Chapter

INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL STATISTICS

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
Published Date:
September 1984
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Introduction

This Supplement on Balance of Payments Statistics, the seventh in a series of statistical supplements to the Fund’s International Financial Statistics (IFS), has two main sections. The first section commences with a brief discussion of the methodology underlying the balance of payments data in IFS and then provides a survey of balance of payments developments since 1968. This survey should not be viewed as a comprehensive analysis of balance of payments developments in the last 15 years, but rather as a statistical narrative designed to provide an overview of the setting in which these developments occurred. The second section comprises statistical data, for the countries for which data are regularly collected and compiled by the Fund, assembled in two parts. The first part presents summary tables showing world, regional, and country figures for various balance of payments aggregates, while the second part presents a series of country tables in greater detail. All of the tables provide annual data from 1968 through 1983.

The survey is based primarily on the statistics shown in this Supplement although it also draws on various commentaries published by the Fund, most notably the Annual Report. It discusses balance of payments developments in the context of three broad country groupings—industrial countries, oil exporting countries, and non-oil developing countries. Observations formulated in terms of such group aggregates necessarily blur distinctions among individual countries within each group, and therefore reference should be made to the Annual Reports and to the World Economic Outlook for the discussion of developments among individual countries.

It should be mentioned that for recent years the global current account figures contain a large discrepancy that implies either that surpluses are underrecorded, or deficits are overrecorded, or some combination of the two. The inconsistencies that give rise to the recorded current account asymmetry stem mainly from deficiencies in the the balance of payments statements of individual countries covered in the statistics. The growth in the discrepancy is most noticeable for the category “other goods, services, and income”. The problem has still to be resolved, and therefore, considerable caution should be exercised when interpreting the statistics for the most recent years.1

Methodology

A balance of payments statement can be broadly described as the record of an economy’s international economic transactions, that is, of the goods and services that an economy has received from, and provided to, the rest of the world, and of changes in the economy’s claims on and liabilities to the rest of the world. The statistics presented in this Supplement have been compiled in accordance with the concepts, definitions, and classification scheme of the Fund’s Balance of Payments Manual (Fourth Edition) from data regularly provided by national authorities. Whenever the statistics presented by the respective national statistical authorities have not been compiled in accordance with the Manual, appropriate adjustments have been made, to the extent possible, by the staff of the Fund. A discussion of compiling practices used in individual countries can be found in Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, Part I. For the summary tables in this Supplement, the national authorities’ data are supplemented, where necessary, by other national source data and Fund staff estimates. While the latter are included in the regional totals shown, they are not shown separately for the countries concerned.

The methodology underlying the Manual is as follows:

  • (1) The recording system employed is a double-entry one, whereby transactions are reflected in pairs of equal credit and debit entries, and any entries that are not automatically paired in that way are furnished with entries of special types as an offset (i.e., unrequited transfers and counterpart items). The sum of all the credit entries in the statement is thus, in principle, numerically equal to the sum of all the debit entries, with any inequality that may in fact arise being attributable to net statistical errors and omissions.

  • (2) In general, an economy comprises the economic entities—government, individuals, private non-profit bodies, and enterprises—that have a closer association with the territory in question than with any other territory. As many entities, especially those engaging in international transactions, have some degree of association with more than one territory, the Manual provides a detailed set of guidelines to ensure that borderline cases are treated uniformly.

  • (3) The basis for valuing transactions, in common with the national accounts as a whole, is market price. In concept, a market price is the price that a willing buyer pays to a willing seller, when the buyer and seller are independent parties whose only considerations are commercial ones. Further, transactions are recorded when the real resources or financial items involved undergo a legal change of ownership, which is normally taken to be the time that the parties concerned enter the transactions in their books.

  • (4) Despite its name, the balance of payments is concerned not with “payments” as that term is generally understood but with “transactions” of the kind enumerated below. A number of international transactions that are of interest in a balance of payments context may not involve the payment of money, and some are not paid for in any sense. This inclusion of transactions in addition to those matched by “payments” constitutes a principal difference between a balance of payments statement and a record of foreign payments.

Exchanges

The most numerous and important of the types of transaction found in the balance of payments are ones in which a transactor (economic entity) provides an economic value to another transactor and receives in return an equal value. These transactions may be characterized as exchanges. The two parties to such an exchange are residents of different economies or at least are not both residents of the economy that is the debtor for a financial item in which they are dealing. The things that are considered to have economic value and that can be provided by one economy to another may be categorized broadly as real resources (goods, services, income) and financial items.

Unrequited transfers

Transactions involving unrequited transfers differ from exchanges in that one transactor provides an economic value to another transactor but does not receive a quid pro quo on which economic value is placed. This value that is lacking on one side is represented by an entry referred to as an unrequited transfer.

Counterpart entries

Allocation of special drawing rights

The allocation or cancellation of special drawing rights resembles the previous category involving unrequited transfers in that a resident acquires or gives up a financial asset but does not exchange it for anything having economic value. It differs from the definition of an unrequited transfer, however, because only one party, the resident, is involved and thus no transfer of the asset from one entity to another can be said to occur. The allocation (credit) or cancellation (debit) itself forms the counterpart that matches the increase (debit) or decrease (credit), respectively, in holdings of the asset.

Monetization of gold

The monetization or demonetization of gold is another unique case, which is similar to, but in principle not identical with, the allocation or cancellation of special drawing rights. Gold is a commodity that may also be regarded virtually as a foreign financial asset when it is held by the central authorities, since it has been so readily usable in place of a claim on a foreigner or in acquisition of such a claim. A change in the way in which a given stock of gold is regarded may thus bring about an apparent change in an economy’s foreign financial assets. Such a change is to be shown in the balance of payments, together with a counterpart for monetization (credit) or demonetization (debit) that matches the respective entry for an increase (debit) or decrease (credit) in holdings of the financial asset.

Valuation changes

Valuation changes are by convention not included in the balance of payments, although supplementary information on such changes is given with respect to financial items in the category for reserves. For the latter, the total change in the holdings of reserve assets are shown with offsetting counterpart entries for the valuation changes also shown.

it should be noted that the “balance on current account” referred to in this Supplement is the same as that published in IFS. It differs, however, from the “balance on current account” used in most presentations of aggregate statistics (for groups of countries or for the world as a whole) in the Fund’s Annual Report and in the World Economic Outlook. In most contexts, both of the latter publications exclude official unrequited transfers from the balance, while in this publication the transactions are included.

Survey of Balance of Payments Developments Since 1968

1968-1973

The latter part of the 1960s and early 1970s was characterized by the emergence of serious inflation in the industrialized world, and recurrent crises in foreign exchange markets stemming from the balance of payments disequilibria that arose from time to time in a number of leading countries. At the heart of the disequilibrium in international payments relationships was the deficit in the external accounts of the United States. Throughout the 1960s, that country’s authorities had faced a balance of payments problem centered in a current account surplus insufficient to cover combined net outflows of long-term capital and government aid to other countries. This problem was compounded during the latter half of the decade by a progressive weakening of the U.S. current account, stemming mainly from deterioration of the trade balance. During 1968 and 1969, the underlying weakness of the United States balance of payments, as well as the strength of various other countries’ payments positions, was offset by the prevalence of credit conditions that induced abnormal flows of foreign capital into the United States. With the onset of a recession in the United States, however, the previously tight credit conditions eased and interest rates fell sharply. These developments, occurring at a time when boom conditions and anti-inflationary monetary policies still prevailed in most Western European economies, as well as in Japan, brought about a reversal of the 1968-69 capital flows, and international capital movements dominated the changes in overall payments balances during 1970 and 1971.

The large capital flows, occurring against a background of underlying imbalance in the global payments structure, were associated with the turbulence in foreign exchange markets, reflecting a widespread perception that an inappropriate pattern of exchange rates among key currencies was a principal cause of the underlying imbalance. Largely because of this perception, normal capital movements were distorted by very large shifts of funds in anticipation of, or hedging against, possible changes in exchange rates for major currencies. By mid-1971, the authorities of several industrial countries had ceased to maintain the established margins for exchange rates of their currencies; and in August of that year the U.S. Government announced that it was no longer prepared to convert officially held U.S. dollars into gold or other reserve assets, thus setting in motion a process of appreciation of most major currencies against the U.S. dollar.

In December 1971, as a first step toward restoration of more orderly foreign exchange markets and elimination of disequilibrium in international payments, an agreement was reached for a realignment of exchange rates among major currencies. An important aspect of this realignment was a depreciation of the U.S. dollar. By the end of 1972, however, it was becoming clear that the underlying U.S. trade position was probably worse than had been realized in 1971, and that no large-scale unwinding of speculative positions taken earlier by foreign exchange market participants had materialized. In April 1973, another major realignment of exchange rates, including a further devaluation of the U.S. dollar, was undertaken. This second realignment proved short-lived, however, and rapidly gave way to generalized “floating” of exchange rates for major currencies, except for a narrow-margin arrangement among a group of European countries.2

Chart 1:Current Account, n.i.e.1

(Billions of SDRs)

1 Net total of balances on goods, services, private transfers, and official transfers. Positive entries reflect a surplus (credit) and negative entries reflect a deficit (debit).

Chart 2:.Capital, n.i.e.1

(Billions of SDRs)

1 Net total of balances on direct investment, portfolio investment, other long-term capital, and other short-term capital. Positive entries reflect a net reduction in assets, or increase in liabilities (credit) and negative entries reflect a net increase in assets, or reduction in liabilities (debit).

Chart 3:.Net Errors and Omissions

(Billions of SDRs)

Chart 4:.Counterpart Items1

(Billions of SDRs)

1 Net total counterpart entries for allocation/cancellation of SDRs, monetization/demonetization of gold, and valuation changes in reserve assets. Positive entries reflect the counterpart to an increase in reserve assets and negative entries reflect the counterpart to a decrease in reserve assets.

Official Financing1

(Billions of SDRs)

1 Net total of balances of the categories Exceptional financing, Liabilities constituting foreign authorities’ reserves, and Total change in reserves. Positive entries reflect a net reduction in assets, or increase in liabilities (credit) and negative entries reflect a net increase in assets, or decrease in liabilities (debit).

Toward the end of 1973, the members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) decided to increase sharply the price of crude oil produced for export. This action effectively tripled the average export price of crude oil and was instrumental in changing the global pattern of balance of payments flows over the rest of the decade.

1974-1978

The global pattern of current account balances shifted substantially during the years after 1973, with the oil exporting countries emerging as the principal surplus group and the formerly large aggregate current account surplus of the industrial countries disappearing. The non-oil developing countries, which for many years prior to the oil price rise had been large-scale net importers of goods and services, increased their combined current account deficit during this period.

The oil exporting countries, whose combined balance on current account was already in surplus by SDR 5.5 billion in 1973 increased their collective surplus to SDR 53.6 billion in 1974. In response to the enlarged oil revenues, the major oil exporting countries stepped up their development efforts and undertook major projects for social improvement. This resulted in a large increase in imports to help meet the surge in domestic demand that ensued, so that in 1975 the current account surplus of the oil exporting countries was more than halved to SDR 23.2 billion. Although expanding imports explain most of this decline in the surplus, a significant part of it was due to a reduction in the demand for oil in the importing countries resulting from a downturn in the business cycle of industrial countries and from conservation and fuel substitution efforts.

