Chapter

4 Bibliography

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
January 2004
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Determinants of Growth and Poverty (pp. 15–24)

    AbedGeorge T.2003“Unfulfilled Promise: Why the Middle East and North Africa Region Has Lagged in Growth and Globalization,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 40No. 1 (March) pp. 1014.

    AhmedMasood and HughBredenkamp2000“Supporting Poverty Reduction in Low-Income Developing Countries: The International Community’s Response,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 37 (December) pp. 1013.

    AkitobyBernardin and MatthiasCinyabuguma2003“Sources of Growth in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Retrospective and Prospects,”IMF Working Paper (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    Alonso-GamoPatriciaAnnalisaFedelino and SebastianParis Horvitz1997“Globalization and Growth Prospect in Arab Countries,”IMF Working Paper 97/125 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AzizJahangir1996“Growth Accounting and Growth Processes,”IMF Working Paper 96/116 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AzizJahangir2002“Poverty Dynamics in Rural India,”IMF Working Paper 02/172 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AzizJahangir and ChristophDuenwald2002“The Growth-Financial Intermediation Nexus in China,”IMF Working Paper 02/194 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BaldacciEmanueleLuiz R.de Mello Jr and MariaInchauste-Comboni2002“Financial Crises, Poverty, and Income Distribution,”IMF Working Paper 02/4 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BasuAnupamEvangelosCalamitsis and DhaneshwarGhura2000“Promoting Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: Learning What Works” Economic Issues No. 23 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BasuAnupam and KrishnaSrinivasan2002“Foreign Direct Investment in Africa,”IMF Working Paper 02/61 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BeddiesChristian1999“Investment Capital Accumulation and Growth—Some Evidence from The Gambia 1964–98”IMF Working Paper 99/117 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BerthélemyJean-Claude and LudvigSõderling2002“Will There Be New Emerging-Market Economies in Africa by the Year 2020?”IMF Working Paper 02/131 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BigstenA.P.CollierP.DerconS.FafchampsM.GauthierB.GunningJ.OostendorpC.PattilloM.SoderbomF.Teal and A.Zeufack1999“Investment in Africa’s Manufacturing Sector: A Four Country Panel Data Analysis,”Oxford Bulletin of Economics and StatisticsVol. 61No. 99/4 pp. 489512.

    BigstenA.P.CollierP.DerconS.FafchampsM.GauthierB.GunningJ.OostendorpC.PattilloM.SoderbomF.Teal and A.Zeufack2000“Adjustment Costs, Irreversibility, and Investment Patterns in African Manufacturing,”IMF Working Paper 00/99 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BigstenA.P.CollierP.DerconS.FafchampsM.GauthierB.GunningJ.OostendorpC.PattilloM.SoderbomF.Teal and A.Zeufack2001“Exporting and Efficiency in African Manufacturing,”in Policies to Promote Competitiveness in Manufacturing in Sub-Saharan Africaed. by A.FosuS.Nsouli and A.Varoudakis (Washington: OECD, IMF, and African Economic Research Consortium).

    BisatAmerMohamed A.El-Erian and ThomasHelbling1997“Growth, Investment, and Savings in the Arab Economies,”IMF Working Paper 97/85 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BorenszteinEduardoJoséDe Gregorio and Jong-WhaLee1994“How Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Economic Growth,”IMF Working Paper 94/110 (Washington: International Monetary Fund); also, 1998, Journal of International Economics,Vol. 45No. 1 pp. 11535.

    BossoneBiagio and AbdourahmaneSarr2002“A New Financial System for Poverty Reduction and Growth,”IMF Working Paper 02/178 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BulířAles1998“Income Inequality—Does Inflation Matter?”IMF Working Paper 88/7 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CalamitsisEvangelosAnupamBasu and DhaneshwarGhura1999“Adjustment and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa,”IMF Working Paper 99/51 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CashinPaul and NormanLoayza1995“Paradise Lost? Growth, Convergence, and Migration in the South Pacific,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 42 (September) pp. 60841.

    CashinPaulPaoloMauroCatherine A.Pattillo and RatnaSahay2001“Macroeconomic Policies and Poverty Reduction: Stylized Facts and an Overview of Research,”IMF Working Paper 01/135 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CashinPaul and RatnaSahay1996“Internal Migration, Center-State Grants, and Economic Growth in the States of India,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 43 (March) pp. 12371.

    ChandSheetal K. and ParthasarathiShome1995“Poverty Alleviation in a Financial Programming Framework: An Integrated Approach,”IMF Working Paper 95/29 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ChanderPrakash2001“Subsidy Reforms and Poverty Alleviation,”IMF Working Paper 01/126 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ChoudhriEhsan U. and DaliaHakura2000“International Trade and Productivity Growth—The Sectoral Effects for Developing Countries,”IMF Working Paper 00/17 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ChuKe-YoungHamidDavoodi and SanjeevGupta2000“Income Distribution and Tax and Government Social Spending Policies in Developing Countries,”IMF Working Paper 00/62 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ChuKe-Young and SanjeevGupta1998“Social Protection in Transition Countries: Emerging Issues,”MOCT-MOST Economic Policy in Transitional EconomiesVol. 6No. 3 pp. 10723.

    ChuKe-Young and SanjeevGupta1996Social Safety Nets: Issues and Recent Experiences (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ClementsBenedict1997a“Income Distribution and Social Expenditure in Brazil,”IMF Working Paper 97/120 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ClementsBenedict1997b“The Real Plan, Poverty, and Income Distribution in Brazil,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 34 (September) pp. 4446.

    CoeDavid T.ElhananHelpman and Alexander W.Hoffmaister1994“North-South R&D Spillovers,”IMF Working Paper 94/144 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CollierPaul and CatherinePattillo eds. 2000Investment and Risk in Africa (London: Macmillan Press, Ltd).

    CorbachoAnaMercedesGarcia-Escribano and GabrielaInchauste2003“Argentina: Macroeconomic Crisis and Household Vulnerability,”IMF Working Paper 03/89 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    De BlasioGuido2001“Resources and Incentives to Reform: A Model and Some Evidence on Sub-Saharan African Countries,”IMF Working Paper 01/86 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    De GregorioJosé1991“Economic Growth in Latin America,”IMF Working Paper 91/71 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    DhontePierre1995“Three Propositions on African Economic Growth” IMF Paper on Policy Analysis and Assessment 95/9 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    DhontePierreDaudiBallali and GilbertTerrier1994“Economic Trends in Africa: The Economic Performance of Sub-Saharan African Countries,”IMF Working Paper 94/109 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    DhontePierreRinaBhattacharya and TarikYousef2000“Demographic Transition in the Middle East—Implications for Growth, Employment, and Housing,”IMF Working Paper 00/41 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    Egoumé-BossogoPhilippeEbrimaFaalRajNallari and EthanWeissman2003Guyana: Experience with Macroeconomic Stabilization Structural Adjustment and Poverty Reduction coordinated by PhilippeEgoumé-Bossogo (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    EkenSenaThomasHelbling and AdnanMazarei1997“Fiscal Policy and Growth in the Middle East and North Africa Region,”IMF Working Paper 97/101 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    EkenSenaDavid A.Robalino and GeorgeSchieber2003“Improving Human Development in MENA Will Require a Different Approach to Health, Education, and Social Protection,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 40 (March).

    Esteve-VolartBerta2000“Sex Discrimination and Growth,”IMF Working Paper 00/84 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    FeltensteinAndrew and ShigeruIwata2002“Why Is It So Hard to Finance Budget Deficits? Problems of a Developing Country,”IMF Working Paper 02/95 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GaribaldiPietroNadaMoraRatnaSahay and JerominZettelmeyer2002“What Moves Capital to Transition Economies?”IMF Working Paper 02/64 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GersonPhilip R.1998“Poverty, Income Distribution, and Economic Policy in the Philippines,”IMF Working Paper 98/20 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GhoshAtish R. and StevenPhillips1998“Inflation, Disinflation, and Growth,”IMF Working Paper 98/68 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GhuraDhaneshwar1997“Private Investment and Endogenous Growth—Evidence from Cameroon,”IMF Working Paper 97/165 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GhuraDhaneshwar and BarryGoodwin2000“Determinants of Private Investment: A Cross-Regional Empirical Investigation,”Applied EconomicsVol. 32 (November) pp. 181929.

    GhuraDhaneshwarCarlos A.Leite and CharalambosTsangarides2002“Is Growth Enough? Macroeconomics Policy and Poverty Reduction,”IMF Working Paper 02/118 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GoldsbroughD.S.CooreyL.Dicks-MireauxKochhar B.HorvathK. M.MecagniE.Offerdal and J.Zhou1996Reinvigorating Growth in Developing Countries: Lessons from Adjustment Policies in Eight Economies IMF Occasional Paper No. 139 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GoturPadma1991“Bangladesh: Economic Reform Measures and the Poor,”IMF Working Paper 91/39 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GuptaSanjeevBenedictClementsEmanueleBaldacci and CarlosMulas-Granados2002a“Expenditure Composition, Fiscal Adjustment and Growth in Low-Income Countries,”IMF Working Paper 02/77 (Washington: International Monetary Fund); also forthcoming in Journal of International Money and Finance.

    GuptaSanjeevBenedictClementsMaria TeresaGuin-Siu and LucLeruth2002b“Debt Relief and Public Health Spending in Heavily Indebted Poor Countries,”Bulletin of the World Health OrganizationVol. 80No. 2 pp. 15157.

    GuptaSanjeevMichaelKeenBenedictClementsKevinFletcherLuiz deMello and MuthukumaraMani2002c“Fiscal Dimensions of Sustainable Development,”IMF Pamphlet Series No. 54 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GuptaSanjeevBenedictClements and ErwinTiongson2003“Foreign Aid and Consumption Smoothing: Evidence from Global Food Aid,”IMF Working Paper 03/40 (Washington: International Monetary Fund); also forthcoming in Review of Development Economics.

