Historically, women around the world have had less opportunity than men in education, employment, and health care, and less political representation. The moral argument for gender equality is clear, and the economic evidence is mounting. The International Monetary Fund and other international institutions have focused in recent years on developing a range of approaches to help whittle away at the barriers that prevent girls and women from achieving their full economic potential. This book is based on a joint research project between the IMF and the United Kingdom's Department for International Development on gender budgeting around the world. The book summarizes some of the most prominent gender budgeting efforts in more than 80 countries tried over the last two decades. The research team relied on published materials, developed a questionnaire sent to the ministries of finance of all 189 IMF member countries, and conducted interviews with country officials and international organizations that offer technical assistance to countries seeking to implement gender budgeting. Although the gender gap is shrinking, progress remains uneven across many regions of the world. Gender budgeting allows fiscal authorities to ensure that tax spending and policies address inequality and the advancement of women in areas such as education, health, and economic empowerment. Gender budgeting has been targeted to a variety of goals such as access to education, childcare, and health services; raising female labor force participation; and eradicating violence against women. There are still many lessons to be learned in implementing the appropriate government policies and fiscal measures to continue promoting women's development and gender equality.