71.92.32.00.60.11.11.60.81.21.7
France8.913.313.411.89.67.45.82.53.32.52.53.02.72.3
Germany, Fed. Rep. of4.95.46.35.33.32.42.2–0.20.21.22.40.91.72.5
Italy12.321.217.816.514.710.89.25.94.74.95.05.24.95.0
United Kingdom12.518.011.98.64.65.06.13.44.24.94.64.15.64.5
Other industrial countries9.110.110.49.77.66.35.84.84.13.83.64.03.73.6
All industrial countries7.911.810.07.44.94.74.12.33.03.33.53.53.53.4
Of which,
Seven major countries above7.712.110.07.04.44.53.91.92.83.23.53.43.43.4
European countries8.911.911.39.67.26.25.42.92.93.23.43.13.43.3
Table A10.Industrial Countries: Hourly Earnings, Productivity, and Unit Labor Costs in Manufacturing, 1970–891(Annual changes, in percent)
Average

1970–792
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Hourly earnings
Canada9.910.112.011.74.34.93.93.12.44.63.8
United States8.311.79.58.53.13.45.03.72.13.33.6
Japan14.87.26.05.02.52.43.82.31.12.45.0
France15.014.116.518.212.28.88.54.84.83.83.9
Germany, Fed. Rep. of10.78.77.25.53.73.44.25.34.84.24.0
Italy20.018.425.519.919.313.110.13.37.46.05.5
United Kingdom16.020.415.57.77.26.77.26.76.57.57.5
Other industrial countries13.811.010.010.09.76.57.25.76.14.94.9
All industrial countries11.511.510.79.45.94.85.64.13.33.94.4
Of which,
Seven major countries above11.111.610.99.35.34.65.43.83.03.74.4
European countries14.712.913.211.29.27.27.25.15.85.04.9
Output per manhour
Canada3.6–2.02.9–1.67.715.92.70.72.34.81.1
United States2.32.22.25.75.54.73.23.32.92.5
Japan6.63.40.2–0.51.95.91.9–0.64.55.94.0
France5.51.63.06.14.12.71.82.84.13.02.9
Germany, Fed. Rep. of4.50.81.71.74.33.53.91.01.72.32.0
Italy5.03.17.43.07.27.42.70.24.53.32.7
United Kingdom2.5–1.44.85.37.74.62.92.66.34.14.1
Other industrial countries4.93.03.23.45.84.83.82.22.42.32.2
All industrial countries3.81.32.52.45.25.53.62.23.43.62.8
Of which,
Seven major countries above3.61.02.42.25.15.63.52.13.63.72.9
European countries4.72.13.53.85.54.53.11.93.52.92.7
Unit labor costs
Canada6.112.38.813.6–3.1–9.51.12.40.1–0.22.7
United States5.811.77.26.1–2.5–2.00.30.5–1.20.41.1
Japan7.73.65.75.50.5–3.41.82.9–3.2–3.31.0
France9.012.313.111.57.75.96.62.00.70.80.9
Germany, Fed. Rep. of6.07.95.43.7–0.5–0.20.24.23.01.91.9
Italy14.314.816.916.411.35.27.23.12.82.62.7
United Kingdom12.622.210.12.3–0.51.94.24.00.23.23.3
Other industrial countries8.67.86.66.43.71.83.43.43.72.62.7
All industrial countries7.410.28.06.80.7–0.62.01.9–0.10.31.6
Of which,
Seven major countries above7.210.68.26.90.2–0.91.81.7–0.61.4
European countries9.610.79.37.23.52.64.03.12.22.02.1
Table A11.Developing Countries: Consumer Prices—Weighted Averages, 1970–891(Annual changes, in percent)
Average

1970–792
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Developing countries18.126.825.925.433.038.638.929.840.059.029.1
By region
Africa12.716.221.213.118.920.413.215.315.814.012.0
Asia9.513.110.56.46.67.37.17.88.88.05.9
Europe12.331.823.633.122.825.425.424.830.341.225.3
Middle East11.616.815.212.712.214.812.211.414.714.412.1
Western Hemisphere34.855.760.766.8108.6131.8143.588.3131.2252.789.4
By predominant export
Fuel exporters12.015.515.916.724.120.314.821.631.930.814.9
Non-fuel exporters20.831.730.529.737.748.752.333.843.772.034.8
Primary product exporters30.347.753.350.275.4103.7113.266.289.9174.770.0
Agricultural exporters31.253.662.959.991.8129.2133.975.9106.4220.283.9
Mineral exporters26.526.521.620.327.631.746.328.123.522.714.8
Exporters of manufactures10.920.915.215.612.714.815.511.413.617.811.9
Service and remittance countries11.818.316.114.515.615.214.015.115.011.812.0
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries10.611.811.78.67.85.73.17.110.912.610.7
Capital importing countries19.229.228.428.538.045.145.833.844.967.232.0
Market borrowers25.036.539.338.157.370.070.648.067.8114.048.6
Official borrowers13.025.227.517.821.719.223.240.341.025.913.7
Diversified borrowers10.019.412.715.912.114.214.710.612.115.211.0
Countries with recent debt-servicing problems24.438.043.648.969.785.188.163.590.6154.862.8
Countries without debt-servicing problems11.920.514.19.910.512.111.99.19.810.58.5
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters13.018.619.523.838.832.924.633.750.047.418.8
Fifteen heavily indebted countries31.747.253.755.991.6118.4121.877.2116.2222.984.1
Small low-income countries13.324.131.720.726.221.921.637.736.920.711.6
Sub-Saharan Africa315.624.830.318.829.122.319.123.625.716.712.0
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries11.513.313.48.59.810.65.07.511.612.111.1
Non-oil developing countries20.030.930.031.441.849.151.637.449.374.133.9
Net oil exporters13.224.124.442.870.253.353.958.982.776.623.7
Net oil importers21.231.930.829.737.448.451.234.044.573.735.3
Table A12.Developing Countries: Consumer Prices—Median Estimates, 1970–89(Annual changes, in percent)
Average

1970–79
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Developing countries10.014.613.110.69.910.48.77.88.17.06.0
By region
Africa10.012.513.112.910.911.510.59.18.17.06.7
Asia7.813.912.57.68.77.04.85.55.56.25.5
Europe8.515.820.021.020.215.015.111.79.415.010.0
Middle East10.610.58.89.15.26.44.710.09.08.58.0
Western Hemisphere11.619.214.79.013.112.015.011.514.69.06.8
By predominant export
Fuel exporters10.010.713.310.58.99.06.16.98.67.06.2
Non-fuel exporters9.815.113.110.69.910.99.38.28.17.16.0
Primary product exporters10.116.513.912.411.512.413.111.610.910.08.0
Agricultural exporters10.017.112.712.511.211.910.710.27.89.56.9
Mineral exporters9.813.815.211.915.018.115.616.415.411.69.6
Exporters of manufactures7.813.315.09.38.68.36.35.67.99.07.0
Service and remittance countries10.014.911.76.95.84.64.73.34.25.55.2
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries10.210.08.27.43.71.21.63.55.86.55.5
Capital importing countries9.914.913.610.89.910.99.18.28.47.16.3
Market borrowers11.417.714.910.112.012.79.17.29.27.47.0
Official borrowers10.115.012.710.19.910.710.39.48.17.06.0
Diversified borrowers9.012.513.011.58.09.08.77.58.08.06.0
Countries with recent debt-servicing problems10.218.015.012.614.612.915.014.516.514.510.0
Countries without debt-servicing problems9.713.512.78.76.87.55.65.57.06.35.5
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters9.711.814.612.49.711.57.98.99.67.46.7
Fifteen heavily indebted countries16.926.526.319.040.950.330.723.028.126.025.0
Small low-income countries10.014.712.712.611.511.410.48.57.68.06.8
Sub-Saharan Africa110.313.312.713.111.211.410.59.48.17.06.0
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries10.010.611.67.86.38.54.65.68.27.06.5
Non-oil developing countries10.014.913.411.39.910.99.18.28.17.16.0
Net oil exporters10.014.914.615.112.813.110.213.512.89.78.1
Net oil importers9.914.913.110.49.910.69.17.87.87.06.0

