Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Norman Humphreys
Published Date:
June 2000
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    Statistical Appendix

    Table 1. Selected Financial Indicators during the Financial Year Ended April 30

    Table 2. Members’ Quotas and Voting Power

    Table 3. Stand-by and Other Arrangements Approved in the Financial Years Ended April 30, 1953-1998

    Table 4. Arrangements Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility in Effect during the Financial Year Ended April 30, 1998

    Table 5. Extended Arrangements in Effect in the Financial Year Ended April 30, 1998

    Table 1.Selected Financial Indicators during the Financial Year Ended April 30(Millions of SDRs)
    19941995199619971998
    Disbursements
    Total5,90311,17812,3035,64419,924
    Purchases by facility (GRA)1
    Total5,24110,59210,8264,93918,981
    Stand-bys21,0527,5879,1271,83616,127
    EFF7461,5951,5542,8202,824
    CCFF7182879282
    STF2,7251,123136
    SAF/ESAF loans6625871,477705973
    SDA resources6819185
    ESAF Trust resources5945681,292705973
    Repurchases and Repayments
    Repurchases4,3433,9846,6986,6683,789
    SAF/ESAF & Trust
    Fund repayments166247402528596
    Outstanding IMF Credit
    Total29,88936,83742,04040,48856,026
    Of which:
    GRA25,53332,14036,26834,53949,701
    SDA1,8351,6511,5451,220922
    Administered accounts
    Trust Fund105102959090
    ESAF Trust32,4162,9444,1324,6395,314
    Change in outstanding credit (%)
    52314-4-438
    Number of indebted countries
    9399979594

    Excludes reserve tranche purchases.

    Includes first credit tranche drawings.

    Includes Saudi Fund for Development associated loans.

    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.

    Excludes reserve tranche purchases.

    Includes first credit tranche drawings.

    Includes Saudi Fund for Development associated loans.

