- Norman Humphreys
- Published Date:
- June 2000
|Purchases by facility (GRA)1|
|ESAF Trust resources||594||568||1,292||705||973|
|Repurchases and Repayments|
|SAF/ESAF & Trust|
|Outstanding IMF Credit|
|Change in outstanding credit (%)|
|Number of indebted countries|
Excludes reserve tranche purchases.
Includes first credit tranche drawings.
Includes Saudi Fund for Development associated loans.Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.
Excludes reserve tranche purchases.
Includes first credit tranche drawings.
Includes Saudi Fund for Development associated loans.Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.
|Afghanistan, Islamic State of||161.9||0.076|
|Antigua and Barbuda||13.5||0.006|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||169.1||0.080|
|Central African Republic||55.7||0.026|
|Congo, Dem. Rep. of||533.0||0.251|
|Congo, Republic of||84.6||0.040|
|Iran, Islamic Republic of||1,497.2||0.706|
|Lao People’s Democratic Republic||52.9||0.025|
|Micronesia, Federal States of||5.1||0.002|
|Palau, Republic of||3.1||0.003|
|Papua New Guniea||131.6||0.062|
|São Tomé and Principe||7.4||0.003|
|St. Kitts and Nevis||8.9||0.004|
|St. Vincent and the Grenadines||8.3||0.004|
|Syrian Arab Republic||293.6||0.138|
|Trinidad and Tobago||335.6||0.158|
|United Arab Emirates||611.7||0.288|
|Yemen, Republic of||243.5||0.115|
|Yugoslavia, Fed. Rep of||467.7||0.221|
|Number of Arrangements||SDRs|
|Arrangemment Dates||Amounts Approved||Undrawn Balances|
|Member||Effective date||Expiration date||Through 4/30/98||As of 4/30/98|
|Congo, Rep. of||6/28/96||6/27/99||69||56|
|Member||Effective Date||Expiration Date||Undrawn Balance|
The authorities indicated their intention not to draw under the arrangement.
Original amount of SDR 201 million increased by SDR 37 million.
Original amount of SDR 248 million increased by SDR 52 million for debt and debt service reduction.
Extended from June 23, 1997, December 31, 1997, and January 31, 1998. Increased by SDR 317 million.Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.
The authorities indicated their intention not to draw under the arrangement.
Original amount of SDR 201 million increased by SDR 37 million.
Original amount of SDR 248 million increased by SDR 52 million for debt and debt service reduction.
Extended from June 23, 1997, December 31, 1997, and January 31, 1998. Increased by SDR 317 million.Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.
The following bibliography lists selective publications on the history and evolution of the International Monetary Fund. The Fund itself periodically published, from 1951 through 1985, comprehensive bibliographies in various issues of its quarterly economic journal, Staff Papers. Many of these bibliographies were compiled by Anne C. M. Salda, who on her retirement from the Joint Fund-Bank Library compiled an extensive and annotated bibliography, International Monetary Fund, which references publications on the Fund since its inception (see under General Bibliography).
The first section of this bibliography lists publications issued by the Fund. The second section concentrates on citing substantive material published outside the Fund dealing with its work and related matters. No attempt has been made to cover the many serious and interesting articles that have appeared in newspapers and news magazines.
The Fund’s public web site was opened in September 1996 at the address http://www.imf.org. From the the home-page menu, hyperlinks lead to various submenus, including a catalogue of publications. A number of publications are also available in full text on the web site.
The Fund issues annually a catalog of available publications.
Publications Issued by the Fund
Reports and Documents
Agreement Between the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund1956.
Annual Report of the Executive Board1946to date. Published also in French, German, and Spanish.
Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions1979to date.
Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund Original Articles in 1946; as modified by the first amendment to the Articles 1968; as modified by the second amendment to the Articles 1978; and as modified by the third amendment to the Articles 1992. Also in Arabic, French, Russian, and Spanish.
Establishment of a Facility Based on Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund and Modifications in the Rules and Practices of the Fund: A Report by the Executive Directors to the Board of Governors Proposing Amendment of the Articles of Agreement1968.
International Monetary Reform: Documents of the Committee of Twenty1974.
Proposed Third Amendment of the Articles of Agreement: A Report to the Board of Governors of the International Monetary Fund Containing the Managing Director’s Proposal on the Allocation of Special Drawing Rights for the First Basic Period1969. Also in French and Spanish.
Selected Decisions of the International Monetary Fund and Selected Documentsirregular, 1st issue 1962, 23rd issue, 1998.
Adjustment and Financing in the Developing World: The Role of the International Monetary Fund papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF and the Overseas Development Institute London Englandedited byTonyKillick1982.
Adjustment Conditionality and International Financing papers presented at a seminar in Viña del Mar Chile sponsored by the Central Bank of Chile the Frederico Santa Maria University and the IMFedited byJoaquínMuns1983.
Adjustment Policies and Development Strategies in the Arab World papers presented at a seminar in Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates at a seminar sponsored by the Arab Monetary Fund and the IMFedited bySaidEl-Naggar1987.
Africa and the International Monetary Fund papers presented at a symposium sponsored by the Association of African Central Banks and the IMFedited byG. K.Helleiner1987.
Analytical Issues in Debt by Jacob A.FrenkelMichael P.Dooley and PeterWickham1989.
Approaches to Exchange Rate Policy papers presented at a seminar on exchange rate policy in developing and transitional economies held by the IMF Instituteedited byRichardBarth and Chorng-HueyWong1994.
Balance of Payments Adjustment 1945 to 1986: The IMF Experience by MargaretGarritsen de Vries1987.
Balance of Payments Compilation Guide a companion document to the fifth edition of the Balance of Payments Manual1995.
Balance of Payments Manual the fifth edition of this manual revised and updated1993.
Balance of Payments Textbook a companion document to the Balance of Payments Manual1996.
Bank Soundness and Macroeconomic Policy by Carl-JohanLindgrenGillianGarcia and Matthew I.Saal1996.
Banking Crises: Cases and Issuesedited byV.Sundarajan and Thomas J. T.Baliño1991.
Beyond Adjustment: The Asian Experienceedited byPaulStreeten1988.
Building Sound Finance in Emerging Market Economiesedited byGerardCaprioDavidFolkerts-Landau and Timothy D.Lane1994.
Central and Eastern Europe: Roads to Growth papers presented at a seminar moderated by GeorgeWincklerorganized by the IMF and the Austrian National Bank1992.
Central Banking Technical Assistance to Countries in Transition proceedings of a joint meeting of central banking technical assistance held in St. Petersburg Russia in 1994edited byJ. B.ZuluIan S.McCarthySusanAlmuiña and GabrielSensenbrenner1994.
Central Bank Reform in Transition Economies contains the background papers prepared for the second coordinating meeting of 23 participating central banks of the Baltic States and the Commonwealth of Independent Statesedited byV.SundarajanArne B.Petersen and GabrielSensenbrenner1997.
Choosing an Exchange Rate Regime: The Challenge for Smaller Industrial Countriesedited byVictorArgy and Paul deGrauwe1990.
Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey Guide a guide for balance of payments compilers in conducting an internationally coordinated survey of security holdings conducted under the auspices of the IMF1996.
Coordinating Public Debt and Monetary Management: Institutional and Operational Arrangementsedited byV.SundarajanPeterDattels and HansBlommestein1997.
Coordinating Stabilization and Structural Reform papers presented in an IMF Institute seminar covering four case studies—China Poland Argentina and The Gambiaedited byRichard C.BarthAlan R.Roe and Chorng-HueyWong1994.
Current Legal Issues Affecting Central Banks Vols. I II III and IV papers presented at four biennial seminars sponsored by the IMF for central banksedited byRobert C.Effros1992 1994 1995 and 1997.
Deepening Structural Reform in Africa: Lessons from East Asia the proceedings of a seminar involving policymakers and senior government officials from Africa and East Asia and senior staff of international organizationsedited byLauraWallace1997.
Debt Stocks Debt Flows and the Balance of Payments prepared jointly by the BIS IMF OECD and World Bank1994.
Economic Adjustment: Policies and Problems the proceedings of a seminar held in Wellington New Zealand concentrating on economic adjustment problems in the South Pacificedited bySir FrankHolmes1987.
Economic Policy Coordination the proceedings of a seminar held in Hamburg Germany moderated byWilfredGuth1988.
Emerging Financial Centers: Legal and Institutional Frameworkedited byRobert C.Effros1982.
Economic Adjustment: Policies and Problems papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Wellington New Zealandedited bySir FrankHolmes1987.