Financial policies

Table A13.Summary Financial Indicators, 1980–89(In percent)
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Major industrial countries
Fiscal balances of central governments1
Seven major countries–3.3–3.5–4.6–5.3–5.0–4.9–4.4–3.5–3.1–2.7
Of which,
United States–2.3–2.4–4.1–5.6–5.1–5.3–4.8–3.3–3.1–2.6
Japan–6.2–5.9–5.9–5.6–4.7–3.9–3.6–3.3–2.5–2.2
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–1.9–2.5–2.4–1.9–1.6–1.3–1.2–1.4–1.8–1.3
Fiscal impulses of central governments2
Seven major countries–0.10.20.70.30.1–0.5–0.8–0.2–0.3
Of which,
United States0.40.31.70.70.4–0.5–1.3–0.4
Japan0.1–0.5–0.3–0.5–0.6–0.5–0.7–0.2–0.4–0.3
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–0.2–0.7–0.20.3–0.40.3–0.7
Growth of monetary aggregates3
Narrow money (M1)
Seven major countries5.86.66.810.07.08.611.711.3
Of which,
United States6.27.36.611.17.09.013.611.6
Japan2.63.35.83.62.85.06.910.59.28.9
Germany, Fed. Rep. of2.41.13.610.33.34.38.59.09.24.6
Broad money
Seven major countries9.310.19.810.87.99.08.88.3
Of which,
United States8.09.49.312.57.98.98.46.5
Japan9.28.99.27.47.88.48.710.410.910.2
Germany, Fed. Rep. of5.36.46.56.63.84.95.97.16.45.6
Interest rates
Six-month Eurodollar rate414.016.713.69.911.38.66.87.38.28.8
Developing countries
Fiscal balances of central governments1
Weighted averages–1.5–3.9–5.4–5.3–4.7–4.3–5.9–6.0–5.2
Medians–4.6–5.6–6.4–6.2–4.7–4.5–5.1–5.0–4.3
Growth of monetary aggregates5
Weighted averages36.935.832.737.748.644.834.349.059.3
Medians21.119.117.416.416.415.516.814.212.8
Table A14.Major Industrial Countries: Monetary Aggregates, 1980–881(Annual changes, in percent)
Fourth Quarter2
19801981198219831984198519861987198619871988
Narrow money (M1)3
Canada6.23.4–0.110.03.54.14.812.95.410.3
United States6.27.36.611.17.09.013.611.615.66.3
Japan2.63.35.83.62.85.06.910.510.44.88.9
France8.911.411.89.910.69.07.84.66.04.32.5
Germany, Fed. Rep. of2.41.13.610.33.34.38.59.07.67.69.2
Italy16.110.911.815.112.313.610.010.710.77.46.0
United Kingdom4.410.78.612.814.718.624.423.421.822.823.0
Seven major countries above5.86.66.810.07.08.611.711.313.07.3
Four major European countries above6.97.68.411.69.610.612.211.311.010.29.7
Broad money4
Canada18.715.09.55.84.49.48.710.09.07.3
United States8.09.49.312.57.98.98.46.59.44.0
Japan9.28.99.27.47.88.48.710.49.210.810.5
France9.111.813.812.011.07.76.43.14.14.34.0
Germany, Fed. Rep. of5.36.46.56.63.84.95.97.16.86.06.0
Italy14.410.712.316.512.313.98.810.79.48.36.2
United Kingdom15.217.311.710.59.213.919.120.719.422.821.0
Seven major countries above9.310.19.810.87.99.08.88.39.37.0
Four major European countries above9.810.810.710.88.69.59.69.79.49.88.7
Table A15.Major Industrial Countries: Interest Rates, 1980–August 19881(In percent per annum)
19801981198219831984198519861987August

1988
Short-term interest rates2
Canada13.418.314.49.511.39.69.28.49.9
United States13.115.912.49.110.48.06.56.98.3
Japan11.07.77.16.76.36.75.13.94.1
France12.215.414.612.411.79.97.78.17.6
Germany, Fed. Rep. of9.512.18.95.86.05.44.64.05.3
Italy17.520.020.018.017.114.912.611.111.0
United Kingdom16.613.812.310.19.912.210.99.611.3
Seven major countries above12.714.211.89.39.88.56.96.67.5
Four major European countries above12.914.713.210.810.510.08.47.88.3
Long-term interest rates3
Canada12.515.214.311.812.811.09.59.910.7
United States11.513.913.011.112.410.67.78.49.3
Japan8.98.48.37.87.36.55.25.05.2
France13.015.815.713.612.510.98.49.49.2
Germany, Fed. Rep. of8.510.49.07.97.86.95.95.86.6
Italy16.120.620.918.014.913.010.59.710.1
United Kingdom13.814.712.910.810.710.69.99.59.4
Seven major countries above11.313.212.510.911.29.87.57.88.3
Four major European countries above12.114.513.812.011.110.08.48.48.6
Table A16.Major Industrial Countries: Central Government Fiscal Balances and Impulses, 1980–891

(In percent of GNP)2

1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Fiscal balance
(+ surplus, – deficit)
Canada3–3.4–2.1–5.4–6.2–6.7–6.6–4.8–4.3–3.3–3.3
United States4–2.3–2.4–4.1–5.6–5.1–5.3–4.8–3.3–3.1–2.6
Japan5–6.2–5.9–5.9–5.6–4.7–3.9–3.6–3.3–2.5–2.2
France6–1.1–2.6–2.7–3.2–3.4–3.3–2.8–2.3–2.0–1.8
Germany, Fed. Rep. of7–1.9–2.5–2.4–1.9–1.6–1.3–1.2–1.4–1.8–1.3
Italy8–9.2–10.6–13.2–13.9–13.1–13.8–12.2–11.6–11.0–10.8
United Kingdom3–2.5–2.6–2.7–2.8–3.1–2.4–2.2–1.30.20.2
Seven major countries above–3.3–3.5–4.6–5.3–5.0–4.9–4.4–3.5–3.1–2.7
Seven major countries except the United States–4.1–4.4–5.0–5.1–4.9–4.5–4.0–3.6–3.1–2.8
Fiscal impulse
(+ expansionary, – contractionary)
Canada3–0.1–1.11.40.71.60.5–1.5–0.4–0.50.2
United States40.40.31.70.70.4–0.5–1.3–0.4
Japan50.1–0.5–0.3–0.5–0.6–0.5–0.7–0.2–0.4–0.3
France6–0.61.20.20.1–0.1–0.2–0.5–0.6–0.2–0.2
Germany, Fed. Rep. of7–0.2–0.7–0.20.3–0.40.3–0.7
Italy80.10.61.50.1–0.70.8–1.4–0.4–0.4–0.2
United Kingdom3–1.7–1.5–0.40.30.4–0.30.2–0.1–1.2
Seven major countries above–0.10.20.70.30.1–0.5–0.8–0.2–0.3
Seven major countries except the United States–0.3–0.2–0.1–0.2–0.6–0.3–0.3–0.3
Table A17.Major Industrial Countries: General Government Fiscal Balances and Impulses, 1980–891

