External Debt Statistics

External Debt Statistics
Chapter

Appendix 4. External Debt Statistics, International Investment Position, and National Accounts

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
Published Date:
June 2014
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1. In the Guide, linkages between external debt statistics, the international investment position (IIP), and the national accounts have been developed and explained. This appendix further explains the relationship between external debt statistics and the IIP (within external sector statistics), and between the national accounts and the IIP, such that data on the IIP can be incorporated into the external account components of the rest of the world account of the national accounts system, bringing compilation and collection efficiency gains as well as analytical benefits.

The Link between External Debt Statistics and the IIP

2. The BPM6 gives increased emphasis to the IIP statistics in international accounts compilation and analysis. As mentioned in Chapter 4, provided that debt securities are valued at market value, the gross external debt position, as presented in the Guide, equals the debt liabilities in the IIP statement, i.e., the gross external debt position equals total IIP liabilities excluding all equity (equity shares and other equity) and investment fund shares and financial derivatives and employee stock options (ESOs), allowing comparability across datasets. Table A4.1 provides a summary presentation of the IIP that facilitates the identification of debt liabilities covered, and the corresponding items in the gross external debt position (as presented in Table 4.1).1 The columns show the breakdown of the IIP by institutional sector, and the assets and liabilities by functional category are shown in the rows, with debt instruments separately identified in the liabilities section of the table (shaded areas in the table do not cover debt liabilities). The last column identifies the debt item as shown in the gross external debt position (Table 4.1).

Table A4.1International Investment Position and External Debt Statistics
Deposit-TakingOther Sectors
Central BankCorporations, except the Central BankGeneral GovernmentOther financial corporationsNonfinancial corporations, Households, and NPISHsIIPEDS Corresponding Item
Assets
By functional category
Direct Investment
Portfolio Investment
Financial Derivatives (other than reserves) and ESOs
Other Investment
Reserve Assets
Total Assets
Liabilities
By functional category
Direct Investment
Equity and investment fund shares
Debt Instruments1DI: Intercompany Lending
Portfolio Investment
Equity and investment fund shares
Debt SecuritiesDebt securities
Financial Derivatives (other than reserves) and ESOs
Other Investment
Other equity
Debt instruments
SDRsNANANASDRs (allocations)
Currency and DepositsCurrency and Deposits
LoansLoans
Insurance, pension, standardized guarantee schemesOther debt liabilities
Other accounts receivable/payable
Trade credit and advancesTrade credit and advances
Other accounts receivable/payable - otherOther debt liabilities
Total Liabilities
of which: Total debt instrumentsGross external debt position
Net IIP
of which: Net debt instrumentsNet external debt

In the IIP standard components, debt instruments classified as direct investment are not required to be presented broken down by type of instrument. Debt securities may be separately compiled as a supplementary item.

Note: shaded areas do not cover debt liabilities. NA = Not Applicable.

In the IIP standard components, debt instruments classified as direct investment are not required to be presented broken down by type of instrument. Debt securities may be separately compiled as a supplementary item.

Note: shaded areas do not cover debt liabilities. NA = Not Applicable.

3. In the IIP, positions of financial assets and liabilities should, in general, be valued as if they were acquired in market transactions on the balance sheet reporting date (BPM6, paragraph 3.84). Whereas the basic valuation method for debt securities is the market value, the nominal value is encouraged as a supplementary item (BPM6, paragraph 7.30). The Guide recommends that debt instruments be valued at the reference date at nominal value, and, for debt securities, at market value as well. For instance, Table 4.1 provides information on both values for debt securities. In addition, Table 7.16 provides a framework for reconciling nominal and market valuation of debt securities included in the gross external debt position. Nonnegotiable instruments include loans, deposits, and other accounts receivable/payable, and the primary valuation for positions in these instruments is nominal value in both datasets—IIP and external debt statistics. Therefore, data consistency between debt instruments (liabilities) recorded in the IIP and in the gross external debt position can be ensured.