For the industrial countries the sharply adverse shift in their current account balance, from a surplus of SDR 10.8 billion in 1973 to a deficit of SDR 18.7 billion in 1974, was followed by an almost equally large positive swing in 1975. A major part of this positive swing stemmed from two factors: (a) the predominance of these countries as suppliers of goods and services imported by the oil exporting countries and (b) the reduction in their imports of oil. In addition, their non-oil imports were sharply reduced in real terms by recessionary domestic demand conditions. These developments enabled the industrial countries to briefly resume the role of suppliers of capital while, at the same time, adding to their reserves.

For the non-oil developing countries the oil price rise, and the decline in their exports that resulted from the downturn in the business cycle in the industrial countries, led to significantly increased current account deficits of SDR 24.5 billion in 1974 and SDR 32.8 billion in 1975. This situation was compounded for many of these countries by their need to pay substantially higher prices for other essential imports, as well as for oil.

The rebound of economic activity in 1976 and 1977 resulted in increased import demands by the industrial countries, and a resumption of their current account deficits. Correspondingly, the oil exporting countries and non-oil developing countries experienced some improvement in their current account positions in these years.

By 1978, the industrial countries were again substantial net exporters of goods and services, due largely to a general sluggishness in their import demand, coupled with a shift of the terms of trade in their favor. The latter benefited from the stability of oil prices and the general weakness of prices for other primary commodities.

The stability of oil prices resulted, also, in a significant terms of trade deterioration in 1978 for the oil exporting countries, and a sharp swing in their current account balance from a surplus of SDR 19.9 billion in 1977 to a deficit of SDR 2.4 billion in 1978. For the non-oil developing countries the terms of trade improvement of 1977 was reversed in 1978, and their deficit on current account increased from SDR 19.7 billion in 1977 to SDR 25.5 billion in 1978. This was due, in the main, to a rise in their import prices resulting from the high average rate of inflation prevailing in the industrial world.

The changes in the current account balances of each country grouping were largely reflections of movements in their balances of trade. A further notable feature, however, was that the deficit of the oil exporting and non-oil developing countries on account of services, income, and unrequited transfers, increased strongly from 1973. For the oil exporting countries this reflected mainly a rapid growth in payments to foreign contractors, remittances by expatriate workers, and payments of freight and insurance on merchandise imports. For the non-oil developing countries, however, different factors were at work. Although a significant part of the increase reflected growth in payments of freight and insurance on merchandise imports, a large part reflected an increase in their deficit on investment income (in particular for the Western Hemisphere countries).

The changes in the current account had, of course, counterparts in the capital account. Although the industrial countries were no longer net suppliers of either real resources or financing, they remained the immediate source of most of the financing needed to cover the current account deficits (and reserve accumulation) of the non-oil developing countries. However, the industrial lenders no longer obtained the funds from their own savings, but directly or indirectly from the placement of surplus funds accruing to the major oil exporting countries. In effect, the national savings of the oil exporting countries displaced those of the industrial countries (mainly through the “recycling” process in international financial markets) as the net source of funds flowing to the non-oil developing countries.

A notable feature of the financing of the current account in the period 1974 to 1977 was that, by and large, few deficit countries made any substantial net use of reserve assets, while the oil exporting countries substantially increased their holdings of reserve assets. This asymmetry in reserve movements was made possible through large-scale creation of new reserves, either through the Euro-currency recycling process or through a deficit in the combined current and capital accounts of a reserve-currency country. During much of this period, the deficit countries borrowed abroad on a scale sufficient not only to cover their deficit on current account, but also to permit large additions to their reserves.

In 1978, the swing in the current account balance of the oil exporting countries from a surplus of SDR 19.9 billion to a deficit of SDR 2.4 billion was accompanied by a significant reduction (of SDR 6.1 billion) in their reserve holdings.

1979-1983

The reduction in the oil exporters’ current account surplus, discussed above, was sharply reversed by the succession of oil price increases that occurred during the first six months of 1979 and by an interruption of growth in their imports reflecting policy shifts toward restraint of domestic demand by a number of the countries of that group. The oil exporters’ recorded current account surplus reached a new peak of SDR 78.2 billion in 1980.

After 1980, the current account balance declined rapidly to a surplus of SDR 38.9 billion in 1981, and turned to deficits of SDR 13.5 billion and SDR 17.2 billion in 1982 and 1983, respectively. The contractionary phase of this latest cycle, however, differed in important respects from that following the increase in the surplus in 1974. Firstly, the elimination of the group’s surplus occurred much more rapidly and, secondly, it reflected quite a different combination of causal factors. As mentioned earlier, during the years 1975-1978, the main reason for the gradual disappearance of the surplus was a large and sustained expansion of imports and payments for international services. The elimination of the surplus after 1980, in contrast, stemmed mainly from the steep fall in the volume of oil exports (associated with the prevailing global recession, the more efficient use of petroleum products, and the substitution of non-oil energy for oil) and only secondarily from an increase in imports of goods and services. Indeed, net external payments for other goods, services, income, and unrequited transfers, continued to rise steadily from 1974 through 1982, but were then reduced in 1983, In the last mentioned year, payments to foreign contractors and consultants, as well as remittances by expatriate workers, were curbed by a significant slowing of oil-exporters’ development programs.

Again, the main counterpart to the changes in the current account balances of the oil exporting countries was large swings in the current account balances of the industrial countries. The recorded combined current account balance of these countries swung sharply from a surplus of SDR 13.7 billion in 1978 to a large deficit of SDR 46.7 billion in 1980. This deficit was then reduced significantly to SDR 15.5 billion in 1981 but remained little changed in 1982 and 1983.3

The most important factor contributing to the improvement in the industrial countries’ aggregate current account position since 1980 was the decline in their oil import payments. Payments for other imports were also restrained by the weakness of economic activity.

For the non-oil developing countries the period from 1979 to 1981 saw a further deterioration in their current account balances with a deficit of SDR 79.7 billion occurring in 1981 compared with a deficit of SDR 37.6 billion in 1979. In large part this was the result of the unexpected length and depth of the global recession. The adverse effects of the recession on export earnings were compounded by increases in import prices and high interest rates prevailing in international financial markets over the past several years. For some major borrowing countries, the difficulties were further exacerbated by delays in domestic responses to the deterioration of their current account balances.

In 1982 and 1983, however, the constraints faced by the non-oil developing countries in obtaining external financing compelled most of them to lower their current account deficits. The deficits were reduced to SDR 62.9 billion in 1982 and SDR 41.7 billion in 1983.) To achieve this in the face of pronounced weakness in export markets and adverse terms of trade required a substantial contraction of imports.

The shifts in the current account balances of the major country groupings were accompanied by commensurate shifts in their financing flows. In 1979 and 1980, the oil exporting countries were again principal net suppliers of funds, a high proportion of which were placed in bank deposits and short-term government securities in the industrial countries. By 1982 the deterioration in current account balances had led these countries to become net users of international banking funds, principally through the drawdown of deposits rather than through borrowing. On the other hand, the industrial countries, which had become net users of international banking funds in 1979, had by 1982 resumed their more traditional role as major suppliers of such funds.

The high interest rates that have prevailed in recent years have generated large additions to the debt service costs of the non-oil developing countries in particular, not only for new borrowings but also, as a result of the floating interest rate arrangements applicable to many existing loans, on a considerable proportion of the debt already outstanding. Throughout the period 1979-81, moreover, a number of non-oil developing countries, and particularly the larger debtors among them, relied to an unusual extent on short-term financing, and the relatively high proportion of short-term liabilities in the total external debt resulted in a further concentration of the debt service obligations falling due in the short-term. In 1982, borrowing by the non-oil developing countries declined as their access to loans from private banks was curtailed in reaction to the growing perception of serious debt- servicing problems. Recognizing that export earnings of a number of these countries were falling short of those to which their policies had been geared, and that outstanding loans and debt service obligations were becoming large in relation to actual export earnings, lenders became increasingly reluctant to enter into new credit commitments with some of the largest borrowers.

As noted above, between 1974 and 1978 the non-oil developing countries were able to increase their reserve holdings through borrowings in excess of their current account deficit. In contrast, between 1981 and 1983 the severity of the external financial constraints felt by these countries was such that there was a large swing in their reserve movements, from an accumulation of SDR 5.4 billion in 1980 to a drawdown of SDR 4.4 billion in 1982.

In this setting, several of the major borrowing countries turned to the Fund for increased assistance, and large amounts of new credit were made available to them. These credits came not only from the Fund but also from private banks and other sources, under cooperative arrangements involving the authorities of the countries directly concerned, the private banking community, and other international institutions.