Economic Policy Coordination papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Hamburg Germany1988.
EMU and the International Monetary System the proceedings of a seminar held in Washington sponsored by the IMF and the Fondation Camille Gutt1997.
Evolving Role of Central Banks papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF at the Fund’s headquartersedited byPatrickDownes and RezaVaez-Zadeh1991.
External Debt: Definition Statistical Coverage and Methodology a comparative description of statistics collected by the BIS IMF OECD and the World Bank1998.
External Debt Management papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF Washington D.C. edited byHassanaliMehran1985.
External Debt Savings and Growth in Latin America papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the Instituto Torcuato di Tella and the IMF in Don Torcuato Argentinaedited byAna MaríaMartirena-Mantel1987.
Fifty Years After Bretton Woods: The Future of the IMF and the World Bank the proceedings of a conference held in Madrid Spain sponsored by the IMF and the World Bank to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the two institutionsedited byJames M.Boughton and K. SarwarLateef1994.
Financial Policies and Capital Markets in Arab Countries the proceedings of a seminar held in Abu Dhabiedited bySaidEl-Naggar1994.
Financial Programming and Policy: The Case of Hungaryedited byKaren A.Swiderski1992.
Fiscal Federalism in Theory and Practice a series of papers on a number of countries examining the relationships among central state and local governments in respect to their spending and revenue-raising responsibilitiesedited byTeresaTer-Minassian1997.
Fiscal Policies in Economies in Transitionedited byVitoTanzi1992.
Fiscal Policy Economic Adjustment and Financial Markets papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the Centre for Financial and Monetary Economics Università Luigi Bocconi in Milan Italy and the IMFedited byMarioMonti1989.
Fiscal Policy in Open Developing Economies papers presented at the 44th Congress of the International Institute of Public Financeedited byVitoTanzi1990.
Fiscal Policy Stabilization and Growth in Developing Countriesedited byMario I.Blejer and Ke-youngChu1992.
Foreign and Inter-Trade Policies of Arab Countries papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Abu Dhabi United Arab Emiratesedited bySaidEl-Naggar1992.
Framework for Monetary Stability: Policy Issues and Country Experienceedited byTomás J. T.Baliño and CarloCottarelli1994.
The Functioning of the International Monetary System Vols. I and II a series of 30 analytical papers on the system as it functioned in 1987-91edited byJacob A.Frenkel and MorrisGoldstein1996.
The Future of the SDR in Light of Changes in the International Monetary System the proceedings of a seminar held at the IMFedited byMichaelMussaJamesBoughton and PeterIsard1996.
Government Financial Management: Issues and Country Studiesedited byA.Premchand1990.
Growth-Oriented Adjustment Programs papers presented at a symposium sponsored by the IMF and the World Bank in Washington D.C. edited byVittorioCorboMorrisGoldstein and MohsinKhan1987.
How to Measure the Fiscal Deficit: Analytical and Methodological Issuesedited byMario I.Blejer and AdrienneCheasty1992.
IMF Glossary English-French-Arabic by the IMF Bureau of Language Services1996.
IMF Glossary English-French-Spanish by the IMF Bureau of Language Services1997.
IMF Glossary English-French-Russian by the IMF Bureau of Language Services1998.
The IMF’s Statistical Systems in Context of Revision of the United Nations’ “A System of National Accounts”edited byVicenteGalbis1991.
Improving Tax Administration in Developing Countriesedited byRichard M.Bird and MilkaCasanegra de Jantscher1992.
Inflation and Growth in China the proceedings of a conferenceedited byManuelGuitián and RobertMundell1996.
Interest Rate Liberalization and Money Market Development a series of papers presented at a seminar held in Beijing China sponsored by the IMF and the People’s Bank of Chinaedited byHassanaliMehranBernardLaurens and MarcQuintyn1995.
International Financial Policy: Essays in Honor ofJacques J.Polakpapers presented at a conference sponsored by the Netherlands Bank and the IMF in Washington D.C. edited byJacob A.Frenkel and MorrisGoldstein1991.
International Monetary Cooperation Since Bretton Woods a comprehensive history written by Harold James and published jointly by the IMF and Oxford University Press1996.
The International Monetary Fund 1945-1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation. Vol. I Chronicle by J. KeithHorsefield;Vol. II, Analysis by Margaret G.de Vries and J. KeithHorsefield with the collaboration of JosephGoldMary H.GumbartGertrudeLovasy and Emil G.Spitzer; and Vol. III Documentsedited byJ. KeithHorsefield1969.
The International Monetary Fund 1966-1971: The System Under Stress. Vol. I Narrative by Margaret Garritsende Vries;Vol II Documentsedited byMargaret Garritsende Vries1976.
The International Monetary Fund 1972-1978: Cooperation on Trial. Vols. I and II Narrative and Analysis by Margaret Garritsende Vries; and Vol. III Documentsedited byMargaret Garritsende Vries1985.
International Reserves: Needs and Availability papers presented by a number of scholars and Fund staff members at a seminar convened at the Fund’s headquarters1970.
Legal and Institutional Aspects of the International Monetary System: Selected Essays Vols. I and II by JosephGold1984.
Macroeconomic Accounting and Analysis in Transition Economies by AbdessatarOuanes and SubhashThakur1997.
Macroeconomic Adjustment: Policy Instruments and Issuesedited byJeffrey M.Davis1992.
Macroeconomic Issues Facing ASEAN Countries papers prepared for the ASEAN conference held in Jakartaedited byJohnHicklinDavidRobinson and AnoopSingh1997.
Macroeconomic Models for Adjustment in Developing Countriesedited byMohsin S.KhanPeter J.Montiel and Nadeem U.Haque1991.
Macroeconomic Policies in an Interdependent Worldedited byRalphBryantDavidCurrieJacob A.FrenkelPaulMasson and RichardPortes1989.
Macroeconomics and the Environment the proceedings of a seminar held at the IMF at which experts from academic and research institutions nongovernmental organizations and staff from the IMF and World Bank shared their views on macroeconomic policies and the environmentedited byVed P.Gandhi1996.
The Monetary Approach to the Balance of Paymentsedited byRudolf R.Rhomberg1977.
Optimum Currency Areas: New Analytical and Policy Developments a revisit to Robert Mundell’s pioneering theory of optimum currency areas with an update by Robert Mundell himselfedited byMario I.BlejerJacob A.FrankelLeonardLeiderman and AssafRazin1997.
The Payment System: Design Management and Supervision 12 papers by central bank experts from around the worldedited byBruce J.Summers1994.
Payment System Monetary Policy and the Role of the Central Bank by Otomunde E. G.JohnsonRichard K.AbramsJean-MarcDestresseTonyLybekNicholasRoberts and MarkSwinburne1997.
Policies for African Development: From the 1980s to the 1990s a collection of papers presented at a seminar in Gaborone Botswanaedited byI. G.Patel1992.
Policies for Growth: The Latin American Experience papers presented at a seminar in Rio de Janeiro Brazilmoderated byAndréLara Resende1995.
Privatization and Structural Adjustment in the Arab Countries papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Washington D.C. edited bySaidEl-Naggar1989.
Public Expenditure Handbook: A Guide to Public Policy Issues in Developing Countriesedited byKe-youngChu and RichardHemming1991.
Reforming China’s Public Finances the proceedings of a conference held in Shanghai China with supplemental papersedited byEhtishamAhmadGaoQiang and VitoTanzi1995.
Report on the Measurement of International Capital Flows and Background Papers1992.
Report on the World Current Account Discrepancy by the IMF and other international organizations1987.
The Social Effects of Economic Adjustment on Arab Countries papers presented in a seminar sponsored by the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development the Arab Monetary Fund the IMF and the World Bankedited byTaher H.Kanaan1997.
Strategies for Structural Adjustment: The Experience of Southeast Asia papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Kuala Lumpur Malaysiamoderated byUngku A.Aziz1990.
Structural Adjustment and Macroeconomic Policy Issues papers presented at a conference in Lahore Pakistanmoderated byV. A.Jafarey1992.
Supply-Side Tax Policy: Its Relevance to Developing Countries by Ved P.GandhiLiam P.EbrillGeorge A.MackenzieLuisMañas-AntonJitendra R.ModiSomchaiRichupanFernandoSanchez-Ugarte and ParthasarathiShome1987.
System of National Accounts prepared by the Joint Commission of the European Communities IMF OECD UN and World Bank1993.
