Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Norman Humphreys
Published Date:
June 2000
    Share
    • ShareShare
    Show Summary Details
    Statistical Appendix

    Table 1. Selected Financial Indicators during the Financial Year Ended April 30

    Table 2. Members’ Quotas and Voting Power

    Table 3. Stand-by and Other Arrangements Approved in the Financial Years Ended April 30, 1953-1998

    Table 4. Arrangements Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility in Effect during the Financial Year Ended April 30, 1998

    Table 5. Extended Arrangements in Effect in the Financial Year Ended April 30, 1998

    Table 1.Selected Financial Indicators during the Financial Year Ended April 30(Millions of SDRs)
    19941995199619971998
    Disbursements
    Total5,90311,17812,3035,64419,924
    Purchases by facility (GRA)1
    Total5,24110,59210,8264,93918,981
    Stand-bys21,0527,5879,1271,83616,127
    EFF7461,5951,5542,8202,824
    CCFF7182879282
    STF2,7251,123136
    SAF/ESAF loans6625871,477705973
    SDA resources6819185
    ESAF Trust resources5945681,292705973
    Repurchases and Repayments
    Repurchases4,3433,9846,6986,6683,789
    SAF/ESAF & Trust
    Fund repayments166247402528596
    Outstanding IMF Credit
    Total29,88936,83742,04040,48856,026
    Of which:
    GRA25,53332,14036,26834,53949,701
    SDA1,8351,6511,5451,220922
    Administered accounts
    Trust Fund105102959090
    ESAF Trust32,4162,9444,1324,6395,314
    Change in outstanding credit (%)
    52314-4-438
    Number of indebted countries
    9399979594
    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.
    Table 2.Members’ Quotas and Voting Power Under Eleventh Review of Quotas, January 1999
    QuotaVotes
    MemberMillion SDRsPercent
    Afghanistan, Islamic State of161.90.076
    Albania48.70.023
    Algeria914.40.431
    Angola286.30.135
    Antigua and Barbuda13.50.006
    Argentina2,117.10.998
    Armenia92.00.043
    Australia3,236.41.526
    Austria1,872.30.883
    Azerbaijan160.90.076
    Bahamas, The130.30.061
    Bahrain135.00.064
    Bangladesh533.30.252
    Barbados67.50.032
    Belarus386.40.182
    Belgium4,605.22.172
    Belize18.80.009
    Benin61.90.029
    Bhutan6.30.003
    Bolivia171.50.081
    Bosnia and Herzegovina169.10.080
    Botswana63.00.030
    Brazil3,036.11.432
    Brunei Darussalam215.20.101
    Bulgaria640.20.302
    Burkina Faso60.20.028
    Burundi77.00.036
    Cambodia87.50.041
    Cameroon185.70.088
    Canada6,639.23.004
    Cape Verde9.60.005
    Central African Republic55.70.026
    Chad56.00.026
    Chile856.10.404
    China4,687.22.211
    Colombia774.00.365
    Comoros8.90.004
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of533.00.251
    Congo, Republic of84.60.040
    Costa Rica164.10.077
    Côte d’Ivoire325.20.153
    Croatia365.10.172
    Cyprus139.60.066
    Czech Republic819.30.386
    Denmark1,642.80.775
    Djibouti15.90.007
    Dominica8.20.004
    Dominican Republic218.90.103
    Ecuador302.30.143
    Egypt943.70.445
    El Salvador171.30.081
    Equatorial Guinea32.60.015
    Eritrea15.90.007
    Estonia65.20.031
    Ethiopia133.70.063
    Fiji70.30.033
    Finland1,263.80.596
    France10,738.55.065
    Gabon154.30.073
    Gambia, The31.10.015
    Georgia150.30.071
    Germany13,008.26.135
    Ghana369.00.174
    Greece823.00.388
    Grenada11.70.006
    Guatemala210.20.099
    Guinea107.10.051
    Guinea-Bissau14.20.007
    Guyana90.90.043
    Haiti81.90.039
    Honduras129.50.061
    Hungary1,038.40.490
    Iceland117.60.055
    India4,158.21.961
    Indonesia2,079.30.981
    Iran, Islamic Republic of1,497.20.706
    Iraq1,188.40.560
    Ireland838.40.395
    Israel928.20.438
    Italy7,055.53.328
    Jamaica273.50.129
    Japan13,312.86.279
    Jordan170.50.088
    Kazakhstan365.70.172
    Kenya271.40.128
    Kiribati5.60.003
    Korea1,633.60.770
    Kuwait1,381.10.651
    Kyrgyz Republic88.80.042
    Lao People’s Democratic Republic52.90.025
    Latvia126.80.060
    Lebanon203.00.096
    Lesotho34.90.016
    Liberia129.20.061
    Libya1,123.70.530
    Lithuania144.20.068
    Luxembourg279.10.132
    Macedonia, FYR68.90.032
    Madagascar122.20.058
    Malawi69.40.033
    Malaysia1,486.60.701
    Maldives8.20.004
    Mali93.3
    Malta102.00.048
    Marshall Islands3.50.002
    Mauritania64.40.030
    Mauritius101.60.048
    Mexico2,585.81.220
    Micronesia, Federal States of5.10.002
    Moldova123.20.058
    Mongolia51.10.024
    Morocco588.20.277
    Mozambique113.60.054
    Myanmar258.40.122
    Namibia136.50.064
    Nepal71.30.034
    Netherlands, The5,162.42.435
    New Zealand894.60.422
    Nicaragua130.00.061
    Niger65.80.031
    Nigeria1,753.20.827
    Norway1,671.70.788
    Oman194.00.091
    Pakistan1,033.70.488
    Palau, Republic of3.10.003
    Panama206.60.097
    Papua New Guniea131.60.062
    Paraguay99.90.047
    Peru638.40.301
    Philippines879.90.415
    Poland1,369.00.592
    Portugal867.40.409