    GuptaSanjeevHamidDavoodi and RosaAlonso-Terme2002“Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty,”Economics of GovernanceVol. 3No. 1 pp. 2345.

    GuptaSanjeevCalvinMcDonaldChristianSchillerMarijnVerhoevenZeljkoBogetic and GerdSchwartz1998“Mitigating the Costs of the Asian Crisis,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 35 (September) pp. 1821.

    GylfasonThorvaldur1997“Exports, Inflation, and Growth,”IMF Working Paper 97/119 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HaackerMarkus2001“Providing Health Care to HIV Patients in Southern Africa,”IMF Policy Discussion Paper 01/03 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HaackerMarkus2002a“Modeling the Macroeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS,”IMF Working Paper 02/195 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HaackerMarkus2002b“The Economic Consequences of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa,”IMF Working Paper 02/38 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HaackerMarkus and NicholasCrafts2003“Welfare Implications of HIV/AIDS,”IMF Working Paper 03/118 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HadjimichaelMichael T. and DhaneshwarGhura1995a“Public Policies and Private Savings and Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Empirical Investigation,”IMF Working Paper 95/19 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HadjimichaelMichael T. and DhaneshwarGhura1995b“Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa,”IMF Working Paper 95/136 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HadjimichaelMichael T.MartinMuhleisenRogerNord and E. MuratUcer1994“Effects of Macroeconomic Stability on Growth, Savings, and Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa—An Empirical Investigation,”IMF Working Paper 94/98 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HadjimichaelMichael T.MartinMuhleisenRogerNord and F. MuratUcer1995Sub-Saharan Africa: Growth, Savings, and Investment 1986-93IMF Occasional Paper No. 118 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HadjimichaelMichael T.MichaelNowakRobertSharer and AmorTahari1996Adjustment for Growth: The African ExperienceIMF Occasional Paper No. 143 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HaqueNadeem U.Aasim M.Husain and PeterMontiel1991“An Empirical ‘Dependent Economy’ Model for Pakistan,”IMF Working Paper 91/102 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    Hernández-CatáErnesto2000“Raising Growth and Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa—What Can Be Done?”IMF Policy Discussion Paper 00/4 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HillmanArye2000“Poverty, Inequality, and Unethical Behavior of the Strong,”IMF Working Paper 00/187 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HoffmaisterAlexJorgeRoldós and PeterWickham1998“Macroeconomic Fluctuations in Sub-Saharan Africa,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 45 (March) pp. 13260.

    HoldenPaul and VassiliProkopenko2001“Financial Development and Poverty Alleviation: Issues and Policy Implications for Developing and Transition Countries,”IMF Working Paper 01/160 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HuangHaizhou and XuChenggang1999“Institutions, Innovations, and Growth,”IMF Working Paper 99/34 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    International Monetary Fund Fiscal Affairs Department1998“Should Equity Be a Goal of Economic Policy?”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 35 (September) pp. 25.

    International Monetary Fund Fiscal Affairs Department Middle East Department2002“Long-Term Growth in Pakistan: Trends in Productivity and Factor Accumulation” Selected Issues for the 2002 Article IV Consultation Discussions with Pakistan (Washington).

    IwataShigeruMohsin S.Khan and HiroshiMurao2002“Sources of Economic Growth in East Asia: A Nonparametric Assessment,”IMF Working Paper 02/13 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    JonssonGunnar and ArvindSubramanian2000“Dynamic Gains from Trade—Evidence from South Africa,”IMF Working Paper 00/45 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    JungHong-Sang and ErikThorbecke2001“The Impact of Public Education Expenditure on Human Capital, Growth, and Poverty in Tanzania and Zambia: A General Equilibrium Approach,”IMF Working Paper 01/106 (Washington: International Monetary Fund); also forthcoming in Journal of Policy Modeling.

    KapurIshanMichael T.HadjimichaelPaulHilbersJeraldSchiff and PhilippeSzymczak1991Ghana: Adjustment and Growth 1983-91 IMF Occasional Paper No. 91/86 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KhanMahmood H.2000“Rural Poverty in Developing Countries—Issues and PoliciesIMF Working Paper 00/78 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KhanMahmood H.2002a“When Is Economic Growth Pro-Poor? Experiences in Malaysia and Pakistan,”IMF Working Paper 02/85 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KhanMahmood H.2002b“Rural Poverty in Developing Countries: Implications for Public Policy” Economic Issues No. 26 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KhanMohsin S. and Manmohan S.Kumar1993“Public and Private Investment and the Convergence of Per Capita Incomes in Developing Countries,”IMF Working Paper 93/51 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KhanMohsin S. and Manmohan S.Kumar1997“Public and Private Investment and the Growth Process in Developing Countries,”Oxford Bulletin of Economics and StatisticsVol. 59No. 1 pp. 6988.

    KhanMohsin S.PeterMontiel and Nadeem U.Haque eds. 1991Macroeconomic Models for Adjustment in Developing Countries (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KhanMohsin S. and Abdelhak S.Senhadji2000a“Financial Development and Economic Growth: An Overview,”IMF Working Paper 00/209 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KhanMohsin S. and Abdelhak S.Senhadji2000b“Threshold Effects in the Relationship Between Inflation and Growth,”IMF Working Paper 00/110 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KimSe-Jik and Yon JinKim1999“Growth Gains from Trade and Education,”IMF Working Paper 99/23 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    LeiteCarlos and JensWeidmann1999“Does Mother Nature Corrupt—Natural Resources, Corruption, and Economic Growth,”IMF Working Paper 99/85 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    LeyEduardox and MarkSteel1999“We Just Averaged Over Two Trillion Cross-Country Growth Regressions,”IMF Working Paper 99/101 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    LimEwe-Ghee2001“Determinants of, and the Relation Between, Foreign Direct Investment and Growth: A Summary of the Recent Literature,”IMF Working Paper 01/175 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    LopesPaulo S. and EmilioSacerdoti1991“Mozambique—Economic Rehabilitation and the Poor,”IMF Working Paper 91/101 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    LounganiPrakash N. and Phillip L.Swagel2001“Sources of Inflation in Developing Countries,”IMF Working Paper 01/198 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MaHenry1998“Inflation, Uncertainty, and Growth in Colombia,”IMF Working Paper 98/161 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MacFarlanMaitland and SilviaSgherri2001“The Macroeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS in Botswana,”IMF Working Paper 01/80 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MassonPaul R.2001“Migration, Human Capital, and Poverty in a Dual-Economy of a Developing Country,”IMF Working Paper 01/28 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MassonPaul R.TamimBayoumi and HosseinSamiei1995“International Evidence on the Determinants of Private Saving,”IMF Working Paper 95/51 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MauroPaolo2002“The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth,”IMF Working Paper 02/213 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    McDonaldCalvinChristianSchiller and KenichiUeda1999“Income Distribution, Informal Safety Nets, and Social Expenditures in Uganda,”IMF Working Paper 99/163 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MendozaEnrique G.Gian MariaMilesi-Ferretti and Patrick K.Asea1995“Do Taxes Matter for Long-Run Growth? Harberger’s Superneutrality Conjecture,”IMF Working Paper 95/79 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MendozaEnrique G.Gian MariaMilest-Ferretti and Patrick K.Asea1997“On the Ineffectiveness of Tax Policy in Promoting Long-Run Growth: Harberger’s Superneutrality Conjecture,”Journal of Public EconomicsVol. 66 (October) pp. 99126.

    MengistaeTaye and CatherinePattillo2002“Export Orientation and Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa,”IMF Working Paper 02/89 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MoralesArmando1998“Determinants of Growth in an Error-Correction Model for El Salvador,”IMF Working Paper 98/104 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MoserGaryG. and ToshihiroIchida2001“Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa,”IMF Working Paper 01/112 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MühleisenMartin1997“Improving India’s Saving Performance,”IMF Working Paper 97/4 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    NordRogerMichaelMeredNishaAgrawal and ZafarAhmed1993“Structural Adjustment, Economic Performance, and Aid Dependency in Tanzania,”IMF Working Paper 93/66 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    OgakiMasaoJonathan D.Ostry and Carmen M.Reinhart1995“Saving Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Developing Countries: A Comparison,”IMF Working Paper 95/3 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    OstryJonathan D. and Carmen M.Reinhart1992“Private Saving and Terms of Trade Shocks: Evidence from Developing Countries,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 39 (September) pp. 495517.

    PattilloCatherine1998a“Investment, Uncertainty, and Irreversibility in Ghana,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 45 (September) pp. 52253.

    PattilloCatherine1998b“Economic Security, Private Investment, and Growth in Developing Countries,”IMF Working Paper 98/4 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    PattilloCatherine2000“Risk Financial Constraints and Equipment Investment in Ghana: A Firm-Level Analysis”ed. by P.Collier and C.Pattilloin Investment and Risk in Africa (London: Macmillan Press, Ltd).

    PattilloCatherine A.Hélène K.Poirson and LucaRicci2002“External Debt and Growth,”IMF Working Paper 02/69 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    PoirsonHélène2000“The Impact of Intersectoral Labor Reallocation on Economic Growth,”IMF Working Paper 00/104 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    RobbCarolineM.Kende2003“Poverty and Social Impact Analysis—Linking Macroeconomic Policies to Poverty Outcomes: Summary of Early Experiences,”IMF Working Paper 03/43 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    RodlauerM.P.LounganiV.AroraC.ChristofidesE. G.de la PiedraP.KongsamutK.KostialV.Summers and A.Vamvakidis2000Philippines: Toward Sustainable and Rapid Growth IMF Occasional Paper No. 187 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    SacerdotiEmilioSoniaBrunschwig and JonTang1998“The Impact of Human Capital on Growth—Evidence from West Africa,”IMF Working Paper 98/162 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    Sala-i-MartinXavier1996“Transfers, Social Safety Nets, and Economic Growth,”IMF Working Paper 96/40 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    SakrKhaled1993“Determinants of Private Investment in Pakistan,”IMF Working Paper 93/30 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    SarelMichael1994“Demographic Dynamics and the Empirics of Economic Growth,”IMF Working Paper 94/143 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    SarelMichael1995“Nonlinear Effects of Inflation on Economic Growth,”IMF Working Paper 95/56 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    SarelMichael1997“How Macroeconomic Factors Affect Income Distribution—The Cross-Country Evidence,”IMF Working Paper 97/152 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    SenhadjiAbdelhak1999“Sources of Economic Growth—An Extensive Growth Accounting Exercise,”IMF Working Paper 99/77 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    SenhadjiAbdelhak2002“Sources of Economic Growth,”IMF Research BulletinVol. 3 (September) pp. 14.