Systemic Bank Restructuring and Macroeconomic Policy sets out cross-country restructuring experiencesedited byWilliam E.AlexanderJeffrey M.DavisLiam P.Ebrill and Carl-JohanLindgren1997.
Tax Law Design and Drafting Vol. I and IIedited byVictorThuronyi1996.
Trade Policy Issues papers presented in a seminar sponsored by the IMFedited byChorng-HueyWong1997.
Transition to Market Studies in Fiscal Reformedited byVitoTanzi1993.
The Uruguay Round and the Arab Countries papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development the Arab Monetary Fund and the World Bankedited bySaidEl-Naggar1996.
Finance & Development jointly published by the Fund and the World Bank up to June 1998 when the IMF became the sole publisher. The magazine contains articles in nontechnical language explaining the financial and development issues. Published quarterly1964to date. In Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Portuguese, Spanish, and Russian (free).
IMF Economic Reviews a triennial collection of PINs issued in the preceding trimester.
IMF Survey maintains a running record of the Fund’s policies decisions and activities as well as country and world economic developments. Issued twice a month1972to date. Also in French and Spanish.
Staff Papersquarterly, 1950 to date.. The following are selected articles:
“Analysis of Proposals for Using Objective Indicators as a Guide to Exchange Rate Changes,” by Trevor G.UnderwoodVol. 20 (Mar. 1973) pp. 100–117.
“The Appropriate Use of Monetary and Fiscal Policy for Internal and External Stability,” by Robert A.MundellVol. 9 (Mar. 1962) pp. 70–79.
“Are Exchange Rates Excessively Volatile? And What Does “Excessively Volatile” Mean, Anyway?” by LeonardoBartolini and Gordon M.BodnarVol. 43 (Mar. 1996) pp. 72-96.
“Balance of Payments Adjustment Among Developed Countries,” by Anne RomanisBraunVol. 12 (Mar. 1965) pp. 17—34.
“Competitive Depreciation,” by WalterGardner and S. C.TsiangVol. 2 (1951-52) pp. 399–406.
“Conditionality: Past, Present, Future,” by ManuelGuitíanVol. 42 (Dec. 1995) pp. 792–835.
“Consumption. Income, and International Capital Market Integration,” by TamimBayoumi and RonaldMacDonaldVol. 42 (Sept. 1995) pp. 552–76.
“Currency Unions, Economic Fluctuations, and Adjustment,” by TamimBayoumi and EswarPrasadVol. 44 (Mar. 1997) pp. 36-58.
“Corruption Around the World: Causes, Consequences, Scope, and Cures,” by VitoTanziVol. 45 (Dec. 1998) pp. 559-4.
“The Determinants of Banking Crises in Developing Contraries,” by AsliDemirgüç-Kunt and EnricaDetragiacheVol. 45 (Mar. 1998) pp. 81–109.
“Devaluation Versus Import Restriction as an Instrument for Improving Foreign Trade Balance,” by Sidney S.AlexanderVol. 1 (1950–51) pp. 379–96.
“Developments in the International Payments System,” by J. MarcusFlemingVol. 10 (Nov. 1963) pp. 461–84.
“Domestic Financial Policies Under Fixed and Floating Exchange Rates,” by J. MarcusFlemingVol. 9 (Nov. 1962) pp. 369–80.
“Effectiveness of Exchange Rate Policy for Trade Account Adjustment,” by AlfredSteinherrVol. 28 (Mar. 1981) pp. 199–224.
“Effects of a Devaluation on a Trade Balance,” by Sydney S.AlexanderVol. 2 (Apr. 1952) pp. 263–78.
“Effects of Various Types of Reserve Creation on Fund Liquidity,” by J. MarcusFlemingVol. 12 (July1965) pp. 163–88.
“The Exchange Rate Regime: An Analysis and a Possible Scheme,” by FredHirschVol. 19 (July1972) pp. 259–85.
“Exchange Rates, Inflation, and Vicious Circles,” by John F. O.BiltonVol. 27 (Dec. 1980) pp. 679–711.
“Fifty Years of Exchange Policy and Research at the International Monetary Fund,” by Jacques V.PolakVol. 42 (Dec. 1995) pp.734–61.
“Fiscal Policy and Long-Run Growth,” by VitoTanzi and Howell H.ZeeVol. 44 (June1997) pp. 179–209.
“Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates: A Renewal of the Debate,” by JacquesArtus and John H.YoungVol. 26 (Dec. 1979) pp. 654–98.
“Fluctuating Exchange Rates in Countries with Relatively Stable Economies: Some European Experiences After World War I,” by S. C.TsiangVol. 7 (Oct. 1959) pp. 244–73.
“From Centrally-Planned to Market Economies: The Road from CPE to PCPE,” by Guillermo A.Calvo and Jacob A.FrenkelVol. 38. (June1991) pp. 268–99.
“The Fund and International Liquidity,” by J. MarcusFlemingVol. 11 (July1964) pp. 177–215.
“Fund Members’ Adherence to the Par Value Regime: Empirical Evidence,” by Margaret G.de VriesVol. 13 (1966) pp. 504–32.
“Government Spending, Taxes, and Economic Growth” by PaulCashinVol. 42 (June1995) pp. 237–69.
“The Historical Development of the Principle of Surveillance” by HaroldJamesVol. 42 (Dec. 1995) pp. 762–91.
“Improving the Demand for Money Function in Moderate Inflation,” by William H.WhiteVol. 25 (Sept. 1978) pp. 564–607.
“Indexation of Wages and Salaries in Developed Economies,” by Anne RomanisBraunVol. 23 (Mar. 1976) pp. 226–71.
“An Indicator of Effective Exchange Rates,” by FredHirsch and IlseHigginsVol. 17 (Nov. 1970) pp. 453–84.
“Indices of Effective Exchange Rates,” by Rudolf R.RhombergVol. 23 (Mar. 1976) pp. 88–112.
“Interest Rate Differences, Forward Exchange Mechanism, Scope for Short-Term Capital Movements,” by William H.WhiteVol. 10 (Nov. 1963) pp. 485–503.
“International Monetary Fund: A Selected Bibliography,” by MartinLoftus and Anne C. M.SaldaVol. 1 (1951)–Vol. 25 (Dec. 1985) various issues.
“Liberalization and the Behavior of Output During Transition from Plan to Market,” by ErnestoHernández-CatáVol. 44 (Dec. 1997) pp. 405-29.
“The Macroeconomic Impact of Privatization,” by G.A.MackenzieVol. 45 (June1998) pp. 363–400.
“The Management of International Liquidity,” by Oscar L.AltmanVol. 13 (July1966) pp. 216–47.
“Monetary Analysis of Income Formation and Payments Problems,” by Jacques J.PolakVol. 6 (Nov. 1957) pp. 1–50.
“The Monetary Approach to the Exchange Rate: Some Empirical Evidence,” by John F. O.BilsonVol. 25 (Mar. 1978) pp. 48–75.
“A Multilateral Exchange Rate Model,” by JacquesArtus and Rudolf R.RhombergVol. 20 (Nov. 1973) pp. 591–611.
“Official Intervention in the Forward Exchange Market: A Simplified Analysis,” by J. MarcusFleming and Robert A.MundellVol. 11 (Mar. 1964) pp. 1–9.
“Openness, Human Development, and Fiscal Policies: Effects of Economic Growth and Speed of Adjustment” by DelanoVillanueva41 (March1994) pp. 1–29.
“The Peace Dividend: Military Spending Cuts and Economic Growth,” by MalcolmKnightNormanLoayza and DelanoVillanuevaVol. 43 (Mar. 1996) pp. 1–37.
“The Present System of Reserve Creation in the Fund,” by HannanEzekielVol. 13 (Nov. 1966) pp. 398–420.
“The Productivity Bias in Purchasing Power Parity: An Econometric Investigation,” by Lawrence H.OfficerVol. 23 (Nov. 1976) pp. 545–75.
“Professor Triffin on International Liquidity and the Role of the Fund,” by Oscar L.AltmanVol. 8 (May1961) pp. 151–92.
“The Purchasing-Power-Parity Theory of Exchange Rates: A Review Article,” by Lawrence H.OfficerVol. 23 (Mar. 1976) pp. 1–60.
“Restraining Yourself: The Implications of Fiscal Rules for Economic Stabilization,” by TamimBayoumi and BarryEichengreenVol. 42 (Mar. 1995) pp. 32–48.
“A Revised Version of the Multilateral Exchange Rate Model,” by JacquesArtus and Anne KennyMcQuirkVol. 28 (June1981) pp. 275–309.