    Qatar263.80.124
    Romania1,030.20.486
    Russia5,945.42.804
    Rwanda80.10.038
    Samoa11.60.005
    San Marino17.00.008
    São Tomé and Principe7.40.003
    Saudi Arabia6,985.53.295
    Senegal161.80.076
    Seychelles8.80.004
    Sierra Leone103.70.049
    Singapore862.50.407
    Slovak Republic357.50.169
    Slovenia231.70.109
    Solomon Islands10.40.005
    Somalia81.70.039
    South Africa1,868.50.881
    Spain3,048.91.438
    Sri Lanka413.40.195
    St. Kitts and Nevis8.90.004
    St. Lucia15.30.007
    St. Vincent and the Grenadines8.30.004
    Sudan315.10.149
    Suriname92.10.043
    Swaziland50.70.024
    Sweden2,395.51.130
    Switzerland3,458.51.631
    Syrian Arab Republic293.60.138
    Tajikistan87.00.041
    Tanzania198.90.094
    Thailand1,081.90.510
    Togo73.40.035
    Tonga6.90.003
    Trinidad and Tobago335.60.158
    Tunisia286.50.135
    Turkey964.00.455
    Turkmenistan75.20.035
    Uganda180.50.085
    Ukraine1,372.00.647
    United Arab Emirates611.70.288
    United Kingdom10,738.55.065
    United States37,193.317.521
    Uruguay306.50.145
    Uzbekistan275.60.130
    Vanuatu17.00.008
    Venezuela2,659.11.254
    Vietnam329.10.155
    Yemen, Republic of243.50.115
    Yugoslavia, Fed. Rep of467.70.221
    Zambia489.10.231
    Zimbabwe353.40.167
    Total212,029.0100.00
    Note: No increase in quotas can take effect before the date on which the Fund determines that members having not less than 85 percent of the total quotas on December 23, 1997, have consented to the increase in their quotas. A member’s quota cannot be increased until it has consented to the increase and paid the subscription.Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board
    Table 3.Stand-by and Other Arrangements Approved in the Financial Years Ended April 30, 1953-1998
    Number of ArrangementsSDRs
    Stand-bysEFFSAFESAFTotalMillions
    1953-5720201,368
    1958-6265654,558
    1963-671081087,016
    1968-721101106,090
    1973-77735788,931
    1978193185,877
    1979155202,643
    1980227293,803
    198122153710,795
    198223123516,206
    19833093925,035
    19843053518,569
    19852733011,675
    1986242264,907
    198723110345,391
    198818225454,540
    1989142237466,608
    199019417115113,911
    199114512144514,652
    19922278165319,203
    19931564204515,279
    1994166322478,428
    19951991275623,385
    19962171285727,918
    19971411356017,996
    19981413336045,069
    Total765573865925329,853
    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board.
    Table 4.Arrangements Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility in Effect during the Financial Year Ended April 30, 1998(Amounts in Millions of SDRs)
    Arrangemment DatesAmounts ApprovedUndrawn Balances
    MemberEffective dateExpiration dateThrough 4/30/98As of 4/30/98
    Armenia2/14/962/13/9910134
    Azerbaijan2/20/962/19/999438
    Benin8/28/9612/19/992718
    Bolivia12/19/948/27/99101
    Burkina Faso6/14/969/9/984020
    Cambodia5/6/946/13/99126
    Cameroon8/20/978/19/00162108
    Chad9/1/958/31/985017
    Congo, Rep. of6/28/966/27/996956
    Côte d’Ivoire3/11/946/13/97333
    Cote d’Ivoire3/17/983/16/01286202
    Ethiopia10/11/9610/10/998874
    Georgia2/28/962/27/9916756
    Georgia2/28/962/27/9916756
    Ghana6/30/956/29/9916469
    Guinea1/13/971/12/007135
    Guinea-Bissau1/18/957/24/9810
    Guyana1/13/974/17/9854
    Haiti10/18/9610/17/999176
    Honduras7/24/9211/26/9947
    Kenya4/26/964/25/99150125
    Kyrgz Republic7/20/943/31/9888
    Lao PDR6/4/935/7/9735
    Macedonia4/11/974/10/005536
    Madagascar11/27/9611/26/998115
    Malawi10/18/9510/17/984615
    Mali4/10/963/17/016221
    Mauritania1/25/956/11/9943
    Mongolia7/30/9710/19/003328
    Mozambique6/21/961/12/987625
    Nicaragua6/24/946/23/97120
    Nicaragua3/18/983/17/0110184
    Niger6/12/966/11/995819
    Pakistan10/20/9710/19/00682455
    Senegal8/29/941/12/98131
    Senegal4/20/984/19/0110789
    Sierra Leone3/28/945/4/981025
    Tanzania11/8/0611/7/9916274
    Togo9/16/946/29/986511
    Uganda9/6/9411/17/9712
    Uganda11/10/9711/9/0010060
    Vietnam11/11/9411/10/97362
    Yeman10/29/9710/28/00265221
    Zambia12/6/9512/5/9870240
    Total4,0482,165
    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.
    Table 5.Extended Arrangements in Effect in the Financial Year Ended April 30, 1998(Amounts Expressed in Million SDRs)
    MemberEffective DateExpiration DateUndrawn Balance
    Algeria5/22/955/21/9884
    Argentina12/4/982/3/012,080
    Azerbaijan12/20/9612/19/9926
    Croatia3/12/973/11/00324
    Gabon11/8/9511/7/9850
    Jordan22/9/962/8/9947
    Kazakhstan 17/17/967/16/99309
    Lithuania10/24/9419/23/97
    Moldova5/20/965/19/9998
    Pakistan10/20/9710/19/00398
    Panama12/10/9712/9/00110
    Peru37/1/963/31/99140
    Philippines 46/24/943/31/98
    Russia3/26/963/25/993,065
    Yemen10/29/9710/28/0097
    Total6,828
    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.
    Bibliography