    SharerRobert L.Hema R.De Zoysa and Calvin A.McDonald1995Uganda: Adjustment with Growth 1987-94 IMF Occasional Paper No. 95/121 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    SöderlingLudvig2002“Escaping the Curse of Oil? The Case of Gabon,”IMF Working Paper 02/93 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    Staff of the IMF1995Social Dimensions of the IMF’s Policy Dialogue IMF Pamphlet Series No. 47 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    Staff of the World Bank2002“Poverty and Human Development” in Selected Issues for the 2002 Article IV Consultation Discussions with Pakistan (Washington: World Bank).

    Staffs of the World Bank Asian Development Bank Inter-American Development Bank and International Monetary Fund2001“Social Safety Nets in Response to Crisis: Lessons and Guidelines from Asia and Latin America” IMF Board Paper SM/01/86 (March) (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    SubramanianArvind and DeveshRoy2001“Who Can Explain the Mauritian Miracle: Meade, Romer, Sachs, or Rodrik?”IMF Working Paper 01/116 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    TanziVito1998“Fundamental Determinants of Inequality and the Role of Government,”IMF Working Paper 98/178 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    TanziVito and Ke-YoungChu eds. 1998Income Distribution and High-Quality Growth (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press).

    TanziVito and Ke-YoungChu and SanjeevGupta eds. 1999Economic Policy and Equity (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    TaubeGünther and JerominZettelmeyer1998“Output Decline and Recovery in Uzbekistan—Past Performance and Future Prospects,”IMF Working Paper 98/132 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ThomasSaji and SudharshanCanagarajah2002“Poverty in a Wealthy Economy: The Case of Nigeria,”IMF Working Paper 02/114 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ZettelmeyerJeromin1998“The Uzbek Growth Puzzle,”IMF Working Paper 98/133 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

Fiscal Policy and Poverty Reduction (pp. 24–25)

    AbedGeorgeLiam P.EbrillSanjeevGuptaBenedictClementsRonaldMcMorranAnthonyPellechioJeraldSchiff and MarijnVerhoeven1998Fiscal Reform in Low-Income Countries: Experience Under IMF-Supported Programs IMF Occasional Paper No. 160 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AbedGeorge and SanjeevGupta2002Governance Corruption and Economic Performance (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AhmadS. Ehtisham1993“Poverty, Demographic Characteristics, and Public Policy in CIS Countries,”IMF Working Paper 93/9 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AhmadS. Ehusham and NigelChalk1993“On Improving Public Expenditure Policies for the Poor—Major Informational Requirements,”IMF Working Paper 93/43 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AhmadS. Ehtisham and LucLeruth2000“Indonesia: Implementing National Policies in a Decentralized Context—Special Purpose Programs to Protect the Poor,”IMF Working Paper 00/102 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BakoupFerdinandAbdelrahmiBessaha and LucaErrico1995“Regional Integration in Eastern and Southern Africa: The Cross-Border Initiative and its Fiscal Implications,”IMF Working Paper 95/23 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BaldacciEmanueleLuiz deMello Jr and GabrielaInchauste2002“Financial Crises, Poverty, and Income Distribution,”IMF Working Paper 02/4 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BaldacciEmanueleMaria TeresaGuin-Siu and Luiz deMello2003“More on the Effectiveness of Public Spending on Health Care and Education: A Covariance Structure Model,”Journal of International DevelopmentVol. 15 pp. 70925; also, 2002, IMF Working Paper 02/90 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BouleyDominiqueJeromeFournel and Luc E.Leruth2002“How Do Treasury Systems Operate in Sub-Saharan Francophone Africa?”IMF Working Paper 02/58 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CashinPaulNadeem U.Haque and NilssOlekalns2002“Tax Smoothing, Tax Tilting, and Fiscal Sustainability in Pakistan,”Economic ModelingVol. 20 pp. 4767; also 1999IMF Working Paper 99/63 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CashinPaulNilssOlekalns and RatnaSahay2001“Tax Smoothing, Financial Repression, and Fiscal Deficits in India,” in India at the Crossroads—Sustaining Growth and Reducing Poverty,”ed. by T.CallenP.Reynolds and C.Towe (Washington: International Monetary Fund) pp. 5374; also 1998IMF Working Paper 98/122 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ChelliahRaja J.1991“The Growth of Indian Public Debt—Dimensions of the Problem and Corrective Measures,”IMF Working Paper 91/72 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ChenDuanjieJohnMatovu and RitvaReinikka2001“A Quest for Revenue and Tax Incidence in Uganda,”IMF Working Paper 01/24 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ChuKe-YoungHamidDavoodi and SanjeevGupta2000“Income Distribution and Tax and Government Social Spending Policies in Developing Countries,”IMF Working Paper 00/62 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ChuKe-Young and SanjeevGupta1996“Social Protection in Transition Countries: Emerging Issues,”MOCT—MOST,Economic Policy in Transitional EconomiesVol. 6No. 3 pp. 10723.

    ChuKe-Young and SanjeevGupta1998Social Safety Nets: Issues and Recent Experiences (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ChuKe-Young and SanjeevGuptaBenedictClementsDanielHewittSergioLugaresiJeraldSchiffLudgerSchuknecht and GerdSchwartz1995Unproductive Public Expenditures: A Pragmatic Approach to Policy Analysis IMF Pamphlet Series No. 48 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ChuKe-Young and RichardHemming1991Public Expenditure Handbook: A Guide to Public Expenditure Policy Issues in Developing Countries (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ClementsBenedict1997a“Income Distribution and Social Expenditure in Brazil,”IMF Working Paper 97/120 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ClementsBenedict1997b“The Real Plan, Poverty, and Income Distribution in Brazil,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 34 (September) pp. 4446.

    CorbachoAna and Hamid R.Davoodi2002“Expenditure Issues and Governance in Central America,”IMF Working Paper 02/187 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CorbachoAna and Gerd J.Schwartz2002“Mexico: Experiences with Pro-Poor Expenditure Policies,”IMF Working Paper 02/12 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CordeliaTito and GiovanniDell’Arccia2003“Budget Support versus Project Aid,”IMF Working Paper 03/88 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    Dabla-NorrisEra and John M.Matovu2002“Composition of Government Expenditures and Demand for Education in Developing Countries,”IMF Working Paper 02/78 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    DavoodiHamidErwinTiongson and Sawitree S.Asawanuchit2003“How Useful Is Benefit Incidence Analysis of Social Spending?”IMF Working Paper (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    deMello Jr.LuizR and Erwin H.Tiongson2003“Income Inequality and Redistributive Government Spending,”IMF Working Paper 03/14 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    DoréOusmane and Jean-ClaudeNachega2000“Budgetary Convergence in the WAEMU: Adjustment Through Revenue or Expenditure?”IMF Working Paper 00/109 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    EkenSenaThomasHelbling and AdnanMazarei1997“Fiscal Policy and Growth in the Middle East and North Africa Region,”IMF Working Paper 97/101 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    FedericoGiulioJames A.Daniel and BenedictBingham2001“Domestic Petroleum Price Smoothing in Developing and Transition Countries,”IMF Working Paper 01/75 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GersonPhilip R.1998“Poverty, Income Distribution, and Economic Policy in the Philippines,”IMF Working Paper 98/20 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GhuraDhaneshwar1998“Tax Revenue in Sub-Saharan Africa—Effects of Economic Policies and Corruption,”IMF Working Paper 98/135 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GillinghamRobert and DanielKanda2001“Pension Reform in India,”IMF Working Paper 01/125 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GordonJames1997“The Effect of Increasing Government Employment on Growth: Some Evidence from Africa,”IMF Working Paper 97/33 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GuptaSanjeev1999“Economic Transition and Social Protection: Issues and Agenda for Reform,”Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie EconomiqueVol. 38No. 1 pp. 13945.

    GuptaSanjeevBenedictClementsEmanueleBaldacci and CarlosMulasGranados2002a“Expenditure Composition, Fiscal Adjustment, and Growth in Low-Income Countries,”IMF Working Paper 02/77 (Washington: International Monetary Fund); also forthcoming in Journal of International Money and Finance.

    GuptaSanjeevBenedictClementsRinaBhattacharya and ShamitChakravarti2002b“Fiscal Consequences of Armed Conflict and Terrorism in Low- and Middle-Income Countries,”IMF Working Paper 02/142 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). A shorter version appearing in The European Journal of Political Economy.

    GuptaSanjeevBenedictClementsRinaBhattacharya and ShamitChakravarti2002c“The Elusive Peace Dividend,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 39 (December) pp. 4951.

    GuptaSanjeevBenedictClementsRobertGillinghamChristianSchillerMarijnVerhoevenRosaAlonso-Terme and AlexandrosMourmouras1999“Should Equity Be a Goal of Economic Policy?”Economic IssuesNo. 16 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GuptaSanjeevBenedictClementsMaria TeresaGuin-Siu and LucLeruth2002d“Debt Relief and Public Health Spending in Heavily Indebted Poor Countries,”Bulletin of the World Health OrganizationVol. 80No. 2 pp. 15157.