(In percent of GNP)2

1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Fiscal balance
(+ surplus, – deficit)
Canada–2.8–1.5–5.9–6.9–6.4–7.0–5.5-4.6–3.5–3.5
United States–1.3–1.0–3.5–3.8–2.8–3.3–3.4–2.3–2.2–1.8
Japan–4.4–3.8–3.6–3.7–2.1–0.8–1.1–0.4–0.1–0.1
France1.9–2.8–3.2–2.8–2.8–2.9–2.4–2.3–2.2
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–2.9–3.7–3.3–2.5–1.9–1.1–1.2–1.7–2.1–1.6
Italy–8.5–11.3–11.3–10.6–11.5–12.5–11.4–10.5–9.9–10.0
United Kingdom–3.4–2.5–2.4–3.4–3.9–2.9–2.6–1.00.40.2
Seven major countries above–2.5–2.7–3.9–4.1–3.4–3.3–3.3–2.4–2.2–1.9
Seven major countries except the United States–3.5–1.04.3–4.4–3.9–3.4–3.2–2.6–2.1–2.0
Fiscal impulse
(+ expansionary, – contractionary)
Canada0.5–0.71.41.11.51.5–1.0–0.6–0.40.3
United States0.7–0.50.50.60.60.70.2–0.80.3–0.4
Japan–0.4–0.8–0.5–0.2–1.2–0.9–0.2–0.70.2
France–1.41.40.7–0.2–0.8–0.2–0.50.1–0.1
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–0.2–0.5–1.9–0.40.6–0.90.20.20.6–0.8
Italy1.31.8–1.4–1.50.81.1–0.8–0.7–0.30.1
United Kingdom–2.0–2.7–0.71.30.5–0.50.2–0.2–1.5
Seven major countries above–0.4–0.10.20.20.2–0.60.1–0.2
Seven major countries except the United States–0.5–0.3–0.6–0.1–0.1–0.3–0.2–0.5–0.1
Memorandum
Germany, Fed. Rep. of
Fiscal balance, territorial authorities3–3.9–4.9–4.4–3.3–2.6–2.1–2.2–2.7–3.4–2.9
Table A18.Developing Countries: Broad Money Aggregates, 1980–871(Annual changes, in percent)
19801981198219831984198519861987
Developing countries36.935.832.737.748.644.834.349.0
By region
Africa25.920.316.315.821.720.311.220.8
Asia26.920.318.420.724.319.322.722.2
Europe31.535.730.418.828.631.330.034.1
Middle East32.731.420.416.420.313.49.610.4
Western Hemisphere62.470.574.4106.7141.4137.084.5149.6
By predominant export
Fuel exporters35.027.323.323.121.517.921.030.4
Non-fuel exporters37.739.637.445.664.259.841.058.0
Primary product exporters48.258.156.181.6115.4117.862.4111.3
Agricultural exporters51.467.666.6102.4140.5141.073.5130.7
Mineral exporters35.926.723.723.943.344.519.934.2
Exporters of manufactures30.526.723.921.733.224.326.024.9
Service and remittance countries28.126.926.420.820.420.221.517.6
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries27.127.914.89.29.26.46.48.6
Capital importing countries38.537.136.143.356.552.239.356.2
Market borrowers47.146.046.160.775.374.549.183.3
Official borrowers19.724.624.122.726.634.639.241.4
Diversified borrowers30.326.523.121.134.322.823.520.2
Countries with recent debt-servicing problems45.749.250.766.087.488.660.6104.1
Countries without debt-servicing problems31.225.322.122.529.421.820.519.1
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters42.026.830.835.432.027.433.249.3
Fifteen heavily indebted countries57.860.161.789.5117.3117.674.2134.4
Small low-income countries22.227.624.824.328.037.440.045.3
Sub-Saharan Africa220.825.719.317.330.231.728.524.5
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries35.024.314.014.211.411.28.213.2
Non-oil developing countries37.539.439.446.663.157.343.361.1
Net oil exporters40.938.056.052.858.846.654.773.1
Net oil importers37.039.637.045.563.959.241.559.2
Memorandum
Median estimates
Developing countries21.119.117.416.416.415.516.814.2
By region
Africa20.419.015.714.816.515.714.013.1
Asia19.718.419.919.815.913.316.815.4
Europe19.324.126.514.518.724.218.915.6
Middle East30.534.619.317.115.29.48.29.1
Western Hemisphere18.418.014.816.116.618.724.020.0
Table A19.Developing Countries: Central Government Fiscal Balances, 1980–881(In percent of GDP)
198019811982198319841985198619871988
Developing countries–1.5–3.9–5.4–5.3–4.7–4.3–5.9–6.0–5.2
By region
Africa–4.7–5.7–6.8–7.5–5.2–4.7–5.8–8.0–7.5
Asia–3.3–3.1–4.2–3.2–2.7–3.0–4.0–3.7–3.7
Europe–2.7–4.9–2.7–2.6–2.7–3.1–2.6–2.3–2.0
Middle East4.3–3.1–7.1–9.4–10.3–8.4–13.2–11.1–10.0
Western Hemisphere–0.7–4.1–6.2–5.0–4.0–3.9–5.1–6.3–4.7
By predominant export
Fuel exporters2.7–2.6–6.1–7.3–5.7–5.8–10.6–10.3–9.0
Non-fuel exporters–3.2–4.5–5.0–4.3–4.2–3.6–3.7–4.1–3.7
Primary product exporters–2.3–4.9–6.2–4.8–4.3–3.8–3.9–4.6–4.0
Agricultural exporters–2.1–5.1–6.5–4.5–4.0–3.6–3.5–4.2–3.7
Mineral exporters–3.1–4.1–5.0–6.0–5.4–4.6–5.7–6.5–5.6
Exporters of manufactures–3.2–3.1–2.8–2.5–2.6–1.9–2.4–2.5–2.4
Service and remittance countries–8.0–11.1–12.5–11.5–12.6–13.7–11.5–10.6–10.0
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries8.0–0.7–4.8–7.8–8.4–7.1–13.6–11.2–10.1
Capital importing countries–2.9–4.5–5.5–4.8–4.0–3.9–4.7–5.2–4.5
Market borrowers–1.2–4.1–5.7–4.9–3.3–3.4–4.7–5.5–4.6
Official borrowers–7.4–6.8–8.1–7.2–7.3–7.2–6.7–6.6–6.1
Diversified borrowers–4.4–4.4–4.3–4.2–4.6–3.9–4.3–4.2–3.9
Countries with recent debt-servicing problems–1.9–5.0–5.8–4.9–3.7–3.6–4.7–5.9–4.7
Countries without debt-servicing problems–4.0–3.9–5.1–4.8–4.4–4.2–4.7–4.5–4.3
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters–1.6–4.2–7.1–6.8–3.7–4.9–8.3–9.5–8.1
Fifteen heavily indebted countries–0.8–4.3–5.9–5.0–3.6–3.4–4.8–6.5–5.1
Small low-income countries–6.8–6.1–6.8–6.1–5.4–5.8–5.6–5.8–5.9
Sub-Saharan Africa2–7.5–6.8–7.1–5.8–5.0–4.9–5.6–6.0–5.3
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries4.3–1.6–5.5–7.2–5.7–5.4–10.3–9.7–9.1
Non-oil developing countries–3.1–4.6–5.3–4.6–4.3–4.0–4.6–4.9–4.2
Net oil exporters–4.0–7.5–9.6–8.5–6.8–7.6–11.6–11.6–9.0
Net oil importers–3.0–4.2–4.7–4.0–3.9–3.4–3.4–3.8–3.5
Memorandum
Median estimates
Developing countries–4.6–5.6–6.4–6.2–4.7–4.5–5.1–5.0–4.3
By region
Africa–6.9–7.2–7.3–7.8–5.9–4.9–6.0–7.0–6.0
Asia–3.3–4.1–5.5–4.0–3.4–3.4–4.9–4.4–3.8
Europe–1.3–2.8–1.9–2.1–2.2–1.5–3.2–4.2–1.8
Middle East–5.6–11.8–9.1–9.2–12.8–9.0–14.4–14.3–8.7
Western Hemisphere–3.0–5.3–5.4–5.1–4.1–3.0–2.9–4.2–3.3

Foreign trade

Table A20.Summary of World Trade Volumes and Prices, 1970–89(Annual changes, in percent)
Average