    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.
    Table 2.Members’ Quotas and Voting Power Under Eleventh Review of Quotas, January 1999
    QuotaVotes
    MemberMillion SDRsPercent
    Afghanistan, Islamic State of161.90.076
    Albania48.70.023
    Algeria914.40.431
    Angola286.30.135
    Antigua and Barbuda13.50.006
    Argentina2,117.10.998
    Armenia92.00.043
    Australia3,236.41.526
    Austria1,872.30.883
    Azerbaijan160.90.076
    Bahamas, The130.30.061
    Bahrain135.00.064
    Bangladesh533.30.252
    Barbados67.50.032
    Belarus386.40.182
    Belgium4,605.22.172
    Belize18.80.009
    Benin61.90.029
    Bhutan6.30.003
    Bolivia171.50.081
    Bosnia and Herzegovina169.10.080
    Botswana63.00.030
    Brazil3,036.11.432
    Brunei Darussalam215.20.101
    Bulgaria640.20.302
    Burkina Faso60.20.028
    Burundi77.00.036
    Cambodia87.50.041
    Cameroon185.70.088
    Canada6,639.23.004
    Cape Verde9.60.005
    Central African Republic55.70.026
    Chad56.00.026
    Chile856.10.404
    China4,687.22.211
    Colombia774.00.365
    Comoros8.90.004
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of533.00.251
    Congo, Republic of84.60.040
    Costa Rica164.10.077
    Côte d’Ivoire325.20.153
    Croatia365.10.172
    Cyprus139.60.066
    Czech Republic819.30.386
    Denmark1,642.80.775
    Djibouti15.90.007
    Dominica8.20.004
    Dominican Republic218.90.103
    Ecuador302.30.143
    Egypt943.70.445
    El Salvador171.30.081
    Equatorial Guinea32.60.015
    Eritrea15.90.007
    Estonia65.20.031
    Ethiopia133.70.063
    Fiji70.30.033
    Finland1,263.80.596
    France10,738.55.065
    Gabon154.30.073
    Gambia, The31.10.015
    Georgia150.30.071
    Germany13,008.26.135
    Ghana369.00.174
    Greece823.00.388
    Grenada11.70.006
    Guatemala210.20.099
    Guinea107.10.051
    Guinea-Bissau14.20.007
    Guyana90.90.043
    Haiti81.90.039
    Honduras129.50.061
    Hungary1,038.40.490
    Iceland117.60.055
    India4,158.21.961
    Indonesia2,079.30.981
    Iran, Islamic Republic of1,497.20.706
    Iraq1,188.40.560
    Ireland838.40.395
    Israel928.20.438
    Italy7,055.53.328
    Jamaica273.50.129
    Japan13,312.86.279
    Jordan170.50.088
    Kazakhstan365.70.172
    Kenya271.40.128
    Kiribati5.60.003
    Korea1,633.60.770
    Kuwait1,381.10.651
    Kyrgyz Republic88.80.042
    Lao People’s Democratic Republic52.90.025
    Latvia126.80.060
    Lebanon203.00.096
    Lesotho34.90.016
    Liberia129.20.061
    Libya1,123.70.530
    Lithuania144.20.068
    Luxembourg279.10.132
    Macedonia, FYR68.90.032
    Madagascar122.20.058
    Malawi69.40.033
    Malaysia1,486.60.701
    Maldives8.20.004
    Mali93.3
    Malta102.00.048
    Marshall Islands3.50.002
    Mauritania64.40.030
    Mauritius101.60.048
    Mexico2,585.81.220
    Micronesia, Federal States of5.10.002
    Moldova123.20.058
    Mongolia51.10.024
    Morocco588.20.277
    Mozambique113.60.054
    Myanmar258.40.122
    Namibia136.50.064
    Nepal71.30.034
    Netherlands, The5,162.42.435
    New Zealand894.60.422
    Nicaragua130.00.061
    Niger65.80.031
    Nigeria1,753.20.827
    Norway1,671.70.788
    Oman194.00.091
    Pakistan1,033.70.488
    Palau, Republic of3.10.003
    Panama206.60.097
    Papua New Guniea131.60.062
    Paraguay99.90.047
    Peru638.40.301
    Philippines879.90.415
    Poland1,369.00.592
    Portugal867.40.409
    Qatar263.80.124
    Romania1,030.20.486
    Russia5,945.42.804
    Rwanda80.10.038
    Samoa11.60.005
    San Marino17.00.008
    São Tomé and Principe7.40.003
    Saudi Arabia6,985.53.295
    Senegal161.80.076
    Seychelles8.80.004
    Sierra Leone103.70.049
    Singapore862.50.407
    Slovak Republic357.50.169
    Slovenia231.70.109
    Solomon Islands10.40.005
    Somalia81.70.039
    South Africa1,868.50.881
    Spain3,048.91.438
    Sri Lanka413.40.195
    St. Kitts and Nevis8.90.004
    St. Lucia15.30.007
    St. Vincent and the Grenadines8.30.004
    Sudan315.10.149
    Suriname92.10.043
    Swaziland50.70.024
    Sweden2,395.51.130
    Switzerland3,458.51.631
    Syrian Arab Republic293.60.138
    Tajikistan87.00.041
    Tanzania198.90.094
    Thailand1,081.90.510
    Togo73.40.035
    Tonga6.90.003
    Trinidad and Tobago335.60.158
    Tunisia286.50.135
    Turkey964.00.455
    Turkmenistan75.20.035
    Uganda180.50.085
    Ukraine1,372.00.647
    United Arab Emirates611.70.288
    United Kingdom10,738.55.065
    United States37,193.317.521
    Uruguay306.50.145
    Uzbekistan275.60.130
    Vanuatu17.00.008
    Venezuela2,659.11.254
    Vietnam329.10.155
    Yemen, Republic of243.50.115
    Yugoslavia, Fed. Rep of467.70.221
    Zambia489.10.231
    Zimbabwe353.40.167
    Total212,029.0100.00
    Note: No increase in quotas can take effect before the date on which the Fund determines that members having not less than 85 percent of the total quotas on December 23, 1997, have consented to the increase in their quotas. A member’s quota cannot be increased until it has consented to the increase and paid the subscription.Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board
    Note: No increase in quotas can take effect before the date on which the Fund determines that members having not less than 85 percent of the total quotas on December 23, 1997, have consented to the increase in their quotas. A member’s quota cannot be increased until it has consented to the increase and paid the subscription.Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board
    Table 3.Stand-by and Other Arrangements Approved in the Financial Years Ended April 30, 1953-1998
    Number of ArrangementsSDRs
    Stand-bysEFFSAFESAFTotalMillions
    1953-5720201,368
    1958-6265654,558
    1963-671081087,016
    1968-721101106,090
    1973-77735788,931
    1978193185,877
    1979155202,643
    1980227293,803
    198122153710,795
    198223123516,206
    19833093925,035
    19843053518,569
    19852733011,675
    1986242264,907
    198723110345,391
    198818225454,540
    1989142237466,608
    199019417115113,911
    199114512144514,652
    19922278165319,203
    19931564204515,279
    1994166322478,428
    19951991275623,385
    19962171285727,918
    19971411356017,996
    19981413336045,069
    Total765573865925329,853
    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board.
    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board.
    Table 4.Arrangements Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility in Effect during the Financial Year Ended April 30, 1998(Amounts in Millions of SDRs)
    Arrangemment DatesAmounts ApprovedUndrawn Balances
    MemberEffective dateExpiration dateThrough 4/30/98As of 4/30/98
    Armenia2/14/962/13/9910134
    Azerbaijan2/20/962/19/999438
    Benin8/28/9612/19/992718
    Bolivia12/19/948/27/99101
    Burkina Faso6/14/969/9/984020
    Cambodia5/6/946/13/99126
    Cameroon8/20/978/19/00162108
    Chad9/1/958/31/985017
    Congo, Rep. of6/28/966/27/996956
    Côte d’Ivoire3/11/946/13/97333
    Cote d’Ivoire3/17/983/16/01286202
    Ethiopia10/11/9610/10/998874
    Georgia2/28/962/27/9916756
    Georgia2/28/962/27/9916756
    Ghana6/30/956/29/9916469
    Guinea1/13/971/12/007135
    Guinea-Bissau1/18/957/24/9810
    Guyana1/13/974/17/9854
    Haiti10/18/9610/17/999176
    Honduras7/24/9211/26/9947
    Kenya4/26/964/25/99150125
    Kyrgz Republic7/20/943/31/9888
    Lao PDR6/4/935/7/9735
    Macedonia4/11/974/10/005536
    Madagascar11/27/9611/26/998115
    Malawi10/18/9510/17/984615
    Mali4/10/963/17/016221
    Mauritania1/25/956/11/9943
    Mongolia7/30/9710/19/003328
    Mozambique6/21/961/12/987625
    Nicaragua6/24/946/23/97120
    Nicaragua3/18/983/17/0110184
    Niger6/12/966/11/995819
    Pakistan10/20/9710/19/00682455
    Senegal8/29/941/12/98131
    Senegal4/20/984/19/0110789
    Sierra Leone3/28/945/4/981025
    Tanzania11/8/0611/7/9916274
    Togo9/16/946/29/986511
    Uganda9/6/9411/17/9712
    Uganda11/10/9711/9/0010060
    Vietnam11/11/9411/10/97362
    Yeman10/29/9710/28/00265221
    Zambia12/6/9512/5/9870240
    Total4,0482,165
    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.
    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.
    Table 5.Extended Arrangements in Effect in the Financial Year Ended April 30, 1998(Amounts Expressed in Million SDRs)
    MemberEffective DateExpiration DateUndrawn Balance
    Algeria5/22/955/21/9884
    Argentina12/4/982/3/012,080
    Azerbaijan12/20/9612/19/9926
    Croatia3/12/973/11/00324
    Gabon11/8/9511/7/9850
    Jordan22/9/962/8/9947
    Kazakhstan 17/17/967/16/99309
    Lithuania10/24/9419/23/97
    Moldova5/20/965/19/9998
    Pakistan10/20/9710/19/00398
    Panama12/10/9712/9/00110
    Peru37/1/963/31/99140
    Philippines 46/24/943/31/98
    Russia3/26/963/25/993,065
    Yemen10/29/9710/28/0097
    Total6,828

