Front Matter

Front Matter

International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
Published Date:
September 2000
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© 2000 International Monetary Fund

Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Monetary and Financial Statistics Manual—Washington,

DC, USA: International Monetary Fund, © 2000.

ix, 157 p.

1. Money—Statistics—Handbooks, manuals, etc.

2. Finance—Statistics—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. International Monetary Fund.

HG219.M66 2000

Includes index.

ISBN 1-55775-974-X

Price: US$35.50

Please send orders to:

International Monetary Fund, Publication Services

700 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20431, USA

Telephone (202) 623-7430 Telefax (202) 623 7201





The financial crises of the 1990s exposed weaknesses in the international financial system, highlighting the fact that globalization brings risks as well as important benefits. In response, the international community has mobilized to strengthen the architecture of the international financial system, which comprises the institutions, markets, and practices that governments, businesses, and individuals use when they carry out economic and financial activities. An important element of the “architecture” initiative involves the development and implementation of internationally accepted standards, adherence to which would help ensure that economies function properly at the national level, which is a prerequisite for a well-functioning international system.

In consultation with others, the IMF has developed standards or codes of good practices in its main areas of responsibility. Among these are standards to guide member countries in the dissemination of economic and financial data to the public. These standards—the Special Data Dissemination Standard and the General Data Dissemination System—comprise a number of elements of good practice in data dissemination. As an essential complement to, and outgrowth of, these standards, the IMF has also intensified efforts to assist countries in improving the quality of their data, including through the development of internationally agreed guidelines on statistical methodology. I am accordingly very pleased to introduce the Manual on Monetary and Financial Statistics, which should prove an important aid to countries as they seek to enhance their statistics in this area. The Manual, which is the first volume of its kind in the field of monetary and financial statistics, takes its place alongside the IMF’s other manuals on statistical methodology—the Balance of Payments Manual and the Government Finance Statistics Manual. Like these other manuals, the concepts set out in the Manual are harmonized with those of the System of National Accounts 1993.

This Manual has been prepared by the IMF’s Statistics Department in close consultation with experts in monetary and financial statistics in member countries and international and regional organizations. I would like to thank all of the experts involved for their invaluable assistance and for their collaborative and cooperative spirit. I would like to commend the Manual to compilers of monetary and financial statistics and to urge countries to adopt the Manual’s concepts as a basis for the statistics that they disseminate to the public and report to the IMF.

Horst Köhler

Managing Director

International Monetary Fund


The Monetary and Financial Statistics Manual is the latest in a series of international guidelines on statistical methodology that have been issued by the International Monetary Fund. The purpose of the Manual, which is intended to be a reference volume, is to offer guidelines for the presentation of monetary and financial statistics. It provides a set of tools for identifying, classifying, and recording stocks and flows of financial assets and liabilities, describes standard, analytically oriented frameworks in which the statistics may be presented, and identifies a set of analytically useful aggregates within those frameworks. The concepts and principles set out in the Manual are harmonized with those of the System of National Accounts 1993.

The Manual is designed primarily to be useful to compilers of monetary and financial statistics, both experienced and aspiring, who are developing or updating their national statistics. It may also be useful to compilers, as well as users, of other macroeconomic statistics in understanding the relations between the various sets of statistics. As a set of guidelines for presenting monetary and financial statistics, the Manual does not describe how the statistics are to be compiled—that is, sources and methods for compiling statistics—or give practical guidance on questions such as the frequency with which they are to be published. Detailed practical guidance based on the Manual will be provided by the Fund in its technical assistance and training work with member countries.

The various drafts of the Manual have benefited from comments by member countries and, in particular, by participants in meetings of regional and national experts held at the IMF in November 1996 and February 2000. The IMF benefited considerably from the contributions and comments of the experts who participated in these two meetings, which formed the basis for the redrafting and finalization of the Manual, the first volume of its kind in this field of statistics. The IMF staff wishes to acknowledge, with thanks, the contributions of the following experts who participated in the meetings.

AustraliaMr. Bob McColl
BelgiumMr. Rudi Acx
BrazilMr. Bruno Mauricio Ribeiro
CanadaMr. Jean-Pierre Aubry
ChinaMr. Wang Xiaoyi
ColombiaMr. Carlos Varela Barrios
EgyptMr. Ahmed M. Abd El-Kader
FranceMr. Marc Chazelas
GermanyMr. Günter Kleinjung
IndiaMr. Deepak Mohnaty
IranMr. Assadollah Monajemi
ItalyMr. Emerico A. Zautzik
JapanMr. Satoru Hagino
JapanMr. Masaaki Kanno
MexicoMrs. Elisa Borja Aburto
Netherlands, TheDr. Pim Kramer
NorwayMr. Vetle Hvidsten
PeruMrs. Socorro Heysen
PhilippinesMr. Diwa C. Guinigundo
RussiaMrs. Nadejda Ivanova
Saudi ArabiaMr. Emad Al-Qadheeb
Saudi ArabiaMr. Ahmed Al-Owsame
South AfricaDr. J. P. van den Heever
South AfricaMr. Vukami V. Mamba
SwitzerlandMr. Robert Fluri
United KingdomMr. Christopher B. Wright
United StatesMr. Christopher L. Bach
United StatesMr. Albert Teplin
VenezuelaMrs. Nancy Sulvarán de Sardi
AMFMr. Salih H. Agban
BCEAOMr. Seth Aboh
CEMLAMr. Roberto Ibarra
ECBMr. Patrick Sandars

In addition to this English language version, the Manual will also be published in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, and Spanish.

Carol S. Carson


Statistics Department

International Monetary Fund

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