1970–791
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
World trade2
Volume6.41.31.1–2.03.08.72.84.55.87.55.6
Unit value in U.S. dollar terms12.420.0–1.5–4.4–4.8–2.4–1.84.810.04.71.6
in SDR terms39.519.18.72.1–1.71.8–0.9–9.3–0.21.73.6
Volume of trade
Exports
Industrial countries6.64.23.8–2.13.09.94.72.65.37.75.1
Developing countries4.8–4.1–5.9–7.73.07.10.610.58.67.76.8
Fuel exporters2.6–13.2–14.9–16.6–3.70.8–5.713.8–0.54.53.8
Non-fuel exporters7.08.35.41.68.311.54.59.412.18.67.6
Imports
Industrial countries6.5–1.5–1.7–0.64.712.54.68.36.98.05.4
Developing countries8.37.48.0–3.3–2.42.7–0.9–4.54.48.08.0
Fuel exporters13.713.419.1–1.3–10.3–6.1–11.0–21.9–11.11.43.8
Non-fuel exporters6.65.03.3–4.21.76.73.22.18.99.78.9
Unit value of trade
(in SDR terms)
Exports
Industrial countries8.511.95.52.7–0.81.2–0.4–1.70.52.02.6
Developing countries14.336.515.32.2–4.43.6–3.8–27.01.10.96.1
Fuel exporters23.562.022.93.7–8.62.6–3.6–49.911.0–10.96.6
Non-fuel exporters8.012.47.10.7–0.94.4–3.9–14.1–2.25.06.0
Imports
Industrial countries9.420.77.30.8–2.20.9–0.8–9.70.92.5
Developing countries9.117.111.32.4–1.01.9–1.7–9.1–1.93.36.2
Fuel exporters8.412.110.43.01.9–1.0–2.4–1.23.84.8
Non-fuel exporters9.419.211.72.0–1.61.8–1.9–11.5–2.13.16.5
Terms of trade
Industrial countries–0.8–7.3–1.71.91.50.20.58.80.51.20.1
Developing countries4.816.63.6–0.2–3.41.7–2.2–19.63.1–2.3–0.1
Fuel exporters13.944.411.40.7–8.60.7–2.6–48.612.3–14.21.7
Non-fuel exporters–1.2–5.7–4.1–1.40.72.5–2.0–3.0–0.21.8–0.5
Memorandum
World trade prices (in U.S. dollar terms) for major commodity groups3
Manufactures10.610.4–3.9–2.1–2.8–3.01.017.712.08.13.7
Oil29.163.59.9–4.3–11.9–2.1–5.0–50.228.4–14.33.7
Non-oil primary commodities11.35.5–13.5–9.96.94.2–12.9–1.23.415.7–3.8
Table A21.Industrial Countries: Merchandise Trade, 1970–89(Changes, in percent)
Average

1970–791
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Total merchandise trade
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports18.717.5–0.8–5.9–1.16.63.316.516.613.15.8
Imports19.519.8–4.4–6.2–0.98.92.713.017.812.15.9
Volume
Exports6.64.23.8–2.13.09.94.72.65.37.75.1
Imports6.5–1.5–1.7–0.64.712.54.68.36.98.05.4
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports11.312.7–4.4–3.9–4.0–3.0–1.313.510.85.10.6
Imports12.321.6–2.8–5.6–5.3–3.2–1.84.310.23.90.5
Terms of trade–0.8–7.3–1.71.91.50.20.58.80.51.20.1
Non-oil trade
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports18.516.6–1.2–6.3–1.16.93.219.316.813.65.8
Imports17.914.2–5.3–3.62.311.34.922.718.213.85.9
Volume
Exports6.84.83.9–2.82.710.14.62.35.57.85.2
Imports7.02.61.81.86.814.96.28.07.58.25.5
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports10.911.2–5.0–3.6–3.7–3.0–1.316.610.75.40.5
Imports10.111.3–7.0–5.3–4.2–3.1–1.313.510.05.20.4
Terms of trade0.7–0.12.21.80.60.12.70.60.20.2
Memorandum
Real GNP23.31.60.92.44.13.02.63.03.42.5
Apparent income elasticity of non-oil imports32.11.61.92.83.62.03.12.52.42.2
Import volume of developing countries8.37.48.0–3.3–2.42.7–0.9–4.54.48.08.0
Market prices of non-oil primary commodities (in U.S. dollar terms)410.55.8–13.0–8.45.42.3–12.00.49.217.3–4.0
Unit labor costs in manufacturing (in U.S. dollar terms)9.210.2–1.0–1.2–3.7–5.3–0.117.78.53.3–0.2
Table A22.Industrial Countries: Export Volumes, Import Volumes, and Terms of Trade, 1970–891(Annual changes, in percent)
Average

1970–792
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Export volumes3
Canada6.42.64.9–0.57.418.66.53.86.710.93.5
United States7.79.8–1.6–11.0–3.88.03.27.013.226.610.8
Japan9.319.211.5–2.48.015.75.2–0.60.41.93.1
France8.63.34.4–4.34.54.71.8–0.21.26.04.5
Germany, Fed. Rep. of5.81.76.63.3–0.39.15.91.32.94.83.6
Italy7.9–7.86.6–1.63.48.03.13.93.45.04.0
United Kingdom5.10.9–0.92.82.48.35.53.65.72.51.5
Other industrial countries5.72.12.51.06.19.15.42.35.64.44.4
All industrial countries6.64.23.8–2.13.09.94.72.65.37.75.1
Of which,
Seven major countries above7.04.94.2–3.12.010.14.52.75.18.85.4
European countries6.10.94.20.53.68.14.72.24.04.54.1
Import volumes4
Canada7.65.110.1–16.511.119.610.07.98.215.25.8
United States7.0–7.80.5–3.713.024.84.513.25.56.98.5
Japan7.1–4.6–2.5–0.80.810.40.79.79.115.04.4
France7.85.8–3.63.0–1.93.44.37.16.26.24.6
Germany, Fed. Rep. of5.4–5.01.43.95.24.26.15.46.04.0
Italy5.63.7–4.5–1.8–1.910.94.07.810.86.94.9
United Kingdom4.8–5.4–4.05.68.611.13.36.57.410.12.9
Other industrial countries5.91.3–3.11.61.57.05.57.07.65.84.2
All industrial countries6.5–1.5–1.7–0.64.712.54.68.36.98.05.4
Of which,
Seven major countries above6.7–2.5–1.2–1.45.814.44.38.86.78.75.7
European countries6.11.1–4.01.72.66.54.97.07.46.94.1
Terms of trade3
Canada1.27.81.7–3.11.3–0.9–1.5–2.41.92.21.1
United States–2.2–13.41.93.03.31.9–2.20.6–6.50.11.6
Japan–3.3–21.01.11.22.52.44.134.41.10.3–1.4
France–0.3–6.3–4.72.02.21.32.69.71.01.3–0.6
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–1.0–6.4–6.63.71.7–2.31.315.13.70.1–1.4
Italy–2.3–6.2–4.92.72.3–1.50.615.82.51.4–0.1
United Kingdom–0.84.70.80.20.2–2.11.2–5.31.20.81.1
Other industrial countries0.2–3.9–1.91.7–0.70.6–0.13.60.41.20.1
All industrial countries–0.8–7.3–1.71.91.50.20.58.80.51.20.1
Of which,
Seven major countries above–1.1–8.5–1.71.92.20.10.710.60.51.20.1
European countries–0.3–3.8–3.62.20.8–0.61.07.91.40.7–0.2
Table A23.Developing Countries: Merchandise Trade, 1970–89(Annual changes, in percent)
Average