    Contents

    Publications Issued by the Fund

    Reports and Documents

    Books

    Periodicals

    Statistical Publications

    World Economic and Financial Surveys

    Occasional Papers Series

    Pamphlets (series)

    Booklets

    Papers on Policy Analysis and Assessment

    Working Papers, 1997

    Staff Country Reports

    General Bibliography

    General

    Background of the Bretton Woods System

    Establishing the Bretton Woods System

    Macroeconomic and Structural Adjustment and Fund Conditionality

    Exchange Rate Systems and Markets

    International Currencies, Liquidity, and the SDR

    International Trade and Payments

    International Debt Problems

    Reform of the International Monetary System

    The following bibliography lists selective publications on the history and evolution of the International Monetary Fund. The Fund itself periodically published, from 1951 through 1985, comprehensive bibliographies in various issues of its quarterly economic journal, Staff Papers. Many of these bibliographies were compiled by Anne C. M. Salda, who on her retirement from the Joint Fund-Bank Library compiled an extensive and annotated bibliography, International Monetary Fund, which references publications on the Fund since its inception (see under General Bibliography).

    The first section of this bibliography lists publications issued by the Fund. The second section concentrates on citing substantive material published outside the Fund dealing with its work and related matters. No attempt has been made to cover the many serious and interesting articles that have appeared in newspapers and news magazines.

    The Fund’s public web site was opened in September 1996 at the address http://www.imf.org. From the the home-page menu, hyperlinks lead to various submenus, including a catalogue of publications. A number of publications are also available in full text on the web site.

    The Fund issues annually a catalog of available publications.

    Publications Issued by the Fund

    Reports and Documents

    Books

      Adjustment and Financing in the Developing World: The Role of the International Monetary Fund, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF and the Overseas Development Institute, London, England, edited byTonyKillick,1982.

      Adjustment, Conditionality, and International Financing, papers presented at a seminar in Viña del Mar, Chile, sponsored by the Central Bank of Chile, the Frederico Santa Maria University, and the IMF, edited byJoaquínMuns,1983.

      Adjustment Policies and Development Strategies in the Arab World, papers presented at a seminar in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, at a seminar sponsored by the Arab Monetary Fund and the IMF, edited bySaidEl-Naggar,1987.

      Africa and the International Monetary Fund, papers presented at a symposium sponsored by the Association of African Central Banks and the IMF, edited byG. K.Helleiner,1987.

      Analytical Issues in Debt, by Jacob A.Frenkel, Michael P.Dooley, and PeterWickham,1989.

      Approaches to Exchange Rate Policy, papers presented at a seminar on exchange rate policy in developing and transitional economies held by the IMF Institute, edited byRichardBarth and Chorng-HueyWong,1994.

      Balance of Payments Adjustment, 1945 to 1986: The IMF Experience, by MargaretGarritsen de Vries,1987.

      Balance of Payments Compilation Guide, a companion document to the fifth edition of the Balance of Payments Manual, 1995.

      Balance of Payments Manual, the fifth edition of this manual, revised and updated, 1993.

      Balance of Payments Textbook, a companion document to the Balance of Payments Manual, 1996.

      Bank Soundness and Macroeconomic Policy, by Carl-JohanLindgren, GillianGarcia, and Matthew I.Saal,1996.

      Banking Crises: Cases and Issues, edited byV.Sundarajan and Thomas J. T.Baliño,1991.

      Beyond Adjustment: The Asian Experience, edited byPaulStreeten,1988.

      Building Sound Finance in Emerging Market Economies, edited byGerardCaprio, DavidFolkerts-Landau, and Timothy D.Lane,1994.

      Central and Eastern Europe: Roads to Growth, papers presented at a seminar moderated by GeorgeWinckler,organized by the IMF and the Austrian National Bank, 1992.