4. As discussed in Chapter 15, the financial structure of economies—the composition and size of the liabilities and assets on the economy’s financial balance sheet—has been an important source of vulnerability. Data series described and presented in Part I of the Guide—notably sector, currency and maturity breakdown of external debt data—facilitate the examination of potential vulnerabilities of balance sheets of key sectors of an economy. To support this type of analysis, a currency composition and remaining maturity analysis of the IIP is also additional information in the BPM6: memorandum and supplementary tables to the standard components of the IIP respectively provide a presentation of currency composition of assets and liabilities and of remaining maturity of long-term debt liabilities, with a breakdown by sector.2 These definitions and tables are consistent with the presentation adopted in the Guide.

The Link Between the IIP and the National Accounts

5. As mentioned in the BPM6, Appendix 7, the international accounts are closely linked to the System of National Accounts (SNA) and there are many similarities in the underlying accounting system. The SNA records the exchanges between the domestic economy and the rest of the world as if the rest of the world were a distinct institutional sector of the economy. From this perspective, the international accounts mirror the rest of the world sector, recording the exchanges (flows and positions) of all resident units with the nonresident units from the domestic economy perspective.

Financial Accounts and Balance Sheets in the SNA

6. The financial account records transactions that involve financial assets and liabilities and that take place between resident institutional units and between resident institutional units and the rest of the world. The left-hand side of the account—as presented in the SNA—records acquisitions of financial assets less disposals, while the right-hand side records incurrence of liabilities less their repayment.3

7. The financial account is the final account in the full sequence of accounts that records transactions between institutional units. Net saving is the balancing item of the use of income accounts, and net saving plus net capital transfers receivable or payable can be used to accumulate nonfinancial assets. If they are not exhausted in this way, the resulting surplus is called net lending. Alternatively, if net saving and capital transfers are not sufficient to cover the net accumulation of nonfinancial assets, the resulting deficit is called net borrowing.

8. The key features of financial accounts are that (1) they identify the liabilities that institutional sectors use to finance their deficits, and the financial assets that institutional sectors use to allocate their surpluses; (2) they facilitate analysis of the flow of funds between different institutional sectors of the economy; (3) they place emphasis on stock variables such as financial assets and debt; and (4) they are developed from detailed information on the various institutional sectors and their activities in financial assets/liabilities.

9. Assets, both nonfinancial and financial, and liabilities can be aggregated across all types so as to show the total value of assets less liabilities, or net worth, of an institutional unit or group of units.4 Tables describing this sort of aggregation are called balance sheets. A balance sheet may be drawn up for institutional units, institutional sectors and the total economy.5 A similar account is drawn up showing the stock levels of assets and liabilities originating in the total economy held by nonresidents and of foreign assets and liabilities held by residents. In the BPM6 this account is called the IIP but is drawn up from the point of view of residents whereas in the SNA it is drawn up from the point of view of the rest of the world with the rest of the world being treated in the same way as domestic sectors (2008 SNA, paragraph 13.2). In this context, the balance sheet in the SNA measures the stocks of assets, both nonfinancial and financial, and liabilities aggregated across all types and institutional sectors6 so as to derive at the end the net worth by institutional sector and total economy.

10. Net worth is defined as the value of all the assets owned by an institutional unit or sector less the value of all its outstanding liabilities. For the economy as a whole, the balance sheet shows the sum of non-financial assets and net claims on the rest of the world. This sum is often referred to as national wealth (2008 SNA, paragraph 13.4).

11. The balance sheet completes the sequence of accounts, showing the ultimate result of the entries in the production, distribution and use of income, and accumulation accounts. The existence of a set of balance sheets integrated with the flow accounts encourages analysts to look more broadly when monitoring and assessing economic and financial conditions and behavior.

12. The balancing item on the balance sheets is net worth. For the IIP, it is the net IIP, which is mirrored by the net worth for the rest of the world sector. Unlike the SNA’s balance sheets, the IIP covers only financial assets and liabilities. Nonfinancial assets are excluded as they do not have a counterpart liability or other international aspect.7 In the case of financial claims, the cross-border element arises when one party is a resident and the other party is a nonresident. In addition, while gold bullion is an asset that has no counterpart liability, it is included in the IIP when held as a reserve asset, because of its role as a means of international payments.