1970–791
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Developing countries
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports22.931.8–1.6–11.7–4.76.4–4.1–6.821.011.911.1
Imports21.326.78.9–7.3–6.50.4–3.50.212.814.912.5
Volume
Exports4.8–4.1–5.9–7.73.07.10.610.58.67.76.8
Imports8.37.48.0–3.3–2.42.7–0.9–4.54.48.08.0
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports17.337.54.5–4.3–7.5–0.6–4.7–15.611.53.94.1
Imports12.018.00.8–4.2–4.2–2.3–2.65.08.16.34.1
Terms of trade4.816.63.6–0.2–3.41.7–2.2–19.63.1–2.3–0.1
Purchasing power of exports29.811.8–2.5–7.9–0.59.0–1.6–11.211.95.26.7
Memorandum
Real GNP growth of trading partners4.62.62.10.82.74.33.03.33.64.03.2
Market prices (in U.S. dollar terms) of primary commodities (excluding petroleum) exported by developing countries11.35.5–13.5–9.96.94.2–12.9–1.23.415.7–3.8
Fuel exporters
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports30.141.5–5.3–19.0–14.7–0.9–9.9–34.121.8–4.18.5
Imports26.528.219.1–4.8–13.2–8.2–12.7–11.9–3.18.46.7
Volume
Exports2.6–13.2–14.9–16.6–3.70.8–5.713.8–0.54.53.8
Imports13.713.419.1–1.3–10.3–6.1–11.0–21.9–11.11.43.8
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports26.763.211.4–2.9–11.5–1.6–4.5–42.122.3–8.34.5
Imports11.213.0–3.6–3.2–2.3–1.912.88.96.92.8
Terms of trade13.944.411.40.7–8.60.7–2.6–48.612.3–14.21.7
Purchasing power of exports216.925.3–5.3–16.0–11.91.4–8.1–41.611.8–10.35.5
Memorandum
Oil export volume (in billions of barrels)310.09.17.66.15.65.55.15.95.76.06.1
Average oil export price (in U.S. dollars per barrel)38.730.733.732.328.427.826.513.216.914.515.0
(Annual percentage change)29.163.59.9–4.3–11.9–2.1–5.0–50.228.4–14.33.7
Real GNP growth of trading partners4.52.62.10.72.64.43.13.23.74.13.3
Export unit value (in U.S.dollar terms) of manufactures410.610.4–3.9–2.1–2.8–3.01.017.712.08.13.7
Non-fuel exporters
Value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports18.622.72.3–4.33.911.5–0.58.620.717.411.8
Imports19.626.04.6–8.5–3.14.20.24.417.516.513.8
Volume
Exports7.08.35.41.68.311.54.59.412.18.67.6
Imports6.65.03.3–4.21.76.73.22.18.99.78.9
Unit value (in U.S. dollar terms)
Exports10.813.3–3.0–5.8–4.00.1–4.8–0.77.78.13.9
Imports12.220.11.2–4.5–4.7–2.3–2.92.37.96.24.4
Terms of trade–1.2–5.7–4.1–1.40.72.5–2.0–3.0–0.21.8–0.5
Purchasing power of exports25.72.21.10.29.014.22.46.111.910.67.1
Memorandum
Real GNP growth of trading partners4.72.62.10.82.84.32.83.33.53.83.2
Market price (in U.S. dollar terms) of primary commodities (excluding petroleum) exported by non-fuel exporters12.06.7–13.4–11.16.74.0–13.0–1.52.216.4–3.3
Gross reserves (end of period) as percentage of total imports of goods and services523.917.215.916.718.720.622.926.730.730.230.7
Table A24.Developing Countries: Export Volumes, 1970–89(Annual changes, in percent)
Average

1970–791
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Developing countries4.8–4.1–5.9–7.73.07.10.610.58.67.76.8
By region
Africa3.2–1.6–15.0–4.93.56.46.76.1–2.90.14.7
Asia10.78.88.81.110.514.24.317.616.610.99.7
Europe6.43.83.43.68.611.83.5–0.17.84.75.7
Middle East3.8–15.2–17.7–20.1–9.4–4.5–9.418.5–1.34.92.9
Western Hemisphere1.92.06.7–3.07.68.10.6–0.86.58.02.7
By predominant export
Fuel exporters2.6–13.2–14.9–16.6–3.70.8–5.713.8–0.54.53.8
Non-fuel exporters7.08.35.41.68.311.54.59.412.18.67.6
Primary product exporters4.66.71.55.97.95.44.36.96.35.3
Agricultural exporters4.75.66.80.86.710.74.93.810.78.75.8
Mineral exporters4.88.8–8.2–1.64.01.16.75.6–1.40.84.2
Exporters of manufactures10.210.39.02.79.614.53.712.615.79.89.0
Service and remittance countries4.73.52.31.110.95.77.56.53.28.14.4
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries4.0–16.5–18.7–21.8–10.2–6.2–11.021.3–1.93.92.4
Capital importing countries5.63.91.8–0.77.811.03.69.110.38.27.3
Market borrowers6.53.81.1–2.39.811.73.510.510.78.37.1
Official borrowers0.50.4–5.3–3.42.3–0.61.24.65.56.27.5
Diversified borrowers5.35.66.65.53.312.34.46.210.08.27.9
Countries with recent debt servicing problems3.33.4–4.0–3.85.67.81.90.82.56.13.9
Countries without debt servicing problems8.44.37.11.89.513.54.814.414.69.28.9
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters1.0–6.3–7.2–7.06.29.60.37.51.05.15.0
Fifteen heavily indebted countries2.61.3–1.7–5.76.09.22.10.34.17.43.5
Small low-income countries6.7–1.8–1.13.60.55.210.72.53.69.1
Sub-Saharan Africa20.80.7–2.73.41.85.4–0.37.50.11.36.3
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries2.7–15.1–17.7–19.5–5.7–0.6–6.416.1–2.53.33.6
Non-oil developing countries6.88.36.11.98.211.03.89.111.78.67.4
Net oil exporters4.23.96.47.07.59.90.310.46.47.05.0
Net oil importers7.29.16.10.98.311.24.59.012.58.97.7
Table A25.Developing Countries: Import Volumes, 1970–89(Annual changes, in percent)
Average

1970–791
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Developing countries8.37.48.0–3.3–2.42.7–0.9–4.54.48.08.0
By region
Africa5.99.210.9–7.5–10.3–0.2–7.0–11.1–5.31.22.5
Asia8.99.77.52.28.77.95.72.011.814.311.2
Europe6.6–3.2–1.1–6.92.16.63.80.25.67.16.8
Middle East13.59.116.95.9–2.5–6.1–13.8–21.7–8.7–1.82.6
Western Hemisphere6.89.44.0–17.7–22.63.11.53.23.63.26.6
By predominant export
Fuel exporters13.713.419.1–1.3–10.3–6.1–11.0–21.9–11.11.43.8
Non-fuel exporters6.65.03.3–4.21.76.73.22.18.99.78.9
Primary product exporters4.57.00.2–9.0–6.30.3–5.75.36.45.16.1
Agricultural exporters5.75.6–4.3–7.1–2.7–1.5–3.48.06.25.97.5
Mineral exporters1.810.412.0–13.3–14.75.0–11.7–1.46.72.92.2
Exporters of manufactures8.63.44.6–2.26.911.78.81.311.512.710.8
Service and remittance countries6.55.18.12.03.73.1–0.3–1.12.34.65.2
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries17.013.421.77.9–4.9–9.3–19.1–24.5–12.8–2.71.4
Capital importing countries7.36.45.8–5.4–1.85.32.5–1.46.59.28.6
Market borrowers8.68.96.9–6.4–5.42.8–1.82.99.310.710.0
Official borrowers3.5–0.3–0.2–1.5–0.42.41.5–9.72.73.12.2
Diversified borrowers6.03.35.3–4.27.012.512.0–6.41.97.67.3
Countries with recent debt servicing problems6.34.13.2–13.7–14.02.0–1.0–4.7–0.24.25.9
Countries without debt servicing problems8.38.47.91.26.57.14.30.39.811.39.7
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters11.213.516.8–10.0–16.4–2.0–1.4–19.3–9.45.25.7
Fifteen heavily indebted countries8.57.94.7–16.4–21.2–2.10.6–1.40.84.47.2
Small low-income countries2.03.6–3.20.6–1.76.12.12.10.43.73.1
Sub-Saharan Africa23.25.6–4.2–7.9–1.30.1–3.2–1.23.02.3
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries15.412.520.75.2–7.9–9.3–14.8–22.0–13.5–2.52.0
Non-oil developing countries6.75.94.2–6.2–0.27.13.40.38.39.98.9
Net oil exporters8.312.112.9–13.3–10.89.61.1–13.7–4.09.87.4
Net oil importers6.54.92.8–4.81.66.73.82.59.99.99.1
Table A26.Developing Countries: Export Unit Values, 1970–89(Annual changes, in percent, in terms of U.S. dollars)
Average