“The Role of Incomes Policy in Industrial Countries Since World War II,” by Anne RomanisBraunVol. 22 (Mar. 1975) pp. 1–6.
“The Role of the International Monetary Fund in Promoting Price Stability,” by WalterGardnerVol. 7 (Apr. 1960) pp. 319–26.
“The SDR as a Basket of Currencies,” by Jacques J.PolakVol. 26 (Dec. 1979) pp. 627–53.
“The SDR: Some Problems and Possibilities,” by J. MarcusFlemingVol. 18 (Mar. 1971) pp. 25–47.
“SDRs and the Working of the Gold Exchange Standard,” by FredHirschVol. 18 (July1971) pp. 221–53.
“Separate Exchange Markets for Current and Capital Transactions,” by AnthonyLanyiVol. 22 (Nov. 1975) pp. 714–49.
“Some Economic Aspects of Multiple Exchange Rates,” by Edward M.BernsteinVol. 1 (1950-51) pp. 224–37.
“Special Drawing Rights: Renaming the Infant Asset,” by JosephGoldVol. 23 (July1976) pp. 295–311.
“Stabilization Programs in Developing Countries: A Formal Framework,” by Mohsin S.Khan and Malcolm D.KnightVol. 28 (Mar. 1981) pp. 1–53.
“Strategic Factors in Balance of Payments Adjustment,” by Edward M.BernsteinVol. 5 (Aug. 1956) pp. 205–49.
“A Survey of Literature on Controls Over International Capital Transactions.” by MichaelDooleyVol. 43 (Dec. 1996) pp. 639–87.
“The Vicious Circle Hypothesis,” by John F. O.BilsonVol. 26 (Mar. 1979) pp. 1–37.
“Warning: Inflation May Be Harmful to Your Growth,” by AtishGhosh and StevenPhilipsVol. 45 (Dec. 1998) pp. 672–715.
(All four statistical publications are available on tape.)
World Economic and Financial Surveys
Developments in International Exchange and Payments Systems by a staff team1991.
Developments in International Exchange and Trade Systemsby a staff team1989.
International Capital Markets: Developments and Prospectsannually1981to date. Issues from 1981-85 were issued in theOccasional Papers series.
Issues and Developments in International Trade Policyby a staff team headed by Margaret Kelly and Anne Kenny McQuirk1992.
Issues in International Exchange and Paymentsby an IMF staff team, issued in1989 1992 and 1995.
Multilateral Official Debt Rescheduling: Recent Experienceby a staff team1987 1988 and 1990.
Officially Supported Export Credits: Development and Prospectsby a staff team1986 1988 1989 1990 and 1995.
Primary Commodity Marketsstaff studies, annually from1986 through 1990.
Private Market Financing for Developing Countriesstaff study1991 1992 1993 and 1995.
Staff Studies for the World Economic Outlook.Supporting material for the analysis and scenarios depicted inWorld Economic Outlook.
Occasional Papers (series)
International Capital Markets: Recent Developments and Short-Term Prospectsby a staff team headed byR. C.Williams1980. No. 1.
External Indebtedness of Developing Countriesby a staff team headed byBahrainNowzad and RichardWilliams1981. No. 3.
The Multilateral System of Payments: Keynes Convertibility and the International Monetary Fund’s Articles of Agreement by JosephGold1981. No. 6.
International Comparisons of Government Expenditure by Alan A.Tait and Peter S.Heller1982. No. 10.
Effects of Slowdown in Industrial Countries on Growth in Non-Oil Developing Countries by MorrisGoldstein and Mohsin S.Khan1982. No. 12.
Currency Convertibility in the Economic Community of West African States by John B.McLenaghanSaleh M.Nsouli and Klaus-WalterRiechel1982. No. 13.
Developments in International Trade Policy by S. J.AnjariaZ.IqbalN.Kirmani and L. L.Perez1982. No. 16.
Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net by G. G.Johnson with Richard K.Abrams1983. No. 17.
Alternatives to the Central Bank in the Developing World by CharlesCollyns1983. No. 20.
Interest Rate Policies in Developing Countriesa study by the Research Department1983. No. 22.
Recent Multilateral Debt Restructuring with Official and Bank Creditorsby a staff team headed byE.Brau and R. C.Williams with P. M.Keller and M.Nowak1983. No. 25.
The Fund Commercial Banks and Member Countries by PaulMentré1984. No. 26.
Exchange Rate Volatility and World Tradea study by the Research Department1984. No. 28.
Issues in the Assessment of the Exchange Rates of Industrial Countriesa study by the Research Department1984. No. 29.
The Exchange Rate System—Lessons of the Past and Options for the Futurea study by the Research Department1984. No. 30.
Foreign Private Investment in Developing Countriesa study by the Research Department1985. No. 33.
Adjustment Programs in Africa: The Recent Experience by Justin B.Zulu and Saleh M.Nsouli1985. No. 34.
The West African Monetary Union: An Analytical Review by Rattan J.Bhatia1985. No. 35.
Formulation of Exchange Rate Policies in Adjustment Programsby a staff team headed byG. G.Johnson1985. No. 36.
Export Credit Cover Policies and Payment Difficulties by Eduard H.Brau and ChampenPuckahtikom1985. No. 37.
A Case of Successful Adjustment: Korea’s Experience During 1980–84 by Bijan B.Aghevli and JorgeMárquez-Ruarte1985. No. 39.
Recent Developments in External Debt Restructuring by K. BurkeDillonC. MaxwellWatsonG. RussellKincaid and ChampenPuckahtikom1985. No. 40.
Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs and Economic Growth by Mohsin S.Khan and Malcolm D.Knight1985. No. 41.
Global Effects of Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs by MorrisGoldstein1986. No. 42.
A Review of the Fiscal Impulse Measure by Peter S.HellerRichard D.Haas and Ahsan H.Mansur1986. No. 44.
Switzerland’s Role as an International Financial Center by Benedicte VibeChristensen1986. No. 45.
Fund-Supported Programs Fiscal Policy and Income Distributiona study by the Fiscal Affairs Department1986. No. 46.
Strengthening the International Monetary System: Exchange Rates Surveillance and Objective Indicators by AndrewCrockett and MorrisGoldstein1987. No. 50.
The Role of the SDR in the International Monetary Systemby the Research and Treasurer’s Departments1987. No. 51.
Floating Exchange Rates in Developing Countries: Experience with Auction and Interbank Markets by Peter J.QuirkBenedicte VibeChristensenKyung-MoHuh and ToshihikoSasaki1987. No. 53.
Protection and Liberalization: A Review of Analytical Issues by MaxCorden1987. No. 54.
Theoretical Aspects of the Design of Fund-Supported Adjustment Programsa study by the Research Department1987. No. 55.
Privatization and Public Enterprises by RichardHemming and Ali M.Mansoor1988. No. 56.
The Implications of Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs for Poverty: Experiences in Selected Countries by Peter S.HellerA. LansBovenbergThanosCatsambasKe-youngChu and ParthasarathiShome1988. No. 58.
Policies for Developing Forward Foreign Exchange Markets by Peter J.QuirkGrahamHaccheViktorSchoofs and LotharWeniger1988. No. 60.
Policy Coordination in the European Monetary System by ManuelGuitiánMaximoRusso and GiuseppeTullio1988. No. 61.
Common Agricultural Policy of the European Community: Principles and Consequencesby the European Department1988. No. 62.
Managing Financial Risks in Indebted Developing Countries by Donald J.MathiesonDavidFolkerts-LandauTimothyLane and IqbalZaidi1989. No. 65.
The European Monetary System in the Context of the Integration of European Financial Markets by DavidFolkerts-Landau and DonaldMathieson1989. No. 66.
The Role of National Saving in the World Economy: Recent Trends and Prospects by Bijan B.AghevliJames M.BoughtonPeter J.MontielDelanoVillanueva and GeoffreyWoglom1990. No. 67.
Debt Reduction and Economic Activity by Michael P.DooleyDavidFolkerts-LandauRichard D.HaasSteven A.Symansky and Ralph W.Tryon1990. No. 68.
International Comparisons of Government Expenditure Revisited: The Developing Countries by Peter S.Heller and JackDrummond1990. No. 69.
The Conduct of Monetary Policy in the Major Industrial Countries: Instruments and Operating Procedures by Dallas S.BattenMichael P.BlackwellIn-SuKimSimon E.Nocera and YuzuruOzeki1990. No. 70.
MULTIMOD Mark II: A Revised and Extended Model by PaulMassonStevenSymansky and GuyMeredith1990. No. 71.