Table A.Summary of Balances of International Transactions(In billions of SDRs)
1968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983
1.23.41.62.99.96.412.015.619.421.215.428.159.397.276.2A. Current Account, n.i.e.
4.55.56.710.06.910.8–18.77.5–8.7–12.713.7–18.7–46.7–15.5–20.8–18.3Industrial Countries
1.3.91.32.33.25.553.623.228.419.9–2.442.978.238.9–13.5–17.2Oil Exporting Countries
–6.1–5.4–10.4–12.9–6.2–5.5–24.5–32.8–21.4–19.7–25.5–37.6–56.5–79.7–62.9–41.7Non-Oil Developing Ctys.
–1.0–1.0–1.0–1.0–1.0–1.0–4.0–10.0–14.0–7.0–7.0–2.0–3.0–3.01.0Other Countries
5.76.76.55.710.114.618.38.98.311.39.816.322.920.6.211.2A-1. Trade Balance
5.55.79.611.59.68.2–19.28.1–11.2–14.97.4–28.9–50.8–15.4–12.9–6.1Industrial Countries
7.67.57.98.89.816.169.144.155.253.034.783.7128.9102.455.539.6Oil Exporting Countries
–6.4–5.5–10.0–13.7–8.3–8.7–27.6–33.2–21.7–20.8–27.3–38.6–54.2–66.4–45.9–26.3Non-Oil Developing Ctys.
–1.0–1.0–1.0–1.0–1.0–1.0–4.0–10.0–14.0–6.0–5.0–1.03.04.0Other Countries
4.95.27.64.53.43.45.511.615.220.919.923.039.767.690.380.6A-2. Oth. Gds., Serv., & Inc.
4.95.64.57.68.013.115.113.817.518.425.432.128.725.920.718.8industrial Countries
–5.7–6.0–6.1–6.0–5.8–9.4–10.7–13.2–18.3–22.1–25.6–29.2–34.8–44.7–57.7–48.1Oil Exporting Countries
–4.2–4.8–6.0–6.1–5.5–7.1–9.9–12.2–14.4–16.2–17.7–23.9–31.6–45.8–50.3–48.3Non-Oil Developing Ctys.
–1.0–2.0–2.0–2.0–3.0–3.0–3.0Other Countries
2.01.52.42.83.81.36.39.38.79.911.18.711.212.26.66.8A-3. Unrequited Transfers
–5.9–5.8–7.4–9.1–10.7–10.4–14.6–14.3–14.9–16.2–19.2–21.9–24.6–25.9–28.6–31.0Industrial Countries
–.6–.6–.6–.5–.8–1.2–4.8–7.7–8.5–11.0–11.5–11.6–15.9–18.8–11.3–8.7Oil Exporting Countries
4.54.95.66.97.710.313.012.614.717.319.624.829.332.533.332.9Non-Oil Developing Ctys.
................................................................Other Countries
1.82.03.55.25.81.34.11.713.523.220.61.213.235.531.244.6B. Long-Term Capital, n.i.e
–5.3–10.0–5.9–6.1–7.8–15.0–6.6–18.8–10.1–4.9–25.4–37.1–13.3–14.5–32.7–32.1Industrial Countries
.9.9.7.9.8.7–7.4–4.83.61.511.52.2–18.1–19.35.525.1Oil Exporting Countries
6.27.18.710.412.812.918.121.927.126.634.536.044.569.358.351.6Non-Oil Developing Ctys.
................................................................Other Countries
.62.0.13.68.78.610.513.72.23.8.614.214.923.866.031.6Total A Plus B
–.8–4.6.83.9–.9–4.1–25.3–11.3–I8.7–17.6–11.7–55.7–60.0–29.9–53.4–50.5Industrial Countries
2.21.82.03.34.06.246.218.424.821.59.145.160.119.6–7.97.9Oil Exporting Countries
.21.8–1.7–2.66.67.5–6.4–10.85.76.99.0–1.6–12.0–10.4–4.610.0Non-Oil Developing Ctys.
–1.0–1.0–1.0–1.0–1.0–1.0–4.0–10.0–14.0–7.0–7.0–2.0–3.0–3.01.0Other Countries
.16.81.21.81.72.51.41.24.02.612.9.421.61.311.827.2C. Short-Term Capital, n.i.e.
.68.31.61.34.11.64.7–4.34.9–5.19.022.19.54.747.9Industrial Countries
–1.8–1.5–1.7–1.5–2.4–3.9–11.3–3.7–7.9–3.8–10.9–15.2–16.7–19.9–15.6–9.6Oil Exporting Countries
1.1.11.32.0.1–.35.16.83.91.53.26.616.211.7–.9–11.1Non-Oil Developing Ctys.
................................................................Other Countries
.54.05.82.4.43.81.816.321.110.222.024.319.75.429.42.6D. Net Errors and Omissions
–1.3–4.93.3–5.1–1.5–4.2–.89.810.65.316.922.526.213.244.2Industrial Countries
–.1.1–.1.6–.5–.4.11.51.81.3–2.0–3.4–3.6–2.2Oil Exporting Countries
.8–.11.41.7.3–.1–1.0–3.7–4.9–3.9–3.2–.1–7.5–7.4–11.2.6Non-Oil Developing Ctys.
1.01.01.01.01.01.04.010.014.07.07.02.03.03.0–1.0Other Countries
.9.87.23.010.82.310.91.414.916.61.510.526.417.048.47.0Total A through D
–1.6–1.15.7.21.7–6.7–21.3–5.7–8.1–7.4.1–24.2–11.7–7.2–4.5–2.6Industrial Countries
.5.2.51.62.11.934.514.918.419.5–.629.941.4–3.7–27.2–3.9Oil Exporting Countries
2.11.71.01.27.07.1–2.2–7.74.74.49.04.8–3.36.1–16.7–.5Non-Oil Developing Ctys.
Other Countries
.8.62.9.31.08.3.14.01.35.513.96.914.414.38.811.10E. Counterpart Items
–.7.42.1–.4.4–6.5.12.31.2–3.5–6.85.89.46.41.95.7industrial Countries
.1.1.1.1–.31.1.2–1.5–5.5.21.62.82.62.3Oil Exporting Countries
–.1.2.8.4–1.8.3.6–.1–.6–1.6.93.45.24.33.1Non-Oil Developing Ctys
................................................................Other Countries
.11.410.12.711.86.011.05.416.211.15.317.440.82.739.64.1Total A through E
–2.3–.77.8–.22.1–13.2–21.3–3.5–7.0–10.8–6.6–18.5–2.2–.9–2.73.1induslrial Countries
.5.3.51.72.21.934.216.018.618.1–6.130.143.0–.9–24.5–1.6Oil Exporting Countries
1.91.91.81.27.45.3–1.9–7.14.53.87.45.8.1–1.0–12.42.6Non-Oil Developing Ctys.
Other Countries
.2.3.42.27.410.58.28.49.88.79.011.47.915.513.1F. Exceptional Financing
.1.21.76.48.82.64.14.65.26.86.83.47.39.5industrial Countries
.1.1.1.1–.2.1–.21.0.23.73.1Oil Exporting Countries
.2.2.7.91.94.64.05.23.62.24.64.54.5.5Non-Oil Developing Ctys.
Other Countries
2.4.74.428.210.55.211.74.711.133.127.67.118.51.2.35.0G. Liab. Cnst. Fn. Auth. Res.
2.3–.74.428.110.65.111.64.510.032.827.57.017.7–2.0–3.25.9Industrial Countries
.1–.1Oil Exporting Countries
.1.1.21.0.3.1.8.73.5–.8Non-Oil Developing Ctys.
................................................................Other Countries
2.5914.831.324.56.633.218.335.753.931.033.470.64.023.822.2H. Total Change in Reserves
1.3–12.2–28.1–14.41.6.9–3.5–7.2–26.5–26.04.7–22.3–.6–1.5–18.4Industrial Countries
–.5–.3–.6–1.9–2.0–2.0–34.0–17.0–18.8–18.16.1–30.1–43.0.920.8–1.5Oil Exporting Countries
–1.9–1.9–2.0–1.4–8.1–6.3–.12.2–9.6–9.4–11.1–8.0–5.4–4.34.4–2.2Non-Oil Developing Ctys.
................................................................Other Countries
Table B-1.Current Account(In millions of SDRs)
1968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983
Total (Bill. SDR)1.22.043.421.612.899.876.4112.0315.6519.4321.2515.4028.0759.2897.1776.21
Industrial Countries4,5005,4646,7089,9746,86410,82518,7107,5398,65712,65313,66218,68046,69315,45020,78118,327
United States1,4291,3592,320–1,448–5,3215,8981,58514,9373,590–12,386–12,519–7223993,780–10,421–38,463
Canada–90–1,064821152–35575–1,235–3,847–3,585–3,531–3,427–3,199–710–4,0552,2371,208
Australia–1,348–886–785–793476458–2,206–693–1,518–2,439–3,350–1,753–2,815–6,658–7,079–4,786
Japan1,0302,1201,9805,7806,080–70–3,890–4903,2009,32114,003–6,744–8,2484,3416,32419,820
New Zealand–7524–232–20151–103–1,500–961–695–593–380–641–659–1,240–1,358....
Austria–9689–75–88–145–218–168–189–969–1,878–553–885–1,330–1,291350–126
Belgium-Luxembourg282427176411,2021,144693143375–478–659–2,371–3,799–3,546–2,488....
Denmark–216–410–544–422–58–391–814–414–1,656–1,476–1,196–2,309–1,895–1,582–2,043–1,101
Finland4821–239–339–108–327–1,014–1,787–999–125503–159–1,066–233–854–887
France–856–1,473505682661,211–2,8882,230–2,922–3675,6203,996–3,220–4,055–10,944....
Germany, Fed. Rep. of2,9651,9028527667473,8648,5943,3263,4063,4927,264–4,759–12,237–4,7713,2293,654
Iceland–51–12–49–24–14–133–118–19–4114–16–61–124–238....
Ireland–78–204–198–199–138–213–578–46–295–321–410–1,341–1,340–1,821........
Italy2,6882,4069022,0331,099–2,130–6,699–484–2,5032,0734,9454,202–7,541–7,108–5,104....
Netherlands6563–483–1081,2452,0251,8461,6392,361528–1,159–1,592–2,2742,4203,2973,282
Norway8128–242–522–54–306–929–2,022–3,246–4,312–1,687–8078461,847602....
Spain–197–39279853535491–2,688–2,876–3,721–1,8361,280878–3,979–4,141–3,759–2,191
Sweden–116–197–2653515221,199–459–288–1,427–1,875–205–1,861–3,379–2,278–3,160–1,004
Switzerland54552572822032351442,2943,2553,4863,8372,200–1142,3943,282....
United Kingdom–1,1831,2121,9752,735540–2,003–6,371–2,814–1,2891061,741–7996,73012,6728,7002,864
Developing Countries
Oil Exporting Countries1,3379381,2672,3273,1955,51453,60423,20728,42419,9472,43242,92278,15338,89513,45317,204
Algeria–34–207–12542–116–375146–1,368–768–1,989–2,826–1,26219172–166....
Indonesia–225–336–310–371–308–399497–913–788–40–1,1367552,197–520–5,388....
Nigeria–221–316–368–405–315–74,07235–309–864–3,0061,2923,280–4,961–6,634....
Saudi Arabia–92–86719691,9242,11419,14611,84812,43810,271–1,7678,64331,80932,523........
Venezuela–194–220–104–11–937364,7891,788220–2,723–4,5812713,6333,392–3,846....
Other................2,1033,44524,95411,81717,63115,29310,88333,22337,0438,390–1,0702,906
Non-Oil Developing Countries6,0555,36010,39212,9136,1645,47224,48232,77321,41319,72625,47637,64556,52979,72662,93241,681
Africa6854601,9742,9841,0818412,5165,9545.4184,2663,6292,4373,70212,89411,6816,613
Benin–7–11–1–6–10–25–44–53–41–61....................
Botswana............................–30122–3628–61–174–55....
Cameroon........–30–44–51–14–14–126–80–80–147–98–341–410–415....
Central African Rep.–5–10–12–91–3–12–315–16–20–12–13–4–36....
Chad–2–62311–6–4–50–5–24–37–671717....
Congo............–67–86–66–77–205–197–166–144–77–127–390–300....
Equatorial Guinea........–6–2–7–113....................................
Ethiopia–35–10–32–4586346–38–24–71–88–71–174–215–177....
Gabon6–12–318–3–36138–7–43559192301341280....
Gambia, The........–1–359–14–7–36–26–57–40........
Ghana–56–60–68–145100106–14314–64–68–3795–33–17776....
Ivory Coast–1–38–105–89–.184–51–312–216–153–671–1,070–1,386–1,052–985....
Kenya–40–8–49–111–63–106–256–184–10922–529–387–686–612–464....
Lesotho............................1492818–5–3–28–45....
Liberia............................–74–50–115–124–103–78–68........
Madagascar....–2410–2732–9–33–46–24–14–64–336................
Malawi–25–28–35–33–45–23–30–66–37–32–102–160–124–94–72....
Mali–24....–2–9–10–24–30–47–374–79–88–96–119–104–97
Mauritania–3–9–5........1239–52–74–105–67–90–103–126–237....
Mauritius–188–5144515–31–68–95–114–91–129–39–26