1970–791
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Developing countries17.337.54.5–4.3–7.5–0.6–4.7–15.611.53.94.1
By region
Africa15.539.5–1.5–9.8–6.1–3.0–7.4–17.213.72.53.1
Asia11.716.3–0.4–4.3–4.21.4–5.3–6.410.68.04.3
Europe10.411.8–1.7–2.3–7.0–5.2–2.55.34.95.23.0
Middle East26.463.213.5–1.8–12.0–2.1–2.2–42.322.5–10.04.4
Western Hemisphere16.028.6–0.1–6.7–6.22.3–6.1–15.66.85.64.3
By predominant export
Fuel exporters26.763.211.4–2.9–11.5–1.6–4.5–42.122.3–8.34.5
Non-fuel exporters10.813.3–3.0–5.8–4.00.1–4.8–0.77.78.13.9
Primary product exporters11.615.0–7.1–9.8–2.31.6–9.2–2.96.09.63.3
Agricultural exporters12.911.6–5.5–9.6–2.74.2–9.1–4.72.29.03.8
Mineral exporters9.221.6–9.9–10.2–1.4–4.1–9.71.715.011.02.0
Exporters of manufactures10.111.00.3–2.7–4.8–0.7–1.90.28.27.44.2
Service and remittance countries10.419.8–0.9–6.3–7.4–2.1–5.83.112.97.64.2
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries28.066.113.9–1.6–12.5–2.2–2.2–47.527.1–13.34.6
Capital importing countries13.623.7–0.4–5.6–5.5–0.2–5.3–8.69.36.44.0
Market borrowers14.627.60.1–5.6–6.1–5.8–11.511.15.94.5
Official borrowers12.416.72.0–7.0–2.93.1–6.1–4.12.29.01.1
Diversified borrowers11.213.7–2.9–5.2–4.6–1.7–3.4–0.35.37.53.2
Countries with recent debt servicing problems14.226.5–0.8–6.7–5.7–0.1–6.2–11.08.45.13.9
Countries without debt servicing problems12.821.20.1–4.7–5.4–0.2–4.7–7.09.77.14.1
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters24.357.26.6–5.2–10.0–0.9–7.0–36.617.9–3.34.5
Fifteen heavily indebted countries17.034.11.1–6.3–6.61.7–5.7–16.58.74.54.4
Small low-income countries12.09.3–5.8–9.01.46.0–8.4–1.43.810.81.5
Sub-Saharan Africa212.115.1–8.2–9.2–2.83.3–4.1–5.62.67.40.9
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries27.765.112.2–2.6–12.3–2.0–4.4–45.025.6–9.73.9
Non-oil developing countries11.315.7–2.3–5.7–4.40.1–4.9–3.68.07.34.1
Net oil exporters15.633.7–0.2–6.3–5.70.5–7.6–27.911.00.64.7
Net oil importers10.712.6–2.7–5.5–4.1–4.30.97.58.24.0
Table A27.Developing Countries: Import Unit Values, 1970–89(Annual changes, in percent, in terms of U.S. dollars)
Average

1970–791
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Developing countries12.018.00.8–4.2–4.2–2.3–2.65.08.16.34.1
By region
Africa12.519.2–3.0–4.9–3.6–4.2–4.013.011.26.84.3
Asia11.917.92.3–5.5–4.3–1.3–2.51.47.57.65.0
Europe12.018.3–1.9–2.3–6.2–4.2–1.25.76.33.02.8
Middle East11.715.4–0.3–4.5–3.7–2.3–2.312.29.86.62.6
Western Hemisphere11.819.84.8–2.1–3.3–1.4–3.5–1.57.84.93.8
By predominant export
Fuel exporters11.213.0–3.6–3.2–2.3–1.912.88.96.92.8
Non-fuel exporters12.220.11.2–4.5–4.7–2.3–2.92.37.96.24.4
Primary product exporters12.422.43.5–4.1–3.6–2.1–5.2–1.09.86.04.4
Agricultural exporters12.221.65.2–4.0–4.1–1.2–4.6–4.59.25.74.1
Mineral exporters13.024.5–0.5–4.4–2.4–4.4–6.99.011.56.55.3
Exporters of manufactures12.019.10.2–4.8–4.7–2.7–1.64.16.86.44.6
Service and remittance countries12.117.1–1.7–3.9–7.5–1.8–2.51.29.25.53.5
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries11.111.6–1.8–4.1–3.9–2.5–1.413.611.07.42.4
Capital importing countries12.119.11.3–4.2–4.3–2.3–2.83.77.86.24.3
Market borrowers11.917.82.8–3.8–4.0–1.4–3.62.09.16.54.6
Official borrowers12.323.94.9–4.5–4.5–1.6–5.28.05.24.83.9
Diversified borrowers12.220.2–3.8–5.0–4.9–4.6–0.25.66.06.03.7
Countries with recent debt servicing problems12.019.81.8–3.6–3.3–2.1–4.06.57.95.03.8
Countries without debt servicing problems12.118.50.9–4.6–4.9–2.4–2.22.47.76.84.5
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters11.314.31.7–3.1–2.4–2.0–2.511.97.06.53.1
Fifteen heavily indebted countries11.618.04.2–3.1–2.8–0.9–3.42.18.65.33.6
Small low-income countries12.119.81.3–5.2–5.0–1.4–3.85.15.76.34.1
Sub-Saharan Africa212.518.9–3.9–4.9–4.0–2.8–2.612.89.26.14.0
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries10.911.4–1.9–4.0–3.6–2.3–1.612.910.27.32.6
Non-oil developing countries12.220.01.7–4.2–4.4–2.3–2.93.07.76.24.4
Net oil exporters12.019.05.4–2.2–2.3–2.6–4.15.66.26.03.3
Net oil importers12.220.21.1–4.6–4.8–2.3–2.72.67.96.24.5
Table A28.Developing Countries: Terms of Trade, 1970–89(Annual changes, in percent)
Average

1970–791
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Developing countries4.816.63.6–0.2–3.41.7–2.2–19.63.1–2.3–0.1
By region
Africa2.717.01.6–5.1–2.61.3–3.6–26.72.2–4.0–1.1
Asia–0.2–1.4–2.71.30.22.8–2.9–7.72.90.3–0.6
Europe–1.4–5.60.2–0.8–1.1–1.3–0.3–1.32.20.2
Middle East13.241.513.82.9–8.50.20.1–48.611.6–15.61.8
Western Hemisphere3.87.4–4.6–4.7–3.03.8–2.7–14.3–0.90.60.5
By predominant export
Fuel exporters13.944.411.40.7–8.60.7–2.6–48.612.3–14.21.7
Non-fuel exporters–1.2–5.7–4.1–1.40.72.5–2.0–3.0–0.21.8–0.5
Primary product exporters–0.7–6.1–10.3–5.91.43.8–4.3–1.9–3.53.4–1.1
Agricultural exporters0.7–8.2–10.1–5.81.55.4–4.7–0.2–6.43.1–0.3
Mineral exporters–3.3–2.4–9.4–6.11.00.3–3.1–6.73.14.2–3.2
Exporters of manufactures–1.7–6.80.12.2–0.12.0–0.3–3.71.30.9–0.4
Service and remittance countries–1.62.30.8–2.50.1–0.3–3.31.93.42.00.7
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries15.248.816.02.6–9.00.3–0.8–53.814.5–19.32.1
Capital importing countries1.43.9–1.6–1.5–1.32.2–2.6–11.91.40.2–0.3
Market borrowers2.48.3–2.6–1.9–2.21.5–2.3–13.21.9–0.6–0.1
Official borrowers0.1–5.8–2.8–2.61.74.8–1.0–11.2–2.84.0–2.8
Diversified borrowers–0.9–5.40.9–0.20.43.1–3.2–5.6–0.71.3–0.6
Countries with recent debt servicing problems2.05.6–2.5–3.3–2.52.1–2.3–16.40.50.1
Countries without debt servicing problems0.72.3–0.9–0.52.2–2.6–9.11.80.3–0.4
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters11.737.64.8–2.2–7.71.2–4.6–43.410.1–9.21.3
Fifteen heavily indebted countries4.813.7–3.0–3.4–3.82.6–2.4–18.20.1–0.80.7
Small low-income countries–0.1–8.8–7.0–4.16.77.5–4.8–6.2–1.94.3–2.4
Sub-Saharan Africa2–0.4–3.2–4.5–4.51.26.3–1.6–16.3–6.01.2–3.0
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries15.248.314.31.5–9.00.2–2.8–51.314.0–15.81.3
Non-oil developing countries–0.8–3.7–3.9–1.52.5–2.0–6.40.21.1–0.3
Net oil exporters3.312.4–5.3–4.2–3.63.2–3.7–31.74.6–5.11.3
Net oil importers–1.4–6.3–3.7–1.00.72.4–1.6–1.6–0.31.9–0.5
Table A29.Developing Countries: Non-Oil Commodity Prices, 1970–891(Annual changes, in percent)
Average