The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic: An Economy in Transition by JimPrustand an IMF staff team1990. No. 72.
German Unification: Economic IssuesbyLeslieLipschitz and DonoghMcDonald1991. No. 75.
China: Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management by MarioBlejerDavidBurtonStevenDunaway and GyorgySzapary1991. No. 76.
The Determinants and Systemic Consequences of International Capital Flows by MorrisGoldsteinDonald J.MathiesonDavidFolkerts-LandauTimothyLaneJ. SaulLizondo and LilianaRojas-Suarez1991. No. 77.
Exchange Rate Policy in Developing Countries: Some Analytical Issues by BijanAghevliMohsinKhan and Peter J.Montiel1991. No. 78.
Domestic Public Debt of Externally Indebted Countries by Pablo E.Guidotti and Manmohan S.Kumar1991. No. 80.
Currency Convertibility and the Transformation of Centrally Planned Economies by Joshua E.Greene and PeterIsard1991. No. 81.
Characteristics of a Successful Exchange Rate System by Jacob A.FrenkelMorrisGoldstein and Paul R.Masson1991. No. 82.
Value-Added Tax: Administrative and Policy issuesedited byAlan A.Tait1991. No. 88.
The Internationalization of Currencies: An Appraisal of the Japanese Yen by George S.Tavlas and YuzuruOzeki1991. No. 90.
Economic Policies for a New South Africaedited byDesmondLachman and KennethBercuson1991. No. 91.
Regional Trade Arrangements by Augusto de laTorre and Margaret R.Kelly1991. No. 93.
Tax Harmonization in the European Community: Policy Issues and Analysis by GeorgeKopits.1992. No. 94.
The Fiscal Dimensions of Adjustment in Low-Income Countries by KarimNashashibiSanjeeGuptaClaireLiuksilaHenriLorie and WalterMahler1992. No. 95.
Policy Issues in the Evolving International Monetary System by MorrisGoldsteinPeterIsardPaul R.Masson and Mark P.Taylor1992. No. 96.
Rules and Discretion in International Economic Policy by ManuelGuitián1992. No. 97.
Financial Sector Reforms and Exchange Arrangements in Eastern Europe by Guillermo A.CalvoManmohan S.KumarEduardoBorensztein and Paul R.Masson1993. No. 102.
The Structure and Operation of the World Gold Market by GaryO’Callaghan1993. No. 105.
Economic Adjustment in Low-Income Countries: Experience Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility by SusanSchadlerFranekRozwadowskiSiddarthTiwari and David O.Robinson1993. No. 106.
Recent Experiences with Surges in Capital Inflows by SusanSchadlerMariaCarkovicAdamBennett and RobertKahn1993. No. 108.
Limiting Central Bank Credit to the Government: Theory and Practice by CarloCottarelli1993. No. 110.
The Russian Federation in Transition: External Developments by Benedicte VibeChristensen1994. No. 111.
The Behavior of Non-Oil Commodity Prices by EduardoBorenszteinMohsinKhanCarneb M.Reinhart and PeterWickham1994. No. 112.
Exchange Rates and Economic Fundamentals: A Framework for Analysis by Peter B.ClarkLeonardoBartoliniTamimBayoumi and StevenSymansky1994. No. 115.
Improving the International Monetary System: Constraints and Possibilities by MichaelMussaMorrisGoldsteinPeter B.ClarkDonald J.Mathieson and TamimBayoumi1994. No. 116.
Uganda: Adjustment with Growth 1987-94 by Robert L.SharerHema R.De Zoysa and Calvin A.McDonald1995. No. 121.
Capital Flows in the APEC Region by Mohsin S.Khan and Carmen M.Reinharteds.1995. No. 122.
Saving Behavior and the Asset Price “Bubble” in Japan: Analytical Studies by UlrichBaumgartner and GuyMereditheds.1995. No. 124.
The Adoption of Indirect Instruments of Monetary Policyby a staff team headed byWilliam E.AlexanderTómas J. T.Baliño and CharlesEcoch1995. No. 126.
Road Maps of the Transition: The Baltics the Czech Republic Hungary and Russia by BiswajitBanerjeeVincentKoenThomasKruegerMark S.LutzMichaelMarrese and Tapio O.Saavalainen1995No. 127.
IMF Conditionality: Experience Under Stand-by and Extended Arrangements Part I: Key Issues and Findings by SusanSchadlerAdamBennettMariaCarkovicLouisDicks-MireauxMauroMecagniJames H. J.Morsink and Miguel A.Savastano1995. No. 128.
IMF Conditionality: Experience Under Stand-By and Extended Arrangements Part II: Background Papers by SusanSchadlered.AdamBennettMariaCarkovicLouisDicks-MireauxMauroMecagniJames H. J.Morsink and Miguel A.Savastano1995. No. 129.
Capital Account Convertibility: Review of Experience and Implications for IMF Policiesby staff teams headed byPeter J.Quirk and OwenEvans1995. No. 131.
Financial Fragilities in Latin America: The 1980s and 1990s by LilianaRojas-Suárez and Steven R.Weisbrod1995. No. 132.
Policy Experiences and Issues in the Baltics Russia and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union by Daniel A.Citrin and Ashok K.Lahirieds. 1995. No. 133.
India: Economic Reform and Growth by AjaiChopraCharlesCollynsRichardHemmingKarenParker with WoosikChu and OliverFratzscher1995. No. 134.
Aftermath of the CFA Franc Devaluation by Jean A. P.Clément with JohannesMuellerStéphaneCossé and Jean LeDem1996. No. 138.
Reinvigorating Growth in Developing Countries: Lessons from Adjustment Policies in Eight Economies by DavidGoldsbroughSharminiCooreyLouisDicks-MireauxBalazsHorvathKalpanaKochharMauroMecagniErikOfferdal and JianpingZhou1996. No. 139.
Monetary and Exchange System Reforms in China: An Experiment in GradualismHassanaliMehranMarcQuintynTomNordmanBernardLaurens1996. No. 141.
Adjustment for Growth: The African Experience by MichaelHadjimichaelMichaelNowakRobertSharer and AmorTahari1996. No. 143.
Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region by TakatoshiItoPeterIsardStevenSymansky and TamimBayoumi1996. No. 145.
Thailand: The Road to Sustained Growth by KalpanaKochharLouisDicks-MireauxBalazsHorvathMauroMecagniErikOfferdal and JiampingZhou1996. No. 146.
The Composition of Fiscal Adjustment and Growth: Lessons from Fiscal Reforms in Eight Economies by G. A.MackenzieDavid W. H.Orsmond and Philip R.Gerson1997. No. 149.
Currency Board Arrangements: Issues and Experiences by D.Mihalke1997. No. 151.
Hong Kong China: Growth Structural Change and Economic Stability During the Transition by JohnDodsworth and DubravkoMihaljek1997. No. 152.
Credibility Without Rules by CarloCottarelli and C.Giannini1997. No. 154.
The ESAF at Ten Years: Economic Adjustment and Reform in Low-Income Countriesby the staff of the IMF1997. No. 156.
Central Bank Reforms in the Baltics Russia and the Other Countries of the Former Soviet Unionby a staff team headed byMalcomKnight1997. No. 157.
Transparency in Government Operations by GeorgeKopitz and JonCraig1997. No. 158.
Fiscal Reforms in Low-Income Countriesby an IMF staff team headed byGeorgeAbed1998. No. 160.
MULTIMOD Mark III: The Core Dynamic and Steady State Model by DavidLaxtonPeterIsardet al. 1998. No. 164.
Hedge Funds and Financial Market Dynamics by B.Eichengreen and D.Mathieson1998. No 166.
This series covers, in depth, various aspects of the Fund, its functions, policies, and legal concepts (free). The following is an incomplete listing.
The International Monetary Fund: Its Form and Function by J. MarcusFleming1964.
The International Monetary Fund and Private Business Transactions: Some Legal Effects of the Articles of Agreement by JosephGold1965.
The International Monetary Fund and International Law: An Introduction by JosephGold1965.
Maintenance of the Gold Value of the Fund’s AssetsbyJosephGold1971.
The Fund and Non-Member States; Some Legal Effects by JosephGold1971.
Balance of Payments: Its Meaning and Uses by PoulHøst-Madsen1967.
Some Reflections on the Nature of Special Drawing Rights by J. J.Polak1971.
Valuation and Rate of Interest of the SDR by Jacques J.Polak1974.
Floating Currencies Gold and SDRs: Some Recent Legal Developments by JosephGold1976.
Voting Majorities in the Fund: Effects of the Second Amendment to the Articles by JosephGold1977.
