Back Matter

Back Matter

Editor(s):
Lisa Kolovich
Published Date:
April 2018
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    Index

    A

    • Adolescent fertility rates Asia, 46

    • Advanced economies, 57, 111

    • Afghanistan

      • educational enrollment, 170

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

      • gender budgeting goals, 167–168

      • Gender Inequality Index, 170

      • governmental and non-governmental involvement, 168

      • governmental role, 172–173

      • implications of initiatives through analysis of indicators, 169–170

      • labor force participation, 170

      • legal framework for gender budgeting, 168

      • maternal mortality, 170

      • origins of gender budgeting initiative, 167

      • reporting on gender budgeting, 169

    • Africa. See also sub-Saharan Africa

      • labor force participation, 4

      • maternal mortality, 3, 4

      • secondary school enrollment trends, 3, 4

    • Agricultural feminization, 24–25

    • Akcija Zdruzenska, 80, 81

    • Albania

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 77–80, 104–105

    • Algeria

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    • Alternative Federal Budget, 6, 129

    • Amalgamated Territorial Communities, 84

    • Americas

      • labor force participation, 4

      • maternal mortality, 4

      • secondary school enrollment trends, 4

    • An Equal Share, 68

    • Andalucía, Spain

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 74–77, 85–86, 104–105

    • Antenatal visits

      • Rwanda, 21–22

      • skilled provider care, 21–22

      • Uganda, 21–22

    • Argentina

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 138–140

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    • Armenia

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 156

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 173

    • ASEAN. See Association of Southeast Asian Nations

    • Asia. See also specific countries by name

      • economic growth, 28

      • gender inequality, 33–38

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 3, 4, 35

      • maternal mortality, 3, 4

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment trends, 3, 4, 35

    • Association of Southeast Asian Nations economic growth, 28

    • Australia

      • fertility rates, 44–45

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37, 51

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 38–39, 51–52, 86

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35, 42–43

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

      • Women’s Budget Statements, 38

    • Austria

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 60–63, 104–105

      • tax allowances for children, 92

      • tax policy and gender budgeting, 90–92

    • Azerbaijan

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 156

    B

    • Baby Bonus, 44–45

    • Bahrain

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 173

    • Bangladesh

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • Beijing Platform for Action, 63, 64, 97

    • Belgium

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 63–66, 86, 104–105

    • Berlin, Germany

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 71–73, 104–105

    • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, 39–40

    • Bhutan

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • Bolivia

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 120–124, 149–150

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    • BPfA. See Beijing Platform for Action

    • Brazil

      • child and infant mortality, 47

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 126–127

    • Broad Economic Policy Guidelines, 56

    • Brunei Darussalam

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • labor force participation, 35

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • Budget and Financial Responsibility Law, 116