    GuptaSanjeevBenedictClementsLucLeruth and Maria TeresaGuin-Siu2001“Debt Relief and Public Health Spending in Heavily Indebted Poor Countries,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 38 (September) pp. 1013.

    GuptaSanjeevBenedictClementsAlexanderPivovarsky and ErwinTiongson2003“Foreign Aid and Revenue Response: Does the Composition of Aid Matter?”IMF Working Paper 03/40 (Washington: International Monetary Fund); also forthcoming in Review of Development Economics.

    GuptaSanjeevBenedictClements and ErwinTiongson1998“Public Spending on Human Development,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 35 (September) pp. 1013.

    GuptaSanjeevHamidDavoodi and ErwinTiongson2001“Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Educational Services,” in The Political Economy of Corruptioned. by A.Jain (London: Routledge); also 2000IMF Working Paper 00/116 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GuptaSanjeevLuiz deMello and R.Sharan2001“Corruption and Military Spending,”European Journal of Political EconomyVol. 17 (November) pp. 74977; also 2000IMF Working Paper 00/23 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GuptaSanjeevLouisDicks-MireauxRithaKhemaniCalvinMcDonald and MarijnVerhoeven2000aSocial Issues in IMF-Supported Programs IMF Occasional Paper No. 191 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GuptaSanjeevBrianHammondRichardLeete and EricSwanson2000b“Progress Toward the International Development Goals,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 37 (December) pp. 1417.

    GuptaSanjeevCalvinMcDonaldChristianSchillerMarinusVerhoevenZeljkoBogetic and GerdSchwartz1998a“Mitigating the Costs of the Asian Crisis,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 35 (September) pp. 1821.

    GuptaSanjeevCalvinMcDonaldChristianSchillerMarinusVerhoevenZeljkoBogetic and GerdSchwartz1998b“Mitigating the Social Costs of the Economic Crisis and the Reform Programs in Asia” IMF Paper on Policy Analysis and Assessment 98/7 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GuptaSanjeevMarkPlantBenedictClementsThomasDorseyEmanueleBaldacciGabrielaInchausteShamsuddinTareq and NitaThacker2002eIs the PRGF Living Up to Expectations? An Assessment of Program DesignIMF Occasional Paper No. 216 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GuptaSanjeev and MarinusVerhoeven2001“The Efficiency of Government Expenditure: Experiences from Africa,”Journal of Policy ModelingVol. 23No. 4 pp. 43367; also 1997IMF Working Paper 97/153 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GuptaSanjeevMarijnVerhoevenRobertGillinghamChristianSchillerAliMansoor and Juan PabloCordoba2000cEquity and Efficiency in the Reform of Price Subsidies: A Guide for Policymakers (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GuptaSanjeevMarinusVerhoeven and ErwinTiongson2002a“Does Higher Government Spending Buy Better Results in Education and Health Care?”European Journal of Political EconomyVol. 18No. 4 (November) pp. 71737.

    GuptaSanjeevMarinusVerhoeven and ErwinTiongson2002b“Public Spending on Health Care and the Poor,” in Health Economics; also 2001IMF Working Paper 01/127 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HaqueNadeem U. and PeterMontiel1992“Fiscal Policy in Pakistan Since 1970,”IMF Working Paper 92/97 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HellerPeter S. and ChristianKeller2001“Social Sector Reform in Transition Countries,”IMF Working Paper 01/35 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HillmanArye2000“Poverty, Inequality, and Unethical Behavior of the Strong,”IMF Working Paper 00/187 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HillmanArye and EvaJenkner2002“User Payments for Basic Education in Low-Income Countries,”IMF Working Paper 02/182 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HossainShahabuddin M.1994“The Equity Impact of the Value-Added Tax in Bangladesh,”IMF Working Paper 94/125 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HossainShahabuddin M.2003“Poverty and Social Impact Analysis—A Suggested Framework” (Washington: International Monetary Fund) forthcoming.

    HsiaoWilliam2000“What Should Macroeconomists Know About Health Care Policy?—A Primer,”IMF Working Paper 00/136 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    InchausteGabriela2002“Poverty and Social Impact Analysis in PRGF-Supported Programs,”IMF Policy Discussion Paper 02/11 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    JungHong-Sang and ErikThorbecke2001“The Impact of Public Education Expenditure on Human Capital, Growth, and Poverty in Tanzania and Zambia: A General Equilibrium Approach,”IMF Working Paper 01/106 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KeaneMichael and EswarPrasad2000“Inequality, Transfers and Growth—New Evidence from the Economic Transition in Poland,”IMF Working Paper 00/117 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KhanMahmood H. and Mohsin S.Khan1998“Taxing Agriculture in Pakistan” IMF Paper on Policy Analysis and Assessment 98/3 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    LienertIan C. and FeridounSarraf2001“Systemic Weaknesses of Budget Management in Anglophone Africa,”IMF Working Paper 01/211 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    LopesPaulo S.2002“A Comparative Analysis of Government Social Spending Indicators and Their Correlation with Social Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa,”IMF Working Paper 02/176 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MassonPaul R. and OusmaneDoré2002“Experience with Budgetary Convergence in the WAEMU,”IMF Working Paper 02/108 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MassonPaul R. and CatherinePattillo2001“Monetary Union in West Africa—An Agency of Restraint for Fiscal Policies?”IMF Working Paper 01/34 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    McDonaldCalvinChristianSchiller and KenichiUeda1999“Income Distribution, Informal Safety Nets, and Social Expenditures in Uganda,”IMF Working Paper 99/163 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    NashashibiKarimSanjeevGuptaClaireLiuksilaHenriLorie and WalterMahler1992The Fiscal Dimensions of Adjustment in Low-Income Countries” IMF Occasional Paper No. 95 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ParkerKaren and SteffenKastner1993“A Framework for Assessing Fiscal Sustainability and External Viability, with an Application to India,”IMF Working Paper 93/78 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    PaullGillian1991“Poverty Alleviation and Social Safety Net Schemes for Economies in Transition.”IMF Working Paper 91/14 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    PellechioAnthony and Catharine B.Hall1996“Equivalence of the Production and Consumption Methods of Calculating the Value-Added Tax Base: Applications in Zambia,”IMF Working Paper 96/67 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    PestieauPierre1999“The Political Economy of Redistributive Social Security,”IMF Working Paper 99/180 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    PrakashChander2001“Subsidy Reforms and Poverty Alleviation,”IMF Working Paper 01/126 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    SahnDavid and StephenYounger1999“Dominance Testing of Social Sector Expenditures and Taxes in Africa,”IMF Working Paper 99/172 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    Staffs of the World Bank Asian Development Bank Inter-American Development Bank and International Monetary Fund2001“Social Safety Nets in Response to Crisis: Lessons and Guidelines from Asia and Latin America” IMF Board Paper SM/01/86 (March) (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    StotskyJanet G. and AsegedechWolde Mariam1997“Tax Effort in Sub-Saharan Africa,”IMF Working Paper 97/107 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    TannerEvan C. and Alberto M.Ramos2002“Fiscal Sustainability and Monetary Versus Fiscal Dominance: Evidence from Brazil, 1991-2000,”IMF Working Paper 02/05 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    TanziVito and Ke-YoungChu eds. 1998Income Distribution and High-Quality Growth (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press).

    TanziVito and Ke-YoungChu and SanjeevGupta eds. 1999Economic Policy & Equity (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    TanziVito and HamidDavoodi1998“Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth,” in The Welfare State Public Investment and Growthed. by H.Shibata and T.Ihori (Tokyo: Springer).

    TaubeGunther and HelawayTadesse1996“Presumptive Taxation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Experiences and Prospects,”IMF Working Paper 96/5 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

External Sector Policies and Poverty Reduction (pp. 26–28)

Commodity Prices (pp. 26–27)

    BorenszteinEduardoMohsinKhanCarmenReinhart and PeterWickham1994The Behavior of Non-Oil Commodity Prices IMF Occasional Paper No. 112 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BorenszteinEduardo and CarmenReinhart1994“The Macroeconomic Determinants of Commodity Prices,”International Monetary FundStaff PapersVol. 41 pp. 23661.

    BrunnerAllan2002“El Niño and World Primary Commodity Prices: Warm Water or Hot Air?”Review of Economics and StatisticsVol. 84No. 1 pp. 17683.

    CashinPaulLuisCéspedes and RatnaSahay2002“Keynes, Cocoa and Copper: In Search of Commodity Currencies,”IMF Working Paper 02/223 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CashinPaulLuisCéspedes and RamaSahay2003“Commodity Currencies,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 40 (March) pp. 4548.

    CashinPaulLuisCéspedes and RamaSahay2004“Commodity Currencies and the Real Exchange Rate,”Journal of Development Economics forthcoming.

    CashinPaulHongLiang and C. JohnMcDermott1999a“Do Commodity Price Shocks Last Too Long for Stabilization Schemes to Work?”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 36No. 3 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CashinPaulHongLiang and C. JohnMcDermott1999b“How Persistent Are Shocks to World Commodity Prices?”IMF Staff PapersVol. 47 pp. 177217 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CashinPaulC. JohnMcDermott and AlasdairScott1999“The Myth of Co-moving Commodity Prices,”IMF Working Paper 99/169 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CashinPaulC. JohnMcDermott and AlasdairScott2002a“Booms and Slumps in World Commodity Prices,”Journal of Development EconomicsVol. 69No. 1 pp. 27796.

    CashinPaulC. JohnMcDermott and AlasdairScott2002b“The Long-Run Behavior of Commodity Prices: Small Trends and Big Variability,” (International Monetary Fund) IMF Staff PapersVol. 49 pp. 17599.

    ChenYu-Chin and KennethRogoff2003“Commodity Currencies,”Journal of International EconomicsVol. 60No. 1 pp. 13360.