      Central Banking Technical Assistance to Countries in Transition, proceedings of a joint meeting of central banking technical assistance held in St. Petersburg, Russia, in 1994, edited byJ. B.Zulu, Ian S.McCarthy, SusanAlmuiña, and GabrielSensenbrenner,1994.

      Central Bank Reform in Transition Economies, contains the background papers prepared for the second coordinating meeting of 23 participating central banks of the Baltic States and the Commonwealth of Independent States, edited byV.Sundarajan, Arne B.Petersen, and GabrielSensenbrenner,1997.

      Choosing an Exchange Rate Regime: The Challenge for Smaller Industrial Countries, edited byVictorArgy and Paul deGrauwe,1990.

      Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey Guide, a guide for balance of payments compilers in conducting an internationally coordinated survey of security holdings conducted under the auspices of the IMF, 1996.

      Coordinating Public Debt and Monetary Management: Institutional and Operational Arrangements, edited byV.Sundarajan, PeterDattels, and HansBlommestein,1997.

      Coordinating Stabilization and Structural Reform, papers presented in an IMF Institute seminar covering four case studies—China, Poland, Argentina, and The Gambia, edited byRichard C.Barth, Alan R.Roe, and Chorng-HueyWong,1994.

      Current Legal Issues Affecting Central Banks, Vols. I, II, III, and IV, papers presented at four biennial seminars sponsored by the IMF for central banks, edited byRobert C.Effros,1992, 1994, 1995, and 1997.

      Deepening Structural Reform in Africa: Lessons from East Asia, the proceedings of a seminar involving policymakers and senior government officials from Africa and East Asia and senior staff of international organizations, edited byLauraWallace,1997.

      Debt Stocks, Debt Flows and the Balance of Payments, prepared jointly by the BIS, IMF, OECD, and World Bank, 1994.

      Economic Adjustment: Policies and Problems, the proceedings of a seminar held in Wellington, New Zealand, concentrating on economic adjustment problems in the South Pacific, edited bySir FrankHolmes,1987.

      Economic Policy Coordination, the proceedings of a seminar held in Hamburg, Germany, moderated byWilfredGuth,1988.

      Emerging Financial Centers: Legal and Institutional Framework, edited byRobert C.Effros,1982.

      Economic Adjustment: Policies and Problems, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Wellington, New Zealand, edited bySir FrankHolmes,1987.

      Economic Policy Coordination, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Hamburg, Germany, 1988.

      Effective Government Accounting, by A.Premchand,1995.

      EMU and the International Monetary System, the proceedings of a seminar held in Washington, sponsored by the IMF and the Fondation Camille Gutt, 1997.

      Evolving Role of Central Banks, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF at the Fund’s headquarters, edited byPatrickDownes and RezaVaez-Zadeh,1991.

      External Debt: Definition, Statistical Coverage and Methodology, a comparative description of statistics collected by the BIS, IMF, OECD, and the World Bank, 1998.

      External Debt Management, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF, Washington, D.C., edited byHassanaliMehran,1985.

      External Debt, Savings, and Growth in Latin America, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the Instituto Torcuato di Tella and the IMF in Don Torcuato, Argentina, edited byAna MaríaMartirena-Mantel,1987.

      Fifty Years After Bretton Woods: The Future of the IMF and the World Bank, the proceedings of a conference held in Madrid, Spain, sponsored by the IMF and the World Bank to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the two institutions, edited byJames M.Boughton and K. SarwarLateef,1994.

      Financial Policies and Capital Markets in Arab Countries, the proceedings of a seminar held in Abu Dhabi, edited bySaidEl-Naggar,1994.

      Financial Programming and Policy: The Case of Hungary, edited byKaren A.Swiderski,1992.

      Fiscal Federalism in Theory and Practice, a series of papers on a number of countries examining the relationships among central, state, and local governments in respect to their spending and revenue-raising responsibilities, edited byTeresaTer-Minassian,1997.

      Fiscal Policies in Economies in Transition, edited byVitoTanzi,1992.

      Fiscal Policy, Economic Adjustment, and Financial Markets, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the Centre for Financial and Monetary Economics, Università Luigi Bocconi, in Milan, Italy, and the IMF, edited byMarioMonti,1989.

      Fiscal Policy in Open Developing Economies, papers presented at the 44th Congress of the International Institute of Public Finance, edited byVitoTanzi,1990.

      Fiscal Policy, Stabilization, and Growth in Developing Countries, edited byMario I.Blejer and Ke-youngChu,1992.

      Foreign and Inter-Trade Policies of Arab Countries, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, edited bySaidEl-Naggar,1992.

      Framework for Monetary Stability: Policy Issues and Country Experience, edited byTomás J. T.Baliño and CarloCottarelli,1994.

      The Functioning of the International Monetary System, Vols. I and II, a series of 30 analytical papers on the system as it functioned in 1987-91, edited byJacob A.Frenkel and MorrisGoldstein,1996.

      The Future of the SDR in Light of Changes in the International Monetary System, the proceedings of a seminar held at the IMF, edited byMichaelMussa, JamesBoughton, and PeterIsard,1996.

      Government Financial Management: Issues and Country Studies, edited byA.Premchand,1990.