    The authorities indicated their intention not to draw under the arrangement.

    Original amount of SDR 201 million increased by SDR 37 million.

    Original amount of SDR 248 million increased by SDR 52 million for debt and debt service reduction.

    Extended from June 23, 1997, December 31, 1997, and January 31, 1998. Increased by SDR 317 million.

    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.

    The authorities indicated their intention not to draw under the arrangement.

    Original amount of SDR 201 million increased by SDR 37 million.

    Original amount of SDR 248 million increased by SDR 52 million for debt and debt service reduction.

    Extended from June 23, 1997, December 31, 1997, and January 31, 1998. Increased by SDR 317 million.

    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.
    Bibliography

    Contents

    Publications Issued by the Fund

    Reports and Documents

    Books

    Periodicals

    Statistical Publications

    World Economic and Financial Surveys

    Occasional Papers Series

    Pamphlets (series)

    Booklets

    Papers on Policy Analysis and Assessment

    Working Papers, 1997

    Staff Country Reports

    General Bibliography

    General

    Background of the Bretton Woods System

    Establishing the Bretton Woods System

    Macroeconomic and Structural Adjustment and Fund Conditionality

    Exchange Rate Systems and Markets

    International Currencies, Liquidity, and the SDR

    International Trade and Payments

    International Debt Problems

    Reform of the International Monetary System

    The following bibliography lists selective publications on the history and evolution of the International Monetary Fund. The Fund itself periodically published, from 1951 through 1985, comprehensive bibliographies in various issues of its quarterly economic journal, Staff Papers. Many of these bibliographies were compiled by Anne C. M. Salda, who on her retirement from the Joint Fund-Bank Library compiled an extensive and annotated bibliography, International Monetary Fund, which references publications on the Fund since its inception (see under General Bibliography).

    The first section of this bibliography lists publications issued by the Fund. The second section concentrates on citing substantive material published outside the Fund dealing with its work and related matters. No attempt has been made to cover the many serious and interesting articles that have appeared in newspapers and news magazines.

    The Fund’s public web site was opened in September 1996 at the address http://www.imf.org. From the the home-page menu, hyperlinks lead to various submenus, including a catalogue of publications. A number of publications are also available in full text on the web site.

    The Fund issues annually a catalog of available publications.

    Publications Issued by the Fund

    Reports and Documents

    Books

      Adjustment and Financing in the Developing World: The Role of the International Monetary Fund papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF and the Overseas Development Institute London Englandedited byTonyKillick1982.

      Adjustment Conditionality and International Financing papers presented at a seminar in Viña del Mar Chile sponsored by the Central Bank of Chile the Frederico Santa Maria University and the IMFedited byJoaquínMuns1983.

      Adjustment Policies and Development Strategies in the Arab World papers presented at a seminar in Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates at a seminar sponsored by the Arab Monetary Fund and the IMFedited bySaidEl-Naggar1987.