Morocco–57–13–124–5944–81188–435–1,210–1,589–1,068–1,177–1,091–1,564–1,701....
Niger–5–6161121–11–7–24............................
Rwanda–27–4191–81618–3736–37–62–79....
São Tomé&Principe........................5757–2–8........
Senegal–38–48–16–2510–85–55–71–80–58–188....................
Seychelles................................–5–2–5–11–14–20–40....
Sierra Leone–2–10–16–20–9–24–.51–.55–52–43–96–146–140–121–154....
Somalia–3–13–61–7–33–43–60–28–52–159–105–71–161....
South Africa66–396–1,2151,475–112–70–1,213–2,0111,6224571,2222,6402,679–3,772–2,729271
Sudan–55–30–42–42–4524–225–353–131–76–85–191–246–549–229–205
Swaziland........................38393113–48–107–104–79–66....
Tanzania–625.-.36–100.-61–90–237–189–30–61–379–268–410–229........
Togo8153–4–12–9110–62–23–75–174–165–70............
Tunisia–35–48–536–4–5140–140–353–495–380–238–326–382–595....
Uganda–3–520–861536–20–463758–11031–649........
Upper Volta729132–4–45–29–72–48–49–37........
Table B-1.Current Account(In millions of SDRs)
1968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983
Africa (continued)
5047–64–102–303–205–310–488–721–1,2433622501,085............Zaire
–3474108–247–19210913–594–108–186–25618–548–658–575....Zambia
....................................–1230–84–187–540–640....Zimbabwe
–126–128–135–111–97–174–155–134–1069–33–91–75–133–239–197Other
2,0541,5633,1832,9678903714,7095.7993764164,80310,56117,45516,95310,8077,713Asia
....................–202–395–506–241–241–308–64–581–867–612....Bangladesh
–82–33–63–43–42–50–6–66–29–86–171–278–265–270–424....Burma
–13–17–14–28–29–49–24–22–44–22–29–51–19–146–77....Fiji
–664–230–394–636–141–449998–1071,3621,80853540–1,374–2.286........India
–441–549–623–846–339–258–1,685–1,532–2668–848–3,217–4,090–3,936–2,427–1,477Korea
322398–108–22888–451–40750237486765–148–1,939–3,120....Malaysia
....................................1–4–17–17–17–19Maldives
................................16–1–21–9–30–17–78....Nepal
–249–348–667–481–222–57–762–865–676–621–569–731–708–796–745....Pakistan
................................4699–1161–240–443–441–368Papua New Guinea
–266–253–48–25397–173–761–954–703–927–1,209–1,569–1,998–3,051....Philippines
–133–191–572–722–456–438–849–481–491–253–361–569–1,202–1,172–1,178–894Singapore
....................................................–16........Solomon Islands
–60–134–59–36–30–21–113–90–61l6–54–179510–375–520....Sri Lanka
–142–200–250174–47–39–72–500–382–937–922–1,612–1,587–2,183–927....Thailand
............–2–2–21–2–3–3–3–3–5–9........Tonga
1–53–11–6–1–10–11–5–12–17–11–13–6....Western Samoa
4076541408291,200596–1.327–3511,561839–1,179–3,478–5,087–4715,4046,757Other
7035919428895945693,4923,7963,9846,5204,9627,5209,2418,1315,2514,627Europe
–2–9–22–15–23–66–60–31–9–75–126–162–185–126–137....Cyprus
–265–361–422–342–368–997–950–722–802–920–773–1,462–1,705–2,023–1,713–2,273Greece
........–25–34688215–282–536–537–696–1,148–729–443–761–28963Hungary
5–2–662331115454406441347715....Malta
................326286–690–622–1,109–822–379–44–819–2,183–2,923....Portugal
............–23–43125–299–111–14–260606–1,279–1,859–7069421,085Romania
–129–108–4443195$554–432–1,314–1,723–2,633–969–1,050–2,484–1,594–716....Turkey
–120–84–372–394397421–791–515156–1,152–1,025–2.833–1,779–815–430....Yugoslavia
1264187431,1138179932,7404,0692,6062,2152,2861,9231,4724,5404,4746,500Middle East
............................–159–301–263–271–41193572497....Bahrain
–5–38–148–206–427–468–1,098–1,963–1,239—1,028–974–1,194–336–1,812–2,007....Egypt
–153–355–562–431–51–281–1,221–1.452–543–267–728–669–610–1,192–1,905....Israel
25–47–20–6261033731–13–226–4288–37–304....Jordan
–23–53–69–582628413977–669–14328702–3–433–447....Syrian Arab Rep.
........................–410725625116–188–528–559–552....Yemen Arab Rep
–735–4–8–26–43–94–69–40–62–31–19–103–188........Yemen, People’s Dem. Rep. of
–18–20–15–412–375–482–568–647–96–691–100–510–372–892403–1,124Other
2,4872,3283,5504,9603,9703,83611,02513,1559,7677,1419,79515,20424,65937,20830,71816,227Western Hemisphere
....................................–8–2–15–18–33–39....Antigua and Barbuda
–53–230–163–389–20959698–1,0605669591,494–387–3,675–3,931–2,269....Argentina
....................–122–1023671573512–12–68–34–51Bahamas
–20–30–42–35–40–44–40–34–56–44–25–2720–101–32....Barbados
–51–484–2–311114–107–46–102–263–277–91–243–85....Bolivia
–526–336–837–1,633–1,557–1,810–6,288–5,771–5,674–4,373–5,616–8,102–9,829–9,976–14,793....Brazil
–13889–91–197–434–234–243–404–128–472–869–920–1.514–4.014–2,087–999Chile
–164–175–293–453–175–46–291–90179377257380–122–1,607–2,622....Colombia
–43–50–74–114–92–94–221–179–175–193–290–432–509–346–181....Costa Rica
................................–1–1–15–11–11–7....Dominica
–75–85–102–129–43–81–200–60–112–110–249–256–515–344–400....Dominican Republic
–91–96–113–156–71631–181–6–292–560–484–493–849–1,082....Ecuador
–15–209–1411–37–112–772026–228–1724–212–138....El Salvador
....................................11–9–15....Grenada
–51–19–8–49–117–86–54–67–27–211–159–126–492–343....Guatemala
–17–12–22–7–15–54–9–20–124–84–24–64–98–156–130....Guyana
2246–1–18–22–18–33–37–43–80–125–90–93Haiti
–25–31–64–23–12–29–86–92–91–110–126–148–243–257–207....Honduras
–92–124–153–172–181–208–76–233–262–36–40–108–128–286–365....Jamaica
–743–592–1,068–833–844–1,187–2,391–3,339–2,954–1,584–2,526–4,220–6,271–11,890–2,516....Mexico
–193–199–251–117–51–88–143–31–7446–2215–4............Netherlands Antilles
–40–36–40–4420–55–214–152–34–156–20139–291–436–425–402Nicaragua
–15–29–64–73–91–93–187–139–153133–167–241–20067–127....Panama
–32–33–16–22–5–13–44–59–59–50–90–159–217–318–351....Paraguay
–223202–34–29–220–603–1,269–1,033–790–15856547–1,403–1.492....Peru
................................–5–9–18–21–25–33–22....St. Lucia
........................................2–3–4–1........St. Vincent
–18–14–13–7–5–13110855–3233412–21–53–150Suriname
–6–54–109–168–114–2922127322114934–26305240........Trinidad and Tohago
23–19–45–635431–98–156–64–143–101–276–545–391–212....Uruguay
–7–8–9–10–10–5–9–11–17–133–5–5–8–5–7Other
1,0001,0001,0001,0001,0001,0004,00010,00014,0007,0007,0002,0003,0003,0001,000Other Countries
Table B-2.Trade Balance(In millions of SDRs)
1968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983
Total5,7006,6936,5105,68810,08814,55618,2768,8998,25111,2959,80716,29422,88320,55922611,201
Industrial Countries5,4875,6719,63111,5119,5668,16219,1798,05211,20814,9117,44028.86450,80415,44212,8706,13
United States6406002,590–2,263–5,913731–4,5997,289–8,235–26,612–27,254–21,307–19,594–23,932–33,18256,875
Canada1,4901,0193,1562,7821,9182,5041.611–2901,6392,6793,3413,2256,1585,61514,00914,188
Australia–2642915165941,8222,3631101,8151,762873801,9411,062–1,997–2,348231
Japan2,5303,6903,9507,7508,2103,0701,1404,1208,49014,80820,4561,4531,64717,22516,47229,750
New Zealand17832068266459308–1,073–509–10194481247379–21–93....
Austria–469–353–679–928–1,038–1,316–1,087–1,607–2,236–3,272–2,619–3,305–4,967–4,047–2,987–3,224
Belgium-Luxembourg–261–9746421172971118–690–1,078–2,554–2,120–3,579–3,957–3,900–3,341....
Denmark–454–630–760–709–396–995–1,485–1,085–2,492–2,328–1,878–2,628–1,553–786–719217
Finland12976–176–274–51–212–740–1,333–500452946402–284589252201
France–83–955258855979363–3,668906–4,324–2,83076–2,476–10,300–8,446–14,304–7,429
Germany. Fed. Rep, of5,6655,1255,6946,6667,63612,89417,31113,84214,01516,79019,64613,0766,88714,19022,93020,443
Iceland–483–50–22–29–123–110–22–45162016–24–138....
Ireland–309–437–432–439–348–442–900–400–527–702–852–1,796–1,708–1,887........
Italy1,108609–24157748–3,329–7,077–952–3,671–1222,313–752–12,612–9,127–7.287....
Netherlands–338–404–904–6124038324947381,161–210–1,179–1,094–1,0843,2844,1263.769
Norway–720–679–1,153–1,453–935–1,282–1,941–2,344–3,084–3,474–4141121,4622,5712,124....
Spain–1,575–1,871–1,874–1,594–2,133–2,939–5,860–6,087–6,333–5,304–3,264–4,392–9,003–8,540–8,434–6,724
Sweden1772243038921,1221,7043268801412292,059–5291,682122–3751,694
Switzerland–272–434–1,071–1,229–1,213–1,491–1,829–82695–7–1,907–4,535–2,779–1,911....
United Kingdom–1,637–422–82469–1,710–5,283–10,408–6,122–6,080–3,390–2,386–5,5802,8656,4463,695–738
Developing Countries
Oil Exporting Countries7.6127,5087,9228,8459,83316,09169,10244,06055,16453,03434,67083,710128,884102,37955,50039,619
Algeria103–54–68–179–73–1601,062–783457–162–7611,3003,1163,4133,279....
Indonesia4157813204632,1881,1691,5562,8152,1064,5657,0405,7521,229....
Nigeria962723094947541,5836,0022,3432,2902,312–9373,8118,590–400–3,526....
Saudi Arabia9399601,2601,7712,5004,72822,08817.53521,86721,97313,55726,75655,68865,434........
Venezuela9588558891,2038571,7575,9942,7931,660–546–1,7173,2166,2806,6492,489....
Other................5,4757,71531,76821,00327,33426,64322,42344,06248,17021,53116,62316,970
Non-Oil Developing Countries6,3995,48610,04313,6688,3118,69627,64733,21321,70520,82827,30338,55254,19866,37845,85526,287
Africa9991,3601121,2056271,4083632,6161,0586381,1023,0263,1584,7434,157819
Benin–20–17–8–9–25–19–46–74–73–82–87....................
Botswana............................–55–29–38–52–45–242–112....
Cameroon........2813–178386–23257711765293452....
Central African Rep.74–1–54–5–24–61–7–8–29–23–35....
Chad–8–11–13–11–17–21–10–56–13–31–5119122–22....
Congo............–23–38–456–34–122813103281228403....
Equatorial Guinea........44–4117....................................
Ethiopia–41–12–22–3275114–36–51–70–101–72–177–220–248....
