About the Contributors
- Ruben Lamdany, and Hali Edison
- Published Date:
- December 2012
Alisa Abrams is Senior Research Officer with the IEO, where she has worked since 2007 and has published on aspects of IMF governance. She has served at the World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, World Bank Institute, and World Bank Office of the Executive Director for the United States and for Japan. She holds a Masters in International Development and Social Change and is a certified facilitator in participatory appraisal.
Montek Singh Ahluwalia is the Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission, India. He joined the Government of India in 1979 as Economic Adviser in the Ministry of Finance after which he held a series of positions including Special Secretary to the Prime Minister; Commerce Secretary; Secretary in the Department of Economic Affairs; Finance Secretary in the Ministry of Finance; Member of the Planning Commission; and Member of the Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister. In 2001, he was appointed as the first Director of the IEO, where he served until 2004.
Thomas Bernes is the Executive Director at the Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI). Prior to this appointment, he was the Director of the IEO from June 2005 to July 2009. He was also Executive Secretary of the Joint World Bank-IMF Development Committee and Deputy Corporate Secretary of the World Bank. From 1996 to September 2001, Mr. Bernes was the IMF Executive Director for Canada, Ireland, and the Caribbean. Prior to that, he was Assistant Deputy Minister of Finance and G-7 Finance Deputy in Canada and served as the senior international economic official representing Canada at high-level meetings. In addition to holding various senior finance, foreign affairs, and trade policy positions within the Canadian government, Mr. Bernes served as head of the OECD’s General Trade Policy Division in the mid-1980s. He is a graduate of the University of Manitoba.
Jack Boorman was the Special Advisor to the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund. Previously, he served at the IMF as Director of the Policy Development and Review Department and as Counsellor, and held positions in the European and Asian departments, including a posting as Resident Representative of the IMF in Indonesia. He also served as a Financial Economist at the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Southern California and has taught both there and at the University of Maryland.
Hali Edison is a Lead Evaluator in the IEO, joining in July 2009 on leave from IMF staff. She has held numerous professional appointments including at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve, U.S. Department of Treasury, and Norwegian Central Bank. She has published widely in academic journals, focusing mainly on issues in international finance. She holds a Ph.D. in Economics from the London School of Economics.
Joseph Eichenberger is the Chief Evaluator of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. He served previously (2006–09) as Vice President of Regional and Country Operations and Policy at the African Development Bank in Tunis, responsible for country strategies and operations and operational policy issues, and concessional resource mobilization, and Chair of the Bank’s Operations Committee. Prior to that, he was Vice President for Operations (East) at the Asian Development Bank in Manila (2001–06), a member of the Management and Private Sector Investment Committees, and responsible for Bank strategy and operations in 27 countries across East, Central and Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Mr. Eichenberger was Director of the Office of Multilateral Development Banks at the U.S. Treasury Department from 1994 until 2001, responsible for all aspects of U.S. engagement with the Banks, including budget appropriation. He served in the U.S. Executive Director’s office at the World Bank from 1991 through 1994, including as Acting Executive Director; prior to that he held a variety positions as an international economist in the U.S. Treasury. Mr. Eichenberger earned an M.A. in Economics from the University of Maryland (1982).
Jo Marie Griesgraber is the Executive Director of the New Rules for Global Finance Coalition, a Washington-based international network of activists and researchers concerned with reforms of the international financial architecture. Previously, she was Director of Policy at Oxfam America where she supervised advocacy programs on international trade, humanitarian response, global funding for basic education, and extractive industries. Before that, she directed the Rethinking Bretton Woods Project at the Center of Concern, a Jesuit-related social justice research center, where she worked on reform of the World Bank, regional development banks, and the IMF. She has taught political science at Georgetown University, Goucher College, and American University, and was Deputy Director of the Washington Office on Latin America, a human rights lobby office. She chaired Jubilee 2000/USA’s Executive Committee and edited, with Bernhard Gunter, the five-volume Rethinking Bretton Woods series. Ms. Griesgraber received her Ph.D. in political science from Georgetown University and her B.A. in history from the University of Dayton, Ohio.
Michael Hammer is the Executive Director of the One World Trust since July 2006. Before joining the Trust, he worked as Nigeria, Cameroon, Ghana, and Burkina Faso Researcher, and then Africa Programme Director with Amnesty International, as West Africa Programme Director responsible for Sierra Leone and Liberia with peace-builders Conciliation Resources, and as a consultant and projects manager for European integration and urban planning with Germany-based sustainability and planning consultants Institut Raum & Energie. Prior to this, he lived and worked for several years in West Africa, researching urban and rural land conflicts in the context of slum rehabilitation and environmental resource degradation in Ghana, Senegal, Guinea, and Côte d’Ivoire. Mr. Hammer leads the Trust’s work on parliamentary oversight of international affairs, international law, peace and security governance, global democracy, and accountability of policy research. He is co-author of the One World Trust Global Accountability Report and regularly speaks at conferences, and publishes articles and briefings. After studies in Dakar (Senegal) and Hamburg (Germany) he obtained his Research Master’s in geography, history and urban planning from the University of Hamburg in 1995. Mr. Hammer is a Trustee of the British Overseas NGOs for Development Network (BOND), and a member of the board of Greenpeace Germany.