      Africa and the International Monetary Fund papers presented at a symposium sponsored by the Association of African Central Banks and the IMFedited byG. K.Helleiner1987.

      Analytical Issues in Debt by Jacob A.FrenkelMichael P.Dooley and PeterWickham1989.

      Approaches to Exchange Rate Policy papers presented at a seminar on exchange rate policy in developing and transitional economies held by the IMF Instituteedited byRichardBarth and Chorng-HueyWong1994.

      Balance of Payments Adjustment 1945 to 1986: The IMF Experience by MargaretGarritsen de Vries1987.

      Balance of Payments Compilation Guide a companion document to the fifth edition of the Balance of Payments Manual1995.

      Balance of Payments Manual the fifth edition of this manual revised and updated1993.

      Balance of Payments Textbook a companion document to the Balance of Payments Manual1996.

      Bank Soundness and Macroeconomic Policy by Carl-JohanLindgrenGillianGarcia and Matthew I.Saal1996.

      Banking Crises: Cases and Issuesedited byV.Sundarajan and Thomas J. T.Baliño1991.

      Beyond Adjustment: The Asian Experienceedited byPaulStreeten1988.

      Building Sound Finance in Emerging Market Economiesedited byGerardCaprioDavidFolkerts-Landau and Timothy D.Lane1994.

      Central and Eastern Europe: Roads to Growth papers presented at a seminar moderated by GeorgeWincklerorganized by the IMF and the Austrian National Bank1992.

      Central Banking Technical Assistance to Countries in Transition proceedings of a joint meeting of central banking technical assistance held in St. Petersburg Russia in 1994edited byJ. B.ZuluIan S.McCarthySusanAlmuiña and GabrielSensenbrenner1994.

      Central Bank Reform in Transition Economies contains the background papers prepared for the second coordinating meeting of 23 participating central banks of the Baltic States and the Commonwealth of Independent Statesedited byV.SundarajanArne B.Petersen and GabrielSensenbrenner1997.

      Choosing an Exchange Rate Regime: The Challenge for Smaller Industrial Countriesedited byVictorArgy and Paul deGrauwe1990.

      Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey Guide a guide for balance of payments compilers in conducting an internationally coordinated survey of security holdings conducted under the auspices of the IMF1996.

      Coordinating Public Debt and Monetary Management: Institutional and Operational Arrangementsedited byV.SundarajanPeterDattels and HansBlommestein1997.

      Coordinating Stabilization and Structural Reform papers presented in an IMF Institute seminar covering four case studies—China Poland Argentina and The Gambiaedited byRichard C.BarthAlan R.Roe and Chorng-HueyWong1994.

      Current Legal Issues Affecting Central Banks Vols. I II III and IV papers presented at four biennial seminars sponsored by the IMF for central banksedited byRobert C.Effros1992 1994 1995 and 1997.

      Deepening Structural Reform in Africa: Lessons from East Asia the proceedings of a seminar involving policymakers and senior government officials from Africa and East Asia and senior staff of international organizationsedited byLauraWallace1997.

      Debt Stocks Debt Flows and the Balance of Payments prepared jointly by the BIS IMF OECD and World Bank1994.

      Economic Adjustment: Policies and Problems the proceedings of a seminar held in Wellington New Zealand concentrating on economic adjustment problems in the South Pacificedited bySir FrankHolmes1987.

      Economic Policy Coordination the proceedings of a seminar held in Hamburg Germany moderated byWilfredGuth1988.

      Emerging Financial Centers: Legal and Institutional Frameworkedited byRobert C.Effros1982.

      Economic Adjustment: Policies and Problems papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Wellington New Zealandedited bySir FrankHolmes1987.

      Economic Policy Coordination papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Hamburg Germany1988.

      Effective Government Accounting by A.Premchand1995.

      EMU and the International Monetary System the proceedings of a seminar held in Washington sponsored by the IMF and the Fondation Camille Gutt1997.

      Evolving Role of Central Banks papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF at the Fund’s headquartersedited byPatrickDownes and RezaVaez-Zadeh1991.

      External Debt: Definition Statistical Coverage and Methodology a comparative description of statistics collected by the BIS IMF OECD and the World Bank1998.

      External Debt Management papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF Washington D.C. edited byHassanaliMehran1985.

      External Debt Savings and Growth in Latin America papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the Instituto Torcuato di Tella and the IMF in Don Torcuato Argentinaedited byAna MaríaMartirena-Mantel1987.

      Fifty Years After Bretton Woods: The Future of the IMF and the World Bank the proceedings of a conference held in Madrid Spain sponsored by the IMF and the World Bank to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the two institutionsedited byJames M.Boughton and K. SarwarLateef1994.

      Financial Policies and Capital Markets in Arab Countries the proceedings of a seminar held in Abu Dhabiedited bySaidEl-Naggar1994.

      Financial Programming and Policy: The Case of Hungaryedited byKaren A.Swiderski1992.

      Fiscal Federalism in Theory and Practice a series of papers on a number of countries examining the relationships among central state and local governments in respect to their spending and revenue-raising responsibilitiesedited byTeresaTer-Minassian1997.

