Outline of a Facility Based on Special Drawing Rights in the Fund (September 29, 1967)
- International Monetary Fund
- Published Date:
- February 1996
The facility described in this Outline is intended to meet the need, as and when it arises, for a supplement to existing reserve assets. It is to be established within the framework of the Fund and, therefore, by an Amendment of the Fund’s Articles. Provisions relating to some of the topics in this Outline could be included in By-Laws adopted by the Board of Governors or Rules and Regulations adopted by the Executive Directors rather than in the amendment.
I. Establishment of a Special Drawing Account in the Fund
(a) An amendment to the Articles will establish a Special Drawing Account through which all the operations relating to special drawing rights will be carried out. The purposes of the facility will be set forth in the introductory section of the amendment.
(b) The operations of and resources available under the Special Drawing Account will be separate from the operations of the present Fund which will be referred to as the General Account.
(c) Separate provisions will be included in the amendment for withdrawal from or liquidation of the Special Drawing Account; Article XVI, Section 2, and Schedules D and E on withdrawal and liquidation will continue to apply as they do at present to the General Account of the Fund.
II. Participants and Other Holders
1. Participants. Participation in the Special Drawing Account will be open to any member of the Fund that undertakes the obligations of the amendment. A member’s quota in the Fund will be the same for the purposes of both the General and the Special Drawing Accounts of the Fund.
2. Holding by General Account. The General Account will be authorized to hold and use special drawing rights.
III. Allocation of Special Drawing Rights
1. Principles for decisions. The Special Drawing Account will allocate special drawing rights in accordance with the provisions of the amendment. Special considerations applicable to the first decision to allocate special drawing rights, as well as the principles on which all decisions to allocate special drawing rights will be based, will be included in the introductory section of the amendment and, to the extent necessary, in a report explaining the amendment.
2. Basic period and rate of allocation. The following provisions will apply to any decision to allocate special drawing rights:
(i) The decision will prescribe a basic period during which special drawing rights will be allocated at specified intervals. The period will normally be five years in length, but the Fund may decide that any basic period will be of different duration. The first basic period will begin on the effective date of the first decision to allocate special drawing rights.
(ii) The decision will also prescribe the rate or rates at which special drawing rights will be allocated during the basic period. Rates will be expressed as a percentage, uniform for all participants, of quotas on the date specified in the decision.
3. Procedure for decisions.
(a) Any decision on the basic period for, timing of, or rate of allocation of special drawing rights will be taken by the Board of Governors on the basis of a proposal by the Managing Director concurred in by the Executive Directors.
(b) Before formulating any proposal, the Managing Director after having satisfied himself that the considerations referred to in III.1 have been met, will conduct such consultations as will enable him to ascertain that there is broad support among participants for the allocation of special drawing rights at the proposed rate and for the proposed basic period.
(c) The Managing Director will make proposals with respect to the allocation of special drawing rights: (i) within sufficient time before the end of a basic period; (ii) in the circumstances of III.4; (iii) within six months after the Board of Governors or the Executive Directors request that he make a proposal. The Managing Director will make a proposal for the first basic period when he is of the opinion that there is broad support among the participants to start the allocation of special drawing rights.
(d) The Executive Directors will review both the operations of the Special Drawing Account and the adequacy of global reserves as part of their annual report to the Board of Governors.
4. Change in rate of allocation or basic period. If there are unexpected major developments which make it desirable to change the rate at which further special drawing rights are to be allocated for a basic period, (i) the rate may be increased or decreased, or (ii) the basic period may be terminated and a different rate of allocation adopted for a new basic period. Paragraph III.3 will apply to such changes.
5. Voting majority.
(a) For decisions on the basic period for, timing of, amount and rate of allocation of special drawing rights, an 85 per cent majority of the voting power of participants shall be required.
(b) Notwithstanding (a) above, the decisions to decrease the rate of allocation of special drawing rights for the remainder of the basic period will be taken by a simple majority of the voting power of participants.
6. Opting out. The amendment will include provisions that will prescribe to what extent a participant will be required initially to receive special drawing rights, but will stipulate that beyond any such amount a participant that does not vote in favor of a decision to allocate special drawing rights may elect not to receive them under that decision.
IV. Cancellation of Special Drawing Rights
The principles set forth in III relating to the procedure and voting for the allocation of special drawing rights will be applicable, with appropriate modifications, to the cancellation of such rights.
V. Use of Special Drawing Rights
1. Right to use special drawing rights.
(a) A participant will be entitled, in accordance with the provisions of V, to use special drawing rights to acquire an equivalent amount of a currency convertible in fact. A participant which thus provides currency will receive an equivalent amount of special drawing rights.
(b) Within the framework of such rules and regulations as the Fund may adopt, a participant may obtain the currencies referred to in (a) either directly from another participant or through the Special Drawing Account.
(c) Except as indicated in V.3 (c), a participant will be expected to use its special drawing rights only for balance of payments needs or in the light of developments in its total reserves and not for the sole purpose of changing the composition of its reserves.