      Growth-Oriented Adjustment Programs, papers presented at a symposium sponsored by the IMF and the World Bank in Washington, D.C., edited byVittorioCorbo, MorrisGoldstein, and MohsinKhan,1987.

      How to Measure the Fiscal Deficit: Analytical and Methodological Issues, edited byMario I.Blejer and AdrienneCheasty,1992.

      IMF Glossary, English-French-Arabic, by the IMF Bureau of Language Services, 1996.

      IMF Glossary, English-French-Spanish, by the IMF Bureau of Language Services, 1997.

      IMF Glossary, English-French-Russian by the IMF Bureau of Language Services, 1998.

      The IMF’s Statistical Systems in Context of Revision of the United Nations’ “A System of National Accounts,”edited byVicenteGalbis,1991.

      Improving Tax Administration in Developing Countries, edited byRichard M.Bird and MilkaCasanegra de Jantscher,1992.

      Inflation and Growth in China, the proceedings of a conference, edited byManuelGuitián and RobertMundell,1996.

      Interest Rate Liberalization and Money Market Development, a series of papers presented at a seminar held in Beijing, China, sponsored by the IMF and the People’s Bank of China, edited byHassanaliMehran, BernardLaurens, and MarcQuintyn,1995.

      International Financial Policy: Essays in Honor ofJacques J.Polak,papers presented at a conference sponsored by the Netherlands Bank and the IMF in Washington, D.C., edited byJacob A.Frenkel and MorrisGoldstein,1991.

      International Monetary Cooperation Since Bretton Woods, a comprehensive history written by Harold James and published jointly by the IMF and Oxford University Press, 1996.

      The International Monetary Fund, 1945-1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation. Vol. I, Chronicle, by J. KeithHorsefield;Vol. II, Analysis, by Margaret G.de Vries and J. KeithHorsefield with the collaboration of JosephGold, Mary H.Gumbart, GertrudeLovasy, and Emil G.Spitzer; and Vol. III, Documents, edited byJ. KeithHorsefield,1969.

      The International Monetary Fund, 1966-1971: The System Under Stress. Vol. I, Narrative, by Margaret Garritsende Vries;Vol II, Documents, edited byMargaret Garritsende Vries,1976.

      The International Monetary Fund, 1972-1978: Cooperation on Trial. Vols. I and II, Narrative and Analysis, by Margaret Garritsende Vries; and Vol. III, Documents, edited byMargaret Garritsende Vries,1985.

      International Reserves: Needs and Availability, papers presented by a number of scholars and Fund staff members at a seminar convened at the Fund’s headquarters, 1970.

      Legal and Institutional Aspects of the International Monetary System: Selected Essays, Vols. I and II, by JosephGold,1984.

      Legal Effects of Fluctuating Exchange Rates, by JosephGold,1990.

      Macroeconomic Accounting and Analysis in Transition Economies, by AbdessatarOuanes and SubhashThakur,1997.

      Macroeconomic Adjustment: Policy Instruments and Issues, edited byJeffrey M.Davis,1992.

      Macroeconomic Issues Facing ASEAN Countries, papers prepared for the ASEAN conference held in Jakarta, edited byJohnHicklin, DavidRobinson, and AnoopSingh,1997.

      Macroeconomic Models for Adjustment in Developing Countries, edited byMohsin S.Khan, Peter J.Montiel, and Nadeem U.Haque,1991.

      Macroeconomic Policies in an Interdependent World, edited byRalphBryant, DavidCurrie, Jacob A.Frenkel, PaulMasson, and RichardPortes,1989.

      Macroeconomics and the Environment, the proceedings of a seminar held at the IMF at which experts from academic and research institutions, nongovernmental organizations, and staff from the IMF and World Bank shared their views on macroeconomic policies and the environment, edited byVed P.Gandhi,1996.

      Manual on Government Finance Statistics, 1986.

      The Monetary Approach to the Balance of Payments, edited byRudolf R.Rhomberg,1977.

      Optimum Currency Areas: New Analytical and Policy Developments, a revisit to Robert Mundell’s pioneering theory of optimum currency areas, with an update by Robert Mundell himself, edited byMario I.Blejer, Jacob A.Frankel, LeonardLeiderman, and AssafRazin,1997.

      The Payment System: Design, Management and Supervision, 12 papers by central bank experts from around the world, edited byBruce J.Summers,1994.

      Payment System, Monetary Policy, and the Role of the Central Bank, by Otomunde E. G.Johnson, Richard K.Abrams, Jean-MarcDestresse, TonyLybek, NicholasRoberts, and MarkSwinburne,1997.

      Policies for African Development: From the 1980s to the 1990s, a collection of papers presented at a seminar in Gaborone, Botswana, edited byI. G.Patel,1992.

      Policies for Growth: The Latin American Experience, papers presented at a seminar in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, moderated byAndréLara Resende,1995.

      Privatization and Structural Adjustment in the Arab Countries, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Washington, D.C., edited bySaidEl-Naggar,1989.

      Public Expenditure Handbook: A Guide to Public Policy Issues in Developing Countries, edited byKe-youngChu and RichardHemming,1991.

      Public Expenditure Management, by A.Premchand,1993.

      Reforming China’s Public Finances, the proceedings of a conference held in Shanghai, China, with supplemental papers, edited byEhtishamAhmad, GaoQiang, and VitoTanzi,1995.

