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World Bank Atlas: Population and Per Capita Product of the World

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Published Date:
March 1969
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In this issue Finance and Development presents an atlas of population and per capita product of the countries of the world, based on the expanded and updated third edition of the Atlas produced by the World Bank. The country population estimates refer to resident population in mid-1968 and the figures for gross national product (GNP) per capita refer to calendar year 1966.

The coverage now extends to 192 countries and territories. For reasons of convenience, only countries with populations of one million or more are included.

A technical note discussing the methodology employed and the limitation of the estimates is given on page 42. As that note explains, the estimates should not be regarded as authoritative figures, but rather as orders of magnitude.

The figures show that the majority of the world’s population lives in poverty; about two thirds live in countries with gross national product per capita of less than $300 per year. Only one quarter of the countries listed have populations of more than ten million; in half of them there are fewer than three million people. Well above half the people of the world live in six countries, each with populations of more than 100 million. Only two of the “big six” have a GNP per capita of more than $100.

The complete World Bank Atlas may be obtained by writing to:

Information and Public Affairs Department

World Bank

1818 H Street N.W.

Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A.

Africa

Population and Gross National Product Per Capita (US Dollars)
NO.COUNTRYPOPULATIONGNP PER CAPITA
1NIGERIA59,700,000$ 80
2UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC30,147,000160
3ETHIOPIA23,000,00060
4SOUTH AFRICA(incl. S.W. Africa)18,882,000550
5CONGO, DEM. REP. OF15,986,00060
6SUDAN13,940,000100
7MOROCCO13,725,000170
8ALGERIA12,147,000220
9TANZANIA11,833,00080
10KENYA9,643,00090
11GHANA7,945,000230
12UGANDA7,740,000100
13MOZAMBIQUE7,040,000100
14MALAGASY REPUBLIC6,200,00090
15CAMEROON5,350,000110
16ANGOLA5,225,000170
17UPPER VOLTA4,955,00050
18MALI4,654,00060
19TUNISIA4,460,000200
20SOUTHERN RHODESIA4,400,000210
21MALAWI4,035,00050
22IVORY COAST3,920,000220
23ZAMBIA3,827,000180
24GUINEA3,608,00080
25SENEGAL3,580,000210
26NIGER3,433,00080
27CHAD3,361,00070
28BURUNDI3,274,00050
29RWANDA3,204,00040
30SOMALIA2,580,00050
31DAHOMEY2,410,00080
32SIERRA LEONE2,403,000150
33TOGO1,680,000100
34LIBYA1,677,000640
35CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC1,437,000110
36LIBERIA1,090,000210
37MAURITANIA1,070,000130
38LESOTHO865,00060
39CONGO(Brazzaville)850,000120
40MAURITIUS759,000210
41BOTSWANA575,00060
42PORTUGUESE GUINEA528,000
43GABON468,000400
44REUNION408,000
45SWAZILAND375,000290
46GAMBIA336,00090
47CAPE VERDE ISLANDS228,000
48COMORO ISLANDS225,000110
49RIO MUNI198,000
50CITIES UNDER SPANISH SOVEREIGNTY160,000
51FRENCH SOMALI LAND84,000570
52FERNANDO POO74,000
53SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE60,000
54IFNI53,000
55SEYCHELLES ISLAND48,000
56SPANISH SAHARA48,000

Asia

Population and Gross National Product Per Capita (US Dollars)
NO.COUNTRYPOPULATIONGNP PER CAPITA
57CHINA(Mainland)710,000,000$ —
58INDIA498,680,00090
59PAKISTAN117,000,00090
60JAPAN98,865,000860
61PHILIPPINES33,477,000160
62THAILAND31,698,000130
63KOREA, REPUBLIC OF29,086,000150
64IRAN25,550,000250
65BURMA25,246,00060
66VIET-NAM(North)19,500,000
67VIET-NAM, REPUBLIC OF16,543,000120
68AFGHANISTAN15,960,00070
69CHINA, REPUBLIC OF12,810,000230
70KOREA(North)12,400,000
71CEYLON11,491,000150
72NEPAL10,294,00070
73MALAYSIA9,725,000280
74IRAQ8,380,000270
75SAUDI ARABIA6,870,000240
76CAMBODIA6,277,000120
77SYRIA5,400,000180
78YEMEN5,218,00090
79HONG KONG3,732,000560
80LAOS2,700,00070
81ISRAEL2,629,0001,160
82LEBANON2,460,000480
83JORDAN2,059,000220
84SINGAPORE1,914,000570
85SOUTHERN YEMEN1,146,000
86MONGOLIA1,140,000
87RYUKYU ISLANDS943,000450
88BHUTAN750,000
89MUSCAT AND OMAN565,000
90KUWAIT491,0003,410
91MACAO290,000
92BAHRAIN193,000
93SIKKIM180,000
94TRUCIAL OMAN130,000
95BRUNEI104,0001,330
96MAL DIVE ISLANDS101,000
97QATAR71,000