International Capital Movements Under the Law of the International Monetary Fund by JosephGold1977.
Floating Currencies SDRs and Gold: Further Legal Developments by JosephGold1977.
Use Conversion and Exchange of Currency Under the Second Amendment of the Fund’s Articles by JosephGold1978.
The Second Amendment of the Fund’s Articles of Agreement by JosephGold1978.
SDRs Gold and Currencies: Third Survey of New Legal Developments by JosephGold1979.
Financial Assistance by the International Monetary Fund: Law and Practice by JosephGold1980.
The Rule of Law in the International Monetary Fund by JosephGold1980.
SDRs Currencies and Gold: Fourth Survey of New Legal Developments by JosephGold1980.
The Legal Character of the Fund’s Stand-By Arrangements and Why It Matters by JosephGold1980.
SDRs Currencies and Gold: Fifth Survey of New Legal Developments by JosephGold1981.
The International Monetary Fund: Its Evolution Organization and Activitiesby the staff1984.
Fund Conditionality: Evolution of Principles and Practices by ManuelGuitián1981.
Order in International Finance the Promotion of IMF Stand-By Arrangements and the Drafting of Private Loan Agreements by JosephGold1982.
SDRs Currencies and Gold: Sixth Survey of New Legal Developments by JosephGold1983.
SDRs Currencies and Gold: Seventh Survey of New Legal Developments by JosephGold1987.
Financial Organization and Operations of the IMFby the Treasurer’s Department1991.
The Unique Nature of the Responsibilities of the International Monetary Fund by ManuelGuitián1992.
Social Dimensions of the IMF’s Policy Dialogueby the staff of the IMF1995.
Unproductive Public Expenditures: A Pragmatic Approach to Policy Analysisby the Fiscal Affairs Department1995.
Guidelines for Fiscal Adjustmentby the Fiscal Affairs Department1995.
The Role of the IMF: Financing and Its Interactions with Adjustment and Surveillance by PaulMasson and MichaelMussa1995.
Debt Relief for Low-Income Countries: The HIPC Initiative by Anthony R.Boote and KamauThugge1997.
This new series, which was launched in 1996, is designed to make available to a readership of nonspecialists some of the economic research being carried out in the Fund. The papers are written in nontechnical language.
Growth in East Asia: What We Can and What We Cannot Infer by MichaelSarel1996.
Does the Exchange Rate Regime Matter for Inflation and Growth by Atish R.GhoshAnn-MarieGuldeJonathan D.Ostry and HolgerWolf1996.
Confronting Budget Deficits by RozlynColemanprepared from a working paper byPaul R.Masson and MichaelMussa1996.
Fiscal Reforms That Work by C. JohnMcDermott and Robert F.Wescott1996.
Transformation to Open Market Operations: Developing Economies and Emerging Markets by Stephen H.Axilrod1996.
Deindustrialization—Its Causes and Implications by RobertRowthorn and RamanaRamaswamy1997.
Does Globalization Lower Wages and Export Jobs? by Matthew J.Slaughter and PhillipSwagel1997.
Roads to Nowhere: How Corruption in Public Investment Hurts Growth by VitoTanzi and HamidDavoodi1998.
Fixed or Flexible: Getting the Exchange Right in the 1990s by FrancescpCaramazza and JahangirAziz1998.
Lessons from Systemic Bank Reconstructing by ClaudiaDziobek and CeylaPazarbasioglu1998.
Papers on Policy Analysis and Assessment
Beginning in January 1999, this series was renamed Policy Discussion Papers (PDP). The series comprises staff studies in the area of policy design and research. They are aimed primarily at operational staff involved in mission work and economists elsewhere interested in policy issues. The following is a selective listing.
Japan’s Corporate Groups and Imports by Daniel A.Citrin1992PPAA/92/2
The Operation of the Estonian Currency Board by Adam G. G.Bennmett1992. PPAA/92/3
Real Exchange Rate Targeting in Developing Countries by Peter J.Montiel and Jonathan D.Ostry1993. PPAA/93/2
Adjusting to Development: The IMF and the Poor by JamesBoughton1993. PPAA/93/4
A Cautionary Note on the Use of Exchange Rate Indicators by PeterWickham1993. PPAA/93/5
The Strategy of Reform in the Previously Centrally Planned Economies of Eastern Europe: Lessons and Challenges by EduardoBorensztein1993PPAA/93/6
The Capital Inflows Problem: Concepts and Issues by Guillermo A.CalvoLeonardoLeiderman and CarmenReinhart1993. PPAA/93/10
Options for Monetary and Exchange Arrangements in Transition Economies by DelanoVillanueva1993. PPAA/93/12
Aspects of the Design of Financial Programs with the Adoption of Indirect Monetary Controls by BarryJohnston1993. PPAA/93/16
The Taxation of High Income Earners by ParthasarathiShome1993. PPAA/93/19
International Capital Transactions: Should They Be Restricted? by Norman S.Fieleke1993. PPAA/93/20
On the Political Sustainability of Economic Reform by Carlos M.Asilis and Gian MariaMilesi-Ferretti1994. PPAA/94/3
The New Protectionism in Industrial Countries: Beyond the Uruguay Round by Douglas A.Irwin1994. PPAA/94/5
Asset Prices Monetary Policy and the Business Cycle by Garry J.Schinasi1994. PPAA/94/6
Emerging Equity Market: Growth Benefits and Policy Concerns by Robert A.Feldman and Mammohan S.Kumar1994. PPAA/94/7
Establishing Monetary Control in Financial Systems With Insolvent Institutions by DonaldMathieson and Richard D.Haas1994. PPAA/94/10
Use of Central Bank Credit Auctions in Economies in Transition by Matthew I.Saal and Lorena M.Zamalloa1994. PPAA/94/11
Macroeconomic Management with Informal Financial Markets by Pierre-RichardAgénor and Nadeem U.Haque1994. PPAA/94/12
Currency Arrangements in the Countries of the Former Ruble Area and Conditions for Sound Monetary Policy by Thomas A.Wolf1994. PPAA/94/15
Currency Board: Issues and Experiences by Adam G. G.Bennett1994. PPAA/94/18
Structural Policies in Developing Countries by EduardoBorensztein1994. PPAA/94/19
Russia and the IMF: The Political Economy of Macro-StabilizationErnestoHernández-Catá1994. PPAA/94/20
The IMF and the Latin American Debt Crisis: Seven Common Criticisms by James M.Boughton1994. PPAA/94/23
The Speed of Financial Sector Reform: Risks and Strategies by R. BarryJohnston1994. PPAA/94/26
Social Safety Nets for Economic Transition: Options and Recent Experiencesby the Expenditure Policy Division Staff1995. PPAA/95/3
Non-G-10 Countries and the Basle Capital Rules: How Tough a Challenge Is It to Join the Basle Club? by ClaudiaDziobekOlivierFrécaut and MariaNieto1995. PPAA/95/5
Discretion with Rules? Lessons from the Currency Board Arrangement in Lithuania by WayneCamard1996. PPAA/96/1
Borrowing by Subnational Governments; Issues and Selected International Experiences by TeresaTer-Minassian1996. PPAA/96/4
Social Protection in Transition Countries: Emerging Issues by KeyoungChu and SanjeevGupta1996. PPAA/96/5
The Definition of Reserve Money: Does It Matter for Financial Programs? by KalpanaKochhar1996. PPAA/96/10
Conditionality as an Instrument of Borrower Credibility by PierreDhonte1997. PPAA/97/2
The Macroeconomic Impact of Privatization by G. A.Mackenzie1997. PPAA/97/9
Making a Currency Board Operation by CharlesEnoch and Anne-MarieGulde1997. PPAA/97/10
Bank Soundness and Currency Board Arrangements Issues and Experience by VeerathaiSantiprabhob1997. PPAA/97/11
Transparency in Central Bank Operations in the Foreign Exchange Markets by CharlesEnoch1998. PPAA/98/2
The Payment System and Monetary Policy by Omotunde E. G.Jouhnson1998. PPAA/98/4
Sequencing Capital Account Liberalization and Financial Sector Reform by R. BarryHohnston1998. PPAA/98/8
Working Papers, 1997
This series is designed to make Fund staff research available to a wide audience. The series began in 1991, about 180 working papers are released each year. In many cases the papers are subject to ongoing work and revision. Many will eventually be published by the Fund as articles in one of the Fund’s serial publications. The series is available on a subscription basis.
