Appendix 4. Data Quality Assessment Framework (DQAF)—Generic Framework

International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
Published Date:
December 2013
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Table A4.1Data Quality Assessment Framework (DQAF)—Generic Framework (May 2012)
Quality DimensionsElementsIndicators
0. Prerequisites of quality0.1 Legal and institutional environment—The environment is supportive of statistics.0.1.1 The responsibility for collecting, processing, and disseminating the statistics is clearly specified.
0.1.2 Data sharing and coordination among data-producing agencies are adequate.
0.1.3 Individual reporters’ data are kept confidential and used for statistical purposes only.
0.1.4 Statistical reporting is ensured through legal mandate and/or measures to encourage response.
0.2 Resources—Resources are commensurate with needs of statistical programs.0.2.1 Staff, facilities, computing resources, and financing are commensurate with statistical programs.
0.2.2 Measures to ensure efficient use of resources are implemented.
0.3 Relevance—Statistics cover relevant information on the subject field.0.3.1 The relevance and practical utility of existing statistics in meeting users’ needs are monitored.
0.4 Other quality management—Quality is a cornerstone of statistical0.4.1 Processes are in place to focus on quality.
work.0.4.2 Processes are in place to monitor quality during the planning and implementation of the statistical program.
1. Assurances of integrity The principle of objectivity in the collection, processing, and dissemination of statistics is firmly adhered to.1.1 Institutional integrity—Statistical policies and practices are guided by professional principles.1.1.1 Statistics are produced on an impartial basis.
1.1.2 Choices of data sources and statistical techniques as well as decisions about dissemination are informed solely by statistical considerations.
1.1.3 The appropriate statistical entity is entitled to comment on erroneous interpretation and misuse of statistics.
1.2 Transparency—Statistical policies and practices are transparent.1.2.1 The terms and conditions under which statistics are collected, processed, and disseminated are available to the public.
1.2.2 Internal governmental access to statistics prior to their release is publicly identified.
1.2.3 Products of statistical agencies/units are clearly identified as such.
1.2.4 Advance notice is given of major changes in methodology, source data, and statistical techniques.
1.3 Ethical standards—Policies and practices are guided by ethical standards.1.3.1 Guidelines for staff behavior are in place and are well known to the staff.
2. Methodological soundness The methodological basis for the statistics followsinternationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.2.1 Concepts and definitions—Concepts and definitions used are in accord with internationally accepted statistical frameworks.2.1.1 The overall structure in terms of concepts and definitions follows internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
2.2 Scope—The scope is in accord with internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.2.2.1 The scope is broadly consistent with internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
2.3 Sectorization and classification—Sectorization and classification systems are in accord with internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.2.3.1 Sectorization and classification systems used are broadly consistent with internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
2.4 Basis for recording—Flows and stocks are valued and recorded according to internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.2.4.1 Market prices are used to value flows and stocks.
2.4.2 Recording is done on an accrual basis.
2.4.3 Grossing/netting procedures are broadly consistent with internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
3. Accuracy and reliability Source data and statistical techniques are sound, and statistical outputs sufficiently portray reality.3.1 Source data—Source data available provide an adequate basis to compile statistics.3.1.1 Source data are obtained from comprehensive data collection programs that take into account country-specific conditions.
3.1.2 Source data reasonably approximate the definitions, scope, sectorization, classifications, valuation, and time of recording required.
3.1.3 Source data are timely.
3.2 Assessment of source data—Source data are regularly assessed.3.2.1 Source data—including censuses, sample surveys, and administrative records—are routinely assessed—for example, for coverage, sample error, response error, and nonsampling error; the results of the assessments are monitored and made available to guide statistical processes.
3.3 Statistical techniques—Statistical techniques employed conform to sound statistical procedures.3.3.1 Data compilation employs sound statistical techniques to deal with data sources.
3.3.2 Other statistical procedures (e.g., data adjustments and transformations, and statistical analysis) employ sound statistical techniques.
3.4 Assessment and validation of intermediate data and statistical3.4.1 Intermediate results are validated against other information where applicable.
outputs—Intermediate results and statistical outputs are regularly assessed and validated.3.4.2 Statistical discrepancies in intermediate data are assessed and investigated.
3.4.3 Statistical discrepancies and other potential indicators or problems in statistical outputs are investigated.
3.5 Revision studies—Revisions, as a gauge of reliability, are tracked and mined for the information they may provide.3.5.1 Studies and analyses of revisions and/or updates are carried out and used internally to inform statistical processes (see also 4.3.3).
4. Serviceability Statistics, with adequate periodicity and timeliness, are consistent and follow a predictable revisions policy.4.1 Periodicity and timeliness—Periodicity and timeliness follow internationally accepted dissemination standards.4.1.1 Periodicity follows dissemination standards.
4.1.2 Timeliness follows dissemination standards.
4.2 Consistency—Statistics are consistent within the dataset, over time, and with major data sets.4.2.1 Statistics are consistent within the data set.
4.2.2 Statistics are consistent or reconcilable over a reasonable period of time.
4.2.3 Statistics are consistent or reconcilable with those obtained through other data sources and/or statistical frameworks.
4.3 Revision policy and practice—Data revisions follow a regular and publicized procedure.4.3.1 Revisions and/or updates follow a regular and transparent schedule.
4.3.2 Preliminary and/or revised/updated data are clearly identified.
4.3.3 Studies and analyses of revisions are made public (see also 3.5.1).
5. Accessibility Data and metadata are easily available, and assistance to users is adequate.5.1 Data accessibility—Statistics are presented in a clear and understandable manner, forms of dissemination are adequate, and statistics are made available on an impartial basis.5.1.1 Statistics are presented in a way that facilitates proper interpretation and meaningful comparisons (layout and clarity of text, tables, and charts).
5.1.2 Dissemination media and format are adequate.
5.1.3 Statistics are released on a preannounced schedule.
5.1.4 Statistics are made available to all users at the same time.
5.1.5 Statistics not routinely disseminated are made available upon request.
5.2 Metadata accessibility—Up-to-date and pertinent metadata are made available.5.2.1 Documentation on concepts, scope, classifications, basis of recording, data sources, and statistical techniques is available, and differences from internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices are annotated.
5.2.2 Levels of detail are adapted to the needs of the intended audience.
5.3 Assistance to users—Prompt and knowledgeable support service is available.5.3.1 Contact points are publicized.
5.3.2 Publications, documents, and other services, including information on any charges, are widely available.
Source: IMF staff.
Source: IMF staff.

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