Indonesia and Oceania

Population and Gross National Product Per Capita (US Dollars)
NO.COUNTRYPOPULATIONGNP PER CAPITA
98INDONESIA107,000,000$ 100
99AUSTRALIA11,541,0001,840
100NEW ZEALAND2,676,0001,930
101PAPUA AND NEW GUINEA2,183,000140
102WEST IRIAN(Indonesia)800,000
103PORTUGUESE TIMOR560,000
104FIJI ISLANDS478,000280
105BRITISH SOLOMON ISLANDS141,000
106WESTERN SAMOA130,000
107NEW CALEDONIA95,0001,480
108TRUST TERRITORY OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS92,000270
109FRENCH POLYNESIA90,000950
110GUAM79,0001,550
111TONGA77,000
112NEW HEBRIDES76,000
113GILBERT & ELLICE ISLANDS54,000
114AMERICAN SAMOA27,000580

North and Central Americas

Population and Gross National Product Per Capita (US Dollars)
NO.COUNTRYPOPULATIONGNP PER CAPITA
115UNITED STATES196,920,000$3,520
11BMEXICO44,145,000470
117CANADA20,050,0002,240
118CUBA*7,800,000320
119GUATEMALA4,575,000320
120HAITI4,485,00070
121DOMINICAN REPUBLIC3,754,000250
122EL SALVADOR3,037,000270
123PUERTO RICO2,668,0001,090
124HONDURAS2,363,000220
125JAMAICA1,839,000460
126NICARAGUA1,720,000330
127COSTA RICA1,486,000400
128PANAMA1,287,000500
129TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO995,000630
130MARTINIQUE328,000520
131GUADELOUPE319,000440
132BARBADOS245,000400
133NETHERLANDS ANTILLES210,0001,090
134BAHAMA ISLANDS140,000
135BRITISH HONDURAS109,000360
136ST, LUCIA106,000190
137GRENADA99,000230
138ST, VINCENT69,000230
139DOMINICA68,000230
140ANTIGUA60,000300
141ST, KITTS-NEVIS-ANGUILLA56,000260
142CANAL ZONE56,000
143BERMUDA50,000
144VIRGIN ISLANDS(US)50,0002,320

The estimate for Cuba may have a wider margin of error because of the difficulties in deriving the GNP at factor cost from net material product and the selection of the most appropriate exchange rates for converting these estimates into US dollars.

The estimate for Cuba may have a wider margin of error because of the difficulties in deriving the GNP at factor cost from net material product and the selection of the most appropriate exchange rates for converting these estimates into US dollars.

Distribution of Word Population according to GNP per Capita

Countries with populations of 1 million or more
Countries with populations of 1 million or more

(Country areas drawn according to population sizes.)

Note: Country numbers refer to the lists for the Regional Maps.

South America

Population and Gross National Product Per Capita (US Dollars)
NO.COUNTRYPOPULATIONGNP PER CAPITA
145BRAZIL83,175,000$ 240
146ARGENTINA22,691,000780
147COLOMBIA18,596,000280
14BPERU12,012,000320
149VENEZUELA8,921,000850
150CHILE8,780,000510
151ECUADOR5,326,000190
152BOLIVIA3,748,000160
153URUGUAY2,749,000570
154PARAGUAY2,094,000200
155GUYANA662,000300
156SURINAM350,000360
157FRENCH GUIANA37,000500

Europe

Population and Gross National Product Per Capita (US Dollars)
NO.COUNTRYPOPULATIONGNP PER CAPITA
158USSR*233,105,000$ 890
159GERMANY, FED. REP. OF59,676,0001,700
160UNITED KINGDOM54,744,0001,620
161ITALY51,962,0001,030
162FRANCE49,400,0001,730
163TURKEY31,910,000280
164SPAIN31,871,000640
165POLAND*31,698,000730
166YUGOSLAVIA19,735,000510
167ROMANIA*19,143,000650
168GERMANY(Eastern)*17,067,0001,220
169CZECHOSLOVAKIA*14,240,0001,010
170NETHERLANDS12,455,0001,420
171HUNGARY*10,179,000800
172BELGIUM9,528,0001,630
173PORTUGAL9,335,000380
174GREECE8,614,000660
175BULGARIA*8,257,000620
176SWEDEN7,808,0002,270
177AUSTRIA7,290,0001,150
178SWITZERLAND5,999,0002,250
179DENMARK4,797,0001,830
180FINLAND4,637,0001,600
181NORWAY3,753,0001,710
182IRELAND2,884,000850
163ALBANIA*1,914,000300
184CYPRUS603,000690
165LUXEMBOURG335,0001,920
186MALTA317,000510
187ICELAND196,0001,740
188CHANNEL ISLANDS115,000
189ISLE OF MAN50,000
190GREENLAND41,000
191FAEROE ISLANDS37,000
192GIBRALTAR25,000