    CollierPaul and JanGunning1996“Policy Toward Commodity Shocks in Low-Income Countries,”IMF Working Paper 96/84 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CuddingtonJohn and HongLiang2000“Will the Emergence of the Euro Affect World Commodity Prices?”IMF Working Paper 00/208 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    DupontDominique and V. HugoJuan-Ramon1996“Real Exchange Rates and Commodity Prices,”IMF Working Paper 96/27 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HuntBenjaminPeterIsard and DouglasLaxton2001“The Macroeconomic Effects of Higher Oil Prices,”IMF Working Paper 01/14 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    LeleUmaJ.Gockowski and K.Adu-Nyako1994“Economics, Politics, and Ethics of Primary Commodity Development: How Can Poor Countries in Africa Benefit the Most?”IMF Working Paper 94/23 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    LiangHong1998“The Volatility of the Relative Price of Commodities in Terms of Manufactures Across Exchange Regimes: A Theoretical Model,”IMF Working Paper 98/163 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ReinhartCarmen and PeterWickham1994“Commodity Prices: Cyclical Weakness or Secular Decline?”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 41 (June) pp. 175213.

    RodriguezEdgard and ErwinTiongson2001“Temporary Migration Overseas and Household Labor Supply: Evidence from Urban Philippines,”International Migration ReviewVol. 35No. 3 pp. 70925.

    SpilimbergoAntonio1999“Copper and the Chilean Economy, 1960-98,”IMF Working Paper 99/57 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    WickhamPeter1996“The Volatility of Oil Prices,”IMF Working Paper 96/82 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

Real Exchange Rates (pp. 26–27)

    AgénorPierre-Richard and A.Hoffmaister1996“Capital Inflows and the Real Exchange Rate: Analytical Framework and Some Econometric Evidence,”IMF Working Paper 96/137 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AgénorPierre-Richard and A.Hoffmaister and CarlosMedeiros1997“Cyclical Fluctuations in Brazil’s Real Exchange Rate: The Role of Domestic and External Factors,”IMF Working Paper 97/128 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AgénorPierre-RichardC. JohnMcDermott and EswarPrasad2001“Macroeconomic Fluctuations in Developing Countries—Some Stylized Facts,”World Bank Economic ReviewVol. 14 (May) pp. 25185.

    CalvoGuillermoLeonardoLeiderman and Carmen M.Reinhart1993“Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America: The Role of External Factors,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 40 pp. 10851.

    CalvoGuillermo and CarmenReinhart2002“Fear of Floating,”Quarterly Journal of EconomicsVol. 117No. 2 (May) pp. 379408.

    CalvoGuillermo and CarmenReinhart and Carlos A.Végh1995“Targeting the Real Exchange Rate: Theory and Evidence,”Journal of Development EconomicsVol. 47 (June) pp. 97133.

    CashinPaul and C. JohnMcDermott2003“An Unbiased Appraisal of Purchasing Power Parity,”IMF Staff Papers forthcoming; also 2001IMF Working Paper 01/196 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ClarkPeterB and RonaldMacDonald1999“Exchange Rates and Economic Fundamentals: A Methodological Comparison of BEERs and FEERs Equilibrium Exchange Rates (Norwell, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers).

    DabosMarcelo and V. HugoJuan-Ramón2000“Real Exchange Rate Response to Capital Flows in Mexico—An Empirical Analysis,”IMF Working Paper 00/108 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    De GregorioJosé and Holger C.Wolf1994“Terms of Trade, Productivity and the Real Exchange Rate,”NBER Working Paper No. 4807 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research).

    DomaçIlker and GhiathShabsigh1999“Real Exchange Rate Behavior and Economic Growth—Evidence from Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia,”IMF Working Paper 99/40 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    DupontDominique and V. HugoJuan-Ramon1996“Real Exchange Rates and Commodity Prices,”IMF Working Paper 96/27 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    DuttaJayasri2002“Dread of Depreciation: Measuring Real Exchange Rate Interventions,”IMF Working Paper 02/63 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    EdwardsSebastian and MiguelSavastano2000“Exchange Rates in Emerging Economies: What Do We Know? What Do We Need to Know?” in Economic Policy Reform: The Second Stageed. by AnneKrueger (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

    FanizzaDomenicoNicoleLaframboiseE.MartinRandaSab and IsabelaKarpowitz2002“Tunisia’s Experience with Real Exchange Rate Targeting and the Transition to a Flexible Exchange Rate Regime,”IMF Working Paper 02/190 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GelbardEnrique and JunNagayasu1999“Determinants of Angola’s Parallel Market Real Exchange Rate,”IMF Working Paper 99/90 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GuerguilMartine and MartinKaufman1998“Competitiveness and the Evolution of the Real Exchange Rate in Chile,”IMF Working Paper 98/58 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HoffmaisterAlexander and JorgeRoldós2001“The Sources of Macroeconomic Fluctuations in Developing Countries: Brazil and Korea,”Journal of MacroeconomicsVol. 23No. 2 (Spring) pp. 21339.

    HoffmaisterAlexander and JorgeRoldós and PeterWickham1998“Macroeconomic Fluctuations in Sub-Saharan Africa,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 45 (March) pp. 13260.

    ItoTakatoshiPeterIsardStevenSymansky and TamimBayoumi1996Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region IMF Occasional Paper No. 145 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KhanMohsin and Jonathan D.Ostry1992“Response of Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate to Real Disturbances in Developing Countries,”World DevelopmentVol. 20No. 9 (September) pp. 132534.

    KletzerKenneth and RenuKohli2001“Financial Repression and Exchange Rate Management in Developing Countries: Theory and Empirical Evidence for India,”IMF Working Paper 01/103 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KricheneN.1998“Purchasing Power Parities in Five East African Countries—Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda,”IMF Working Paper 98/148 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    LanePhilip R.Gian MariaMilesi-Ferretti2000“The Transfer Problem Revisited: Net Foreign Assets and Real Exchange Rates,”IMF Working Paper 00/123 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    LanePhilip R.Gian MariaMilesi-Ferretti2002“External Wealth, the Trade Balance, and the Real Exchange Rate,”European Economic ReviewVol. 46 (June) pp. 104971.

    LiangHong1998“Real Exchange Rate Volatility—Does the Nominal Exchange Rate Regime Matter?”IMF Working Paper 98/147 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MacDonaldRonald and Mark P.Taylor1992“Exchange Rate Economics: A Survey,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 39No. 1 pp. 157.

    MarshIan W. and StephenTokarick1994“Competitiveness Indicators—A Theoretical and Empirical Assessment,”IMF Working Paper 94/29 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MongardiniJoannes1998“Estimating Egypt’s Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate,”IMF Working Paper 98/5 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MontielPeter1997“Exchange Rate Policy and Macroeconomic Management in ASEAN Countries,” in Macroeconomic Issues Facing ASEAN Countriesed. by J.HinklinD.Robinson and A.Singh (Washington: International Monetary Fund) pp. 25398.

    MontielPeter and Jonathan D.Ostry1992a“Real Exchange Rate Targeting Under Capital Controls: Can Money Provide a Nominal Anchor?”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 39No. 1 pp. 5878.

    MontielPeter1992b“External Shocks and Inflation in Developing Countries Under a Real Exchange Rate Rule,”IMF Working Paper 92/75 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MontielPeter1994“The Parallel Market Premium: Is It a Reliable Indicator of Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Developing Countries?”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 41 pp. 5575.

    NagayasuJun1998“Does the Long-Run PPP Hypothesis Hold for Africa?: Evidence from Panel Co-Integration Study,”Bulletin of Economic ResearchVol. 54 (April) pp. 18187.

    OstryJonathan D. and PeterMontiel1993“Real Exchange Rate Targeting in Developing Countries,”IMF Paper on Policy Analysis and Assessment 93/2 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    PoirsonHélène2001“How Do Countries Choose Their Exchange Rate Regime?”IMF Working Paper 01/46 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ReinhartCarmen and KennethRogoff2002“The Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: A Reinterpretation,”NBER Working Paper No. 8963 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research).

    SarnoLucio and MarkTaylor2002“Purchasing Power Parity and the Real Exchange Rate,”IMF Staff PapersVol. 49 (April) pp. 65105.

    SorsaPiritta1999“Algeria—The Real Exchange Rate, Export Diversification, and Trade ProtectionIMF Working Paper 99/49 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    SundararajanV.MichelLazare and SherwynWilliams1999“Exchange Rate Unification, the Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate, and Choice of Exchange Rate Regime—The Case of the Islamic Republic of Iran,”IMF Working Paper 99/15 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    TokarickStephen1995“External Shocks, the Real Exchange Rate, and Tax Policy,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 42 (March) pp. 4979.

    WickhamPeter2002“Do ‘Flexible’ Exchange Rates of Developing Countries Behave Like Floating Exchange Rates of Industrialized Countries?”IMF Working Paper 02/82 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

Terms of Trade (pp. 26–27)

    CashinPaul and C. JohnMcDermott2002“Terms of Trade Shocks and the Current Account,”Open Economics ReviewVol. 13No. 3 pp. 21936.

    CashinPaul and C. JohnMcDermott2003“Intertemporal Substitution and Terms of Trade Shocks,”Review of International EconomicsVol. 11No. 4 pp. 60418.

    CashinPaul and C. JohnMcDermott2004“Terms of Trade Shocks in Africa: Are They Short-Lived or Long-Lived?”Journal of Development Economics, forthcoming; also,2000IMF Working Paper 00/72 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CashinPaul and C. JohnMcDermott and CatherinePattillo2000“The Duration of Terms of Trade Shocks in Sub-Saharan Africa,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 37 (June) pp. 2629.

    DodzinSergei and AthanasiosVamvakidis1999“Trade and Industrialization in Developing Agricultural Economies,”IMF Working Paper 99/145 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KoseAyhan M. and RaymondRiezman1992“The Effects of Macroeconomic Shocks in a Basic Equilibrium Framework,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 39 (December) pp. 85589.

    KoseAyhan M. and RaymondRiezman1995“The Terms of Trade, the Real Exchange Rate and Economic Fluctuations,”International Economic ReviewVol. 36 (February) pp. 10137.