A Simplified Version of the Balance Sheet

13. The balance sheet records assets on the left-hand side and liabilities and net worth on the right-hand side, as do the accumulation accounts for changes in these items. A balance sheet relates to the values of assets and liabilities at a particular point in time. The SNA provides for balance sheets to be compiled at the beginning of the accounting period (with the same values as at the end of the preceding period) and at its end. The SNA then provides for a complete recording of the changes in the values of the various items in the balance sheet between the beginning and end of the accounting period to which the flow accounts of the SNA relate. Changes in net worth can thus be explained fully only by examining the changes in all the other items that make up the balance sheet (2008 SNA, paragraph 13.10). In Table A4.2, only the closing positions for a limited number of classes of assets are shown.

Table A4.2Simplified Version of Balance Sheet Accounts
AssetsLiabilities and Net Worth
TotalRest of the worldTotal economyNPISHsHouseholdsGeneral governmentFinancial corporationsNonfinancial corporationsStocks and balancing itemsNonfinancial corporationsFinancial corporationsGeneral governmentHouseholdsNPISHsTotal economyRest of the worldTotal
510351031701545846912451Nonfinancial assets
31123112131923526631469Produced nonfinancial assets
28252825128766490501391Fixed assets
14614615223070Inventories
141141210513138Valuables
199119913962232028982Non-produced non-financial assets
196119613962131224965Natural resources
3030018417Contracts, leases and licenses
0000000Goodwill and marketing assets
96138598754176346538736511075Financial assets/liabilities33783768789205127826713469613
782178100817000Monetary gold and SDRs782782
1687116157111290412410421Currency and deposits1401346139103815731141687
152713813892521441046100Debt securities5111172572014271001527
1536741462827118124069Loans9180337180491484521536
3115360275523182515595297Equity and investment fund shares208780460028972183115
545265194430213826Insurance, pension, and standardized guarantee schemes12483191552025545
035060218Financial derivatives and ESOs718000251035
386144242459241154Other accounts receivable/payable263031123534145386
Net worth148−2644448052195590−4875103
Source: BPM6, Chapter 2 and 2008 SNA, Chapter 13.

For the purpose of this table, the counterpart liability of “monetary gold and SDRs” holdings is fully shown, as a liability of the rest of the world, to derive the net financial claims of the rest of the world (−487) which mirrors the net IIP.

Source: BPM6, Chapter 2 and 2008 SNA, Chapter 13.

For the purpose of this table, the counterpart liability of “monetary gold and SDRs” holdings is fully shown, as a liability of the rest of the world, to derive the net financial claims of the rest of the world (−487) which mirrors the net IIP.

14. The economy consists of five resident sectors—nonfinancial and financial corporations, general government, households, and NPISH—all of which have relationships with the rest of the world sector. Table A4.2 is a matrix of various balance sheets that shows nonfinancial as well as financial assets and liabilities by sector and instrument, e.g., households hold nonfinancial assets of 1545 as well as financial assets of 3465. For each financial asset/liability, the rows show total assets by sector, and the matching of liability positions. For each sector, the columns show financial assets owned or liabilities incurred, and also the net worth of the sector. The need for consistency among the rows and columns helps to minimize errors in the data.

15. Table A4.2 may be further simplified to show only the balance sheets of the total economy and the rest of the world sector. In Table A4.3, the net worth of the total economy—its national wealth, 5590—equals the sum of a country’s nonfinancial assets—5103—plus its net financial claims on the rest of the world—487. In the balance sheet for the total economy, all financial assets and liabilities between residents are netted out in the consolidation to leave only the net financial assets position (positive or negative) on the rest of the world. For the rest of the world balance sheet, only financial assets and liabilities are shown, e.g., in the balance sheet figures, the value of financial assets of the domestic economy for currency and deposits is 1571 and of liabilities is 1573. This implies that the rest of the world has a net asset with the domestic economy of 2 for currency and deposits. Table A4.3 shows that the asset position of the rest of the world is 116 and the liability position 114. So in the IIP the domestic economy has a net liability position of 2 for currency and deposits.