Staff Country Reports
The IMF releases Staff Country Reports on about 150 member countries each year. The reports contain comprehensive background material on economic developments as part of the annual consultations that the IMF conducts with most member countries.
Bank for International Settlements. Annual Reports. Basle, Switzerland1931to date.
HarrodR. F.The Life of John Maynard KeynesHarcourtBrace (Princeton and London1951).
HowellKristin.“The Role of the Bank for International Settlements in Central Bank Cooperation,”Journal of European Economic HistoryVol. 22No. 2 (Fall1993).
JacobssonErin E.A Life for Sound Money: Per Jacobsson; His BiographyClarendon Press (Oxford1979).
KeynesJohn Maynard.The Collected Writings of John Maynard KeynesVols. 24 25 and 26ed. by DonaldMoggridgeMacmillan (London and New York1982).
OdellJohn S.U.S. International Monetary Policy: Markets Power and Ideas as Sources of ChangePrinceton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey1982).
ReesDavid.Harry Dexter White: A Study in ParadoxCowardMcCann and Geoghenan (New York1973).
SaldaAnne C. M.International Monetary Fund: A Selected BibliographyInternational Organizations SeriesVol. 4Transaction Publishers (New Brunswick, New Jersey1992).
Background of the Bretton Woods System
BernankeBen and HaroldJames.“The Gold Standard Deflation and Financial Crisis in the Great Depression: An International Comparison” in Financial Markets and Financial Crisesed. by R. GlennHubbardUniversity of Chicago Press (Chicago1991).
BernsteinEdward M.“The Adequacy of United States Gold Reserves,”American Economic Review (Papers and Proceedings of the Seventy-Third Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association)Vol. 51 (1961) pp 439-46.
BloomfieldArthur I.Monetary Policy Under the Gold Standard: 1880-1914Federal Reserve Bank of New York (New York1959).
BrownWilliam AdamsJr.The International Gold Standard Reinterpreted 1914-1934National Bureau of Economic Research (New York1940).
CasselGustav.The Downfall of the Gold StandardClarendon Press (Oxford1936).
ClarkeStephen V. O.The Reconstruction of the International Monetary System: The Attempts of 1922 and 1933 Princeton Studies in International FinanceNo. 33Princeton University Press (Princeton1973).
ClarkeStephen V. O.Exchange-Rate Stabilization in the Mid—1930s: Negotiating the Tripartite Agreement Princeton Studies in International FinanceNo. 41Princeton University Press (Princeton1977).
ClavinPatricia.“The World Economic Conference 1933: The Failure of British Internationalism,”Journal of European Economic HistoryVol. 20No. 3 (Winter1991).
CooperRichard N.Gold Standard: Historical Fact and Future Prospects Brookings Papers on Economic Activity (Washington, D.C.1982).
De CeccoMarcello.The Internatiional Gold Standard: Money and EmpireSt, Martin’s Press (New York1984).
EichengreenBarry J.“The Gold Standard and the Great Depression” NBER Reporter National Bureau of Economic Research (Spring1991).
EichengreenBarry J.Golden Fetters: The Gold Standard and the Great Depression 1919-1939Oxford University Press (New York1992).
EichengreenBarry J. and JefferySachs.“Exchange Rates and Economic Recovery in the 1930s,”Journal of Economic HistoryVol. 45 (1985).
PalyiMelchior.The Twilight of Gold 1914–1936: Myths and Realities Henry Regnery (Chicago1972).
Establishing the Bretton Woods System
ArgyVictor.The Postwar International Money Crisis: An Analysis Allen & Unwin (London1981).
BlackStanley W.A Levite Among the Priests: Edward M. Bernstein and the Origins of the Bretton Woods SystemWestview Press (Boulder, Colorado1991).
BordoMichael D.“The Bretton Woods System: A Historical Overview” in A Retrospective on the Bretton Woods System: Lessons for International Monetary Reformed. by Michael D.Bordo and BarryEichengreenUniversity of Chicago Press (Chicago1993).
BordoMichael D. and BarryEichengreeneds. A Retrospective on the Bretton Woods System: Lesson for International Monetary ReformUniversity of Chicago Press (Chicago1993).
BordoMichael D.DominiqueSimard and EugeneWhite“France and the Bretton Woods International Monetary System, 1960 to 1968,”NBER Working Paper No. 4642National Bureau of Economic Research (Cambridge, Massachusetts1994).
DormaelArmand van.Bretton Woods: Birth of a Monetary Order Holmes and Meier (New York1978).
EbkeWerner F.et al. eds. Festschrift in Honor of Sir Joseph Gold Verlag Recht und Wirtschaft (Heidelberg, Germany1990).
FeisHerbert.“Restoring Trade After the War” Foreign Affairs (New York) Vol. 20 (1941-42).
GardnerRichard N.Sterling-Dollar DiplomacyColumbia University Press (New York1969).
MikesellRaymond F.“Negotiating at Bretton Woods 1944” in Negotiating with the Russiansed byRaymondDennett and Joseph E.JohnsonWorld Peace Foundation (Boston1951) pp. 101-16.
MikesellRaymond F.The Bretton Woods Debates: A Memoir Essays in International Finance No. 192Princeton University Press (PrincetonNew Jersey1994).
MosséRobert.Le système monétaire de Bretton Woods et les grands problèmes de l’après guerre Recueil Sirey (Paris1948).
OfficerLawrence H.“Are International Monetary Fund Quotas Unfavorable to Less-Developed Countries? A Normative Historical Analysis” Journal of international Money and FinanceVol. 10No. 2 (June1991).
RobertsonDennis H.“The Post-War Monetary Plans,”The Economic Journal (London) Vol. 53 (1943) pp 352-60.
RobertsonDennis H.Utility and All ThatAllen and Unwin (London1952).
RobinsonJoan.“The International Currency Plans,”The Economic Journal (London) Vol. 53 (1943) pp. 161-75.
SouthardFrank.The Evolution of the International Monetary Fund Essays in International Finance No. 135Princeton University Press (PrincetonNew Jersey1979).
United Nations Monetary and Financial ConferenceBretton Woods, New Hampshire1944. Proceedings and Documents 2 vols.U.S. Government Printing Office (Washington, D.C.1944).
[U.S.] Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Bretton Woods Agreements: A Bibliography April 1943-December 1945 (Washington, D.C.1946).
[U.S.] Department of State. Proceedings and Documents of United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference Bretton Woods New Hampshire July 1-22 1944 (Washington, D.C.1948).
[U.S.] Treasury Department. Questions and Answers on the International Monetary Fund (Washington, D.C.June1944).
Van DormaelArmand.Bretton Woods: Birth of a Monetary SystemHolmes and Meier (New York1978).
VinerJacob.“Two Plans for International Monetary Stabilization,”Yale Review (New Haven) Vol. 33 (1943-44).
WhiteHarry D.“Post-War Currency Stabilization,”The American Economic ReviewVol. 33 (1943) Supplement.
WilliamsJohn. H. Postwar Monetary Plans and Other Essays Wilkins (New York1947).
Macroeconomic and Structural Adjustment and Fund Conditionality
AchesonA. L. K.J. F.Chant and M. F. J.Prachownyeds. Bretton Woods Revisited: Evaluations of the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and DevelopmentUniversity of Toronto Press (Toronto1972).
AliberRobert Z.The International Money Game Basic Books (New York1987).
BanguraYusuf.“IMF/World Bank Conditionality and Nigeria’s Structural Adjustment Programme” in The IMF and the World Bank in Africa: Conditionality Impact and Alternativesed. by Kjell J.HavnevikScandinavian Institute of African Studies (Uppsala1987).
BanguraYusuf.“Crisis and Adjustment: The Experience of Nigerian Workers,” in The IMF the World Bank and African Debt Vol. 2 The Social and Political Impacted. by BadeOnimodeInstitute for African Alternatives and Zed Books (London1989).
BazdreschCarlos and SantiagoLevy.“Populism and Economic Policy in Mexico 1970-1982,” in Macroecomics of Populism in Latin Americaed. by RudigerDornbusch and SebastianEdwardsUniversity of Chicago Press (Chicago1991).
BergstenC. Fred.International Adjustment and Financing: The Lessons from 1985–1991Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C.1991).
BourguignonFrançois and CristianMorrison.Adjustment and Equity in Developing Countries: A New ApproachOrganization of Economic Cooperation and Development (Paris1992).
BrunoMichael.“Stabilization and the Macroeconomics of Transition: How Different Is Eastern Europe?”Economics of TransitionVol. 1 (1993).