Gabon8368741181041394614535105196009751,0741,1491,302....
Gambia, The........2–1–528–14–8–34–32–69–67........
Ghana405052–34149179–2412477259020410415170....
Ivory Coast13814312295125135298187497598458379306572549....
Kenya–59–43–86–184–108–63–264–176–5516–540–436832–686–552....
Lesotho............................–103–132–141–152–204–264–324–348....
Liberia............................78852640578984........
Madagascar....–403–30–2192–1024331–203................
Malawi–21–21–24–21–30–21–39–71–1514–63–69–36616....
Mali–13....–5–10–17–40–54–53–1512–84–96–79–97–79–69
Mauritania141425........1017–34–78–118–119–107–96–99–168....
Mauritius75–99–44020–37–52–79–78–63–124–27–15
Morocco–61–38–137–137–62–10410–606–919–1,317–911–1,013–1,041–1,320–1,606....
Niger7–10–353–11–53–8–23–31–18–10–21–47–68....
Rwanda–1–43–3–515–2–19821–2734–48–80–96....
São Tomé&Principe........................8–2110591–5........
Senegal–48–50–45–86–54–135–113–89–126–90–274–315–390–407–362....
Seychelles................................–26–29–36–51–60–63–72....
Sierra Leone114–5–75–10–47–32–31–19–54–108–132–110–136....
Somalia–12–16–9–11–6–34–58–43–62–92–104–183–206–166–272....
South Africa559258–409–629634887–40–600–2042,1723,0274,6615,586–1315763,643
Sudan–4261615790–131–273–3213–47–171–337–717–317–175
Swaziland........................6148358–39–94–120–108–111....
Tanzania822–38–83–40–62–217–245–56–93–412–321–431–290........
Togo11131–2–11–1097–58–19–46–119–134–374414....
Tunisia–61–91–105–120–129–173–83–362–558–709–677–720–823–884–1,170....
Uganda484883–48584487101155131021–41........
Upper Volta–12–23–20–33–35–50–68–94–73–108–118–139–160–152–141....
Table B-2.Trade Balance(In millions of SDRs)
1968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983
Africa (continued)
27927921613–575168–107–233–4686475631,409............Zaire
248755455–109179496503–119312183170505254–16–41....Zambia
....................................19721515882–71–142....Zimbabwe
–65–81–95–114–131–215–198–187–129–30–89–124–154–208278190Other
3,6643,1234,3174.2082,4472,2188,6467,9722,2183,2118,69114,27222,36423,11519,93918,028Asia
....................–455–520–702–363–463–629–828–1,198–1,400–1,331....Bangladesh
–68–16–42–19–37–46–28–72–35–87–177–287–275–283–417....Burma
–14–25–30–50–63–94–76–60–91–81–91–132–115–224–170....Fiji
–387–8–131–37163–164–520–223684803–708–1,716–4,337–4,827........India
–836–922–922–1,042–529–475—1,612–1,353–509–412–1,405–3,408–3,368–3,071–2,369–1,568Korea
2105263492241195471872111,2681,3011,2732,3351,733–13–603....Malaysia
....................................–4–6–9–24–22–26–28Maldives
................................–45–72–105–109–174–185–292....Nepal
–331–328–538–419–215–84–738–951–888–1,170–1,452–1,811–2,208–2,498–3,070....Pakistan
................................11212052176–27–218–226–157Papua Mew Guinea
–290–277–26–49–115231–374–985–964–719–1,045–1,191–1,486–1,904–2,396....Philippines
–382–455–855–987–1,002–1,104–1,843–1,977–1,926–1,699–2,000–2,361–3,250–5,241–6,174–5,499Singapore
....................................................–9........Solomon Islands
–25–81–14–11–6–5–99–105–1787–42–250–602–533–709....Sri Lanka
–399–421462–349–257–268–322–554–168–668–688–1,198–1,459–1,720–679....Thailand
............–3–3–4–5–9–10–9–9–13–15–25........Tonga
–1–3–7–6–15–12–9–21–17–17–29–38–32–35–30....Western Samoa
–819–666–1,130–52457–437–2,833–1,086752–124–1,632–3,440–5,466–9094,1274,635Other
2,0062,1633,1233,9283,1614,0148,5018,6618.64411,50810,66814,22116,33114,76711,0738,745Europe
–64–86–104–118–147–200–197–131–128–218–285–375–453–454–544....Cyprus
–640–739–897–1,096–1,221–1,973–1,955–1,944–2,334–2,708–2,797–3,880–4,273–4,569–4,332–4,019Greece
........–102–34188310–333–422–421–531–948–433–11033447407Hungary
–82–98–110–95–75–87–132–126–120–134–128–179–288–261–261....Malta
................–676–763–1,659–1,318–1,879–1,711–1,632–2,037–3,093–4,279–4,390....Portugal
............–16203–159–141–122–484–941–1,276871,6431,748Romania
–171–164–242–352–444–427–1,474–2,262–2,190–2,842–1,387–1,683–3,081–2,640–1,803....Turkey
–385–484–958–1,168–670–1,077–2,592–2,458–1,614–3,243–3,006–4,691–3,757–2,684–1,833....Yugoslavia
1,3401,5402,0472,3422,1533,3934,6046,3826,3126,9517,9189,84911,27314,34814,00218,239Middle East
............................9371024146400569427....Bahrain
–109–140–267–280–329–360–1,033–1,955–1,934–1,768–2,239–2,770–2,274–3,324–3,365....Egypt
–600–765–1,123–1,199–999–2,016–2,486–2,750–2,234–1,700–2,129–2,449–2,442–2,980–2,985....Israel
–103–127–130–158–174–184–230–408–607–836–830–1,037–1,199–1,770–1,930....Jordan
–105–141–135–185–135–178–213–408–8981,141–912–1,089–1,458–2,216–1,527....Syrian Arab Rep.
........................–151–191–400–632–750–1,089–1,426–1,461–1,740....Yemen Arab Rep.
–123–49–63–64–65–74–135–125–185–255–262–270–414–622........Yemen, People’s Dem. Rep. of
–283–285–290–416–389–498–577–638–61–629–819–1,292–2,459–2,544–2,264–2,947Other
388196681,9851,1784806,2587,5803,4732041,1283,2357,4489,4053,31517,906Western Hemisphere
....................................–26–24–43–50–73–81....Antigua and Barbuda
333217274872361,081594–4521,0011,5912,3371,390–1,0586392,449....Argentina
....................–246–240–184208–215–256–330–462–520–471–522Bahamas
–42–55–71–79–83–88–98–84–124–141–141–191–229–304–265....Barbados
–6455374457193–214447–76–41201196361....Bolivia
26318232–364–232–51–3,943–2,923–2,064–84–923–2,095–2,1601,054715....Brazil
18238624673–148–112085855730–340–275–587–2,27057949Chile
–1024–14–148120235–13241501629513395–183–1,309–1,983....Colombia
–24–32–56–92–54–57–174–111–89–83–148–244–287–7381....Costa Rica
................................–5–7–8–20–30–22–17....Dominica
–33–34–64–69917–30100–41–59–149–208–429–224–443....Dominican Republic
–21–25–15–6936157291522535–14042232155147....Ecuador
14941184816–48–155596–119!37137–85–110....El Salvador
....................................–12–13–18–27–33–42....Grenada
–42231–33843–41–26–16565–148–13936–215–79....Guatemala
171892514–203338–45–233432–45–12....Guyana
–2–5–9–10–17–15–28–42–56–54–47–64–79–173–111–119Haiti
121–25173319–73–52–18–17–23–20–80–97–4....Honduras
–82–90–108–132–140–150–49–133–1176165–50–58–274–400....Jamaica
–634–529–888–747–823–1,271–2,321–2,704–1,989–871–1,394–2,188–2,176–3,5286,371....Mexico
–73–68–121–248310629–101–27–6314684............Netherlands Antilles
–4–1–340–41–134–8849–5874176–271–358–286–327Nicaragua
–129–153–201–225–242–249–424–405–446–430–447–565–520–638–571....Panama
–24–26–11–1661–21–32–30–28–61143–211–317–285....Paraguay
17722233515312213–335–905–640–3762651,192641–471–505....Peru
................................–21–27–39–47–51–64–63....St. Lucia
........................................–12–18–25–22........St. Vincent
27353344443049293919545746–28–30–32Suriname
331–51–138–120–32371277255270142257643664........Trinidad and Tobago
432921–69566–43–9025–64–19–293–468–307197....Uruguay
–8–9–11–12–12–7–12–13–26–21–22–32–30–36–34–37Other
1,0001,0001,0001,0001,0001,0004,00010,0014,0006,0005,0001,0003,0004,000Other Countries
Table B-3.Other Goods, Services, and Income(In millions of SDRs)
1968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983
Total4,8185,1737,5574,5203,3583,4125,51611,59815,17920,86019,93622,98139,70467,63490,31580,591
Industrial Countries4,9395,5624,4987,5688,03513,05115,09313,75217,46518,42125,39532,11028,71525,90220,70318,764
United States3,0402,9503,1804,6444,3328,60412,34811,67116,42818,50319,20725,31125,80934,10130,77427,080
Canada–1,750–2,215–2,480–2,893–2,536–2,716–3,320–3,865–5,690–6,541–6,790–6,865–7,694–10,774–12,830–13,650
Australia–1,028–1,084–1,189–1,252–1,165–1,644–1,969–2,155–2,910–2,915–3,039–3,293–3,606–4,324–4,313–4,591
Japan–1,320–1,400–1,760–1,710–1,710–2,890–4,780–4,310–4,980–5,144–5,903–7,343–8,719–11,515–8,899–8,480
New Zealand–234–269–285–294–341–451–427–453–582–681–826–900–1,040–1,208–1,375....
Austria3364035958349251,1701,0591,5381,3651,5142,0742,3973,7052,6953,2893,056
Belgium-Luxembourg3614654075936576929901,3381,9032,6082,0581,8981,1061,4021,904....
Oenrnarii23225025933842141154061064752224273–359–665–1,158–1,142
Finland–80–72–58–63–66–103–259–424–460–534–402–476–689–724–987–971
France224518677978972,3102,6773,4843,5304,8818,1689,58810,2837,9927,544....
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–895–1,025–2,208–2,553–2,873–4,115–4,134–4,540–4,437–6,548–5,291–8,816–8,708–8,875–9,121–7,066
Iceland–21–22–11–833–1–34–73–98–96....
Ireland14213812912995516931–42–121–265–432–557–654........
Italy1,2891,4711,0131,5771,3879964112609212,0172,9374,6074,1361,3781,401....
Netherlands4695214605689661,2461,6131,4471.5461,323837132–247398405351
Norway7198129229318991,0161.09645210–587–980–582–234–314–1,019....
Spain9319471,2941,6821,8682,2482,2222,2691,6212,2623,2223,8893,4492,9653,2433,438
Sweden–198–278–416–364–366–244–436–629–921–1,353–1,296–455–700–1,490–1,920–1,868
Switzerland1,0751,2651,4751,6871,8812,2882,5592,8733,5024,0514,5814,9275,2966,0416,161....
United Kingdom1,6272,1652,4842,7352,8664,1804,8464,1636,0115,1636,8628,4947,5589,5738,3346,900
Developing Countries
Oil Exporting Countries5,6655,9786,0745,9895,8439,37710,72813,19118,28522,06325,50729,18734,78444,70557,86948,076
Algeria–337–396–290–224–288–496–851–894–1,575–2,069–2,316–2,811–3,156–3.603–3,697....
Indonesia–292–383–433–498–675–908–1,732–2,104–2,357–2,876–3,253–3,833–4,885–6,485–6,766....