Table A4.3Balance Sheet of the Total Economy and the Rest of the World
AssetsLiabilities and Net Worth
Rest of the worldTotal economyStocks and balancing itemsTotal economyRest of the world
13857Assets
5103Nonfinancial assets
3112Produced nonfinancial assets
2825Fixed assets
146Inventories
141Valuables
1991Non-produced nonfinancial assets
1961Natural resources
30Contracts, leases and licenses
0Goodwill and marketing assets
8598754Financial assets/liabilities82671346
1781Monetary gold and SDRs1782
1161571Currency and deposits1573114
1381389Debt securities1427100
741462Loans148452
3602755Equity and investment fund shares2897218
26519Insurance, pension, and standardized52025
guarantee schemes
035Financial derivatives and ESOs2510
144242Other accounts receivable/payable34145
Net worth5590−487
Source: BPM6, Chapter 2 and 2008 SNA, Chapter 13.

For the purpose of this table, the counterpart liability of “monetary gold and SDRs” holdings is fully shown, as a liability of the rest of the world, to derive the net financial claims of the rest of the world (-487) which mirrors the net IIP.

Source: BPM6, Chapter 2 and 2008 SNA, Chapter 13.

For the purpose of this table, the counterpart liability of “monetary gold and SDRs” holdings is fully shown, as a liability of the rest of the world, to derive the net financial claims of the rest of the world (-487) which mirrors the net IIP.

A More Detailed Version of Balance Sheets

16. Financial accounts may be expanded into three dimensions to track each instrument category, the financial claims of each sector on each other sector. By indicating who has lent to whom and with what instrument, such a matrix lends considerable analytical power to financial accounts. As with the two-dimensional approach described above, the interlocking row and column constraints of the three dimensional matrix provide an important check on the consistency of data. This is because for each sector, each transaction involves at least, and usually, two balance sheet changes, and similarly for each party of the transaction, each transaction involves two balance sheet changes, e.g., the issue of a new debt security by a nonfinancial corporation that is purchased by a nonresident results in the following entries: the nonfinancial corporation reports the increase in debt securities liabilities, and an increase in currency and deposit assets; while the nonresident reports an increase in debt securities assets, and a reduction in currency and deposits assets.

17. The full three-dimensional matrix is an important analytical tool but, because of the cost and/or the conceptual complexity, relatively few countries have full flow of funds data.8 Table 27.4 in the 2008 SNA, not shown here, illustrates the type of detail that a country may wish to develop. This format facilitates the more detailed financial analysis just described by showing transactions in assets cross-classified by type of asset and by the debtor sector in the first part of the table, and the type of liability cross-classified by the creditor sector in a similar, second part. The sectors transacting in assets or liabilities form the columns of the table while the type of asset, disaggregated by sector of debtor (or creditor in the second part of the table), is shown in the rows. It is also instructive to compile exactly similar tables in terms of the stocks of financial assets and liabilities. Using both matrices, all assets, liabilities, and counterpart combinations can be found.

Comparison Summary of the Rest of the World Balance Sheet Account and the IIP Classification

18. Appendix 7 of BPM6 makes a summary account of the complete concordance between the SNA and the BPM6 in respect to residency, valuation, time of recording, conversion procedures and coverage of flows and stocks. Additionally, Chapter 2 of BPM6—Overview of the Framework—includes a separate annex (Annex 2.2) illustrating with a numeric example (1) the overview of the integrated economic accounts as presented in the 2008 SNA and (2) the links between the financial instruments and the functional categories including the conversion of data from instrument to functional category (Tables A4.2 and A4.3 above are based on this numerical example). Furthermore, BP and IIP standard components (see BPM6, Appendix 9) include the SNA codes, where appropriate, which facilitates comparison between the international accounts and the SNA.