      Report on the Measurement of International Capital Flows and Background Papers, 1992.

      Report on the World Current Account Discrepancy, by the IMF and other international organizations, 1987.

      The Social Effects of Economic Adjustment on Arab Countries, papers presented in a seminar sponsored by the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, the Arab Monetary Fund, the IMF, and the World Bank, edited byTaher H.Kanaan,1997.

      Strategies for Structural Adjustment: The Experience of Southeast Asia, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, moderated byUngku A.Aziz,1990.

      Structural Adjustment and Macroeconomic Policy Issues, papers presented at a conference in Lahore, Pakistan, moderated byV. A.Jafarey,1992.

      Supply-Side Tax Policy: Its Relevance to Developing Countries, by Ved P.Gandhi, Liam P.Ebrill, George A.Mackenzie, LuisMañas-Anton, Jitendra R.Modi, SomchaiRichupan, FernandoSanchez-Ugarte, and ParthasarathiShome,1987.

      System of National Accounts, prepared by the Joint Commission of the European Communities, IMF, OECD, UN, and World Bank, 1993.

      Systemic Bank Restructuring and Macroeconomic Policy, sets out cross-country restructuring experiences, edited byWilliam E.Alexander, Jeffrey M.Davis, Liam P.Ebrill, and Carl-JohanLindgren,1997.

      Tax Law Design and Drafting, Vol. I and II, edited byVictorThuronyi,1996.

      Tax Policy Handbook, edited byParthasarathiShome,1995.

      Trade Policy Issues, papers presented in a seminar sponsored by the IMF, edited byChorng-HueyWong,1997.

      Transition to Market Studies in Fiscal Reform, edited byVitoTanzi,1993.

      The Uruguay Round and the Arab Countries, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF, the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, the Arab Monetary Fund, and the World Bank, edited bySaidEl-Naggar,1996.

      Value-Added Tax: International Practice and Problems, by Alan A.Tait,1988.

    Periodicals

    Statistical Publications

    (All four statistical publications are available on tape.)

    World Economic and Financial Surveys

    Occasional Papers (series)

    Pamphlet Series

    This series covers, in depth, various aspects of the Fund, its functions, policies, and legal concepts (free). The following is an incomplete listing.

    Booklets

    This new series, which was launched in 1996, is designed to make available to a readership of nonspecialists some of the economic research being carried out in the Fund. The papers are written in nontechnical language.

    Papers on Policy Analysis and Assessment

    Beginning in January 1999, this series was renamed Policy Discussion Papers (PDP). The series comprises staff studies in the area of policy design and research. They are aimed primarily at operational staff involved in mission work and economists elsewhere interested in policy issues. The following is a selective listing.

    Working Papers, 1997

    This series is designed to make Fund staff research available to a wide audience. The series began in 1991, about 180 working papers are released each year. In many cases the papers are subject to ongoing work and revision. Many will eventually be published by the Fund as articles in one of the Fund’s serial publications. The series is available on a subscription basis.

    Staff Country Reports

    The IMF releases Staff Country Reports on about 150 member countries each year. The reports contain comprehensive background material on economic developments as part of the annual consultations that the IMF conducts with most member countries.

    General Bibliography

    General

    Background of the Bretton Woods System

      BernankeBen, and HaroldJames.“The Gold Standard, Deflation, and Financial Crisis in the Great Depression: An International Comparison,” in Financial Markets and Financial Crises, ed. by R. GlennHubbard,University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 1991).

      Bernstein, Edward M.“The Adequacy of United States Gold Reserves,”American Economic Review (Papers and Proceedings of the Seventy-Third Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association), Vol. 51 (1961), pp 439-46.

      Bloomfield, Arthur I.Monetary Policy Under the Gold Standard: 1880-1914, Federal Reserve Bank of New York (New York, 1959).

      Brown, William Adams, Jr.The International Gold Standard Reinterpreted 1914-1934, National Bureau of Economic Research (New York, 1940).

      Cassel, Gustav.The Downfall of the Gold Standard, Clarendon Press (Oxford1936).

      Clarke, Stephen V. O.The Reconstruction of the International Monetary System: The Attempts of 1922 and 1933, Princeton Studies in International FinanceNo. 33, Princeton University Press (Princeton, 1973).

      Clarke, Stephen V. O.Exchange-Rate Stabilization in the Mid—1930s: Negotiating the Tripartite Agreement, Princeton Studies in International FinanceNo. 41, Princeton University Press (Princeton, 1977).

      Clavin, Patricia.“The World Economic Conference 1933: The Failure of British Internationalism,”Journal of European Economic History, Vol. 20, No. 3 (Winter, 1991).

      Cooper, Richard N.Gold Standard: Historical Fact and Future Prospects, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity (Washington, D.C., 1982).

      De Cecco, Marcello.The Internatiional Gold Standard: Money and Empire, St, Martin’s Press (New York, 1984).

      Eichengreen, Barry J.“The Gold Standard and the Great Depression,” NBER Reporter, National Bureau of Economic Research (Spring1991).

      Eichengreen, Barry J.Golden Fetters: The Gold Standard and the Great Depression, 1919-1939, Oxford University Press (New York, 1992).