    • Budget Decree on Expenditure of the Federation, 116

    • Bureau of Gender Strategies and Budgeting (Ukraine), 83

    • Burundi

      • gender inequality indicators, 10, 11

      • literacy rates, 25

      • primary school enrollment, 25

    C

    • Cambodia

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • Canada

      • Alternative Federal Budget, 6

      • domestic violence legislation, 110

      • earning gaps, 110

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 127–129

      • Gender Development Index, 108, 110

      • income inequality, 110

      • labor force participation, 110

      • maternal mortality, 110

      • property ownership rights, 110

      • secondary enrollment, 110

    • Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 129

    • Canadian Feminist Alliance for International Action, 128

    • Capacity building, 7, 185–186

    • Caribbean region

      • development indicators, 187–188

      • economic growth, 28

      • fiscal indicators, 189

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 204–209

      • impact of gender budgeting, 185–187

      • labor force participation, 4

      • labor force participation rates, 190

      • maternal mortality, 4, 192

      • national gender policies, 207–208

      • secondary school enrollment trends, 4

      • social protection programs, 206–207

      • tax policies, 208

    • Catalog for Orientation of Expenditure on Gender Equality Policies, 119–120

    • CEDAW. See Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

    • Central Asia. See also specific countries by name

      • economic growth, 166

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 152–157

      • gender budgeting, 157–176, 183

      • Gender Development Index, 153–156

      • gender inequality, 166

      • gender inequality in oil-exporting countries, 177

      • labor force participation, 4, 155–156

      • maternal mortality, 3, 4, 155–156

      • property ownership rights, 155–156

      • secondary school enrollment trends, 3, 4

    • Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability, 40

    • Certificate on Gender and Equity Compliance, 30

    • Child and infant mortality

      • Brazil, 47

      • China, 47

      • India, 46–47

      • Russian Federation, 47

      • South Africa, 46–47

    • Chile

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 140–142

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    • China

      • child and infant mortality, 47

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • Civil society

      • gender budgeting and, 52, 94–95, 105, 150, 183, 202, 215

      • La Plataforma Impacto de Género YA!, 97–98

      • Swedish Women’s Lobby, 96–97

      • United Kingdom’s Women’s Budget Group, 95–96

    • COGPIG. See Catalog for Orientation of Expenditure on Gender Equality Policies

    • Colectivo Cabildeo, 121–122

    • Colombia

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 129–130

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    • Commission for Equality between Women and Men of the Chamber of Deputies, 115, 116

    • Commonwealth Secretariat, 5

    • Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 97

    • Coordinating Committee for Women, 127

    • Costa Rica

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 130

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    D

    • Decision 465, 78, 79–80

    • Demographic and Health Survey, 19–20

    • Department for International Development (United Kingdom)

    • gender budgeting research project, 2–3

    • DFID. See Department for International Development

    • DHS. See Demographic and Health Survey

    • Djibouti

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    • Domestic violence legislation, 110, 155–156

    • Dominican Republic

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 130–131

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    E

    • Earning gaps

      • Canada, 110

      • Europe, 58

      • Latin America, 110

      • Rwanda, 24

      • United States, 110

    • East African Community

      • economic growth differential, 27

      • gender inequality indicators, 11

      • literacy rates, 25

    • primary school enrollment, 25

    • Economic, Social and Research Institute, 93

    • Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategies, 13

    • Economic growth

      • ASEAN, 28

      • Canada, 111

      • Central Asia, 166

      • East African Community, 27

      • Europe, 57

      • LAC, 28

      • Latin America, 111

      • Middle East, 166

      • Rwanda, 28

      • sub-Saharan Africa, 27

    • Ecuador

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 118–120, 149–150

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    • Education completion

      • Canada, 110

      • gender gap trends, 3, 4

      • Latin America, 110

      • Rwanda, 20–21

      • Uganda, 20–21

      • United States, 110

    • Education expenditure

      • Western Hemisphere, 113

    • Educational enrollment

      • Afghanistan, 170

      • Asia, 35

      • Central Asia, 155–156

      • Europe, 58

      • India, 35, 47–48

      • Middle East, 155–156

      • Morocco, 164

      • Pacific region, 35

      • Philippines, 35, 47–48

      • Rwanda, 17, 19, 20–21

      • Uganda, 18, 19, 20

    • Egypt

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

      • gender budgeting goals, 171–172

      • legal framework for gender budgeting, 172

      • origins of gender budgeting initiative, 171

      • reporting on gender budgeting, 172

    • El Salvador

      • Five-Year Development Plan, 124

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 124–126, 149–150

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    • Emerging markets

      • European countries, 57

      • gender budgeting initiatives in European countries, 77–85

      • Latin America, 111

    • Employment. See also Labor force participation

      • Europe, 58

      • Rwanda, 17, 23–24

      • trends, 3, 4

      • Uganda, 18

      • Equal Opportunities Commission, 16

      • Equal Opportunities Law, 67

      • Equal Opportunities Strategic Plan, 92

      • Equal Status Act, 70

      • Equality between Women and Men, 116

      • EU. See European Union

      • EU directives, 55

      • EU Treaty, 55

      • Europe. See also specific countries by name civil society and gender budgeting, 94–98