    KoseAyhan M. and RaymondRiezman1997“Terms of Trade Uncertainty and Economic Growth,”Journal of Development EconomicsVol. 54 (December) pp. 32356.

    KoseAyhan M. and RaymondRiezman2001“Trade Shocks and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in Africa,”Journal of Development EconomicsVol. 65No. 1 pp. 558.

    OstryJonathan D. and SebastianEdwards1992“Terms of Trade Disturbances, Real Exchange Rates and Welfare: The Role of Capital Controls and Labor Market Distortions,”Oxford Economic PapersVol. 44 (January) pp. 2034.

    OstryJonathan D. and CarmenReinhart1994“Private Saving and Terms of Trade Shocks: Evidence from Developing Countries,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 39 (September) pp. 495517.

    SenhadjiAbdelhak1998“Dynamics of the Trade Balance and the Terms of Trade in LDCs: The S-Curve,”Journal of International EconomicsVol. 46 (October) pp. 10531.

    SpataforaNicola and AndrewWarner1999“Macroeconomic and Sectoral Effects of Terms-of-Trade Shocks—The Experience of the Oil-Exporting Developing Countries,”IMF Working Paper 99/134 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

Current Accounts (p. 27)

    AdedejiOlumuyiwa2001a“The Size and Sustainability of the Nigerian Current Account,”IMF Working Paper 01/87 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AdedejiOlumuyiwa2001b“Consumption-Based Interest Rate and the Present-Value Model of the Current Account—Evidence from Nigeria,”IMF Working Paper 01/93 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BergAndrew and CatherinePattillo1999“Are Currency Crises Predictable? A Test,”IMF Staff PapersVol. 46 (June) pp. 10738.

    BesangerSergeRoss S.Guest and IanMcDonald2000“Demographic Change in Asia—The Impact on Optimal National Saving, Investment, and the Current Account,”IMF Working Paper 00/115 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CalderónCésarAlbertoChong and LuisaZanforlin2001“Are African Current Account Deficits Different? Stylized Facts, Transitory Shocks, and Decomposition Analysis,”IMF Working Paper 01/4 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CallenTimothy and PaulCashin2002“Capital Controls, Capital Flows and External Crises: Evidence from India,”Journal of International Trade and Economic DevelopmentVol. 11 (March) pp. 7798.

    CerraValerie and Sweta ChamanSaxena2002“What Caused the 1991 Currency Crisis in India?”IMF Staff PapersVol. 49 (September) pp. 395425.

    ChinnMenzie and Eswar S.Prasad2003“Medium-Term Determinants of Current Accounts in Developing and Industrial Countries: An Empirical ExplorationJournal of International EconomicsVol. 59No. 1 pp. 4776.

    DebelleGuy and HamidFaruqee1996“What Determines the Current Account? A Cross-Sectional and Panel Approach,”IMF Working Paper 96/58 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GhoshAtish R. and Jonathan D.Ostry1994“Export Instability and the External Balance in Developing Countries,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 41 pp. 21435.

    GhoshAtish R. and Jonathan D.Ostry1997a“The Current Account in Developing Countries: A Perspective from the Consumption-Smoothing Approach,”World Bank Economic ReviewVol. 9No. 2 pp. 30133.

    GhoshAtish R. and Jonathan D.Ostry1997b“Macroeconomic Uncertainty, Precautionary Savings and the Current Account,”Journal of Monetary EconomicsVol. 40No. 1 pp. 12139.

    IsardPeterHamidFaruqeeG. RussellKincaid and Martin J.Fetherston2001Methodology for Current Account and Exchange Rate Assessments IMF Occasional Paper No. 209 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KandilMagdaM.Bahmani-Oskooee andS.Chomisisengphet2002“Are Devaluations Contractionary in Asia?”Journal of Post-Keynesian EconomicsVol. 25 (Fall) pp. 6982.

    KnightMalcolm and F.Scacciavillani1998“Current Accounts: What Is Their Relevance for Economic Policymaking?”IMF Working Paper 98/71 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    LanePhillip and Gian MariaMilesi-Ferretti2001“The External Wealth of Nations: Measures of Foreign Assets and Liabilities for Industrial and Developing Countries,”Journal of International EconomicsVol. 55 (December) pp. 26394.

    Milesi-FerrettiGian Maria and AssafRazin1996a“Current Account Sustainability” Princeton Studies in International Finance No. 81 (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton, Department of Economics).

    Milesi-FerrettiGian Maria and AssafRazin1996b“Current Account Sustainability—Selected East Asian and Latin American Experiences,”IMF Working Paper 96/110 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    Milesi-FerrettiGian Maria and AssafRazin1998“Sharp Reductions in Current Account Deficits: An Empirical Analysis,”European Economic ReviewVol. 42Nos. 3-5 pp. 897908.

    Milesi-FerrettiGian Maria and AssafRazin2000“Current Account Reversals and Currency Crises: Empirical Regularities” in Currency Crisesed. by PaulKrugman (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

    MussaMichael and MiguelSavastano2000“The IMF Approach to Economic Stabilization,”NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1999Vol. 14 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau for Economic Research) pp. 79122.

    OstryJonathan1997“Current Account Imbalances in ASEAN Countries: Are They a Problem?”IMF Working Paper 97/51 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

External Trade (pp. 27–28)

    AgénorPierre-Richard and JoshuaAizenmann1996“Trade Liberalization and Unemployment,”Journal of International Trade and Economic DevelopmentVol. 5 (November) pp. 26586.

    Al-AtrashHassan M. and TarikYousef2000“Intra-Arab Trade—Is It Too Little?”IMF Working Paper 00/10 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    Alonso-GamoPatriciaSusanFennell and KhaledSakr1997“Adjusting to New Realities: MENA, The Uruguay Round, and the EU-Mediterranean Initiative,”IMF Working Paper 97/5 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AroraVivek B. and ManmohanKumar1994“Trade Reform and Inflation Stabilization,”IMF Working Paper 94/130 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AsilisCarlos M. and Luis A.Rivera-Batiz1994“Geography, Trade Patterns, and Economic Policy,”IMF Working Paper 94/16 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BabanR. and J.Greene1992“Export Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1970-90: A Survey,”IMF Working Paper 92/55 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BannisterGeoffrey J. and KamauThugge2001“International Trade and Poverty Alleviation,”IMF Working Paper 01/54 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BayoumiTamim and Jonathan D.Ostry1997“Macroeconomic Shocks and Trade Flows Within Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Optimum Currency Arrangements,”Journal of African EconomiesVol. 6No. 3 pp. 41244.

    BerezinPeterAliSalehizadeh and ElciorSantana2002“The Challenge of Diversification in the Caribbean,”IMF Working Paper 02/196 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BergAndrew and Anne O.Krueger2002a“Trade Growth and Poverty: A Selective Survey” paper presented at the Annual Bank Conference on Development EconomicsWashington (April).

    BergAndrew and Anne O.Krueger2002b“Why Openness Helps Curb Poverty,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 39 (September) pp. 1619.

    BevanD.1995“Fiscal Implications of Trade Liberalization,”IMF Working Paper 95/50 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BhattacharyaRina1999“Political Economy Aspects of Trade and Financial Liberalization—Implications for Sequencing,”IMF Working Paper 99/159 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BlavyRodolphe2001“Trade in the Mashreq: An Empirical Examination,”IMF Working Paper 01/163 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BlejerMario I.MohsinKhan and PaulMasson1995“Early Contributions of Staff Papers to International Economics,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 42 (December) pp. 70733.

    BrenderAdi1992“China’s Foreign Trade Behavior in the 1980s—An Empirical Analysis,”IMF Working Paper 92/5 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CalvoGuillermo and Enrique G.Mendoza1994“Trade Reforms of Uncertain Duration and Real Uncertainty: A First Approximation,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 41 (December) pp. 55586.

    CaramazzaFrancesco and Luca A.Ricci2000“Trade and Financial Contagion in Currency Crises,”IMF Working Paper 00/55 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CatãoLuis and ElisabettaFalcetti2002“Determinants of Argentina’s External Trade,”Journal of Applied EconomicsVol. 5No. 1 pp. 1957.

    CerraValerie and Chaman SaxenaSweta2002“An Empirical Analysis of China’s Export Behavior,”IMF Working Paper 02/200 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ChoudhriEhsan U. and Dalia S.Hakura2000“International Trade and Productivity Growth: Exploring the Sectoral Effects for Developing Countries,”IMF Staff PapersVol. 47No. 1 pp. 3053.

    CoeDavid T. and A.Hoffmaister1999“North-South Trade: Is Africa Unusual?”Journal of African EconomiesVol. 8 (July) pp. 22856.

    de MelloLuiz and KiichiroFukasaku2000“Trade and Foreign Direct Investment in Latin America and Southeast Asia: Temporal Causality Analysis,”Journal of International DevelopmentVol. 12No. 7 pp. 90324.

    EbrillLiamJanetStotsky and ReintGropp1999Revenue Implications of Trade LiberalizationIMF Occasional Paper No. 180 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    Egoumé-BossogoPhilippe and ChandimaMendis2002“Trade and Integration in the Caribbean,”IMF Working Paper 02/148 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    EiteljorgeU. and C.Shiells1995“The Uruguay Round and Net Food Importers,”IMF Working Paper 95/143 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    El-NaggarSaided.1996The Uruguay Round and the Arab Countries (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    FainiRiccardoJean-MarieGrether and Jaimede Mello1999“Globálization and Migratory Pressures from Developing Countries: A Simulation Analysis” in Trade and Labour Migration: The Controversies and the Evidenceed. by RiccardoFainiJaime deMelo and K.Zimmermann (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

    GiorgianniLorenzo and Gian MariaMilesi-Ferretti1997“Determinants of Korean Trade Flows and Their Geographical Destination,”IMF Working Paper 97/54 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HakuraDalia and F.Jaumotte2001“The Role of Trade in Technology Diffusion,” in Policies to Promote Competitiveness in Manufacturing in Sub-Saharan Africaed. by Saleh M.NsouliAugustinKwasi Fosu and AristomeneVaroudakis (Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) pp. 7395.