      Eichengreen, Barry J., and JefferySachs.“Exchange Rates and Economic Recovery in the 1930s,”Journal of Economic History, Vol. 45 (1985).

      Palyi, Melchior.The Twilight of Gold 1914–1936: Myths and Realities, Henry Regnery (Chicago, 1972).

      Schubert, Aurel.The Credit-Anstalt Crisis of 1931, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, England, 1991).

    Establishing the Bretton Woods System

    Macroeconomic and Structural Adjustment and Fund Conditionality

      Acheson, A. L. K., J. F.Chant, and M. F. J.Prachowny,eds. Bretton Woods Revisited: Evaluations of the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, University of Toronto Press (Toronto, 1972).

      Aliber, Robert Z.The International Money Game, Basic Books (New York, 1987).

      Bangura, Yusuf.“IMF/World Bank Conditionality and Nigeria’s Structural Adjustment Programme,” in The IMF and the World Bank in Africa: Conditionality, Impact and Alternatives, ed. by Kjell J.Havnevik,Scandinavian Institute of African Studies (Uppsala, 1987).

      Bangura, Yusuf.“Crisis and Adjustment: The Experience of Nigerian Workers,” in The IMF, the World Bank and African Debt, Vol. 2, The Social and Political Impact, ed. by BadeOnimode,Institute for African Alternatives and Zed Books (London, 1989).

      Bazdresch, Carlos, and SantiagoLevy.“Populism and Economic Policy in Mexico 1970-1982,” in Macroecomics of Populism in Latin America, ed. by RudigerDornbusch and SebastianEdwards,University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 1991).

      Bergsten, C. Fred.International Adjustment and Financing: The Lessons from 1985–1991, Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1991).

      Bourguignon, François, and CristianMorrison.Adjustment and Equity in Developing Countries: A New Approach, Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (Paris, 1992).

      Bruno, Michael.“Stabilization and the Macroeconomics of Transition: How Different Is Eastern Europe?”Economics of Transition, Vol. 1 (1993).

      Callaghy, Thomas M.“Lost Between State and Market: The Politics of Economic Adjustment in Ghana, Zambia, and Nigeria,” in Economic Crisis and Policy Choice: The Politics of Adjustment in the Third World, ed. by JoanNelson,Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1990).

      Campbell, Horace.Tanzania and the IMF: The Dynamics of Liberalization, Westview (Boulder, Colorado, 1992).

      Campbell, K., and JohnLoxley,eds. Structural Adjustment in Africa, St. Martin’s Press (New York, 1989).

      Campos, Roberto de Oliveiro.“Inflation and Balanced Growth,” in Economic Development in Latin America: Proceedings of a Conference Held by the International Economic Association, ed. by Howard S.Ellis,St. Martin’s Press (New York, 1961).

      Cline, William R., and SidneyWeintraub,eds. Economic Stabilization in Developing Countries, Brookings Institution (Washington, 1981).

      Cornia, Andrea, RichardJolly, and FrancisStewart,eds. Adjustment with a Human Face, 2 vols., Oxford University Press (Oxford, 1987).

      Cotés Conde, Roberto.“Growth and Stagnation in Argentina,” in Towards a Development Strategy for Latin America: Pathways from Hirschman’s Thought, ed. by SimónTeitel,Inter-American Bank (Washington, 1992).

      David, Wilfrid L.The IMF Policy Paradigm: The Macroeconomics of Stabilization, Structural Adjustment and Economic Development, Praeger (New York, 1985).

      De Vries, Rimmer.“The Limited Role of the IMF,”World Financial Markets, Morgan Guarantee Trust Company, Apr. 1982.

      Dell, Sidney.“The Question of Cross-Conditionality,”World Development, Vol. 16, No. 5 (May1988).

      Dell, Sidney.On Being Grandmotherly: The Evolution of IMF Conditionality, Essays in International Finance, No. 144, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1981).

      Dell, Sidney.“Balance of Payments Adjustment in the 1980s,”World Development, Vol. 14, No. 8, (Aug. 1986), pp 873-1105.

      Dell, Sidney, and RogerLawrence.The Balance of Payments Adjustment Process in Developing Countries, Pergamon Press (New York, 1980).

      Dornbusch, Rudiger.Structural Adjustment in Latin America, Woodrow Wilson Center (Washington, 1991).

      Edwards, Sebastian.“The International Monetary Fund and the Developing Countries: A Critical Evaluation,”Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Vol. 31 (Fall1989), pp. 7-68.

      Feinberg, Richard E.“The Changing Relationship Between the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund,”International Organization, Vol. 42, No. 3 (Summer1988), pp. 545-60.

      Finch, David.The Record and the Prospect, Essays in International Finance, No. 175, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1989).

      Finch, David.“Let the IMF be the IMF,”The International Economy, Jan./Feb, 1988.

      Frenkel, Jeffrey A., and Harry G.Johnson,eds. The Monetary Approach to the Balance of Payments, Allen and Unwin (London, 1976).

      Goode, Richard B.Economic Assistance to Developing Countries Through the IMF, Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C., 1985).

      Gwin, Catherine.“Financing India’s Adjustment: The Role of the Fund,” in IMF Conditionality, ed. by JohnWilliamson,Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1983).