      • economic development of countries, 57

      • fiscal indicators, 59

      • gender budgeting data template, 104–105

      • gender budgeting initiatives in emerging markets, 77–85

      • gender budgeting initiatives in Western Europe, 60–77

      • gender equality indicators, 58

      • government-commissioned gender and revenue studies, 92–94

      • income equality indicators, 58

      • labor force participation, 3, 4

      • revenue policy and gender budgeting, 87–90

      • secondary school enrollment trends, 4

      • tax policy and gender budgeting, 90–94

    • European Employment Strategy, 55, 56

    • European Union

      • gender equality policy, 54–59

    • European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions, 89

    • Export diversification

      • Rwanda, 10

    F

    • Federal Budget Act, 61

    • Federal Public Service Budget and Management Control, 64–65

    • Feminist Center for Research and Advice, 127

    • Fertility rates

      • adolescent, 46

      • Australia, 44–45

      • India, 46

      • Korea, 44

      • OECD, 44

      • Philippines, 46

      • Rwanda, 26

    • Fiji

      • development indicators, 187–188

      • fiscal indicators, 189

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 218–221

      • labor force participation, 190

      • maternal mortality, 192

    • Finance Act, 123–124

    • Finland

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 69, 86, 104–105

      • government-commissioned gender and revenue studies, 92–93

    • Fiscal aggregates

      • Asia, 36–37, 51

      • Central Asia, 157, 158, 183

      • Europe, 59, 104

      • Latin America, 111–112, 149

      • Middle East, 157, 158, 183

      • Pacific region, 36–37, 51

      • Timor-Leste, 215

    • Fiscal Measures Law, 76

    • Five-Year Development Plan, 124

    • Forum for Rwandan Women Parliamentarians, 12

    • Forum for Women in Democracy, 15

    • 4R gender audits, 76

    • Friedrich Ebert Foundation, 83, 84, 85

    • Function K, 119

    G

    • G+ Program, 75–76

    • GDI. See Gender Development Index

    • Gender and Child Budgeting, 40

    • Gender and Development Budget Policy, 41–42

    • Gender and Equity Budgeting, 16

    • Gender and Equity Compacts, 16

    • Gender and Equity Compliance Certificate, 16

    • Gender and Family Promotion Officer, 12

    • Gender audits, 60, 76

    • Gender Budget Statements, 15, 29, 39

    • Gender budgeting

      • Albania, 77–80

      • Asia, 36–37

      • Australia, 38–39, 51–52

      • Austria, 60–63

      • Belgium, 63–66

      • capacity building, 7

      • Central Asia, 157–176, 183

      • civil society role, 52, 94–98, 105, 150, 183, 202, 215

      • definition, 33

      • description of, 2

      • Europe data template, 104–105

      • Fiji, 218–221

      • Finland, 69

      • fiscal context, 36–37, 51, 59, 104, 111–112, 149, 157, 158, 183, 215

      • gender-sensitive planning of state annual action plans, 197

      • Germany, 71–74

      • goals of, 5, 6

      • government institutions role, 12–13, 52, 105, 150, 168–169, 172–173, 183, 215

      • Iceland, 70–71

      • India, 39–40, 51–52

      • joint research project, 2–3

      • Korea, 40–41, 51–52

      • Latin America, 108, 112–126, 126–142

      • legal basis, 5, 51, 104, 149, 160–161, 168, 172, 183, 195–196, 215

      • lessons from key initiatives, 126–138

      • local initiatives, 5–6

      • Macedonia, FYR, 80–82

      • Marshall Islands, 216–218

      • Middle East, 157–176, 183

      • ministry of finance leadership importance, 5–6

      • monitoring efforts, 7

      • national initiatives, 5–6

      • origination of, 3

      • Pacific islands, 216–224

      • Philippines, 41–42, 51–52

      • regional context, 111–112

      • revenue policy and, 87–90

      • Rwanda, 14–15, 16–30, 32

      • Samoa, 221–224

      • Spain, 74–77

      • state initiatives, 5–6

      • sub-Saharan Africa, 32

      • Sweden, 66–69

      • tax policy and, 6, 88–89, 90–94, 99, 142–143, 208

      • Timor-Leste, 191–204, 215

      • transparency in reporting, 7

      • Uganda, 15–29, 32

      • Ukraine, 83–85

      • Western Hemisphere data template, 149–150

    • Gender desks, 12

    • Gender Development Index

      • Canada, 108, 110

      • Central Asia, 153–156

      • definition, 11

      • Latin America, 107–108, 110

      • Middle East, 153–156

      • United States, 108, 110

    • Gender Equality Action Plan, 69

    • Gender Equality and Family Committee, 40

    • Gender Equity, Citizenship, Work, and Family institution, 115

    • Gender Gap Index, 1, 11

    • Gender Impact Assessment, 69

    • Gender Impact Assessment Law, 97

