When coloring the world map on the cover pages of the March 1975 issue of Finance & Development the man with the brush seems to have been carried away a bit. With astonishment I noticed that (on the back page) Papua New Guinea, the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, Fiji and Western Samoa (all of them north - northeast of Australia) are colored as developed countries. However, all of these countries have per capita incomes not exceeding US$500 equivalent.
On the front page, I was surprised to find Spain to be shown as a developing country while Portugal, evidently with a notably lower per capita income than Spain was colored as a developed country.
Guenter H. Reif
Please allow me to draw your attention to the front cover of the current edition of Finance & Development (vol. 12, no. 1, March 1975).
In reference to the front cover map, Cuba has been placed in the category “developing countries.” On the other hand, the 1974 edition of World Bank Atlas classifies Cuba under the category “centrally planned economies” (see map on p. 8). Since “centrally planned economies,” as distinct from “developed countries” and “developing countries,” encompasses both developed and developing countries, the fact that Cuba is a developing country cannot preclude its inclusion.
Sang E. Lee
Washington, D. C.
In our map we followed in general the categories used in “World Economic Indicators,” prepared in the World Bank. Under those categories Cuba is listed as a “centrally planned economy,” so our coloring was not consistent, and the error is regretted.
Any broad categorization is, however, inevitably going to result in some anomalies, arising from changing political boundaries that enclose varying economic regions and dependencies.
The three categories “developed,” “developing, “and” centrally planned” are themselves of course incommensurate with each other. On an income per capita basis, some centrally planned economies are no doubt “developed.”
Our reason for classifying Portugal as developed was explained in a footnote.
In the March 1975 issue of your quarterly publication, there is an article by Mr. Bension Varon, Senior Economist in the Policy Planning Division of the Policy Planning and Program Review Department of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, dealing with the problems of the Law of the Sea.
In that article, reference is made by the author to the 200-mile limit issue, in which he makes the following statement: “…. Chile, México, Nicaragua, and Peru, by the same date, were claiming rights up to 200 miles away…..” As in my view, apart from excluding Ecuador and other countries - like Brazil, Uruguay, El Salvador which have also adopted the 200-mile territorial sea principle - the article does not reflect the true state of affairs, I would like to call your attention and that of the author to the following aspects:
The so called Santiago Declaration, signed by Ecuador, Chile and Peru, on August 18, 1952, established the exclusive rights and full sovereignty of those three countries to the stretch of 200 miles of the sea off their coasts, including the soil and subsoil, and in accordance with the geographical, biological, ecological, social and other factors relevant to each country.
As is well known, more than 13 countries have so far adopted the full sovereignty principle over the 200-miles of their territorial sea.
Also known is the fact that Ecuador has been exercising full sovereignty over its 200-mile territorial sea, and enforcing its rights against any violation by foreign vessels fishing within that area without the corresponding registration and fishing licenses granted by the proper Ecuadorean authorities.
José C. Cárdenas
Embassy of Ecuador
Mr. Varon replies:
“I am grateful to the Ambassador for raising this issue. However, the countries named in the article were mentioned only for illustrative purposes. There was no intention to comment on the legal state of affairs by excluding Ecuador or any other country. “
I read with great interest Mr. Premchand’s article, “Budgetary Reforms in Developing Countries,” in the March issue of Finance & Development. I represent a project of the Division of Science and Technology Policies of UNESCO directed to development of techniques for special analysis of government expenditures on science and technology related to development objectives—an undertaking which seems in keeping with your recommendations for “immediate tasks.”
I would like very much to obtain 20 copies of this article for distribution to those connected with this project.
Gordon R. Chapman
Chapman Research Associates
4136 Leland Street
Chevy Chase, Maryland 20015
The extra copies requested by you have been sent. We are always willing to supply a reasonable amount of extra copies for such projects.
Letters to the Editor should be addressed to the Editor, Finance & Development, IMF Building, Washington, D.C., 20431. Please be brief. The Editor reserves the right to edit letters for reasons of space and clarity.
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