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Index

Author(s):
Keimeir Kaizuka, and Anne Krueger
Published Date:
July 2006
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Author(s)
Sue Carlton

Compiled by Sue Carlton

  • Alesina, A. 16

  • Asako, K. 3

  • Auerbach-Kotlikoff (AK) overlapping generations model (OLG) 30, 40-6, 64, 69, 71

    • and the firm 44

    • and government sector 44-6

    • and household 41-4

    • and market equilibrium 46

    • see also benchmark simulation

  • Azariadis, C. 34, 35

  • Bank of Japan 25, 28, 96, 184, 190-1, 198, 202

  • benchmark simulation

    • analysis of 52-64

    • debt-GDP ratio 47, 52, 54-7

    • demographic change 47, 57-8

    • national burden 33, 53

    • public pension scheme 49, 52-4, 58

    • technological progress 32, 51, 59-64

  • Beveridge Report 174, 178

  • Bismark, Otto von 175

  • Bjornerud, S. 158

  • Bohn, H. 12, 38

  • Brazil 75, 191

  • Broda, C. 9, 10, 12, 24, 25, 31, 32, 39, 52, 72, 73, 74

  • budget deficit 1-29, 80, 96-7, 106, 207, 214-15, 216

    • pessimists and optimists 4, 9-10, 11, 17, 22-4, 26, 32, 39, 70, 72, 74

    • projections 47

    • source of 13-15

    • sustainability 4, 11-13, 17, 25, 28-9, 32, 33-40, 72

  • bullet train 15

  • Bush, George W. 19

  • capital deepening 186-7

  • Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services 182

  • China

    • population projection 190

    • saving behaviour 187-90

  • Cobb-Douglas production function 44, 188

  • Congressional Budget Office 18-19

  • debt

    • measuring 9-11, 24-5, 26-7

    • net debt and gross debt 4-6, 9-11, 12, 24, 24-5, 26-7, 96

  • debt management 29, 190-8, 205, 216

    • see also Japanese government bonds (JGBs)

  • debt neutrality 15-16, 34

  • debt/GDP ratio 1-9, 12, 17, 33, 38, 69, 70-1, 72-3, 106, 214-15

    • benchmark simulation 47, 52, 54-7

  • deficit-financing bonds 1

    • see also Japanese government bonds (JGBs)

  • defined benefit (DB) pensions 199, 200, 205

  • defined contribution (DC) pensions 84-5, 200, 204, 205, 208

  • Dekle, R. 70, 71

  • demographic change 9, 25, 29, 30-78, 79-80, 96, 99, 181-2

    • benchmark simulation 47, 57-8

    • and fiscal adjustment 215-16

    • generational accounting analysis 184-5

    • and health care system 79-80, 91, 92, 94-5, 99, 157, 158-60, 176-7, 182-3, 206

    • and immigration policy 79, 99, 107, 185-6

    • and labor-force participation 85-6, 99, 107, 110-11, 207

    • projections 10, 11, 31, 41, 46-7, 57, 88, 95, 189

    • and social welfare system 9, 14, 18, 27, 64-5, 84, 107, 174-80, 182, 205

    • and technology-driven growth 186

  • Denmark, fiscal reforms 16

  • Doi, T. 38

  • education spending 119-20, 122, 129, 209

  • elderly

    • care of 92-3, 94, 122, 154, 156, 158, 167-9, 176-7

    • labor-market participation 71, 111

    • see also demographic change

  • Engen, E.M. 18

  • European Union

    • population projection 189

    • Stability and Growth Pact 9

  • Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) 213

  • Faruqee, H. 110

  • Fehr, H. 186-7

  • fertility rate 25, 31, 46, 79, 88, 107, 181, 188, 208

  • Fetzer, S. 182

  • Fiscal Investment and Loan Program (FILP) 98, 99, 142, 214

  • fiscal multipliers, declining 15-16

  • fiscal policy

    • decentralization 112-39, 216

    • effectiveness of 15-16, 20, 71

    • fiscal adjustment 214

    • fiscal consolidation 39-40, 143-4, 215-16, 217

    • fiscal federalism 112-13

    • and non-Keynesian effect 16-17

    • promoting economic growth 95-7, 99-100, 207

    • regional income equalization 113-14, 134-5, 137

  • Flavin, M.A. 12, 37

  • Fukawa, T. 91, 182

  • Germany, health care spending 92, 172, 182-4

  • Giavazzi, F. 16

  • government agency bonds 11

  • government-managed health insurance (GMHI) 168

  • Hagist, C. 182

  • Hakkio, C.S. 12

  • hakomono 123

  • Hamilton, J.D. 12, 37

  • Hanai, K. 113, 123

  • Hauner, D. 208

  • Hayashi, F. 51

  • health care system 105, 107, 153-73

    • consultations 161, 162-3

    • and demographic change 79-80, 84, 91, 92, 94-5, 99, 157, 158-60, 176-7, 182-3, 206