Nigeria–365–617–740–901–1,049–1,550–1,848–2,204–2,464–3,019–1,852–2,218–4,866–4,084–2,771....
Saudi Arabia–814–819–925–449–184–1,869–1,668–2,655–5,695–7,071–9,936–12,798–16,529–24,600........
Venezuela–1,072–978–901–1,132–862–929–1,039–862–1,239–1,934–2,538–2,630–2,310–2,910–5,756....
Other................–2,785–3,625–3,590–4,471–4,956–5,095–5,692–4,898–3,037–3,023–6,924–5,573
Non-Oil Developing Countries4,1514,7575,9816,1005,5507,0869,88012,15914,35816,21817,74423,90431,63645,83250,35048,279
Africa2,1042,2362,4872,4012,4103,0454,0635,0145,9536,7587,0677,9019,91611,73911,15611,420
Benin–9–11–13–15–17–12–14–26–14–27–32....................
Botswana............................7–21–21–49–71–114–50–51....
Cameroon........–68–66–73.:92–101–122–138–184–265–162–377–438–483....
Central African Rep.–20–20–24–17–15–24–34–36–23–41–43–65–66–31–66....
Chad–12–15–14–16–9–23–35–47–62–70–70–45–21–19–17....
Congo............–47–57–65–105–174–193–188–187–188–408–629–687....
Equatorial Guinea........–7–5–2–2–4....................................
Ethiopia–6–10–18–22–16–9–11–35–27–48–53–63–53–53–57....
Gabon–80–84–82–100–120–178–321–461–547–492–507–692–684–755–968....
Gambia, The........–2–2–2–3–2–3–3–13–13–20–19........
Ghana–83–98–118–112–61–83–138–146–164–144–173–165–190–260–170....
Ivory Coast–112–122–140–174–188–261–272–383–488–593–794–1,006–1,150–1,137–1,128....
Kenya–612121510–68–19–45–65–49–60–2141–628....
Lesotho............................92109130128149196230241....
Liberia............................–157–144–144–164–162–172–183........
Madagascar....–15–20–25–17–56–71–85–93–92–113–188................
Malawi–19–20–20–20–23–123–2–46–68–75–127–122–137–124....
Mali–24....–17–24–24–35–67–83–67–78–101–101–131–132–129–143
Mauritania–26–30–33........–24–25–67–104–76–55–58–75–110–123....
Mauritius–5–2–1–1–3–2–7–15–26–27–45–44–18–42–29
MDIOCCO–43–44–60–31–21–20–96–254–729–752–764–887–908–1,165–1,003....
Niger–18–17–20–13–25–26–44–52–74............................
Rwanda–11–11–12–16–18–21–24–34–39–58–86–99–69–64–83....
São Tomé&Principe........................–3–2–2–3–2–2–3–3........
Senegal–26–25–413425–50–46–59–11....................
Seychelles................................17192434373527....
Sierra Leone–17–19–16–19–17–20–22–32–30–40–58–60–48–48–64....
Somalia–11–9–9–7–17–23–28–41–33–28–32–49–52–58–49....
South Africa–595–739–875–902–803–974–1,275–1,567–1,513–1,753–1,894–2,171–3,199–4,000–3,588–3,677
Sudan–49–54–58–55–62–70–114–120–149–138–102–110–83–120–8–260
Swaziland........................–33–20–14–13–34–39–33–13–5....
Tanzania–23–8–11–22–17–32–61–29–21–67–97–82–103–58........
Togo–13–14–12–19–26–25–19–38–34–65–95–94–98............
Tunisia–18–7–656461213794440107227188178193....
Uganda–50–51–58–77–64–46–67–64–66–95–121–81–93–59........
Upper Volta–20–18–17–22–27–31–37–59–60–84–98–113–126............
Table B-3.Other Goods, Services, and Income(In millions of SDRs)
1968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983
Africa (continued)
–202–210–260–212–233–253–362–424–562–831–399–441–483............Zaire
–217–210–201–205–247–281–384–370–324–299–376–406–667–524–497....Zambia
....................................–196–171–199–221–440–423....Zimbabwe
–101–96–102–72–42–58–49–32–49–87–128–128–138–153–179–202Other
1642555736173885835853885142477592,0252,6071,88037174Asia
....................–75–80–121–76–131–143–187–202–262–316....Bangladesh
–23–32–40–42–22–1910–89–9–16–36–52–57–68....Burma
–1714192640513951596477716371....Fiji
–453–455–495–534–463–510–408–386–212–103–371754027........India
171199121283457–257–364–57229184–149–1,068–1,294–511–463Korea
–132–228–282–287–296–407–602–591–732–900–1,151–1,520–1,796–1,799–2,375....Malaysia
....................................3335357Maldives
................................20293838616181....Nepal
–189–196–248–241–167–132–225–244–259–308–332–400–383–462–520....Pakistan
................................–141–168–196–236–337–356–339–360Papua New Guinea
–111—131–141–87–53–27–29–38–222–209–132–293–417–495–1,085....Philippines
2622772912775446701,0261,5281,4771,4841,6691,8182,0874,1215,1004,702Singapore
....................................................–23........Solomon Islands
–38–60–56–40–36–28–49–51–44–30–74–75–117–149–197....Sri Lanka
18316416313115510849–27–255–341–349–605–584–1,011–976....Thailand
............–111–1214........Tonga
–11–1–3–6–4–6–5....Western Samoa
31434825230737–17325–16–46160–268–611–255–2236441,449Other
344340373460618616688560108266345251,1962,8514,2774,276Europe
5365658410712286416781106158212274341....Cyprus
1331001292843253614696068299971,2411,5171,7331,4891,16292Greece
........42–47–56–157–15–176–176–203–279–329–370–835–793–397Hungary
556059636991105146135129149171278262208....Malta
................19112946–159–66–82–4679–32–368–951....Portugal
............–23–28–78–140–110–55–138–122–338–583–794–701–663Romania
–131–127–132–172–91–71–196–236–503–739–460–768–1,071–1,137–925....Turkey
6311038–14101219333448–122–310–622–1,015–1,362–1,742–2,620....Yugoslavia
12511242302173047111,104855777278273728483553,365Middle East
............................–65–90–100–57–46–128107199....Bahrain
–140–134–218–231–200–212–323–383–34–106–192–180–207–379–559....Egypt
8–51–89–19–27–136–170–422–428–338–381380–455–696–1,287....Israel
–21–49–1–4–15–9–44–34–1633–39–179–34–112–154....Jordan
6471569884126–31–97–165–60–193–165–307–252–357....Syrian Arab Rep.
........................–10–21–19–60–62–21–35–43–33....Yemen Arab Rep.
7111335–1–2–18–11–15–17–35........Yemen. People’s Bern. Rep. of
238237247–55–45–49–76–81–102–1296577141,9121,4592,5971,703Other
2,3522,5963,2703,3113,1523,7895,2106,1937,1448,1709,60613,17918,64429,41035,64336,021Western Hemisphere
....................................151820232832....Antigua and Barbuda
–382–443–434–473–441–494–496–612–451–648–898–1,821–2,634–4,552–4,746....Argentina
....................–139153228289284303346451454434464Bahamas
19202438373853445784103148193188212....Barbados
–51–60–55–47–60–59–91–97–102–161–209–276–335–472–486....Bolivia
–574–685–1,090–1,282–1,330–1,782–2,341–2,850–3,614–4,289–4,750–6,020–7,799–11,197–15,502....Brazil
–327–301–343–277–293–235–463–471–470–584–606–727–1,014–1.835–2,243–2,034Chile
–185–237–315–339–327–310–321–367–374–302–314–93–66–504–792....Colombia
–28–27–24–30–45–43–56–77–97–123–155–198–234–295–294....Costa Rica Dominica
................................114–1–1....Dominica
–52–59–69–78–81–124–199–192–180–171–219–208–230–284–142....Dominican Republic
–83–83–115–103–121–174–286–213–257–358–453–548–749–1,026–1,247....Ecuador
–37–42–47–49–48–64–79–85–60–104–150–161–151–178–182....El Salvador
....................................9786–4....Grenada
–57–54–56–71–76–72–91–92–75–175–156–117–246–354–321....Guatemala
–34–31–30–33–28–34–39–53–74–57–52–68–99–110–109....Guyana
–8–10–12–5–3–7–11–9–18–33–45–38–68–68–78–77Haiti
–43–39–45–46–51–54–41–55–84–105–117–144–180–183–230....Honduras
–35–49–68–62–68–81–48–123–150–114–125–120–139–117–102....Jamaica
–122–98–235–143–8022–171–751–1,100–858–1,285–2,207–4,306–8,609–9,144....Mexico
–114–121–124–85–62–164–246–65207035–138–119............Netherlands Antilles
–42–42–46–47–27–62–93–78–91–107–102–107–116–137–185–161Nicaragua
113123133148147159240271296299282315309679412....Panama
–13–12–10–14–17–19–26–39–33–23–34–16–9–5–70....Paraguay
–236–251–215–232–187–268–308–405–444–463–468–721–698–1,070–1,147....Peru
................................591316141319....St. Lucia
........................................461011........St. Vincent
–51–59–57–64–60–54–66–63–61–90–79–91–96–77–108–113Suriname
–38–53–56–27810–13514–9–94–77–248–287–347........Trinidad and Tobago
–27–56–75–65–51–51–69–72–95–84–8811–83–92–419....Uruguay
–3–3–3–3–3–2–3–3311212911104Other
1,0002,0002,0002,0003,0003,0003,000Other Countries
Table B-4.Unrequited Transfers(In millions of SDRs)
1968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983
Total2,0411,4782,3692,7793,8351,2776,3489,3298,7179,86711,1168,71611,24712,2056,6256,822
Industrial Countries5,9265,7687,4209,10410,73810,38014,62414,26514,91416,16419,17321,92624,60425,91128,61430,960
United States–2,251–2,191–3,450–3,829–3,739–3,438–6,164–4,023–4,604–4,277–4,471–4,726–5,816–6,390–8,013–8,668
Canada170132145263263287474308466331224418251,1031,058671
Australia–56–93–112–134–180–261–347–353–370–397–391–401–272–336–417–426
Japan–180–170–210–260–420–250–250–300–310–343–550–859–1,176–1,369–1,250–1,450
New Zealand–19–27–15833402–12–6–35122–11109....
Austria373995–32–72–139–120–98–120–723–68624842
Belgium-Luxembourg–72–126–154–162–185–259–315–504–450–532–593–690–948–1,047–1,051....
Denmark6–30–43–51–831931316118933044024617–131–166–176
Finland–117–5–29–12–15–29–39–43–41–85–93–98–119–118
France–997–1,036–884–1,265–1,510–1,461–1,897–2,160–2,127–2,418–2,624–3,116–3,203–3,601–4,184–3,494
Germany, Fed. Rep. of–1,805–2,199–2,634–3,347–4,016–4,915–5,182–5,976–6,172–6,751–7,092–9,01910,416–10,087–10,580–9,723
Iceland–1–1141–1–1–2–3–3–5....
Ireland8995105111115178253322274503708887925720........
Italy291326130–121–337203–33208247179–305347935641781....
Netherlands–66–53–38–63–124–53–261–545–346–586–817–629–943–1,262–1,233–838
Norway9–5–11–18–40–84–131–171–251–293–337–382–411–502....
Spain4475326597658001,1829509419911,2051,3221,3811,5761,4341,4321,094
Sweden–95–143–153–177–234–261–348–539–647–752–969–867–996–910–866–830
Switzerland–258–306–332–376–465–562–586–571–516–570–737–819–876–868–968....