    HavrylyshynOleh and PeterKunzel1997“Intra-Industry Trade of Arab Countries: An Indicator of Potential Competitiveness,”IMF Working Paper 97/47 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HoffmaisterAlexander1992“The Cost of Export Subsidies: Evidence from Costa Rica,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 39 pp. 14874.

    HoffmaisterAlexanderMahmoodPradhan and HosseinSamiei1998“Have North-South Growth Linkages Changed?”World DevelopmentVol. 26 (May) pp. 791808.

    HussainMumtaz and StevenRadelet2000“Export Competitiveness in Asia,” in Asian Financial Crisis: Lessons for a Resilient Asiaed. by JeffreySachs (Cambridge Massachusetts and London: MIT Press).

    IqbalZubair and MohsinKhan eds. 1998Trade Reform and Regional Integration in Africa (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    JonssonGunnar and ArvindSubramanian2001“Dynamic Gains from Trade: Evidence from South Africa,”IMF Staff PapersVol. 48 (December) pp. 197224.

    KanaanOussama2000“Tanzania’s Experience with Trade Liberalization,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 37 (June) pp. 3033.

    KhanMahmood Hasan2000“Rural Poverty in Developing Countries: Issues and Policies,”IMF Working Paper 00/78 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KhanMahmood Hasan and Mohsin S.Khan1995“Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan African Countries and China,”Pakistan Development ReviewVol. 34No. 4 pp. 42950.

    KimSe-Jik and Yong JinKim1999“Growth Gains from Trade and Education,”IMF Working Paper 99/23 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KoseM. Ayhan and RaymondRiezman2000“Understanding the Welfare Implications of Preferential Trade Agreements,”Review of International EconomicsVol. 8No. 4 pp. 61933.

    KoseM. Ayhan and Kei-MuYi2001“International Trade and Business Cycles,”American Economic ReviewVol. 91No. 2 pp. 37175.

    LankesHans Peter2002“Market Access for Developing Countries,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 39No. 3 (September) pp. 813.

    LeeJong-Wha1992“International Trade, Distortions, and Long-Run Economic Growth,”IMF Working Paper 92/90 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    LeeJong-Wha1997“Trade Barriers and Trade Flows Across Countries and Industries,”Review of Economics and StatisticsVol. 79No. 3 pp. 37282.

    LounganiPrakash2000“Comrades or Competitors? Trade Links Between China and Other East Asian Economies,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 37No. 2 pp. 3436.

    MacDonaldRonald and LucaRicci2002“Purchasing Power Parity and New Trade Theory,”IMF Working Paper 02/32 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    OlivaMaria-Angela2000“Estimation of Trade Protection in Middle East and North African Countries,”IMF Working Paper 00/27 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    PrasadEswar1999“International Trade and the Business Cycle,”Economic JournalVol. 109No. 458 pp. 588606.

    PrasadEswar and JefferyGable1998“International Evidence on the Determinants of Trade Dynamics,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 45 (September) pp. 40139.

    RamcharanRodney2002“Money, Meat, and Inflation: Using Price Data to Understand an Export Shock in Sudan,”IMF Working Paper 02/84 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ReinhartCarmen M.1995“Devaluation, Relative Prices, and International Trade: Evidence from Developing Countries,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 42No. 2 pp. 290312.

    RousslangDonald J. and Stephen P.Tokarick1994“The Trade and Welfare Consequences of U.S. Export-Enhancing Tax Provisions,”Staff PapersInternational Monetary FundVol. 41No. 3 pp. 55586.

    SenhadjiAbdelhak S. and Claudio E.Montenegro1999“Time Series Analysis of Export Demand Equations: A Cross-Country Analysis,”IMF Staff PapersVol. 46 (September) pp. 25973.

    SharerRobert1999“Issues for the New Millennium—Trade: An Engine of Growth for Africa,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 36 (December) pp. 2629.

    SöderlingLudvig2002“Escaping the Curse of Oil? The Case of Gabon,”IMF Working Paper 02/93 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    SorsaPiritta1995“The Burden of Sub-Saharan African Own Commitments in the Uruguay Round: Myth or Reality?”IMF Working Paper 95/48 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    StotskyJanetEstherSuss and StephenTokarick2000“Trade Liberalization in the Carribean,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 37 (June) pp. 2225.

    SubramanianArvind and TrevorS. Alleyne2001“What Does South Africa’s Pattern of Trade Say About Its Labor Markets?”IMF Working Paper 01/148 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    SubramanianArvindEnriqueGelbardRichardHarmsenKatrinElborgh-Woytek and PiroskaNagy2000Trade and Trade Policies in Eastern and Southern AfricaIMF Occasional Paper No. 196 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    SubramanianArvind and NataliaTamirisa2001“Africa’s Trade Revisited,”IMF Working Paper 01/33 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    TamirisaNatalia1999“Exchange and Capital Controls as Barriers to Trade,”IMF Staff PapersVol. 46 (March) pp. 6998.

    VamvakidisAthanasios1999“Regional Trade Agreements or Broad Liberalization: Which Path Leads to Faster Growth?”IMF Staff PapersVol. 46 (March) pp. 4268.

    VamvakidisAthanasios2002“How Robust Is the Growth-Openness Connection? Historical Evidence,”Journal of Economic GrowthVol. 7No. 1 pp. 5780.

    Van RijckeghemCaroline and BeatriceWeder2001“Sources of Contagion: Is It Finance or Trade?”Journal of International EconomicsVol. 54No. 2 pp. 293308.

    WeiShang-Jin2002“Is Globalization Good for the Poor in China?”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 39No. 3 pp. 2629.

    YangYongzheng2002“Export Competition in Asia and the Role of China,” in Developing Countries in the World Trading System: The Uruguay Round and Beyonded. by R.Adhikabi and P.Athukorala (Cheltenham, U. K.: Edward Elgar).

    YuanM. and KalpanaKochhar1994“China’s Imports: An Empirical Analysis Using Johansen’s Coimegration Approach,”IMF Working Paper 94/145 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

Monetary, Exchange Policy, and Financial Market Issues (pp. 28–30)

    AdedejiOlumuyiwa S.2001“Consumption-Based Interest Rate and the Present-Value Model of the Current Account—Evidence from Nigeria,”IMF Working Paper 01/93 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AgénorPierre-Richard1991“Credibility and Exchange Rate Management in Developing Countries,”IMF Working Paper 91/87 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AgénorPierre-Richard and Mohsin S.Khan1992“Foreign Currency Deposits and the Demand for Money in Developing Countries,”IMF Working Paper 92/01 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AghevliBijan B.Mohsin S.Khan and Peter J.Montiel1991Exchange Rate Policy in Developing Countries: Some Analytical IssuesIMF Occasional Paper No. 78 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BallSheryl and AndrewFeltenstein2001“Bank Failures and Fiscal Austerity: Policy Prescriptions for a Developing Country,”Journal of Public EconomicsVol. 82 (November) pp. 24770.

    Barajas EstradaAdolfo and RobertoSteiner2002“Credit Stagnation in Latin America,”IMF Working Paper 02/53 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BayoumiTamim and RonaldMacDonald1998“Deviations of Exchange Rates from Purchasing Power Parity—A Story Featuring Two Monetary Unions,”IMF Working Paper 98/69 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BayoumiTamim and Jonathan D.Ostry1995“Macroeconomic Shocks and Trade Flows Within Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Optimum Currency Arrangements,”IMF Working Paper 95/142 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BeaugrandPhilippe1997“Zaire’s Hyperinflation, 1990-96,”IMF Working Paper 97/50 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BhattacharyaRina2000“Trade and Domestic Financial Market Reform Under Political Uncertainty—Implications for Investment, Savings, and the Real Exchange Rate,”IMF Working Paper 00/175 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BoughtonJames M.1991“The CFA Franc Zone: Currency Union and Monetary Standard,”IMF Working Paper 91/133 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BouleyDominiqueJeromeFournel and Luc E.Leruth2002“How Do Treasury Systems Operate in Sub-Saharan Francophone Africa?”IMF Working Paper 02/58 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CadyJohn2003“The Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate of the Malagasy Franc: Estimation and Assessment,”IMF Working Paper 03/28 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CalvoGuillermo and Manmohan S.Kumar1994“Money Demand, Bank Credit, and Economic Performance in Former Socialist Economies,”IMF Working Paper 94/03 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CanettiElie and JoshuaGreene1991“Monetary Growth and Exchange Rate Depreciation as Causes of Inflation in African Countries: An Empirical Analysis,”IMF Working Paper 91/67 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CelasunOya and MangalGoswami2002“An Analysis of Money Demand and Inflation in the Islamic Republic of Iran,”IMF Working Paper 02/205 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CerraValerie and Sweta ChamanSaxena2000“What Caused the 1991 Currency Crisis in India?”IMF Working Paper 00/157 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ClementJean A. P.JohannesMuellerStephaneCosse and JeanLe Dem1996Aftermath of the CFA Franc Devaluation IMF Occasional Paper No. 138 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    CreaneSusanRishiGoyalA. MushfiqMobarak and RandaSab2003“Banking on Development: Further Reform of Financial Sectors Holds Promise for MENA Countries,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 40 (March) pp. 2629.