Takatoshi Kato is currently President at Japan Center for International Finance. He was Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund from 2004 to 2010. Mr. Kato has a B.A. from Tokyo University (1964) and M.P.A. from Princeton University (1968). Prior to taking up his current position, he was Advisor to the President, Tokyo-Mitsubishi Bank and a Visiting Professor at Waseda University. He was also a Visiting Professor at Princeton University (1998–99). Mr. Kato has held a series of senior positions at the Ministry of Finance of Japan. These include Vice-Minister of Finance for International Affairs (1995–97) and Director-General of the International Finance Bureau (1993–95). From 1985 to 1987, Mr. Kato served as Executive Director for Japan at the Asian Development Bank. Previously, he held positions at the Ministry of Finance and the OECD Secretariat. In 2002, he published a book on exchange rate policy.
Anne Krueger is Professor of International Economics at the Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS). She joined the faculty in 2007 after leaving the IMF, where she had served as First Deputy Managing Director from 2001 to 2006 and as Acting Managing Director for three months during 2005. Prior to the IMF, she was Herald L. and Caroline L. Ritch Professor in Humanities and Sciences in the Department of Economics at Stanford University, and the founding Director of Stanford’s Center for International Development and a Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution. Professor Krueger had previously taught at the University of Minnesota and Duke University and held visiting professorships at a number of universities in the United States and abroad. She was Chief Economist of the World Bank from 1982 through 1986. She received her undergraduate degree from Oberlin College and her Ph.D. in economics from the University of Wisconsin. She is a Distinguished Fellow of the American Economic Association, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, and a Senior Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. She has published many books and articles on international economics, and has also written extensively on aspects of economic development in India, Korea, and Turkey. Her most recent book is Struggling with Success: Challenges Facing the International Economy, World Scientific Publishers, 2012.
Christine Lagarde became the eleventh Managing Director of the IMF in July 2011. Born in Paris, Christine Lagarde graduated from law school at University Paris X, and obtained a Master’s degree from the Political Science Institute in Aix-en-Provence. After being admitted to the Paris Bar, Christine Lagarde joined the international law firm of Baker & McKenzie, becoming Chairman of the Global Executive Committee of Baker & McKenzie in 1999, and of the Global Strategic Committee in 2004. Christine Lagarde joined the French government in June 2005 as Minister for Foreign Trade. After a brief stint as Minister for Agriculture and Fisheries, in June 2007 she became the first woman to hold the post of Finance and Economy Minister of a G-7 country.
Ruben Lamdany is Deputy Director of the IEO. Before joining the IEO in 2006, he was Director at the World Bank Institute, which delivers capacity-building programs in developing countries. Prior World Bank assignments include senior positions in the Operations Evaluation Department, as well as in units responsible for operations in the Balkans, Russia, and Ukraine. He has held positions at the IMF, in the Bank of Israel, and at the Planning Institute of Jamaica. Mr. Lamdany holds a Ph.D. in Economics from Columbia University and degrees in Mathematics and Economics from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.
Christopher Legg is the Executive Director representing Australia, Kiribati, Korea, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, New Zealand, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, and Vanuatu. Before joining the Executive Board in 2008, Mr. Legg held senior positions in the Australian Treasury, including as Acting Executive Director of Treasury’s Macroeconomic Group; General Manager of the Financial System Division; General Manager of the Foreign Investment Policy Division; and executive member of Australia’s Foreign Investment Review Board. He was also an Alternate Executive Director of the World Bank between 1995 and 1999.
Leslie Lipschitz was the Director of the IMF Institute from 2003 to 2011. He joined the IMF in 1974, and during his 30 years of service at the Fund held increasingly senior positions in four area departments (Western Hemisphere, Asia and Pacific, European, and African) and the Policy Development and Review Department. He received his Ph.D. in economics from the University of London. Lipschitz has worked extensively in Africa, Asia, and Europe and has led numerous IMF missions. He has participated in the Fund’s work on surveillance over the major industrial countries, led program negotiations for both emerging and developing countries, and, most recently, been closely involved in the Fund’s policy development work in surveillance and conditionality. Mr. Lipschitz has been a guest scholar at the Brookings Institution and has taught at Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies. His publications are primarily in open economy macroeconomics and exchange rate policy.