1970–792
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Non-oil primary commodities11.35.5–13.5–9.96.94.2–12.9–1.23.415.7–3.8
By commodity group3
Food and beverages11.80.3–12.9–11.19.78.7–15.32.0–13.113.5–0.1
Food9.213.2–6.5–19.211.22.9–18.7–12.07.325.4–0.4
Beverages15.0–12.4–21.11.17.915.9–11.616.2–28.7–0.20.4
Agricultural raw materials14.111.8–13.2–6.64.84.3–14.8–1.129.47.6–0.6
Metals7.39.7–16.8–10.34.4–7.4–3.5–9.919.931.8–14.3
By region4
Africa10.34.8–16.1–9.76.03.7–9.13.0–1.912.7–5.3
Asia10.29.3–11.7–16.68.211.0–20.9–12.116.418.9–2.3
Europe9.97.2–6.5–4.65.11.3–10.8–6.314.813.6–2.9
Middle East10.217.1–7.4–15.811.00.1–14.5–5.819.416.5–9.0
Western Hemisphere10.55.1–14.4–8.16.0–0.4–8.54.9–6.418.2–3.5
By predominant export4
Fuel exporters12.33.5–16.8–9.07.05.4–13.11.99.013.1–3.6
Non-fuel exporters10.36.7–13.4–11.16.74.0–13.0–1.52.216.4–3.3
Primary product exporters10.36.1–14.6–10.96.93.3–12.2–0.61.017.1–3.2
Agricultural exporters11.64.1–14.5–10.37.45.8–13.7–0.1–2.614.5–0.5
Mineral exporters6.713.5–15.0–13.15.3–5.9–6.1–2.414.925.5–11.4
Exporters of manufactures10.18.1–7.1–10.24.910.6–19.0–6.27.212.2–2.1
Service and remittance countries9.215.8–4.7–17.67.90.4–13.0–6.215.415.6–7.5
By financial criteria4
Capital exporting countries8.914.8–6.8–21.910.84.0–20.00.216.625.6–12.6
Capital importing countries10.56.3–13.8–10.86.74.1–13.0–1.13.016.0–3.3
Market borrowers10.93.8–14.9–9.56.84.5–13.2–2.05.216.5–2.6
Official borrowers9.68.4–16.0–12.27.31.4–8.23.1–0.616.0–6.6
Diversified borrowers9.913.0–8.5–13.96.25.4–16.3–1.9–0.914.3–2.3
Countries with recent debt servicing problems9.95.1–14.3–10.17.31.2–10.30.61.217.6–5.1
Countries without debt servicing problems11.37.9–13.1–11.86.08.3–16.6–3.45.613.7–0.6
By miscellaneous criteria4
Capital importing fuel exporters12.43.2–17.1–8.56.95.5–12.92.08.812.7–3.4
Fifteen heavily indebted countries10.42.7–14.1–8.86.32.5–10.81.5–2.117.1–4.2
Small low-income countries10.11.5–13.9–11.08.99.7–13.71.6–3.911.0–6.0
Sub-Saharan Africa10.6–0.1–17.9–8.58.05.1–8.73.4–2.39.3–6.2
By alternative analytical categories4
Oil exporting countries12.54.6–18.1–9.56.86.4–15.115.014.6–3.0
Non-oil developing countries10.36.6–13.4–11.06.73.9–12.8–1.12.016.8–3.6
Net oil exporters11.75.4–15.2–12.57.56.0–15.8–8.117.914.2–1.6
Net oil importers10.16.7–13.0–10.76.63.5–12.20.3–1.016.6–3.7
Memorandum
Oil export unit value529.163.59.9–4.3–11.9–2.1–5.0–50.228.4–14.33.7
Export unit value of manufactures610.610.4–3.9–2.1–2.8–3.01.017.712.08.13.7