    • Gender Impact Commission, 74, 75

    • Gender Impact Report, 74–76

    • Gender inequality

      • Asia, 33–38

      • Central Asia, 152–157

      • East African countries, 11

      • European indicators, 58

      • fiscal policy effects, 3, 5

      • global indicators, 9, 10, 16–18

      • labor force participation rates, 3, 4

      • maternal mortality rates, 3, 4

      • Middle East, 152–157

      • Pacific region, 33–38

      • Rwanda, 9, 10, 16–17

      • secondary school enrollment, 3, 4

      • trends, 3, 4

      • Uganda, 10, 18

    • Gender Inequality Index

      • Afghanistan, 170

      • Asia, 34

      • East African Community, 11

      • Morocco, 164

      • Pacific region, 34

    • Gender mainstreaming, 53, 54, 55, 64, 68, 86, 197

    • Gender Mainstreaming Group, 90–92

    • Gender Mainstreaming Plan, 68

    • Gender Marker, 63

    • Gender Monitoring Office, 12, 15, 29

    • Gender notes, 64

    • Gender-Related Classification System, 131–132

    • Gender Report, 159, 163

    • Gender-responsive budgeting, 2

    • Gender-sensitive budgeting, 2

    • Gender tests, 64

    • Georgia

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 156

    • Germany

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 71–74, 86

    • GII. See Gender Inequality Index

    • Girls’ Education Policy, 25

    • Global Gender Gap Index, 1, 11

    • Government institutions role

      • Afghanistan, 168–169

      • Asia, 52

      • Central Asia, 183

      • Egypt, 172–173

      • Europe, 105

      • Latin America, 150

      • Middle East, 183

      • Pacific region, 52

      • sub-Saharan Africa, 12–13

      • Timor-Leste, 215

    • Gross domestic product

      • Rwanda growth rate, 28

      • Western Hemisphere fiscal indicators, 112, 113

    • Guatemala

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 131–133

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    H

    • Health expenditure

      • Western Hemisphere, 113

    • High-income countries

      • gender inequality indicators, 9, 10

    • Honduras

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 133–134

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    I

    • Iceland

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 70–71, 86, 104–105

    • Illiteracy rates

      • Morocco, 165

    • IMF. See International Monetary Fund

    • INAMU, 130

    • Income inequality

      • Canada, 110

      • Central Asia, 152–157

      • Europe, 58

      • Latin America, 110–111

      • Middle East, 152–157

      • Rwanda, 10

      • United States, 110

    • Income splitting, 88

    • India

      • child and infant mortality, 46–47

      • fertility rates, 46

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Budget Statement, 39

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 39–40, 51–52

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35, 45

      • maternal mortality, 46

      • Ministry of Women and Child Development, 39–40

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35, 47–48

      • Tenth National Development Plan, 46

    • Indonesia

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • Infant mortality. See Child and infant mortality

    • Informal institutions

      • role in gender equality, 14

    • Inheritance rights

      • Rwanda, 26

    • INMUJERES, 115–118

    • Institute for the Equality of Women and Men, 64, 65, 66

    • Instituto National de las Mujeres, 115

    • Integrated Planning System, 78

    • Inter-Institutional Working Committee, 115

    • International Monetary Fund

      • gender budgeting research project, 2–3

      • gender equality efforts, 7–8

    • Iran, Islamic Republic

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    • Iraq

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    • Ireland

      • government-commissioned gender and revenue studies, 93–94

    • ISDEMU, 124–126

    J

    • JamKas, 68, 69

    • JämStöd Committee, 68

    • Japan

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • Joint taxation, 88

    • Jordan

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 173–174

    K

    • Kazakhstan

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 156

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 174

    • Kenya

      • gender inequality indicators, 10, 11

      • literacy rates, 25

      • primary school enrollment, 25

    • Kigali Declaration, 26

    • Korea

      • fertility rates, 44

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 40–41, 51–52

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35, 43–44

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • Korean National Assembly, 40