    De GregorioJosé and Pablo E.Guidotti1992“Financial Development and Economic Growth,”IMF Working Paper 92/101 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    Di CalogeroRobertWilhem K.Nahr and John B.McLenaghan1992“Money and Banking Statistics in Former Soviet Union (FSU) Economies,”IMF Working Paper 92/103 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    DodsworthJohnAjaiChopraChi D.Pham and HisanobuShishido1996“Macroeconomic Experiences of the Transition Economies in Indochina,”IMF Working Paper 96/112 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    Egoumé-BossogoPhilippe2000“Money Demand in Guyana,”IMF Working Paper 00/119 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    EichengreenBarryPaulMassonHughBredenkampBarryJohnstonJavierHamannEstebanJadresic and InciOtker1998Exit Strategies: Policy Options for Countries Seeking Exchange Rate Flexibility IMF Occasional Paper No. 168 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    ErbasNuri S.2002“The Role of Affordable Mortgages in Improving Living Standards and Stimulating Growth: A Survey of Selected MENA Countries,”IMF Working Paper 02/17 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    GuillaumeDominique and D.Stasavage2000“Improving Policy Credibility: The Case for African Monetary Unions,World DevelopmentVol. 28No. 8 pp. 13911407.

    GuldeAnne-Marie1991“Sri Lanka—Price Changes and the Poor,”IMF Working Paper 91/46 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HadjimichaelMichael T. and MichelGaly1997“The CFA Franc Zone and the EMU,”IMF Working Paper 97/156 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HansenLeifRobertChristiansenYanSunVassiliProkopenkoTatsiyaKarai and ChristophRosenberg2000Republic of Uzbekistan Recent Economic Developments IMF Staff Country Report No. 00/36 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HartmannPhilipp1994“Foreign Exchange Risk Regulation: Issues for Industrial and Developing Countries,”IMF Working Paper 94/141 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HenstridgeMark N.1999“Demonetization, Inflation and Coffee: The Demand for Money in Uganda,”Journal of African EconomiesVol. 8No. 3 pp. 34585.

    Hernández-CataErnesto andStaff Team1998The West African Economic and Monetary Union: Recent Developments and Policy Issues IMF Occasional Paper No. 170 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HoldenPaul and VassiliProkopenko2001“Financial Development and Poverty Alleviation: Issues and Policy Implications for Developing and Transition Countries,”IMF Working Paper 01/160 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HonohanPatrick and Stephen A.O’Connell1997“Contrasting Monetary Regimes in Africa,”IMF Working Paper 97/64 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    HossainAkhtar2002“Exchange Rate Responses to Inflation in Bangladesh,”IMF Working Paper 02/166 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    International Monetary Fund Middle East Department2002“Financial Sector Reforms in Pakistan” Selected Issues for the 2002 Article IV Consultation Discussions with Pakistan (Washington).

    IzeAlain1996“Capital Inflows in the Baltic Countries, Russia, and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union: Monetary and Prudential Issues,”IMF Working Paper 96/22 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    JahjahSamir2001“Financial Stability and Fiscal Crises in a Monetary Union,”IMF Working Paper 01/201 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    JbiliAbdelali and VitaliKramarenko2003“Should MENA Countries Float or Peg?”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 40 (March).

    JenkinsCarolyn1999“Money Demand and Stabilisation in Zimbabwe,”Journal of African EconomiesVol. 8 (October) pp. 386421.

    Juan-RamónV. HugoRuby E.Randall and OralWilliams2001“A Statistical Analysis of Banking Performance in the Caribbean Currency Union in the 1990s,”IMF Working Paper 01/105 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KellerPeter and ThomasRichardson2003“Nominal Anchors in the CIS,”IMF Working Paper 03/179 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KhanMohsin S. and Jonathan D.Ostry1991“Response of the Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate to Real Disturbances in Developing Countries,”IMF Working Paper 91/03 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KletzerKenneth and RenuKohli2001“Financial Repression and Exchange Rate Management in Developing Countries: Theory and Empirical Evidence for India,”IMF Working Paper 01/103 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KnightMalcolm1998“Developing Countries and Globalization of Financial Markets,”IMF Working Paper 98/105 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KocherlakotaNarayana and ThomasKrueger1998“Why Do Different Countries Use Different Currencies?”IMF Working Paper 98/17 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KohliRenu2001“Capital Flows and Their Macroeconomic Effects in India,”IMF Working Paper 01/192 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    KricheneNoureddine1998“Purchasing Power Parities in Five East African Countries—Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda,”IMF Working Paper 98/148 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    LounganiPrakash N. and Phillip L.Swagel2001“Sources of Inflation in Developing Countries,”IMF Working Paper 01/198 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MarstonDavid1995“Financial Sector Reform in Jamaica during 1985-92: Possible Lessons for the Caribbean,”IMF Working Paper 95/90 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MassonPaul R. and CatherinePattillo2001a“Monetary Union in West Africa—An Agency of Restraint for Fiscal Policies?”IMF Working Paper 01/34 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MassonPaul R. and CatherinePattillo2001bMonetary Union in West Africa (ECOWAS) IMF Occasional Paper No. 204 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MlachilaMontfort P. and Ephraim W.Chirwa2002“Financial Reforms and Interest Rate Spreads in the Commercial Banking System in Malawi,”IMF Working Paper 02/06 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MongardiniJoannes and JohannesMueller1999“Rachet Effects in Currency Substitution—An Application to the Kyrgyz Republic,”IMF Working Paper 99/102 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MontielPeter1990“The Transmission Mechanism for Monetary Policy in Developing Countries,”IMF Working Paper 90/47 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    MoserGary G.1994“The Main Determinants of Inflation in Nigeria,”IMF Working Paper 94/76 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    NachegaJean-Claude2001a“A Co-integration Analysis of Broad Money Demand in Cameroon,”IMF Working Paper 01/26 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    NachegaJean-Claude2001b“Financial Liberalization, Money Demand, and Inflation in Uganda,”IMF Working Paper 01/118 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    NashashibiKarim and StefaniaBazzoni1993“Alternative Exchange Rate Strategies and Fiscal Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa,”IMF Working Paper 93/68 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    Piñón-FarahMarco1998“Demand for Money in Mozambique—Was There a Structural Break?”IMF Working Paper 98/157 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    PoirsonHélène2001“How Do Countries Choose Their Exchange Rate Regime?”IMF Working Paper 01/46 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    RandallRuby1998“Interest Rate Spreads in the Eastern Caribbean,”IMF Working Paper 98/59 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    RiechelKlaus-Walter2001“Financial Sector Regulation and Supervision: The Case of Small Pacific Island Countries,”IMF Policy Discussion Paper 01/6 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    RiechelKlaus-Walter2002“Public Financial Management: Principal Issues in Small Pacific Island Countries,”IMF Policy Discussion Paper 02/1 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    RosenbergChristoph B. and Maartende Zeeuw2000“Welfare Effects of Uzbekistan’s Foreign Exchange Regime,”IMF Working Paper 00/61 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    RossKevin1998“Post-Stabilization Inflation Dynamics in Slovenia,”IMF Working Paper 98/27 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    RotherPhilipp1998“Money Demand and Regional Monetary Policy in the West African Economic and Monetary Union,”IMF Working Paper 98/57 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    RotherPhilipp1999“Money Demand in the West African Economic and Monetary Union: The Problems of Aggregation,”Journal of African EconomiesVol. 8No. 3.

    SundararajanV.MichelLazare and SherwynWilliams1999“Exchange Rate Unification, the Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate, and Choice of Exchange Rate Regime—The Case of the Islamic Republic of Iran,”IMF Working Paper 99/15 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    WilliamsOralTracyPolius-Mounsey and SelvonHazel2001“Reserve Pooling in the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union and the CFA Franc Zone: A Comparative Analysis,”IMF Working Paper 01/104 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    YossifovPlamen2002“The Use of Credit Ceilings in the Presence of Indirect Monetary Instruments: An Analytical Framework,”IMF Working Paper 02/206 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

Structural Reforms and Poverty Reduction (pp. 30-34)

    AbedGeorge T. and HamidDavoodi2000“Corruption, Structural Reforms, and Economic Performance in Transition Economies,”IMF Working Paper 00/132 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AbedGeorge T. and SanjeevGupta eds. 2002Governance Corruption and Economic Performance (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AhmadS. Ehtisham and NigelChalk1993“On Improving Public Expenditure Policies for the Poor—Major Informational Requirements,”IMF Working Paper 93/43 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    AlleyneTrevor and ArvindSubramanian2001“What Does South Africa’s Pattern of Trade Say About Its Labor Market?”IMF Working Paper 01/148 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BadianeOusmaneDhaneshwarGhuraLouisGoreux and PaulMasson2002“Cotton Sector Strategies in West and Central Africa,”IMF Working Paper 02/173 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BarbaNavarettiGiorgioRiccardo Faini and GiovanniZanaldo1998Labour Markets Poverty and Development (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

    BarnettSteven2000“Evidence on the Fiscal and Macroeconomic Impact of Privatization,”IMF Working Paper 00/130 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BarthRichard CAlan R.Roe and Chong-HueyWong1994“Coordinating Stabilization and Structural Reform,”Proceedings of the Seminar on Coordination of Structural Reform and Macroeconomic StabilizationWashingtonJune17261993.

    BennettAdam2003“Failed Legacies: Escaping the Ghosts of Central Planning,”Finance & DevelopmentVol. 40 (March).

    BhattacharyaRina2000“External Sector Reform and Public Enterprise Restructuring,”IMF Working Paper 00/120 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BigstenA.P.CollierS.DerconM.FafchampsB.GauthierJ.GunningR.OostendorpC.PattilloM.SoderbomF.Teal and A.Zeufack2000“Rates of Return on Physical and Human Capital in Africa’s Manufacturing Sector,”Economic Development and Cultural ChangeVol. 48No. 4 pp. 80127.

    BodartVincent and Jean LeDem1995“Labor Market Representation in Quantitative Macroeconomic Models for Developing Countries: An Application to Côte d’lvoire,”IMF Working Paper 95/87 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    BrixiováZuzanaAlešBulíř and JoshuaComenetz2001“The Gender Gap in Education in Eritrea in 1991-98: A Missed Opportunity?”IMF Working Paper 01/94 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).