Current account transactions

Table A30.Summary of Payments Balances on Current Account, 1980–891(In billions of U.S. dollars)
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Industrial countries–58.1–16.3–20.0–17.5–58.1–48.6–16.3–42.9–45.2–51.4
United States1.96.9–8.7–46.3–107.1–115.1–138.8–154.0–128.9–128.7
Other industrial countries–59.9–23.2–11.428.849.066.5122.5111.083.677.3
Of which,
Japan–10.74.86.920.835.049.285.887.078.080.9
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–13.8–3.65.15.39.816.439.145.044.941.5
Developing countries30.6–47.8–86.4–63.1–33.3–24.3–40.70.3–17.6–26.1
By region
Africa–2.2–22.2–21.5–12.1–8.0–0.2–8.8–5.0–7.9–7.8
Asia–14.4–19.1–17.4–14.8–4.3–13.55.120.916.18.2
Europe–15.6–13.7–8.0–5.1–2.9–3.0–2.00.90.1–0.4
Middle East92.550.03.0–20.2–15.7–2.8–18.2–5.2–15.1–13.0
Western Hemisphere–29.8–42.9–42.4–10.9–2.5–4.7–16.9–11.3–10.9–13.2
By analytical criteria
Fuel exporters96.434.8–18.2–19.6–5.42.3–32.1–3.9–22.9–20.7
Non-fuel exporters–65.8–82.5–68.2–43.5–28.0–26.6–8.64.35.3–5.5
Market borrowers–35.3–71.5–73.7–29.3–3.46.4–0.820.614.36.3
Official borrowers–9.1–12.0–10.5–8.4–9.7–9.5–8.7–9.8–8.9–9.7
Other countries20.8–3.42.73.14.82.33.15.73.92.7
Total3–26.6–67.5–103.7–77.5–86.6–70.6–53.9–36.9–58.9–74.8
Memorandum
Total, by selected categories
Trade balance31.515.7–2.53.89.76.25.032.334.126.0
Timing asymmetry49.7–2.8–8.41.7–0.810.46.635.215.011.2
Residual asymmetry21.718.55.92.210.6–4.2–1.6–2.919.214.8
Balance on services–46.5–74.5–89.7–74.9–90.9–70.149.8–59.0–81.7–89.5
(in percent of service payments)–6.2–8.7–10.4–9.4–10.9–8.5–5.5–5.5–6.9–7.2
Private transfers, net3.03.91.53.76.45.47.510.49.810.6
Official transfers, net–14.6–12.6–13.0–10.1–11.9–12.1–16.6–20.6–21.221.9
Table A31.Industrial Countries: Balance of Payments on Current Account, 1980–891(In billions of U.S. dollars)
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Balance on current account
Canada–1.0–5.12.32.52.1–1.4–7.6–8.0–8.6–11.9
United States1.96.9–8.7–46.3–107.1–115.1–138.8–154.0–128.9–128.7
Japan–10.74.86.920.835.049.285.887.078.080.9
France–4.2–4.8–12.1–4.7–0.8–0.32.9–4.1–3.0–2.8
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–13.8–3.65.15.39.816.439.145.044.941.5
Italy–9.9–9.5–6.41.4–2.3–3.52.6–1.0–2.8–4.2
United Kingdom7.113.77.85.72.74.20.2–2.6–19.0–19.0
Other industrial countries–27.4–18.7–14.9–2.22.51.7–0.8–5.4–5.8–7.2
All industrial countries–58.1–16.3–20.0–17.5–58.1–48.6–16.3–42.9–45.2–51.4
Of which,
Seven major countries above–30.72.4–5.1–15.3–60.6–50.4–15.5–37.6–39.4–44.2
European countries–43.2–13.5–10.811.922.128.955.242.123.116.6
All industrial countries except the United States–59.9–23.2–11.428.849.066.5122.5111.083.677.3
Balance on goods, services, and private transfers
Canada–1.2–5.42.02.42.3–1.2–7.7–7.5–8.0–11.3
United States6.611.4–3.2–40.0–98.5–103.9–127.1–144.0–120.2–119.7
Japan–9.56.28.122.236.450.587.389.780.684.0
France–2.5–2.8–9.5–2.61.01.05.8–1.01.92.5
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–7.12.411.110.616.122.546.555.155.152.7
Italy–10.0–8.9–5.91.4–2.5–3.25.61.30.4–1.0
United Kingdom11.216.911.08.65.58.63.52.8–12.9–13.6
Other industrial countries–24.5–15.4–11.50.85.33.92.2–2.3–2.6–3.9
All industrial countries–37.04.32.33.5–34.5–21.616.3–5.8–5.9–10.4
Of which,
Seven major countries above–12.519.713.72.6–39.7–25.614.1–3.5–3.3–6.4
European countries–28.60.94.124.434.742.874.866.250.845.1
All industrial countries except the United States–43.6–7.05.543.4–64.182.2143.4138.2114.3109.3
Memorandum
Balance on current account as percentage of GNP
Canada–0.4–1.70.80.80.6–0.4–2.1–1.9–1.8–2.3
United States0.10.2–0.3–1.4–2.8–2.9–3.3–3.4–2.6–2.5
Japan–1.00.40.61.82.83.74.33.62.82.7
France–0.6–0.8–2.2–0.9–0.2–0.10.4–0.5–0.3–0.3
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–1.7–0.50.80.81.62.64.44.03.83.5
Italy–2.2–2.3–1.60.3–0.6–0.80.4–0.1–0.3–0.5
United Kingdom1.32.71.61.20.60.9–0.4–2.4–2.3
Other industrial countries–2.3–1.7–1.4–0.20.30.2–0.1–0.3–0.3–0.4
All industrial countries–0.8–0.2–0.3–0.2–0.7–0.6–0.2–0.3–0.3–0.4
Of which,
Seven major countries above–0.5–0.1–0.2–0.8–0.6–0.2–0.3–0.3–0.4
European countries–1.2–0.4–0.40.40.81.01.40.90.40.3
All industrial countries except the United States–1.2–0.5–0.30.61.11.41.91.40.90.9
Table A32.Industrial Countries: Current Account Transactions, 1980–89(In billions of U.S. dollar)
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Exports (f.o.b.)1,207.21,198.11,127.41,115.21,188.71,228.11,430.21,667.41,886.31,994.9
Imports (f.o.b.)1,274.21,217.81,142.31,131.81,232.61,266.41,430.81,686.11,890.52,001.6
Trade balance–67.0–19.7–14.9–16.6–43.9–38.3–0.5–18.7–4.2–6.6
Services receipts538.0591.8586.3540.7561.2582.4668.5804.7884.6933.2
Services payments497.8559.0561.3513.2545.4559.1643.0783.7877.0926.9
Balance on services40.232.825.027.615.823.325.521.07.66.4
Balance on goods and services–26.813.110.111.0–28.1–15.024.92.43.4–0.3
Private transfers, net–10.2–8.8–7.8–7.5–6.3–6.6–8.6–8.1–9.3–10.1
Official transfers, net–21.1–20.6–22.3–20.9–23.6–27.0–32.7–37.2–39.3–41.0
Balance on current account–58.1–16.3–20.0–17.5–58.1–48.6–16.3–42.9–45.2–51.4
Memorandum
Current account balance as percentage of GNP–0.8–0.2–0.3–0.2–0.7–0.6–0.2–0.3–0.3–0.4
Current account balance as percentage of exports of goods and services–3.3–0.9–1.2–1.1–3.3–2.7–0.8–1.7–1.6–1.8
Exports of goods and services1,745.21,789.91,713.71,655.91,749.91,810.52,098.72,472.12,770.92,928.2
Oil trade balance1–248.3–238.6–194.7–164.4–161.4–143.2–89.8–103.8–98.7–105.0
Table A33.Developing Countries: Summary of Payments Balances on Current Account, 1980–891(In billions of U.S. dollars)
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Developing countries30.6–47.8–86.4–63.1–33.3–24.3–40.70.3–17.6–26.1
By region
Africa–2.2–22.2–21.5–12.1–8.0–0.2–8.8–5.0–7.9–7.8
Asia–14.4–19.1–17.4–14.8–4.3–13.55.120.916.18.2
Europe–15.6–13.7–8.0–5.1–2.9–3.0–2.00.90.1–0.4
Middle East92.550.03.0–20.2–15.7–2.8–18.2–5.2–15.1–13.0
Western Hemisphere–29.8–42.9–42.4–10.9–2.5–4.7–16.9–11.3–10.9–13.2
By predominant export
Fuel exporters96.434.8–18.2–19.6–5.42.3–32.1–3.9–22.9–20.7
Non-fuel exporters–65.8–82.5–68.2–43.5–28.0–26.6–8.64.35.3–5.5
Primary product exporters–37.1–55.9–54.5–35.7–24.7–14.0–15.6–17.0–12.7–15.3
Agricultural exporters–35.2–39.4–41.8–30.6–17.9–13.1–14.4–15.5–12.4–14.8
Mineral exporters–1.9–16.4–12.7–5.2–6.7–0.9–1.3–1.5–0.3–0.5
Exporters of manufactures–22.5–16.7–4.3–0.55.2–4.411.825.622.415.4
Service and remittance countries–6.2–10.0–9.4–7.3–8.5–8.1–4.8–4.3–4.5–5.6
By financial criteria
Capital exporting countries93.954.57.3–13.6–9.50.4–15.6–0.9–11.2–9.0
Capital importing countries–63.3–102.3–93.7–49.5–23.8–24.6–25.11.2–6.4–17.1
Market borrowers–35.3–71.5–73.7–29.3–3.46.4–0.820.614.36.3
Official borrowers–9.1–12.0–10.5–8.4–9.7–9.5–8.7–9.8–8.9–9.7
Diversified borrowers–18.9–18.9–9.5–11.9–10.6–21.5–15.6–9.6–11.8–13.8
Countries with recent debt-servicing problems–42.6–71.9–66.2–23.2–10.4–6.3–23.3–15.4–16.5–19.2
Countries without debt-servicing problems–20.8–30.5–27.5–26.4–13.4–18.3–1.816.610.12.0
By miscellaneous criteria
Capital importing fuel exporters2.5–19.8–25.5–6.0–4.21.9–16.5–3.1–11.7–11.7
Fifteen heavily indebted countries–29.1–50.3–50.8–15.3–1.5–0.3–15.3–8.7–10.1–12.0
Small low-income countries–8.7–9.1–8.5–5.3–6.6–6.6–7.1–7.7–7.8–8.2
Sub-Saharan Africa2–8.6–9.7–8.3–5.5–3.2–3.0–5.1–6.4–6.5–6.6
By alternative analytical categories
Oil exporting countries104.049.9–9.6–22.2–7.63.1–27.3–5.4–18.6–15.5
Non-oil developing countries–73.5–97.6–76.8–40.9–25.7–27.3–13.45.70.9–10.6
Net oil exporters–8.4–21.3–16.5–3.4–2.0–4.2–9.3–0.4–6.5–7.6
Net oil importers–65.1–76.3–60.2–37.6–23.7–23.1–4.16.17.5–3.0
Table A34.Developing Countries: Summary of Payments Balances on Goods, Services, and Private Transfers, 1980–89(In billions of U.S. dollars)
1980198119821983198419851986198719881989
Developing countries25.2–54.8–94.7–72.9–44.1–38.1–55.7–15.3–34.8–44.3
By region
Africa–5.8–25.9–24.9–15.7–11.24.2–12.9–9.7–13.3–13.2
Asia–17.2–21.9–20.3–17.6–7.3–16.42.117.612.64.4
Europe–15.8–14.3–8.8–6.3–4.0–4.3–3.8–1.5–2.6–3.5
Middle East94.250.72.4–21.5–18.0–7.1–22.9–9.0–19.2–17.5
Western Hemisphere–30.3–43.5–43.2–11.8–3.6–6.1–18.1–12.7–12.3–14.6
By predominant export
Fuel exporters101.439.1–15.1–17.1–3.73.9–30.5–2.5–21.7–19.8
Non-fuel exporters–76.2–93.9–79.6–55.7–40.4–42.1–25.2–12.8–13.1–24.5
Primary product exporters–42.2–61.3–60.0–41.5–30.2–20.5–22.2–24.7–21.0–23.7
Agricultural exporters–38.8–43.1–45.9–35.0–22.4–18.3–19.9–22.0–19.3–21.7