    • Korean Women’s Development Institute, 41

    • Kuwait

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    • Kyrgyz Republic

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 156

    L

    • La Plataforma Impacto de Género YA!, 97–98

    • Labor force participation

      • Afghanistan, 170

      • Asia, 35–36

      • Australia, 42–43

      • Canada, 110

      • Caribbean region, 190

      • Central Asia, 155–156

      • Europe, 58

      • India, 45

      • Korea, 43–44

      • Latin America, 110

      • Middle East, 155–156

      • Morocco, 164

      • OECD, 43

      • Pacific islands, 190

      • Pacific region, 35–36

      • Philippines, 35, 45–46

      • Rwanda, 17, 23–24

      • trends, 3, 4

      • Uganda, 18

      • United States, 110

    • Lachmayer, Dr. Edeltraud, 90–91

    • Land ownership

      • Canada, 110

      • Central Asia, 155–156

      • Latin America, 110

      • Middle East, 155–156

      • Rwanda, 26–27

      • United States, 110

    • Lao PDR

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • Latin America. See also specific countries by name

      • domestic violence legislation, 110

      • earning gaps, 110

      • economic growth, 28

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 110

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 108, 112–126

      • Gender Development Index, 107–108

      • income inequality, 110–111

      • labor force participation, 110

      • maternal mortality, 110

      • property ownership rights, 110

      • secondary enrollment, 110

    • Law on Ensuring Equal Rights and Opportunities for Women and Men, 85

    • Law on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men, 81

    • Law on Management of the Budgetary Systems, 79

    • Law on Planning, 117

    • Lebanon

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    • Legal mandates

      • Afghanistan, 168

      • Asia, 51

      • Central Asia, 183

      • Egypt, 172

      • Europe, 104

      • gender budgeting and, 5

      • Latin America, 149

      • Middle East, 183

      • Morocco, 160–161

      • Pacific region, 51

      • Timor-Leste, 195–196, 215

    • Let’s Travel Safely Program, 118

    • Libya

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    • Literacy rates

      • East African Community, 25

      • Morocco, 165

      • Rwanda, 20, 25

      • sub-Saharan Africa, 25

      • Uganda, 20, 25

    • Looking for a Life Free from Violence for Women, 124

    • Low-income countries

      • European, 57

      • gender inequality indicators, 9, 10, 17–18

      • labor force participation rates, 45

      • Latin America, 111

    M

    • Macedonia, FYR

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 80–82, 104–105

    • Malaysia

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • Maldives

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • MANAR-Stat, 161

    • Marshall Islands

      • development indicators, 187–188

      • fiscal indicators, 189

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 216–218

    • Maternal mortality

      • Afghanistan, 170

      • Canada, 110

      • Caribbean region, 192

      • Central Asia, 155–156

      • India, 46

      • Latin America, 110

      • Middle East, 155–156

      • Morocco, 164

      • Pacific islands, 192

      • Philippines, 46

      • Rwanda, 17, 19, 26

      • trends, 3, 4

      • Uganda, 18, 19

      • United States, 110

    • Mauritania

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    • Medium-Term Budget Program, 79

