The IMF and The Poor

Front Matter

Front Matter

Calvin McDonald, Benedict Clements, and Christian Schiller
Published Date:
September 1998
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    Pamphlet Series

    No. 52

    The IMF and the Poor

    Fiscal Affairs Department

    Prepared by

    Sanjeev Gupta

    Benedict Clements

    Calvin McDonald

    Christian Schiller


    Washington, D. C.


    ISSN 0538-8759

    ISBN 1-55775-745-3

    Reprinted March 2000

    Production: IMF Graphics Section

    Figures: In-Ok Yoon

    Typesetting: Choon Lee

    The opinions expressed in the pamphlet are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the Executive Directors of the International Monetary Fund or their national authorities.


    The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:

    … to indicate that data are not available;

    — to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;

    – between years or months (e.g., 1994-95 or January-June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;

    / between years (e.g., 1994/95) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.

    “Billion” means a thousand million.

    Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.

    The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.


    This pamphlet is a revised version of a paper prepared for the Development Assistance Committee’s Forum on Key Elements for Poverty Reduction Strategies, held in Paris on December 4–5, 1997. The authors would like to thank Peter S. Heller and Louis Dicks-Mireaux for their very helpful comments on an earlier draft. Elisa Diehl of the IMF’s External Relations Department edited the pamphlet and coordinated its production.

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