(d) The use of special drawing rights will not be subject to prior challenge on the basis of this expectation, but the Fund may make representations to any participant which, in the Fund’s judgment, has failed to observe the expectation, and may direct drawings to such participant to the extent of such failure.
2. Provision of currency. A participant’s obligation to provide currency will not extend beyond a point at which its holdings of special drawing rights in excess of the net cumulative amount of such rights allocated to it are equal to twice that amount. However, a participant may provide currency, or agree with the Fund to provide currency, in excess of this limit.
3. Selection of participants to be drawn upon. The Fund’s rules and instructions relating to the participants from which currencies should be acquired by users of special drawing rights will be based on the following main general principles, supplemented by such principles as the Fund may find desirable from time to time:
(a) Normally, currencies will be acquired from participants that have a sufficiently strong balance of payments and reserve position, but this will not preclude the possibility that currency will be acquired from participants with strong reserve positions even though they have moderate balance of payments deficits.
(b) The Fund’s primary criterion will be to seek to approach over time equality, among the participants indicated from time to time by the criteria in (a) above, in the ratios of their holdings of special drawing rights, or such holdings in excess of net cumulative allocations thereof, to total reserves.
(c) In addition, the Fund will, in its rules and instructions, provide for such use of special drawing rights, either directly between participants or through the intermediary of the Special Drawing Account, as will promote voluntary reconstitution and reconstitution under V.4.
(d) Subject to the provisions of V.1 (c), a participant may use its special drawing rights to purchase balances of its currency held by another participant, with the agreement of the latter.
(a) Members that use their special drawing rights will incur an obligation to reconstitute their position in accordance with principles which will take account of the amount and the duration of the use. These principles will be laid down in rules and regulations of the Fund.
(b) The rules for reconstitution of drawings made during the first basic period will be based on the following principles:
(i) The average net use, taking into account both use below and holdings above its net cumulative allocation, made by a participant of its special drawing rights calculated on the basis of the preceding five years, shall not exceed 70 per cent of its average net cumulative allocation during this period. Reconstitution under this subparagraph (i) will be brought about through the mechanism of transfers, by the Fund directing drawings correspondingly.
(ii) Participants will pay due regard to the desirability of pursuing over time a balanced relationship between their holdings of special drawing rights and other reserves.
(c) Reconstitution rules will be reviewed before the end of the first and of each subsequent period and new rules will be adopted, if necessary. If new rules are not adopted for a basic period, the rules for the preceding period shall apply unless it is decided to abrogate reconstitution rules. The same majority as is required for decisions on the basic period, timing of, or rate of allocation of special drawing rights will be required for decisions to adopt, amend, or abrogate reconstitution rules. Any amendment in the rules will govern the reconstitution of drawings made after the effective date of the amendment, unless otherwise decided.
VI. Interest and Maintenance of Gold Value
(a) Interest. A moderate rate of interest will be paid in special drawing rights on holdings of special drawing rights. The cost of this interest will be assessed against all participants in proportion to net cumulative allocations of special drawing rights to them.
(b) Maintenance of gold value. The unit of value for expressing special drawing rights will be equal to 0.888 671 gram of fine gold. The rights and obligations of participants and of the Special Drawing Account will be subject to an absolute maintenance of gold value or to provisions similiar to Article IV, Section 8 of the Fund’s Articles.
VII. Functions of Fund Organs and Voting
1. Exercise of powers. The decisions taken with respect to the Special Drawing Account, and the supervision of its operations, will be carried out by the Board of Governors, the Executive Directors, the Managing Director, and the staff of the Fund. Certain powers, and in particular those relating to the adoption of decisions concerning the allocation, cancellation, and certain aspects of the use of special drawing rights, will be reserved to the Board of Governors. All other powers, except those specifically granted to other organs, will be vested in the Board of Governors which will be able to delegate them to the Executive Directors.
2. Voting. Except as otherwise provided in the amendment, all decisions pertaining to the Special Drawing Account will be taken by a majority of votes cast. The precise formula for the voting power of participants, which will include basic and weighted votes, and possibly the adjustment of voting power in relation to the use of special drawing rights, will be the subject of later consideration.
VIII. General Provisions
1. Collaboration. Participants will undertake to collaborate with the Fund in order to facilitate the proper functioning and effective use of special drawing rights within the international monetary system.
2. Nonfulfillment of obligations.
(a) If the Fund finds that a participant has failed to fulfill its obligations to provide currency in accordance with the amendment, the Fund may suspend the right of the participant to use its special drawing rights.
(b) If the Fund finds that a participant has failed to fulfill any other obligation under the amendment, the Fund may suspend the participant’s right to use any special drawing rights allocated to, or acquired by, it after the suspension.
(c) Suspension under (a) or (b) above will not affect a participant’s obligation to provide currency in accordance with the amendment.
(d) The Fund may at any time terminate a suspension under (a) or (b) above.
3. Accounts. All changes in holdings of special drawing rights will take effect when recorded in the accounts of the Special Drawing Account.
IX. Entry into Force
The amendment would enter into force in accordance with the terms of Article XVII of the Fund’s Articles.