    • Medium Term Expenditure Framework, 61

    • Mexico

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 149–150

      • gender budgeting lessons, 118

      • Gender Development Index, 108

      • institutional basis of gender budgeting, 116–117

      • legislative framework, 116–117

      • Mexico City gender budgeting initiative, 117–118

      • national level gender budgeting, 114–116

    • Middle East. See also specific countries by name

      • economic growth, 166

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 152–157

      • gender budgeting, 157–176, 183

      • Gender Development Index, 153–156

      • gender inequality, 166

      • gender inequality in oil-exporting countries, 177

      • labor force participation, 4, 155–156

      • maternal mortality, 3, 4, 155–156

      • property ownership rights, 155–156

      • secondary school enrollment trends, 3, 4

    • Middle-income countries

      • gender inequality indicators, 9, 10

      • labor force participation rates, 45

    • Millennium Development Goals, 6, 151, 182

    • Ministerial Policy Statements, 16

    • Ministry for Gender and Family Promotion (Rwanda), 12, 14

    • Ministry of Finance (Rwanda), 15

    • Ministry of Finance, Planning, and Economic Development (Uganda), 15–16

    • Ministry of Women and Child Development (India), 39–40

    • Mongolia

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • Morocco

      • educational enrollment, 164, 165

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

      • gender budgeting goals, 160

      • Gender Inequality Index, 164

      • illiteracy rates, 165

      • implications of initiatives through analysis of indicators, 162–167

      • labor force participation, 164

      • legal framework for gender budgeting, 160–161

      • maternal mortality, 164

      • monitoring initiatives, 162

      • origins of gender budgeting initiative, 159–160

      • revenue, 162

      • sex-disaggregated data, 161–162

    • Mortality rates. See Child and infant mortality; Maternal mortality

    • Myanmar

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    N

    • National Action Plan for Gender Equality, 80

    • National Action Plan for the Women of Afghanistan, 168

    • National Center for the Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS, 115–116

    • National Development Plan, 16, 117

    • National Finance Act, 41

    • National Foundation for Australian Women, 38

    • National Gender Cluster, 12

    • National Gender Policy, 13, 15

    • National Institute for Women, 130

    • National Parliament (Timor-Leste), 201

    • National Policy on Equality, 116

    • National Program for Citizen’s Security, 127

    • National Program for Equal Opportunities, 116

    • National Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development, 82

    • National Strategy for Development and Integration, 78

    • National Women’s Council, 12

    • National Working Committee on Gender Sensitive Budgets, 121

    • Nationality Code, 161

    • Nepal

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • New Zealand

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • Nicaragua

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 134

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    • No Discrimination against Women, 116

    • Nordic Co-operation, 66, 70

    O

    • Occupational segregation, 24

    • OECD

      • fertility rates, 44

      • labor force participation, 43

    • Oil-exporting countries

      • gender inequality in, 177

    • Oman

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    • Organic Budget Law, 15, 61, 67, 79

    • Organic Code on Planning and Public Finance, 118

    • Ownership rights

      • Canada, 110

      • Central Asia, 155–156

      • Latin America, 110

      • Middle East, 155–156

      • Rwanda, 26–27

      • United States, 110

    P

    • Pacific Islands

      • development indicators, 187–188

      • fiscal indicators, 189

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 216–224

      • impact of gender budgeting, 185–187

      • labor force participation rates, 190

      • maternal mortality, 192

    • Pacific region. See also specific countries by name

      • gender inequality, 33–38

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation rates, 3, 4, 35

      • maternal mortality rates, 3, 4

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment trends, 3, 4, 35

    • Pakistan

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • Panama

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 134–135

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    • Papua New Guinea

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • Paraguay

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 135–136

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    • Parliamentary seats held by women

      • Asia, 36

      • Pacific region, 36

      • Rwanda, 12–13

    • PEFA. See Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability

    • Peru

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 136–137

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    • Philippine Plan for Gender-Responsive Development, 47

    • Philippines

      • fertility rates, 46

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender and Development Plan, 42