United Kingdom–1,174–530–427–469–615–901–809–855–1,219–1,667–2,735–3,713–3,693–3,347–3,329–3,299
Developing Countries
Oil Exporting Countries6105925815307941,2014,7697,6638,45411,02311,51411,60115,94718,17911,2858,747
Algeria200243233445245281–64309350241252248231262252....
Indonesia26476646474641221321112342212148....
Nigeria4829632–20–45–82–104–135–157–217–301–444–477–337....
Saudi Arabia–217–227–264–353–391–745–1,274–3,032–3,735–4,631–5,387–5,315–7,349–8,311........
Venezuela–80–97–92–83–88–93–165–142–201–242–325–315–337–347–579....
Other................–587–645–3,224–4,715–4,747–6,255–5,848–5,941–8,090–10,118–10,769–8,491
Non-Oil Developing Countries4,4964,8835,6336,8557,69710,31113,04512,59914,65117,32119,57124,81129,30532,48433,27332,884
Africa4204164016227017971,1851,6971,5931,8552,3362,4393,0563,5883,6313,988
Benin2317202336223555346858....................
Botswana............................1750816510098118108....
Cameroon........10940–51203327–17–515....
Central African Rep.810992218263033243161825165....
Chad182028303838415471768420163455....
Congo............484–2838–631911–16....
Equatorial Guinea........–2–1....................................
Ethiopia12118916214333544766635558129....
Gabon345143–11–5–23–34–91–89–53–54....
Gambia. The........1222642411203246........
Ghana–13–12–21211203723504756536875....
Ivory Coast–26–22–20–27–26–58–77–117–224–257–334–443–542–487–406....
Kenya2523265835252637115671691058061....
Lesotho............................2533404250656662....
Liberia............................5932532........
Madagascar....3127285128364945454855................
Malawi1513988107824223636333737....
Mali13....2024305192904571106109115110103115
Mauritania983........2547491089010675688455....
Mauritius434586121051111916133018
Morocco476973109127205274425438480607723858921907....
Niger202129243357865373............................
Rwanda12141618192427444756751018081100....
São Tomé&Principe........................4121........
Senegal3626334859485369929196....................
Seychelles................................57761084....
Sierra Leone4456351899171522403746....
Somalia201113191624438435938573154153160....
Soulh Africa1028569565717102156953889150291359283305
Sudan–2–2–29419405048648917428896230
Swaziland........................111210172527494250....
Tanzania911136–4441844798131135124119........
Togo10171417242632343036406465............
Tunisia4450587079110110143160174190255309324382....
Uganda–2–5–5–5–1–1102–2–21028108........
Upper Volta394345566583101109104119168203248............
Table B-4.Unrequited Transfers(In millions of SDRs)
1968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983
Africa (continued)
–27–22–2198–13–4–15437456114127159............Zaire
–34–71–146–151–124–106–106–105–96–70–49–81–135–118–37....Zambia
....................................–13–14–43–48–28–75....Zimbabwe
404961747699928573126184161217228218195Other
1,7741,8151,7061,8581,9452,4314,5222,5623,1083,8744,6475,7367,4568,0428,76110.241Asia
....................3292053181983534649508197951,035....Bangladesh
10151819171512141492245627160....Burma
3133851–1–3–1–24251422....Fiji
1762332322692592251,9265028901,1081,2801,5802,5612,534........India
224244178168156160184185300191373340345429453554Korea
–46–59–59–45–51–52–36–27–34–27–36–50–84–127–142....Malaysia
....................................1412232Maldives
................................4142466383107133....Nepal
2711761191791601592013304718581,2141,4801,8832,1642,845....Pakistan
................................75147133121124131125149Papua New Guinea
135155119134173193230262232224251275333401430....Philippines
–13–13–8–122–3–32–32–42–38–31–27–39–52–104–97Singapore
....................................................17........Solomon Islands
37121411113566565962l47209308386....Sri Lanka
7457494455121201814072115191456548728....Thailand
............223466678913........Tonga
2333478106131927252828....Western Samoa
9129721,0171,0461,1061,2061,481750855853721573634661633674Other
9591,2321,8082,5793,1373,9674,3204,3054,5525,2545,7397,2268.2869.48710,0998,394Europe
91217191713516053625455565366....Cyprus
2422783464705286155366167027907839018351,0571,4561,654Greece
........3642556166626038793337415753Hungary
323745383027373440444349447768....Malta
................8119209238558379711,2991,9152,3062,4642,417....Portugal
............Romania
’ 173" 183’3305677301,0521,2391,1849709488781.4011.6682.1842,013....Turkey
2022905487889661,2791,4681,4951,8922,4002,6032,8733,3393,6124,022....Yugoslavia
1,0891,1331,3281,4591,5542,7042,5743,4174,5685,5135,9198,1999,0739,7609,1728,374Middle East
............................–187–218–173–237–140–78–104–128....Bahrain
2542963373051021042583757298461,4571,7562,1451,8911,917....Egypt
4394616507889751,8711,4361,7202,1191,7711,7822,1602,2882,4842,367....Israel
1491291111001952032774796547906431,2121,5201,8461,781....Jordan
18171029773363835823941,0581,1331,9571,7622,0361,437....Syrian Arab Rep.
........................1573206759428289229339451,220....Yemen Arab Rep
5055524525283657147211242265328469........Yemen, People’s Dem. Rep of
27282859586586726867626817519371120Other
2542873893363604134436188308259391,2101,4331,6071,6101,888Western Hemisphere
....................................248101111....Antigua and Barbuda
–4–4–3–3–4941627554418–1828....Argentina
....................–15–15–8–10–11–12–3–1–237Bahamas
4555666611141317161521....Barbados
78471213111112132240433240....Bolivia
223121135231235813129167–7....Brazil
746771212104282778187929986Chile
313836343229433652505878127206153....Colombia
986766881114139112332....Costa Rica
................................45721191311....Dominica
108311728262932109120120159144164186....Dominican Republic
131217161423262727313323232118....Ecuador
814141711111523253441403851155....El Salvador
....................................4612202330....Grenada
11l3182528364664172829298847757....Guatemala
1–11–1–1–3–5–5–3–5–1–1–8....Guyana
1316221926212129565555596811599103Haiti
677766271511121416172327....Honduras
2515232227232123517216270105136....Jamaica
133555575962101116!35!45153174211247256....Mexico
–7–10–5–711–6–35746732............Netherlands Antilles
6765743131481087195604786Nicaragua
1444–4–3–4–3–2–210112632....Panama
5658653124156455....Paraguay
373282393635404151494594103138!59....Peru
................................11989111721....St. Lucia
........................................1091111........St. Vincent
711l21311111814277684868628485–5Suriname
–1–1–2–4–3–7–15–17–26–27–30–35–50–77........Trinidad and Tobago
789810161567665789....Uruguay
5555545667131515181927Other
................................................................Other Countries
Table B-5.Direct Investment and Other Long-Term Capital(In millions of SDRs)
1968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791988198119821983
Total1,7972,0493,5315,2435,7691,2814,1301,67813,47523,21720,6111,16413,15035,52931,18644,630
Industrial Countries5,33810,0235,9106,0517,79414,9616,57118,81710,0744,90825,36137,05613,30714,49732,66832,138
United States–3,090–4,350–6,390–9,063–5,379–5,826–6,253–16,161–13,101–10,613–9,368–18,298–8,695–846–8,776–10,435
Canada1,5202,1799526581,4775328793,2237,2673,2721,323930–1004195,317455
Australia1,1947471,0651,9271,569–5807506581,2901,8432,8952,0443,1495,66110,2857,117
Japan–180–190–1,460–950–2,800–7,050–2,960–100–650–2,741–10,576–9,7761,810–5,640–14,56417,700
New Zealand545822020112818943316572–1502526–519–546–1,081....
Austria183–2814–1874–186335868–645141,122–406419803–545–1,220
Belgium-Luxembourg–114252–363–544–827–612–176–221128–256–2204063,0643,1451,447....
Denmark1071841113852454292861111,6142,1261,9451,6511,9511,1472,1822,300
Finland721972363307911961,07484138371618935472222401
France–1,200–310647–600–2,061–215–1,248–1,897757–2,743–4,028–6,500–7,6501,167....
Germany. Fed. Rep, of–2,828–5,942–2571,8404,5134.120–2,027–6,121–306–4,640–1,1465,1222,2863,004–5,974–2,867
Iceland3218–35322199111156946072116165196....
Ireland467715038130238508215363l572995498031,642........
Italy–349–1,016376–80–2,228–1,32275–9576351203–2,1492,4276,9024,071....
Netherlands–135–47573513–867–1,523–1,104–1,191–2,903–1,074–1,929–1,3796–1,895–3,033–1,962
Norway56–1341383532717188242,1282,7023,6872,5651,753–709–629326....
Spain5865146684987816421,4701,4871,7422,5811,4052,5063,2273,5661,6002,960
Sweden117–40139112051453521,116320791–556–606–259–920–1,200–3,986
Switzerland–775–1,182–947–1,933–2,659–2,312–1,317–3,054–6,164–4,931–6,772–10,516–8,604–8,188–12,398....
United Kingdom–634–833–1,032–652–2,056–6081,283–919–1,3892,942–4,608–5,146–7,215–15,108–13,552–9,819
Developing Countries
Oil Exporting Countries9048567429357687367,4244,8033,5821,52111,4952,18018,07819,2885,51225,118
Algeria106736341858514401,1491,5091,6252,9161,8826905–855....
Indonesia2292672903764614374098591,7201,2771,2671,0211,6531,8374,466....
Nigeria205165205309338257141172–243591,2951,027–638221,010....
Saudi Arabia1011693–12724–765–7,378–7,525–9,663–6,4271,421–2,437–21,038–20,245........
Venezuela26333591373–240–44–6743261,2701,8062,9681,1171,5836872,858....
Other........................–3622161,6062,8811,628–431–903–2,394–132,720
Non-Oil Developing Countries6,2317,1188,69810,35912,79612,94518,12421,94227,13226,60334,47736,04044,51569,31458,34151,650
Africa1,2359941,4391,6521,7481,5483,0024,3384,2854,2604,3223,7734,1415,3426,9863,532
Benin77898101615151621....................