      Fiscal Policies in Economies in Transitionedited byVitoTanzi1992.

      Fiscal Policy Economic Adjustment and Financial Markets papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the Centre for Financial and Monetary Economics Università Luigi Bocconi in Milan Italy and the IMFedited byMarioMonti1989.

      Fiscal Policy in Open Developing Economies papers presented at the 44th Congress of the International Institute of Public Financeedited byVitoTanzi1990.

      Fiscal Policy Stabilization and Growth in Developing Countriesedited byMario I.Blejer and Ke-youngChu1992.

      Foreign and Inter-Trade Policies of Arab Countries papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Abu Dhabi United Arab Emiratesedited bySaidEl-Naggar1992.

      Framework for Monetary Stability: Policy Issues and Country Experienceedited byTomás J. T.Baliño and CarloCottarelli1994.

      The Functioning of the International Monetary System Vols. I and II a series of 30 analytical papers on the system as it functioned in 1987-91edited byJacob A.Frenkel and MorrisGoldstein1996.

      The Future of the SDR in Light of Changes in the International Monetary System the proceedings of a seminar held at the IMFedited byMichaelMussaJamesBoughton and PeterIsard1996.

      Government Financial Management: Issues and Country Studiesedited byA.Premchand1990.

      Growth-Oriented Adjustment Programs papers presented at a symposium sponsored by the IMF and the World Bank in Washington D.C. edited byVittorioCorboMorrisGoldstein and MohsinKhan1987.

      How to Measure the Fiscal Deficit: Analytical and Methodological Issuesedited byMario I.Blejer and AdrienneCheasty1992.

      IMF Glossary English-French-Arabic by the IMF Bureau of Language Services1996.

      IMF Glossary English-French-Spanish by the IMF Bureau of Language Services1997.

      IMF Glossary English-French-Russian by the IMF Bureau of Language Services1998.

      The IMF’s Statistical Systems in Context of Revision of the United Nations’ “A System of National Accounts”edited byVicenteGalbis1991.

      Improving Tax Administration in Developing Countriesedited byRichard M.Bird and MilkaCasanegra de Jantscher1992.

      Inflation and Growth in China the proceedings of a conferenceedited byManuelGuitián and RobertMundell1996.

      Interest Rate Liberalization and Money Market Development a series of papers presented at a seminar held in Beijing China sponsored by the IMF and the People’s Bank of Chinaedited byHassanaliMehranBernardLaurens and MarcQuintyn1995.

      International Financial Policy: Essays in Honor ofJacques J.Polakpapers presented at a conference sponsored by the Netherlands Bank and the IMF in Washington D.C. edited byJacob A.Frenkel and MorrisGoldstein1991.

      International Monetary Cooperation Since Bretton Woods a comprehensive history written by Harold James and published jointly by the IMF and Oxford University Press1996.

      The International Monetary Fund 1945-1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation. Vol. I Chronicle by J. KeithHorsefield;Vol. II, Analysis by Margaret G.de Vries and J. KeithHorsefield with the collaboration of JosephGoldMary H.GumbartGertrudeLovasy and Emil G.Spitzer; and Vol. III Documentsedited byJ. KeithHorsefield1969.

      The International Monetary Fund 1966-1971: The System Under Stress. Vol. I Narrative by Margaret Garritsende Vries;Vol II Documentsedited byMargaret Garritsende Vries1976.

      The International Monetary Fund 1972-1978: Cooperation on Trial. Vols. I and II Narrative and Analysis by Margaret Garritsende Vries; and Vol. III Documentsedited byMargaret Garritsende Vries1985.

      International Reserves: Needs and Availability papers presented by a number of scholars and Fund staff members at a seminar convened at the Fund’s headquarters1970.

      Legal and Institutional Aspects of the International Monetary System: Selected Essays Vols. I and II by JosephGold1984.

      Legal Effects of Fluctuating Exchange Rates by JosephGold1990.

      Macroeconomic Accounting and Analysis in Transition Economies by AbdessatarOuanes and SubhashThakur1997.

      Macroeconomic Adjustment: Policy Instruments and Issuesedited byJeffrey M.Davis1992.

      Macroeconomic Issues Facing ASEAN Countries papers prepared for the ASEAN conference held in Jakartaedited byJohnHicklinDavidRobinson and AnoopSingh1997.

      Macroeconomic Models for Adjustment in Developing Countriesedited byMohsin S.KhanPeter J.Montiel and Nadeem U.Haque1991.

      Macroeconomic Policies in an Interdependent Worldedited byRalphBryantDavidCurrieJacob A.FrenkelPaulMasson and RichardPortes1989.

      Macroeconomics and the Environment the proceedings of a seminar held at the IMF at which experts from academic and research institutions nongovernmental organizations and staff from the IMF and World Bank shared their views on macroeconomic policies and the environmentedited byVed P.Gandhi1996.

      Manual on Government Finance Statistics1986.

      The Monetary Approach to the Balance of Paymentsedited byRudolf R.Rhomberg1977.