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 41–42, 51–52

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35, 45–46

      • maternal mortality, 46

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35, 47–48

    • Plan for Gender Budgeting, 70

    • Platform for Gender Impact Now, 97–98

    • Political Constitution of the State, 123

    • Poverty Eradication Action Plan, 15

    • PpRpG initiative, 124, 125, 126

    • Pregnancy Benefit, 139

    • Presidential Secretariat for Women, 131–133

    • Primary school completion

      • Rwanda, 20–21

      • Uganda, 20–21

    • Primary school enrollment

      • India, 48

      • Morocco, 165

      • Philippines, 48

      • Rwanda, 19, 25–26

      • Timor-Leste, 199

      • Uganda, 19, 25

    • Programs for Improvement of Management, 140–141

    • Property ownership

      • Canada, 110

      • Central Asia, 155–156

      • Latin America, 110

      • Middle East, 155–156

      • Rwanda, 26–27

      • United States, 110

    • Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability, 36–37, 113, 158

    • Public Finance Management Strategy, 80

    • Public policy

      • framework for gender equality, 13–14

    • Public Policy for Equality of Opportunity for Women, 134–135

    Q

    • Qatar

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    R

    • Recast Gender Directive, 54

    • Revenue policy

      • gender budgeting and, 87–90

      • government-commissioned gender and revenue studies, 90–94

    • Russian Federation

      • child and infant mortality, 47

    • Rwanda

      • antenatal visits, 21–22

      • anti-discrimination policies, 26

      • developments in gender equality efforts, 9–12, 29–30

      • economic growth, 28

      • export diversification, 10

      • fertility rates, 26

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 14–15, 32

      • gender inequality indicators, 9, 10, 16–17, 19

      • health expenditure as a share of GDP, 19

      • income inequality, 10

      • institutional framework for gender equality, 12–13

      • labor force participation, 17, 23–24

      • level of education, 20–21

      • literacy rates among women, 20

      • maternal mortality, 17, 19, 26

      • Ministry for Gender and Family Promotion, 12, 14

      • Ministry of Finance, 15

      • political inclusion of women, 27

      • primary school completion, 20–21

      • primary school enrollment, 19, 25–26

      • public policy framework for gender equality, 13–14

      • role of informal institutions in gender equality, 14

      • wage gap, 24

      • water access, 22–23

      • women’s land ownership, 26–27

    S

    • Safe and Strong, 38

    • SALIDCs

      • gender inequality indicators, 17–18

    • Samoa

      • development indicators, 187–188

      • fiscal indicators, 189

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 221–224

      • labor force participation, 190

      • maternal mortality, 192

    • Saudi Arabia

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    • Save the Daughter, Educate the Daughter, 39–40

    • School completion rates

      • gender gap trends, 3, 4

      • Rwanda, 20–21

      • Uganda, 20–21

    • School enrollment

      • Afghanistan, 170

      • Asia, 35

      • Canada, 110

      • Central Asia, 155–156

      • East African Community, 25

      • Europe, 58

      • India, 35, 47–48

      • Latin America, 110

      • Middle East, 155–156

      • Morocco, 164, 165

      • Pacific region, 35

      • Philippines, 35, 47–48

      • Rwanda, 17, 19, 20–21, 25–26

      • Timor-Leste, 199

      • Uganda, 18, 19, 20, 25

      • United States, 110

    • Secondary education rates

      • Asia, 35

      • Canada, 110

      • Central Asia, 155–156

      • Europe, 58

      • gender gap trends, 3, 4

      • India, 35, 47–48

      • Latin America, 110

      • Middle East, 155–156

      • Pacific region, 35

      • Philippines, 35, 47–48

      • United States, 110

    • Secretary of State for the Support and Socio-Economical Promotion of Women, 200–201

    • SEPREM. See Presidential Secretariat for Women

    • Seven-Year Government Program, 13–14

    • Shisha Kibondo program, 26

    • Sida, 83, 84

    • Singapore

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

    • Social protection programs, 206–207

    • Somalia

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    • South Africa

      • child and infant mortality, 46–47

    • Spain

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 74–77, 85–86

      • government-commissioned gender and revenue studies, 92

      • La Plataforma Impacto de Género YA!, 97–98

    • Specific Cabinet for Women, 132

    • Sri Lanka

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • STAT compiler, 20

    • State Program to Ensure Equal Status of Men and Women in Ukraine, 85

    • Status of Women Canada, 128

    • Strategic Guidance Document, 75

    • Strategy on Gender Responsive Budgeting, 80, 81

    • Sub-Saharan Africa. See also Africa

      • economic growth differential, 27

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 32

      • impact of gender inequality on GDP, 9

      • literacy rates, 25

      • Rwanda, 9–15, 16–29

      • Uganda, 15–29

    • Sudan

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    • Support and Socio-Economical Promotion of Women, 200–201

    • Sustainable Development Goals, 6

    • Sweden

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 66–69, 86, 104–105

      • Swedish Women’s Lobby, 96–97

    • Swedish Gender Mainstreaming Support Committee, 68

    • Swedish Women’s Lobby, 96–97

    • Syrian Arab Republic

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    T

    • Tajikistan

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 156

    • Tanzania

      • gender inequality indicators, 10, 11

      • literacy rates, 25

      • primary school enrollment, 25

    • Tax policy

      • gender budgeting and, 90–94, 142–143, 208

      • inequalities, 6 joint taxation, 88

      • value-added tax, 88–89, 99

    • Technical Vocational Education Training, 25

    • Tenth National Development Plan, 46

    • Tertiary school enrollment

      • Asia, 48

    • Thailand

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • 3R gender audits, 76

    • Timor-Leste

      • consultative process, 202

      • development indicators, 187–188

      • fiscal indicators, 189

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 191–204, 215

      • international donors, 201–202

      • maternal mortality, 192

      • National Parliament, 201

      • school enrollment, 199

      • Secretary of State for the Support and Socio-Economical Promotion of Women, 200–201