The estimates for the USSR and Eastern Europe have a wider margin of error because of the difficulties in deriving the GNP at factor cost from net material product and the selection of the most appropriate exchange rates for converting these estimates into US dollars.

The estimates for the USSR and Eastern Europe have a wider margin of error because of the difficulties in deriving the GNP at factor cost from net material product and the selection of the most appropriate exchange rates for converting these estimates into US dollars.

Technical Note

For purposes of inter-country comparison, GNP per capita estimates in US dollar equivalents should be derived, ideally, from national currency figures on the basis of purchasing power parities or through direct real product comparisons. To date, however, a limited number of countries only have been covered by such studies, generally relating to different periods of time. In particular, no framework exists for systematic estimation along these lines on a current basis.

In the absence of such a framework, the present figures of GNP per capita in US dollars have been converted from the national currency estimates essentially on the basis of exchange rates. It must be pointed out, however, that the use of exchange rates for this purpose may result in a considerable overstatement of product differences among countries, especially as between those in the very high and very low income categories. A study carried out for India, for example, indicates that whereas at exchange rates US per capita product in 1959 exceeded that in India by a ratio of 30:1, a purchasing power parity calculation yielded a ratio approximately 12:1.

The reason for this lies primarily in the divergent price and product structures of different countries. Exchange rates, even when they approximate balance of payments equilibrium rates, equate at best the prices of internationally traded goods and services only. They may bear little relationship to the prices of non-internationally traded goods and services, which in most countries form the large bulk of the total national product. Specifically, the prices of agricultural products and of services in developing countries are in most cases considerably lower, relative to industrial prices, than in more developed countries. Moreover, agricultural output generally accounts for the larger part of the overall national product in developing countries, while the opposite is true of developed countries. As a result, the internal purchasing power of the currency of a lower income country will generally be greater than indicated by the exchange rate.

The use of exchange rates for converting national currency estimates into US dollar equivalent is further complicated by the fact that in many cases the official or par value rates do not themselves constitute equilibrium rates. Countries experiencing substantial inflations frequently maintain pegged exchange rates over long periods, so that a straight conversion on the basis of the over valued rates would overstate both the absolute level of the GNP in terms of US dollars and its increase over time.

In order to try to minimize the possible distorting effect of such rates, the estimates presented here for 1966 have been computed as extrapolations of the US dollar estimates previously determined for 1964. The 1964 estimates were derived from the respective national currency figures mainly on the basis of the then prevailing official or par value exchange rates. In some instances, where the 1964 exchange rate appeared to be significantly out of line due to the effects of inflation or other causes, rough adjustments were made in order to approximate what would appear to be an equilibrium exchange rate. The 1964 US dollar estimates, thus computed, were raised by the index of real GNP per capita growth in each country between 1964-1966 in order to obtain estimates for 1966 in 1964 US dollars. These were then adjusted to current 1966 US dollars on the basis of the implicit GNP price deflator for the United States. The present estimates may thus differ from those that would be obtained by directly converting the 1966 domestic currency estimates on the basis of the current official or par value exchange rates.

Special problems arise with regard to the estimates for the centrally planned (socialist) economies. The national accounts for these countries are compiled originally in terms of “net material product” and adjustments have to be made in order to derive approximate estimates of GNP at factor cost. There is also the problem of selecting an appropriate exchange rate for conversion of the national currency estimate into US dollars, since the “basic” rates maintained by these countries are frequently far removed from hypothetical “equilibrium” rates. Finally, the indications are that, in the absence of market conditions, the internal cost of price relationships in these countries are even more than usually out of line with international prices. Consequently, more than usual caution needs to be applied in using and interpreting the figures for these countries.

For all countries, the GNP per capita estimates are given at factor cost rather than at current market prices. This procedure is followed in order to minimize as far as possible any distorting effect arising out of differing national taxation policies.

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