19. The classification system of the SNA and BPM6 employs consistent coverage and terminology. There is, however, a major presentational difference regarding the grouping of the financial assets and liabilities by functional categories as primary level of classification in the external accounts with impact on the financial account, the IIP and the investment income, and the use of the instruments and sectors by the SNA for the same categories.9 The functional categories are the primary classification used for each of financial transactions, positions, and income in the international accounts.

20. Five functional categories of investment are distinguished in the international accounts: (1) direct investment, (2) portfolio investment, (3) financial derivatives (other than reserves) and employee stock options, (4) other investment, and (5) reserve assets. The functional categories are built on the classification of financial assets and liabilities, but with an additional dimension that takes into account some aspects of the relationship between the parties and the motivation for investment. However, data by functional category are further subdivided by instrument and institutional sector, which makes it possible to link them to the corresponding SNA and monetary and financial statistics items. Table A4.4 (Table 6.1 of BPM6) shows the linkages between the financial assets classification and the functional categories.10

Table A4.4Link between Financial Assets Classification and Functional Categories
Functional categories
2008 SNA Financial Assets and Liabilities ClassificationDIPIFDOIRA
AF1 Monetary gold and SDRs
AF11 Monetary gold:
Gold bullionX
Unallocated gold accountsX
AF12 Special drawing rightsX1X1
AF2 Currency and deposits:
AF21 CurrencyXX
AF22 Transferable deposits
AF221 Interbank positionsXX
AF229 Other transferable depositsXXX
AF29 Other depositsXXX
AF3 Debt securitiesXXX
AF4 LoansXXX
AF5 Equity and investment fund shares:
AF51 Equity
AF511 Listed sharesXXX
AF512 Unlisted sharesXXx2
AF519 Other equityXx
AF52 Investment fund shares or units:
AF521 Money market fund shares or unitsxXX
AF522 Other investment fund shares or unitsxXxX
AF6 Insurance, pension, and standardized guarantee schemes:
AF61 Nonlife insurance technical reservesxX
AF62 Life insurance and annuity entitlementsxX
AF63 Pension entitlementsX
AF64 Claims of pension funds on pension managersXX
AF65 Entitlements to non-pension benefitsX
AF66 Provisions for calls under standardized guaranteesXX
AF7 Financial derivatives and employee stock options
AF71 Financial derivatives:
AF711 Forward-type contractsXX
AF712 OptionsXX
AF72 Employee stock optionsX
AF8 Other accounts receivable/payable:
AF81 Trade credit and advancesXX
AF89 Other accounts receivable/payableXX
Source: BPM6, Table 6.1.Note: DI = direct investment; PI = portfolio investment; FD = financial derivatives (other than reserves) and employee stock options; OI = other investment; RA = reserve assets.X shows applicable functional categories (x shows cases considered to be relatively uncommon) for the most detailed instrument categories.

SDRs: Assets = Reserve assets; Liabilities = Other investment.

Unlisted shares must be liquid, as stated in the BPM6, paragraph 6.87.

Source: BPM6, Table 6.1.Note: DI = direct investment; PI = portfolio investment; FD = financial derivatives (other than reserves) and employee stock options; OI = other investment; RA = reserve assets.X shows applicable functional categories (x shows cases considered to be relatively uncommon) for the most detailed instrument categories.

SDRs: Assets = Reserve assets; Liabilities = Other investment.

Unlisted shares must be liquid, as stated in the BPM6, paragraph 6.87.

21. Table A4.5 shows the 2008 SNA financial instruments classification and the correspondence of these instruments with BPM6 broad categories: equity, debt instruments, and other financial assets and liabilities.11 This correspondence makes it possible to link financial instruments in SNA and IIP with related debt liabilities covered in the gross external debt position; it also points out to the need for validation of the different datasets by their respective compilers, in particular when different source data are used for some of the items.