    • Treaty of Amsterdam, 54

    • Treaty of Rome, 55

    • Tunisia

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    • Turkmenistan

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 156

    U

    • Uganda

      • antenatal visits, 21–22

      • Certificate on Gender and Equity Compliance, 30

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 15–16, 32

      • gender inequality indicators, 10, 18, 19

      • level of education, 20–21

      • literacy rates among women, 20

      • Ministry of Finance, Planning, and Economic Development, 15–16

      • primary school completion, 20–21

      • primary school enrollment, 19, 25

      • water access, 22–23

    • Ukraine

      • Bureau of Gender Strategies and Budgeting, 83

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 83–85, 104–105

    • UN Women, 5, 16, 83–84, 85, 122–123. See also UNIFEM

    • Unemployment

      • Europe, 58

    • UNIFEM, 15, 118, 120, 121. See also UN Women

    • United Arab Emirates

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

    • United Kingdom

      • Department for International Development, 2–3

      • Women’s Budget Group, 6, 95–96

    • United Nations

      • Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 97

      • Organization for Women, 15, 118, 120

    • United Nations Development Program, 107

    • United States

      • domestic violence legislation, 110

      • earning gaps, 110

      • Gender Development Index, 108, 110

      • income inequality, 110

      • labor force participation, 110

      • maternal mortality, 110

      • property ownership rights, 110

      • secondary education rates, 110

      • secondary enrollment, 110

    • Universal Child Benefit, 139

    • Uruguay

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 137

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    • USAID

      • Demographic and Health Survey, 19–20

    • Uzbekistan

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 156

    V

    • Value-added tax, 88–89, 99

    • VAT. See Value-added tax

    • Venezuela

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 137–138

      • Gender Development Index, 108

    • Vietnam

      • fiscal context of gender budgeting, 37

      • Gender Inequality Index, 34

      • labor force participation, 35

      • parliamentary seats held by women, 36

      • secondary school enrollment, 35

    • Vision 2020, 13

    W

    • Wage gaps

      • Canada, 110

      • Europe, 58

      • Latin America, 110

      • Rwanda, 24

      • United States, 110

    • Water supply

      • Rwanda, 22–23

      • Uganda, 22–23

    • Websites

      • Afghanistan’s Ministry of Finance budget, 168

      • Argentina’s gender budgeting initiative, 138

      • Austrian gender budgeting, 63

      • Canada’s Alternative Federal Budget, 129

      • Canada’s General Audit Office study, 128

      • Chile’s Programs for Improvement of Management, 140–141

      • Demographic and Health Survey, 19–20

      • El Salvador Five-Year Development Plan, 124

      • Feminist Center for Research and Advice, 127

      • Gender and Child Budgeting plan, 40

      • India’s Gender Budget Statement, 39

      • MANAR-Stat, 161

      • Ministry of Women and Child Development handbook, 40

      • Peru’s gender budgeting manual, 136

      • Philippines Gender and Development Plan, 42

      • Sweden’s Statement of Government Policy, 67

      • World Bank Data, 154

      • West Bank and Gaza

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 174

    • Western Europe

      • gender budgeting initiatives, 60–77

    • Women’s Budget, 127

    • Women’s Budget Group, 6, 95–96

    • Women’s Budget Initiative, 9

    • Women’s Budget Statements, 38

    • Women’s Consortium of Ukraine, 84

    • Women’s Machinery, 118

    • Women’s Parliamentary Group, 124

    • Women’s Secretariat, 127

    • World Bank, 12–13, 19, 34–35, 40

    • World Bank Data, 154

    • World Development Indicators, 12–13, 19, 34–35, 40

    • World Economic Forum

      • Gender Gap Report, 30

      • Global Gender Gap Index, 1, 11

    Y

    • Yemen, Republic

      • fiscal indicators of gender budgeting, 158

      • gender and income inequality indicators, 155

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