    • drug consumption 161, 166, 167-8, 170

    • General Practitioners (GPs) 167

    • hospital sector 73, 92-4, 154, 156-7, 161, 164-5, 167

    • improving efficiency 167-9

    • insurance sector 161, 167, 168-9

    • performance 153-6

    • public health insurance 30, 40-1, 42, 45-6, 49, 175, 179, 211, 212

      • benefits 33, 50, 52, 53, 64, 73

      • government-managed health

      • insurance (GMHI) 168

    • reform 19, 183, 200-1, 202, 205, 206, 211-12, 213

    • role of private sector 212

    • spending 30, 59-64, 79-80, 91-5, 156-61, 182-4

      • possible policy responses 160-7

      • projections 9, 14, 59, 106, 158-60, 183-4, 211

    • and technological change 59-64, 158, 161, 168, 169

    • voucher system 200-1, 205, 206

  • Health Service System for the Elderly (HSSE) 168

  • Heller, P. 208

  • household savings 28-9

  • Hubbard, R.G. 18

  • Ihori, T. 12, 15, 37-8

  • immigration policy 79, 99, 107, 185-6

  • inflation 10, 25, 74, 190-1, 198, 200, 205, 209

  • Inman, R. 112

  • interest rate 4, 9, 31, 32, 62, 65, 73-5, 96

    • and growth rate 10, 32, 33, 35, 37-8, 52, 53, 62, 65, 70, 73, 74

  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) 22-3, 25, 109, 217

    • MULTIMOD model 110

  • Ireland, fiscal reforms 16

  • Izumida, N. 91, 182

  • Japan Post 96

  • Japanese government bonds (JGBs) 4, 6, 9, 10, 12, 27, 28, 29, 39, 41, 44-5, 73-7, 190-1

  • Joumard, I. 112-13

  • Kato, R.R. 32, 59

  • Kitamura, Y. 184, 185

  • Koizumi administration 40

  • Kokumin Pension Plan 11

  • Komei party 179

  • Kongsrud, P.M. 112-13

  • Kotlikoff, L.J. 182

    • see also Auerbach-Kotlikoff model

  • Kuttner, K. 15

  • legacy debt 83, 84, 88, 90-1, 110

  • Liberal Democratic Party 119, 179

  • life expectancy 79, 85, 86, 91, 107, 111, 154, 181, 206

  • local allocation tax (LAT) 17, 39, 98, 141, 142, 143, 144, 147-50, 216

  • local government accountability 141-4

    • block grants 17, 97, 98, 112, 114, 137, 216

    • bonds 11, 17, 98-9, 129, 135, 142, 148

    • borrowing 98-9, 129, 141-2, 216

    • and central control 129, 135, 137, 144, 145-6

    • demanding decentralization 117-19

    • excessive transfers 135, 137, 144, 146-7

    • incentives to raise revenue 114, 119, 131, 133, 136, 137, 143, 144, 146, 147

    • public investment 115, 119-23, 135, 142, 148-50

    • and reform 113, 135-7, 140-4

    • sources of revenues 123-9

    • structure and budgets 114-19

    • transfers from central government 17, 98, 106, 114, 115-22, 123, 125, 127, 129-35, 136-7, 140-3, 146-50 transparency 142-3

  • Local Public Finance Law (LPFL) 145

  • Local Public Finance Program (LPFP) 148

  • mamizu 15

  • Medical Fee Payment Fund 168

  • medical insurance see health care

    • system, public health insurance

  • Medical Security System (MSS) 200-1, 202

  • Medicare 18, 19

  • monetary policy, increasing money

    • supply 28, 96, 117, 190-8, 202, 205

  • Mühleisen, M. 110

  • MULTIMOD model 110

  • Nakajima, T. 15

  • national burden 33, 53, 64, 69-70, 72-3

  • National Institute of Population

    • Projections and Social Security

    • Research 41

  • National Medical Expenditure 50

  • New Deal 175

  • Oates, W. 112

  • overlapping generations model (OLG)

    • see Auerbach-Kotlikoff (AK)

