Back Matter

Back Matter

Sarosh Sattar, and Clinton Shiells
Published Date:
April 2004
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    European Bank for Reconstruction and Development2001“Energy in Transition,” EBRDTransition Report(London:European Bank for Reconstruction and Development).

    Global Environment Facility1998“Aral Sea Basin Program. Water and Environmental Project,”GEF Project Document(Washington:Global Environment Facility).

    GrayDale R1998“Evaluation of Taxes and Revenues from the Energy Sector in the Baltics, Russia and Other Former Soviet Union Countries,”IMF Working Paper 88/34(Washington:International Monetary Fund).

    International Monetary Fund2002“Cross-Border Issues in Energy Trade,”European II Department, March 2002, mimeo(Washington:International Monetary Fund).

    KennedyDavidSamuelFankhauser andMartinRaiser2003“Low Pressure, High Tension: 'The Energy-Water Nexus in the CIS-7 Countries,”paper presented at the Lucerne Conference on the CIS-7 InitiativeLucerne, SwitzerlandJanuary2003 (available at

    MicklinP.2001“Managing Water in Central Asia,”Central Asian and Caucasian Prospectspaper presented at Chatham HouseJanuary2000.

    SharmaRaghuveerAnilMarkhandyaMasoodAhmad andMaraIskakov2003“Central Asia Water and Energy Nexus Cooperation in the Syr Daria Basin,”An Analytical Basis, Draft (Washington:World Bank).

At the time of writing, the authors were affiliated with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). The views expressed in this chapter are the views of the authors, not of the EBRD. The chapter draws on the analysis in EBRD (2001).

These studies can be found in Annex 1 of Kennedy, Fankhauser, and Raiser (2003).

An alternative is to introduce a lifeline tariff with a low free consumption block and a high marginal tariff, together with the option to pay a unit tariff over all consumption at a lower marginal rate. This mechanism docs not impose higher tariffs on consumers, rather, it allows them to choose whether or not to pay a higher rate.

In the above example of the Toktogul Cascade, the conditions for power trade are present even without adding a charge For water. However, between the Kyrgyz Republic and Kazakhstan, for instance, power trade would not take place based on cost differences for power generation alone.

Individual case studies from the transition economies are reviewed in Annex 1 of Kennedy, Fonkhauser, and Raiser (2003).

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