Botswana............................5118–75450796465....
Cameroon........4337l6444049999698220408385319....
Central African Rep.147–31517148113135121....
Chad1241–1241122322829–3–3–2–1....
Congo............5874617112611511513856189105407....
Equatorial Guinea........22411....................................
Ethiopia3118173630454257573026694620763....
Gabon–416615–62795202171–158026–28–8184....
Gambia. The........12344224813311........
Ghana3251102653826776–127688737686105....
lvory Coast383969972719014422422149070255579553545....
Kenya4453794379109156129192168333302289241185....
Lesotho............................328717263026....
Liberia............................73607243805423........
Madagascar....26l57–8232023121913174................
Malawi242836323541584741497293834533....
Mali19....331881014233133688581–10–11
Mauritania–41915........2287847718790104139....
Mauritius–42216488913232817476–21
Morocco9550114109437363151,1161,4871,1261,0671,0451,0951,185....
Niger121521838143048............................
Rwanda121381420272018343938....
São Tomé&Principe........................–1–1143122........
Senegal17192626–14634527250114....................
Seychelles................................635812724....
Sierra Leonel7l91210101530302192416245757....
Somalia41911416225144605564685938125....
South Africa5422967427416591801,3691,801851169–175–1,260–7381332,132–386
Sudan1534161442112728–82–32197–7191657
Swaziland........................61613245570384840....
Tanzania22217213710013098140898610917410796........
Togo–1–5645–2020354216615459............
Tunisia6462518583112117125341425463341355539633....
Uganda202773123–12125–14–101472–46–88........
Upper Volta2212–41511161634235041............
Table B-5.Direct Investment and Other Long-Term Capital(In millions of SDRs)
1968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983
Africa (continued)
39–1–19196151111193311629924625............Zaire
76–11–125–1896–13633051081723197174452127....Zambia
....................................–25121114–4174336....Zimbabwe
4457666699229839527–26437970107138123Other
2,0012,1382,1712,4162,7632,5142,9043,8795,4875,0196,7238,89112,70417,21917,82515,424Asia
....................99345505281249319106368421552....Bangladesh
8–115115333331857154328234266278....Burma
6816142636413717311435411972....Fiji
940734584685297394–793771894561553273509646........India
4055754965954655048691,1071,1531,1971,6772,3741,5213,0711,6351,712Korea
52137962322731955545935245615517167342,0593,025....Malaysia
....................................122141153Maldives
................................6231423325256....Nepal
312405495465185l89322372384539388276520488497....Pakistan
................................3256–353778338437429Papua New Guinea
227158130–91061111894269877407959347501,2881,637....Philippines
114731401582464055695516634465749141,1911,5371,7031,289Singapore
....................................................11........Solomon islands
3645306845436074626095134160319476....Sri Lanka
11412911080144673231572763665221,1401,6121,6131,267....Thailand
............31115–165386........Tonga
133766108997641....Western Samoa
–235–1484999315393366–8091791141,0961,5754,8074,9694,8891,173Other
8681,0039741,3901,7711,3842,1192,2262,6852,9994,2174,6716,0524,9503,6883,670Europe
817263533403811547311599167160192....Cyprus
2252622802965976676316504717388271,0281,5361,3571,1281,139Greece
........217126411934037154691373060184016165Hungary
1321736330263222425104918....Malta
................–96–118226–7824785855675441,0511,912....Portugal
............5–18–23513257–132–511937331,362723417–180Romania
184372330216642302150236917367264480337299–53....Turkey
1941931965374505094137839471,2261,2771,0291,495472–87....Yugoslavia
2772118088461,0141,0504288611,7951,9042,1812,5382,1583,2463,3783,558Middle East
............................72242344991584–131....Bahrain
2–82420269111–192–1903712595751,2747311,7201,590....Egypt
1802136836246488424918381,0738768388968529611,136....Israel
1211321161728113–3813023215382184288....Jordan
26210811321–86319528758–1941185....Syrian Arab Rep.
........................36!541448171367202152....Yemen Arab Rep.
4122l22244265057664061117........Yemen. People’s Dem. Rep. of
1515921–5–7–23317617l894Other
1,8502,7733,3074,0545,5006,4499,67010,63812,87812,42217,03416,16619,47938,55726,46525,166Western Hemisphere
....................................8313173128....Antigua and Barbuda
–99–2012033717235–2–1407324011,2182,4373,4588,4663,457....Argentina
....................769431634–20381236314Bahamas
81012161821320212217–13–2388....Barbados
5453336986318313118627821920040286149....Bolivia
2175461,2171,6633,2633,4395,1814,0785,2895,1448,0134,9995,4649,9547,260....Brazil
246273140–61–63–60–218–6840421,2061,3821,7233,0351,5231,136Chile
15722822719424324019024390197765616131,3761,458....Colombia
233244577478113183176251267267298158–40....Costa Rica
................................1211127....Dominica
5383110817658134131151148128124278123177....Dominican Republic
60671101801476588165136506625534586913147....Ecuador
119–3319434576333132458477136....El Salvador
....................................112168....Grenada
5143554630505811466152198185176311273....Guatemala
201717161424256716242622263726....Guyana
233114101638592845417739....Haiti
293040352227537082113126122173160152....Honduras
1361131611881171731761497437–106–2010843209....Jamaica
5478006267647621,5262,5338,8844,3273,9294,0464,0185,96811,2257,639....Mexico
–74252942132203811–11513723............Netherlands Antilles
56284651479414412626:1786430264506403....Nicaragua
27311208611812494153626–97362243–5544801,255....Panama
263119251925447110273133105148143240....Paraguay
92128–179983425991,0655565771186–733521,046....Peru
................................5131922253523....St. Lucia
........................................343........St.Vincent
1497–415174–80–47–1112–138281047Suriname
2865831269551583612198216336258277........Trinidad and Tobago
136–427–8–4423874987122278311293424....Uruguay
54446371381561338155Other
................................................................Other Countries
Table B-6.Current Account and Long-Term Capital(In millions of SDRs)
1968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983
Total5782,0071143,6328,6648,58510,54213,7062,1703,78563514,23914,91823,75265,98031,582
Industrial Countries8384,5597993,9249314,13725,28111,27818,73117,56111,69955,73659,99929,94753,44950,465
United States–1,661–2,991–4,070–10,511–10,70072–4,668–1,224–9,512–22,999–21,887–19,020–8,2962,934–19,197–48,899
Canada1,4301,1151,7738101,122607–356–6243,682–259–2,104–2,270–810–3,6367,5531,663
Australia–155–1392801,1342,045–122–1,456–35–228–596–455291334–9973,2062,331
Japan8501,9305204,8303,280–7,120–6,850–5902,5506,5813,427–16,520–6,439–1,299–8,2402,120
New Zealand–2182–1218127887–1,066–796–623–743–355–614–1,177–1,786–2,440....
Austria8761–61–106–71–404167679–1,033–1,363569–1,292–911–488–195–1,346
Belgium-Luxembourg–8649435497375532518–78503–734–879–1,965–735–400–1,040....
Denmark–109–226–433–3718738–528–304–42651750–65857–4351401,199
Finland12040–16724199–236–818–713–1582571,21930–1,031240–632–486
France–2,056–1,783114575–334–850–3,104982–4,8193902,877–32–9,720–11,705–9,778....
Germany, Fed. Rep. of138–4,0405962,6975,2607,9846,568–2,7953,100–1,1496,118363–9,952–-1,768–2,745786
Iceland–2017–14–26–43–7375273565541–42....
Ireland–32–127–48182–10825–7116968–164–111–792–537–180........
Italy2,3391,3901,2781,953–1,129–3,453–6,624–1,442–2,4972,4255,1482,053–5,114–206–1,033....
Netherlands–701691405379502741448–542–546–3,087–2,970–2,2685252641,320
Norway64–6–104–169217407–105106–543–6258779461371,218928....
Spain3891227471,3511,3161,133–1,218–1,389–1,9797452,6843,385–752–574–2,159770
Sweden1–237–1263617271,344–107828–1,107–1,084–761–2,467–3,638–3,198–4,360–4,990
Switzerland–230–657–875–1,851–2,456–2,077–1,173–760–2,909–1,445–2,935–8,315–8,718–5,794–9,115....
United Kingdom–1,8173799432,084–1,516–2,612–5,087–3,733–2,6783,048–2,867–5,945–485–2,437–4,852–6,956
Developing Countries
Oil Exporting Countries2,2411,7942,0093,2623,9636,24946,18118,40324,84221,4689,06345,10260,07919,6077,9417,914
Algeria72–134–624669476586–219741–3659062088277–1,021....
Indonesia4–69–20515338906–549321,2371311,7763,8501,317–923....
Nigeria–16–151–163–96232504,213207–333–506–1,7112,3203,217–4,140–5,624....
Saudi Arabia9–701648421,9491,34911,7684,3222,7753,844–3456,20710,77212,278........
Venezuela69115–13362–3336914,1162,1141,490–916–1,6131,3885,2154,019–988....
Other................2,1033,44524,59212,03319,23718,17412,51132,79236,1405,996–1,0835,626
Non-Oil Developing Countries1761,7581,6932,5546,6327,4736,35810,8315,7196,8789,0011,60511,99410,4114,5919,969
Africa5495345351,3316667074871,6161,13266931,3374397,5524,6963,082
Benin–5692–9–29–37–25–40....................
Botswana............................201915187819–11010....
Cameroon........13–7–353026–771916–5012267–25–96....
Central African Rep.–4–6–12–2–2–23–1419–8–818228–35....
Chad–2–454–1–28–27274–8–1031616....
Congo............–8–12–5–6–79–82–51–6–2062–285107....
Equatorial Guinea........–4–3–114....................................
Ethiopia–47–16–937108881933–40–68–3–129–7–114....
Gabon24333–9–9233195129–10139218274260364....
Gambia. The........213811–12–3–28–13–54–28........
Ghana–24–934–81138133–13691–7685116843–91181....
Wary Coast383932–9–62594–886