  • Pagano, M. 16

  • pension system 11, 30-1, 40-1, 42-6, 49-50, 64, 78, 79-91, 176, 181-2

    • automatic adjustments 88-90

    • benchmark simulation 49, 52-4, 58

    • burden on younger generation 9, 83-5, 109-10

    • comprehensiveness of 178, 179

    • contributions 10-11, 19, 33, 42-3, 45-6, 49, 53-4, 57-8, 62-4, 65, 69

    • defined benefit (DB) pensions 199, 200, 205

    • defined contribution (DC) pensions 84-5, 200, 204, 205, 208

    • and household savings 29

    • impact of Chinese saving behaviour 188-90

    • legacy debt 83, 84, 88, 90-1, 110

    • pay-as-you-go (PAYG) finance 30, 39, 81-3, 84, 89, 107-9, 110, 198, 205

    • projections 14, 33, 210-11

    • public pension fund 23, 31, 41, 45-6, 49, 52, 81, 89

    • reform 11, 58, 64-5, 69-70, 73, 79, 86-8, 105-6, 198-200, 202, 204, 216

      • cutting benefits 11, 82, 185

      • recent developments 179-80

    • self-sustainability 82, 109, 111

  • and tax increases 23

  • Perotti, R. 16

  • Personal Security System (PSS) 199-200, 202

  • Ponzi game condition 12

  • pork barrel spending 15, 16, 97

  • Posen, A. 15

  • Prescott, E.C. 51

  • Projection of Future Population in Japan 31, 46-7, 57

  • public investment 15, 70, 71, 99, 122-3, 135, 216

    • by local government 115, 119-23, 135, 142, 148-50

  • Raffelhtischen, B. 182

  • Ricardian effects 15-16, 34

  • Rubinfeld, D. 112

  • Rush, M. 12

  • Samuelson, P. 34-5

  • Sato, M. 37, 150

  • Siegel, J. 187

  • social security burden 32, 33, 49, 50, 53, 57-8, 64-5

  • social welfare system 42, 47-50, 105, 174-80

    • cutting benefits 26, 70, 183, 185, 209, 210-12

    • and demographic change 9, 14, 18, 27, 64-5, 84, 107, 174-80, 182, 205

    • features of 178-9

    • international comparisons 177-8

    • nursing care insurance 154, 156, 157, 167, 168-9, 176-7, 178, 179

    • Personal Security System (PSS) 199-200, 202

    • projections 210-11, 214

    • quality evaluation 213 reform 111, 204-13

    • spending 25, 27, 70, 121, 122

    • sustainability 212-13

    • and technological progress 62-4

    • see also health care system; pension system

  • Solow residual 32, 51, 74, 78

  • Stability and Growth Pact 9

  • Structural Impediments Initiative (SII) 149

  • System of National Accounts (SNA) 31, 47, 49, 50

  • Takayama, N. 88, 90, 110, 184, 185

  • tax burden 12, 32-3, 39, 50, 52, 53, 57, 62-4, 65, 70, 74, 184

  • taxation 40-1, 50

    • consumption tax 27, 42, 45, 50, 52, 71, 72, 124, 128-9, 201-2

    • earmarking 106

    • increasing 10, 23, 26, 33, 53-4, 63, 65, 70, 106, 216

  • corporate tax 27, 124, 126, 127, 128

  • declining revenues 27

  • income tax 11, 27, 42, 45, 124

    • cutting 13, 23, 26

    • increasing 26, 185

  • local taxes 124-6, 127-9, 131-2, 133, 136, 142, 145

    • reform of tax system 201-2, 216

  • technological progress 32, 33, 51, 59-64, 70, 186

    • and health care system 59-64, 158, 161, 168, 169

  • Trehan, B. 12

  • Trinity reforms 97-8, 106, 141-2

  • unemployment insurance 122, 174, 175, 176, 185

  • unit-root tests 12

  • United States

    • debt-to-GDP ratio 4-6, 17-19

    • government spending 18-19

    • health care spending 91, 92, 182-4

    • interest rate 18, 20

    • old-age benefits 19

    • population projection 189

    • social welfare system 19, 90, 105, 112, 175

    • tax system 19

    • trade deficit 149

  • Walsh, C.E. 12

  • Weinstein, D.E. 9, 10, 12, 24, 25, 31, 32, 39, 52, 72, 73, 74

  • Welfare Reform Act (1996) (US) 112

  • World Bank bonds 75

  • Yokoyama, T. 113

  • Yoshino, N. 15

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