CallaghyThomas M.“Lost Between State and Market: The Politics of Economic Adjustment in Ghana, Zambia, and Nigeria,” in Economic Crisis and Policy Choice: The Politics of Adjustment in the Third Worlded. by JoanNelsonPrinceton University Press (PrincetonNew Jersey1990).
CampbellHorace.Tanzania and the IMF: The Dynamics of LiberalizationWestview (BoulderColorado1992).
CampbellK. and JohnLoxleyeds. Structural Adjustment in AfricaSt. Martin’s Press (New York1989).
CamposRoberto de Oliveiro.“Inflation and Balanced Growth,” in Economic Development in Latin America: Proceedings of a Conference Held by the International Economic Associationed. by Howard S.EllisSt. Martin’s Press (New York1961).
ClineWilliam R. and SidneyWeintraubeds. Economic Stabilization in Developing Countries Brookings Institution (Washington1981).
CorniaAndreaRichardJolly and FrancisStewarteds. Adjustment with a Human Face 2 vols. Oxford University Press (Oxford1987).
Cotés CondeRoberto.“Growth and Stagnation in Argentina,” in Towards a Development Strategy for Latin America: Pathways from Hirschman’s Thoughted. by SimónTeitelInter-American Bank (Washington1992).
DavidWilfrid L.The IMF Policy Paradigm: The Macroeconomics of Stabilization Structural Adjustment and Economic Development Praeger (New York1985).
De VriesRimmer.“The Limited Role of the IMF,”World Financial MarketsMorgan Guarantee Trust CompanyApr. 1982.
DellSidney.“The Question of Cross-Conditionality,”World DevelopmentVol. 16No. 5 (May1988).
DellSidney.On Being Grandmotherly: The Evolution of IMF Conditionality Essays in International Finance No. 144Princeton University Press (PrincetonNew Jersey1981).
DellSidney.“Balance of Payments Adjustment in the 1980s,”World DevelopmentVol. 14No. 8 (Aug. 1986) pp 873-1105.
DellSidney and RogerLawrence.The Balance of Payments Adjustment Process in Developing CountriesPergamon Press (New York1980).
DornbuschRudiger.Structural Adjustment in Latin AmericaWoodrow Wilson Center (Washington1991).
EdwardsSebastian.“The International Monetary Fund and the Developing Countries: A Critical Evaluation,”Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public PolicyVol. 31 (Fall1989) pp. 7-68.
FeinbergRichard E.“The Changing Relationship Between the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund,”International OrganizationVol. 42No. 3 (Summer1988) pp. 545-60.
FinchDavid.The Record and the Prospect Essays in International Finance No. 175Princeton University Press (PrincetonNew Jersey1989).
FinchDavid.“Let the IMF be the IMF,”The International EconomyJan./Feb1988.
FrenkelJeffrey A. and Harry G.Johnsoneds. The Monetary Approach to the Balance of PaymentsAllen and Unwin (London1976).
GoodeRichard B.Economic Assistance to Developing Countries Through the IMF Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.1985).
GwinCatherine.“Financing India’s Adjustment: The Role of the Fund,” in IMF Conditionalityed. by JohnWilliamsonInstitute for International Economics (Washington, D.C.1983).
HaggardStephanRichard N.Cooper and Chung-in-Moon.“Policy Reform in Korea,” in Political and Economic Interactions in Economic Policy Reform: Evidence from Eight Countriesed. by Robert H.Bates and Anne O.KruegerBasilBlackwell (Oxford1993).
HawkinsJeffrey J.“Understanding the Failure of IMF Reform: The Zambian Case,”World DevelopmentVol. 19No. 7 (July1991).
HerbstJeffrey.“The Structural Adjustment of Politics in Africa,”World DevelopmentVol. 18No. 7 (July1990).
JohnsonHarry G.“Economic Policies for Less Developed Countries,” in International Monetary Reform Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.1967) pp. 212-36.
KenenPeter B.Financing Adjustment and the International Monetary Fund Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.1986).
KillickTony.“Kenya, the IMF, and the Unsuccessful Quest for Stabilization.” In IMF Conditionalityed. by JohnWiliamsonInstitute for International Economics (Washington, D.C.1983).
KillickTony.ed. The Quest for Economic Stabilization: The IMF and the Third WorldSt. Martin’s Press (Washington, D.C.1984).
KruegerAnne O.Liberalization Attempts and Consequences Ballinger for National Bureau of Economic Research (New York1978).
KruegerAnne O.Political Economy of Policy Reform in Developing CountriesMIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts1993).
LancasterCarol.African Economic Reform: The External DimensionInstitute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1991).
LeithJ. Clark and Michael F.Lofchie.“The Political Economy of Structural Adjustment in Ghana,” in Political and Economic Interactions in Economic Policy Reform: Evidence from Eight Countriesed. by Robert H.Bates and Anne O.KruegerBasilBlackwell (Oxford1993).
LevittKari“Stabilisation and Structural Adjustment: Rhetoric and Reality,”Caribbean AffairsVol. 3No. 1 (Jan./Mar. 1990).
LoxleyJohn.“Structural Adjustment in Africa: Reflections on Ghana and Zambia,”Review of African Political Economy No. 47 (Spring1990).
ManzettiLuigi.The International Monetary Fund and Economic Stabilization: The Argentine Case Praeger (New York1991).
MatinK. M.“Structural Adjustment Under the Extended Fund Facility: The Case of Bangladesh,” World DevelopmentVol. 16No. 6 (June1990).
MikesellRaymand F.“Appraising IMF Conditionality: “Too Loose, Too Tight, or Just Right,” in IMF Conditionalityed. by JohnWilliamsonInstitute for International Economics (Washington, D.C.1983).
MooreWill H. and James R.Scarritt.“IMF Conditionality and Policy Characteristics in Black Africa: An Exploratory Analysis,”Africa TodayVol 37 (4th quarter1990).
MyersRobert J.ed. “The Political Morality of the International Monetary Fund,”Ethics and Foreign PolicyVol. 3Transaction Books (New Brunswick, New Jersey1987).
NcubeP.D.M.Sakala and M.Ndulo.“The International Monetary Fund and the Zambian Economy: A Case,” in The IMF and the World Bank in Africa: Conditionality Impact and Alternativesed. by Kjell J.HavnevikScandinavian Institute of African Studies (Uppsala1987).
NelsonJoan M.and contributors. Fragile Conditions: The Politics of Economic Adjustment Transaction Books (New Brunswick, New Jersey1989).
NelsonJoan M.ed. Economic Crisis and Policy Choice: The Politics of Adjustment in Developing CountriesPrinceton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey1990).
ObstfeldMaurice and KennethRogoffs.Foundations of International MacroecomicsMIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts1996).
PaulyLewis W.Who Elected the Bunkers? Surveillance and Control in the World EconomyCornell University Press (IthacaNew York1997).
PlumptreA. F. W.Three Decades of Decision: Canada and the World Monetary System 1944-75McClelland and Stewart (Toronto1977).
PöhlKarl Otto.“You Can’t Robotize Policymaking,”The International EconomyOct./Nov. 1987.
PolakJacques J.The Changing Nature of IMF Conditionality Essays in International Finance No. 184Princeton University Press (PrincetonNew Jersey1991).
SachsJeffrey D.“The Current Account and Macroeconomic Adjustment in the 1970s,”Brookings Papers on Economic Activity Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.1981).
SeddonDavid.“The Politics of Adjustment: Egypt and the IMF, 1987-1990,”Review of African Political Economy No. 47 (Spring1990).
SidellScott R.The IMF and Third-World Political Instability: Is There a Connection?St. Martin’s Press (New York1988).
SpraosJohn.IMF Conditionality: Ineffectual Inefficient Mistargeted Essays in International Finance No. 166Princeton University Press (PrincetonNew Jersey1986).
TaylorLance.Varieties of Stabilization Experience: Towards Sensible Macroeconomics in the Third World prepared for the World Institute for Development Economic Research of the United Nations UniversityClarendon Press (Oxford1988).
ThirwellA. P.Growth and Development with Special Reference to Developing Economies Macmillan (Basingstoke, HampshireEngland1989).
WilliamsonJohn.“On Judging the Success of IMF Policy Advice,” in IMF Conditionalityed. by WilliamsonInstitute for International Economics (Washington, D.C.1984).
WilliamsonJohn.ed. IMF ConditionalityInstitute for International Economics (Washington, D.C.1983).
WohlmuthKarled. Structural Adjustment in the World Economy and East-West-South Economic Cooperation Institute for World Economics and International Management University of Bremen (Bremen, Germany1989).