Table A4.52008 SNA Financial Instruments Classification (with Corresponding BPM6 Broad Categories) (Includes 2008 SNA codes)
2008 SNA Financial Assets and Liabilities ClassificationBroad International Accounts Category (BPM6)
AF11 Monetary gold
Gold bullion}Other financial assets
Unallocated gold accounts}Debt instruments
AF12 Special drawing rights}Debt instruments
AF2 Currency and deposits}Debt instruments
AF21 Currency}
AF221 Interbank positions}
AF229 Other transferable deposits}
AF29 Other deposits}
AF3 Debt securities}Debt instruments
AF4 Loans}Debt instruments
AF5 Equity and investment fund shares}Equity
AF51 Equity}
AF511Listed shares}
AF512 Unlisted shares}
AF519 Other equity}
AF52 Investment fund shares or units}
AF521 Money market fund shares or units}
AF522 Other investment fund shares or units}
AF6 Insurance, pension, and standardized guarantee schemes}Debt instruments
AF61 Nonlife insurance technical reserves}
AF62 Life insurance and annuity entitlements}
AF63 Pension entitlements}
AF64 Claims of pension funds on pension managers}
AF65 Entitlements to nonpension benefits}
AF66 Provisions for calls under standardized guarantees}
AF7 Financial derivatives and employee stock options}Other financial assets
AF71 Financial derivatives} and liabilities
AF711 Forward-type contracts}
AF712 Options}
AF72 Employee stock options}
AF8 Other accounts receivable/payable}Debt instruments
AF81 Trade credit and advances}
AF89 Other accounts receivable/payable}
Source: BPM6, Table 5.3.
Source: BPM6, Table 5.3.

22. Other differences refer to the breakdown of the institutional sectors and their groupings. While consistent in coverage, the classification of institutional sectors differs according to the importance given to sectors and subsectors in the two datasets. Table A4.6 illustrates the correspondence between the two classification systems. For more details on the classifications and the correspondence between SNA and international accounts items see BPM6, Appendix 7 and selected tables in Chapter 2.

Table A4.6Conversion—Institutional Sector Breakdown SNA—International AccountsSectors as they are in the 2008 SNA and BPM6
Source: BPM6 Compilation Guide, Appendix VI.A.
Source: BPM6 Compilation Guide, Appendix VI.A.

Table 4.1 is expository; for standard components of the IIP see Chapter 3 and BPM6, Appendix 9.

See BPM6, Appendix 9, “Additional Analytical Position Data.”

See 2008 SNA, Chapter 11.

See 2008 SNA, Chapter 13.

As well as drawing up a balance sheet showing the values of all assets held by an institutional unit, it is possible to draw up a similar account for the value of a single type of asset (or liability) held by all institutional units in the economy. This is called an asset account. A basic accounting identity links the opening balance sheet and the closing balance sheet for a given asset.

In the SNA, among assets the rest of the world only has financial claims on the domestic economy.

In the case where they are part of the cross-border transactions, these exchanges are covered in the current account in the goods account.

The flow of funds is a three dimensional presentation of financial statistics where both parties to a transaction as well as the nature of the financial instrument being transacted are elaborated. A similar three dimensional presentation is also presented in respect of the stocks of financial assets and liabilities where the creditor and debtor of each instrument are shown.

In addition, the classification of services in the balance of payments is largely product-based, consistent with the Central Product Classification (CPC); it differs from the SNA, though, for a few products, n.i.e., travel, construction, and government goods and services n.i.e., are identified in BPM6, and are related to the provider/acquirer rather than product itself. To ensure consistency the SNA classifies by product (CPC) the goods and services included in these items in the balance of payments.

As shown in Table A4.4, monetary gold consists of gold bullion and unallocated gold accounts. Gold bullion has no counterpart liability. However, the counterpart liability of unallocated gold accounts is in deposits (other investment). See Appendix 1, Gold Accounts: Allocated and Unallocated.

The Guide clarifies that monetary gold consists of gold bullion and unallocated gold accounts. Gold bullion has no counterpart liability; however, the counterpart liability of unallocated gold accounts is in deposits (see paragraph 7.51).

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