      Optimum Currency Areas: New Analytical and Policy Developments a revisit to Robert Mundell’s pioneering theory of optimum currency areas with an update by Robert Mundell himselfedited byMario I.BlejerJacob A.FrankelLeonardLeiderman and AssafRazin1997.

      The Payment System: Design Management and Supervision 12 papers by central bank experts from around the worldedited byBruce J.Summers1994.

      Payment System Monetary Policy and the Role of the Central Bank by Otomunde E. G.JohnsonRichard K.AbramsJean-MarcDestresseTonyLybekNicholasRoberts and MarkSwinburne1997.

      Policies for African Development: From the 1980s to the 1990s a collection of papers presented at a seminar in Gaborone Botswanaedited byI. G.Patel1992.

      Policies for Growth: The Latin American Experience papers presented at a seminar in Rio de Janeiro Brazilmoderated byAndréLara Resende1995.

      Privatization and Structural Adjustment in the Arab Countries papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Washington D.C. edited bySaidEl-Naggar1989.

      Public Expenditure Handbook: A Guide to Public Policy Issues in Developing Countriesedited byKe-youngChu and RichardHemming1991.

      Public Expenditure Management by A.Premchand1993.

      Reforming China’s Public Finances the proceedings of a conference held in Shanghai China with supplemental papersedited byEhtishamAhmadGaoQiang and VitoTanzi1995.

      Report on the Measurement of International Capital Flows and Background Papers1992.

      Report on the World Current Account Discrepancy by the IMF and other international organizations1987.

      The Social Effects of Economic Adjustment on Arab Countries papers presented in a seminar sponsored by the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development the Arab Monetary Fund the IMF and the World Bankedited byTaher H.Kanaan1997.

      Strategies for Structural Adjustment: The Experience of Southeast Asia papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Kuala Lumpur Malaysiamoderated byUngku A.Aziz1990.

      Structural Adjustment and Macroeconomic Policy Issues papers presented at a conference in Lahore Pakistanmoderated byV. A.Jafarey1992.

      Supply-Side Tax Policy: Its Relevance to Developing Countries by Ved P.GandhiLiam P.EbrillGeorge A.MackenzieLuisMañas-AntonJitendra R.ModiSomchaiRichupanFernandoSanchez-Ugarte and ParthasarathiShome1987.

      System of National Accounts prepared by the Joint Commission of the European Communities IMF OECD UN and World Bank1993.

      Systemic Bank Restructuring and Macroeconomic Policy sets out cross-country restructuring experiencesedited byWilliam E.AlexanderJeffrey M.DavisLiam P.Ebrill and Carl-JohanLindgren1997.

      Tax Law Design and Drafting Vol. I and IIedited byVictorThuronyi1996.

      Tax Policy Handbookedited byParthasarathiShome1995.

      Trade Policy Issues papers presented in a seminar sponsored by the IMFedited byChorng-HueyWong1997.

      Transition to Market Studies in Fiscal Reformedited byVitoTanzi1993.

      The Uruguay Round and the Arab Countries papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development the Arab Monetary Fund and the World Bankedited bySaidEl-Naggar1996.

      Value-Added Tax: International Practice and Problems by Alan A.Tait1988.

    Periodicals

    Statistical Publications

    (All four statistical publications are available on tape.)

    World Economic and Financial Surveys

    Occasional Papers (series)

    Pamphlet Series

    This series covers, in depth, various aspects of the Fund, its functions, policies, and legal concepts (free). The following is an incomplete listing.

    Booklets

    This new series, which was launched in 1996, is designed to make available to a readership of nonspecialists some of the economic research being carried out in the Fund. The papers are written in nontechnical language.

    Papers on Policy Analysis and Assessment

    Beginning in January 1999, this series was renamed Policy Discussion Papers (PDP). The series comprises staff studies in the area of policy design and research. They are aimed primarily at operational staff involved in mission work and economists elsewhere interested in policy issues. The following is a selective listing.

    Working Papers, 1997

    This series is designed to make Fund staff research available to a wide audience. The series began in 1991, about 180 working papers are released each year. In many cases the papers are subject to ongoing work and revision. Many will eventually be published by the Fund as articles in one of the Fund’s serial publications. The series is available on a subscription basis.

    Staff Country Reports

    The IMF releases Staff Country Reports on about 150 member countries each year. The reports contain comprehensive background material on economic developments as part of the annual consultations that the IMF conducts with most member countries.

    General Bibliography

    General

    Background of the Bretton Woods System

    Establishing the Bretton Woods System

    Macroeconomic and Structural Adjustment and Fund Conditionality

      AchesonA. L. K.J. F.Chant and M. F. J.Prachownyeds. Bretton Woods Revisited: Evaluations of the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and DevelopmentUniversity of Toronto Press (Toronto1972).

      AliberRobert Z.The International Money Game Basic Books (New York1987).

      BanguraYusuf.“IMF/World Bank Conditionality and Nigeria’s Structural Adjustment Programme” in The IMF and the World Bank in Africa: Conditionality Impact and Alternativesed. by Kjell J.HavnevikScandinavian Institute of African Studies (Uppsala1987).