      Haggard, Stephan, Richard N.Cooper, and Chung-in-Moon.“Policy Reform in Korea,” in Political and Economic Interactions in Economic Policy Reform: Evidence from Eight Countries, ed. by Robert H.Bates and Anne O.Krueger, BasilBlackwell (Oxford, 1993).

      Hawkins, Jeffrey J.“Understanding the Failure of IMF Reform: The Zambian Case,”World Development, Vol. 19, No. 7 (July1991).

      Herbst, Jeffrey.“The Structural Adjustment of Politics in Africa,”World Development, Vol. 18, No. 7 (July1990).

      Johnson, Harry G.“Economic Policies for Less Developed Countries,” in International Monetary Reform, Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C., 1967), pp. 212-36.

      Kenen, Peter B.Financing, Adjustment and the International Monetary Fund, Brookings Institution, (Washington, D.C., 1986).

      Killick, Tony.“Kenya, the IMF, and the Unsuccessful Quest for Stabilization.” In IMF, Conditionality, ed. by JohnWiliamson,Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1983).

      Killick, Tony.ed. The Quest for Economic Stabilization: The IMF and the Third World, St. Martin’s Press (Washington, D.C., 1984).

      Krueger, Anne O.Liberalization Attempts and Consequences, Ballinger for National Bureau of Economic Research (New York, 1978).

      Krueger, Anne O.Political Economy of Policy Reform in Developing Countries, MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1993).

      Lancaster, Carol.African Economic Reform: The External Dimension, Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1991).

      Leith, J. Clark, and Michael F.Lofchie.“The Political Economy of Structural Adjustment in Ghana,” in Political and Economic Interactions in Economic Policy Reform: Evidence from Eight Countries, ed. by Robert H.Bates and Anne O.Krueger, BasilBlackwell (Oxford, 1993).

      Levitt, Kari,“Stabilisation and Structural Adjustment: Rhetoric and Reality,”Caribbean Affairs, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Jan./Mar. 1990).

      Loxley, John.“Structural Adjustment in Africa: Reflections on Ghana and Zambia,”Review of African Political Economy, No. 47 (Spring1990).

      Manzetti, Luigi.The International Monetary Fund and Economic Stabilization: The Argentine Case, Praeger (New York, 1991).

      Matin, K. M.“Structural Adjustment Under the Extended Fund Facility: The Case of Bangladesh,” World Development, Vol. 16, No. 6 (June1990).

      Mikesell, Raymand F.“Appraising IMF Conditionality: “Too Loose, Too Tight, or Just Right,” in IMF Conditionality, ed. by JohnWilliamson,Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1983).

      Moore, Will H., and James R.Scarritt.“IMF Conditionality and Policy Characteristics in Black Africa: An Exploratory Analysis,”Africa Today, Vol, 37 (4th quarter, 1990).

      Myers, Robert J.,ed. “The Political Morality of the International Monetary Fund,”Ethics and Foreign Policy, Vol. 3, Transaction Books (New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1987).

      Ncube, P.D., M.Sakala, and M.Ndulo.“The International Monetary Fund and the Zambian Economy: A Case,” in The IMF and the World Bank in Africa: Conditionality, Impact and Alternatives, ed. by Kjell J.Havnevik,Scandinavian Institute of African Studies (Uppsala, 1987).

      Nelson, Joan M.,and contributors. Fragile Conditions: The Politics of Economic Adjustment, Transaction Books (New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1989).

      Nelson, Joan M.,ed. Economic Crisis and Policy Choice: The Politics of Adjustment in Developing Countries, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1990).

      Obstfeld, Maurice, and KennethRogoffs.Foundations of International Macroecomics, MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1996).

      Pauly, Lewis W.Who Elected the Bunkers? Surveillance and Control in the World Economy, Cornell University Press (Ithaca, New York, 1997).

      Plumptre, A. F. W.Three Decades of Decision: Canada and the World Monetary System, 1944-75, McClelland and Stewart (Toronto, 1977).

      Pöhl, Karl Otto.“You Can’t Robotize Policymaking,”The International Economy, Oct./Nov. 1987.

      Polak, Jacques J.The Changing Nature of IMF Conditionality, Essays in International Finance, No. 184, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1991).

      Sachs, Jeffrey D.“The Current Account and Macroeconomic Adjustment in the 1970s,”Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C., 1981).

      Seddon, David.“The Politics of Adjustment: Egypt and the IMF, 1987-1990,”Review of African Political Economy, No. 47 (Spring, 1990).

      Sidell, Scott R.The IMF and Third-World Political Instability: Is There a Connection?St. Martin’s Press (New York, 1988).

      Spraos, John.IMF Conditionality: Ineffectual, Inefficient, Mistargeted, Essays in International Finance, No. 166, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1986).

      Taylor, Lance.Varieties of Stabilization Experience: Towards Sensible Macroeconomics in the Third World, prepared for the World Institute for Development Economic Research of the United Nations University, Clarendon Press (Oxford, 1988).

      Thirwell, A. P.Growth and Development, with Special Reference to Developing Economies, Macmillan (Basingstoke, Hampshire, England, 1989).

      Williamson, John.“On Judging the Success of IMF Policy Advice,” in IMF Conditionality, ed. by Williamson,Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1984).

      Williamson, John.ed.