      BanguraYusuf.“Crisis and Adjustment: The Experience of Nigerian Workers,” in The IMF the World Bank and African Debt Vol. 2 The Social and Political Impacted. by BadeOnimodeInstitute for African Alternatives and Zed Books (London1989).

      BazdreschCarlos and SantiagoLevy.“Populism and Economic Policy in Mexico 1970-1982,” in Macroecomics of Populism in Latin Americaed. by RudigerDornbusch and SebastianEdwardsUniversity of Chicago Press (Chicago1991).

      BergstenC. Fred.International Adjustment and Financing: The Lessons from 1985–1991Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C.1991).

      BourguignonFrançois and CristianMorrison.Adjustment and Equity in Developing Countries: A New ApproachOrganization of Economic Cooperation and Development (Paris1992).

      BrunoMichael.“Stabilization and the Macroeconomics of Transition: How Different Is Eastern Europe?”Economics of TransitionVol. 1 (1993).

      CallaghyThomas M.“Lost Between State and Market: The Politics of Economic Adjustment in Ghana, Zambia, and Nigeria,” in Economic Crisis and Policy Choice: The Politics of Adjustment in the Third Worlded. by JoanNelsonPrinceton University Press (PrincetonNew Jersey1990).

      CampbellHorace.Tanzania and the IMF: The Dynamics of LiberalizationWestview (BoulderColorado1992).

      CampbellK. and JohnLoxleyeds. Structural Adjustment in AfricaSt. Martin’s Press (New York1989).

      CamposRoberto de Oliveiro.“Inflation and Balanced Growth,” in Economic Development in Latin America: Proceedings of a Conference Held by the International Economic Associationed. by Howard S.EllisSt. Martin’s Press (New York1961).

      ClineWilliam R. and SidneyWeintraubeds. Economic Stabilization in Developing Countries Brookings Institution (Washington1981).

      CorniaAndreaRichardJolly and FrancisStewarteds. Adjustment with a Human Face 2 vols. Oxford University Press (Oxford1987).

      Cotés CondeRoberto.“Growth and Stagnation in Argentina,” in Towards a Development Strategy for Latin America: Pathways from Hirschman’s Thoughted. by SimónTeitelInter-American Bank (Washington1992).

      DavidWilfrid L.The IMF Policy Paradigm: The Macroeconomics of Stabilization Structural Adjustment and Economic Development Praeger (New York1985).

      De VriesRimmer.“The Limited Role of the IMF,”World Financial MarketsMorgan Guarantee Trust CompanyApr. 1982.

      DellSidney.“The Question of Cross-Conditionality,”World DevelopmentVol. 16No. 5 (May1988).

      DellSidney.On Being Grandmotherly: The Evolution of IMF Conditionality Essays in International Finance No. 144Princeton University Press (PrincetonNew Jersey1981).

      DellSidney.“Balance of Payments Adjustment in the 1980s,”World DevelopmentVol. 14No. 8 (Aug. 1986) pp 873-1105.

      DellSidney and RogerLawrence.The Balance of Payments Adjustment Process in Developing CountriesPergamon Press (New York1980).

      DornbuschRudiger.Structural Adjustment in Latin AmericaWoodrow Wilson Center (Washington1991).

      EdwardsSebastian.“The International Monetary Fund and the Developing Countries: A Critical Evaluation,”Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public PolicyVol. 31 (Fall1989) pp. 7-68.

      FeinbergRichard E.“The Changing Relationship Between the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund,”International OrganizationVol. 42No. 3 (Summer1988) pp. 545-60.

      FinchDavid.The Record and the Prospect Essays in International Finance No. 175Princeton University Press (PrincetonNew Jersey1989).

      FinchDavid.“Let the IMF be the IMF,”The International EconomyJan./Feb1988.

      FrenkelJeffrey A. and Harry G.Johnsoneds. The Monetary Approach to the Balance of PaymentsAllen and Unwin (London1976).

      GoodeRichard B.Economic Assistance to Developing Countries Through the IMF Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.1985).

      GwinCatherine.“Financing India’s Adjustment: The Role of the Fund,” in IMF Conditionalityed. by JohnWilliamsonInstitute for International Economics (Washington, D.C.1983).

      HaggardStephanRichard N.Cooper and Chung-in-Moon.“Policy Reform in Korea,” in Political and Economic Interactions in Economic Policy Reform: Evidence from Eight Countriesed. by Robert H.Bates and Anne O.KruegerBasilBlackwell (Oxford1993).

      HawkinsJeffrey J.“Understanding the Failure of IMF Reform: The Zambian Case,”World DevelopmentVol. 19No. 7 (July1991).

      HerbstJeffrey.“The Structural Adjustment of Politics in Africa,”World DevelopmentVol. 18No. 7 (July1990).

      JohnsonHarry G.“Economic Policies for Less Developed Countries,” in International Monetary Reform Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.1967) pp. 212-36.

      KenenPeter B.Financing Adjustment and the International Monetary Fund Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.1986).

      KillickTony.“Kenya, the IMF, and the Unsuccessful Quest for Stabilization.” In IMF Conditionalityed. by JohnWiliamsonInstitute for International Economics (Washington, D.C.1983).

      KillickTony.ed. The Quest for Economic Stabilization: The IMF and the Third WorldSt. Martin’s Press (Washington, D.C.1984).

      KruegerAnne O.Liberalization Attempts and Consequences Ballinger for National Bureau of Economic Research (New York1978).

      KruegerAnne O.Political Economy of Policy Reform in Developing CountriesMIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts1993).

      LancasterCarol.African Economic Reform: The External DimensionInstitute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1991).

      LeithJ. Clark and Michael F.Lofchie.“The Political Economy of Structural Adjustment in Ghana,” in Political and Economic Interactions in Economic Policy Reform: Evidence from Eight Countriesed. by Robert H.Bates and Anne O.KruegerBasilBlackwell (Oxford1993).

      LevittKari“Stabilisation and Structural Adjustment: Rhetoric and Reality,”Caribbean AffairsVol. 3No. 1 (Jan./Mar. 1990).

      LoxleyJohn.“Structural Adjustment in Africa: Reflections on Ghana and Zambia,”Review of African Political Economy No. 47 (Spring1990).

      ManzettiLuigi.The International Monetary Fund and Economic Stabilization: The Argentine Case Praeger (New York1991).

      MatinK. M.“Structural Adjustment Under the Extended Fund Facility: The Case of Bangladesh,” World DevelopmentVol. 16No. 6 (June1990).

      MikesellRaymand F.“Appraising IMF Conditionality: “Too Loose, Too Tight, or Just Right,” in IMF Conditionalityed. by JohnWilliamsonInstitute for International Economics (Washington, D.C.1983).

      MooreWill H. and James R.Scarritt.“IMF Conditionality and Policy Characteristics in Black Africa: An Exploratory Analysis,”Africa TodayVol 37 (4th quarter1990).

      MyersRobert J.ed. “The Political Morality of the International Monetary Fund,”Ethics and Foreign PolicyVol. 3Transaction Books (New Brunswick, New Jersey1987).

      NcubeP.D.M.Sakala and M.Ndulo.“The International Monetary Fund and the Zambian Economy: A Case,” in The IMF and the World Bank in Africa: Conditionality Impact and Alternativesed. by Kjell J.HavnevikScandinavian Institute of African Studies (Uppsala1987).

      NelsonJoan M.and contributors. Fragile Conditions: The Politics of Economic Adjustment Transaction Books (New Brunswick, New Jersey1989).

      NelsonJoan M.ed. Economic Crisis and Policy Choice: The Politics of Adjustment in Developing CountriesPrinceton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey1990).

      ObstfeldMaurice and KennethRogoffs.Foundations of International MacroecomicsMIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts1996).

      PaulyLewis W.Who Elected the Bunkers? Surveillance and Control in the World EconomyCornell University Press (IthacaNew York1997).

      PlumptreA. F. W.Three Decades of Decision: Canada and the World Monetary System 1944-75McClelland and Stewart (Toronto1977).

      PöhlKarl Otto.“You Can’t Robotize Policymaking,”The International EconomyOct./Nov. 1987.

      PolakJacques J.The Changing Nature of IMF Conditionality Essays in International Finance No. 184Princeton University Press (PrincetonNew Jersey1991).

      SachsJeffrey D.“The Current Account and Macroeconomic Adjustment in the 1970s,”Brookings Papers on Economic Activity Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C.1981).

      SeddonDavid.“The Politics of Adjustment: Egypt and the IMF, 1987-1990,”Review of African Political Economy No. 47 (Spring1990).

      SidellScott R.The IMF and Third-World Political Instability: Is There a Connection?St. Martin’s Press (New York1988).

      SpraosJohn.IMF Conditionality: Ineffectual Inefficient Mistargeted Essays in International Finance No. 166Princeton University Press (PrincetonNew Jersey1986).

      TaylorLance.Varieties of Stabilization Experience: Towards Sensible Macroeconomics in the Third World prepared for the World Institute for Development Economic Research of the United Nations UniversityClarendon Press (Oxford1988).

      ThirwellA. P.Growth and Development with Special Reference to Developing Economies Macmillan (Basingstoke, HampshireEngland1989).

      WilliamsonJohn.“On Judging the Success of IMF Policy Advice,” in IMF Conditionalityed. by WilliamsonInstitute for International Economics (Washington, D.C.1984).

      WilliamsonJohn.ed. IMF ConditionalityInstitute for International Economics (Washington, D.C.1983).

      WohlmuthKarled. Structural Adjustment in the World Economy and East-West-South Economic Cooperation Institute for World Economics and International Management University of Bremen (Bremen, Germany1989).

      WulfJürgen.“Zambia Under the IMF Regime,”African AffairsVol. 87 (Oct. 1988).

    Exchange Rate Systems and Markets

      Approaches to Greater Flexibility of Exchange Rates: The Bürgenstock Papers arranged byC. FredBergstenGeorge N.HalmFritzMachlup and