David Lipton assumed the position of First Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund on September 1, 2011. Prior to this, he was Special Advisor to the Managing Director of the IMF starting July 26, 2011. Before joining the IMF, he was Special Assistant to the President, and served as Senior Director for International Economic Affairs at the National Economic Council and National Security Council at the White House. Previously, Mr. Lipton was a Managing Director at Citi. Prior to joining Citi in May 2005, he was at Moore Capital Management for five years and, before that spent a year at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Mr. Lipton served in the Clinton Administration at the Treasury Department from 1993 to 1998, including as Assistant Secretary and Under Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs. Before that, he was a fellow at the Woodrow Wilson Center of Scholars. From 1989 to 1992, he along with Prof. Jeffrey Sachs worked as economic advisers to the governments of Russia, Poland, and Slovenia. Mr. Lipton began his career with eight years on the IMF staff. He has a Ph.D. and M.A. from Harvard University in 1982 and a B.A. from Wesleyan University in 1975.
Jin Liqun is the Chairman of the Board of Supervisors of the China Investment Corporation. Prior to this appointment, he served as the Ranking Vice President of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Before joining the ADB in August 2003, he served as Deputy Minister of Finance, Assistant Minister of Finance, and Director General of the World Bank Department at the Ministry of Finance. He served as Alternate Executive Director for China at the World Bank from 1989 to 1993. He was also a member of the Monetary Policy Committee of the People’s Bank of China. He currently serves as Chairman of the International Forum of Sovereign Wealth Funds.
Eduardo Loyo is a managing partner of BTG Pactual, member of the Brazil Management Committee and is based in Rio de Janeiro office. He joined UBS Pactual in 2007 as Chief Economist for Latin America. Prior to that, he was an Executive Director at the IMF (2005–07), elected by Brazil and eight other countries. From 2003 to 2005, he was a Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of Brazil, and in that capacity a voting member of its Monetary Policy Committee. He has been a professor at the Economics Department of the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (since 2001) and at the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (1998–2003). He was also a visiting professor at Columbia University (2003) and INSEAD (2002). Dr. Loyo holds a B.A. and an M.A. in Economics from the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro and an Economics Ph.D. from Princeton University.
Meg Lundsager is the Executive Director for the United States. She was officially appointed in April 2007 after having served as the Alternate Executive Director. Previously, she served as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Trade and Investment at the U.S. Treasury Department where she led negotiating teams on financial services, investment, and export credits agreements in the context of OECD activities and WTO financial services negotiations. Previous responsibilities at the U.S. Treasury included Director of the Office of Asian and Middle Eastern/North African Nations and Special Assistant to the Under Secretary for International Affairs. Ms. Lundsager also served as a Director on the National Security Council staff.
Moeketsi Majoro is the Executive Director of the Africa Group I constituency representing Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. He is a national of the Kingdom of Lesotho, and assumed office on November 23, 2010. Prior to that, he was Alternate Executive Director from November 1, 2008. He holds a B.A. from the National University of Lesotho (1984) and an M.A. and a Ph.D. from Washington State University (1990). Mr. Majoro taught economics at the National University of Lesotho from 1991 to 2000. He joined the Lesotho Ministry of Finance as Analyst in 2000. From 2004 he served the Ministry as Permanent Secretary and alternate governor for international financial institutions. He has also participated in regional trade initiatives including SACU, SADC, and ACP in a chairing capacity.
Bessma Momani is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Waterloo and the Balsillie School of International Affairs. She is also a Senior Fellow at the Centre for International Governance and Innovation and Brookings Institution. She is a specialist on the IMF and on economic liberalization in the Middle East, as well as a regular contributor to national and international media on global economic governance issues and the Middle East. The author of several books and scholarly articles, her work examines the intersection between international economics, finance, and global politics.
Thomas Moser serves as Alternate Member of the Governing Board of the Swiss National Bank since 2010. He received his Masters and Doctorate in Economics from the University of Zurich. Before joining the Swiss National Bank in 1999, he was an economist at the Swiss Institute for Business Cycle Research at the ETH Zurich. From 2001 to 2004, Thomas Moser served as an Advisor/Senior Advisor to the Swiss Executive Director at the IMF, and from 2006 to 2010, as the Swiss Executive Director at the IMF.
David Peretz was formerly Under Secretary for Monetary Policy at the U.K. Treasury. From 1990 to 1994 he served as U.K. Executive Director of the IMF and World Bank, and from 1994 to 1998 as U.K. Financial Sherpa for G-7/G-8 economic summits. He now works as an independent consultant on international financial and development issues, and has acted as senior advisor for many IEO evaluations, contributing background papers for the evaluations of IMF governance and IMF performance in the run-up to the financial and economic crisis. Between 2007 and 2010 he chaired the U.K. Department for International Development’s Independent Advisory Committee on Development Impact.
Robert Picciotto is Visiting Professor in the Department of War Studies, Kings College, London. He is a former Vice President, Corporate Planning and Budgeting and former Director General, Evaluation at the World Bank Group. Professor Picciotto is a member of the U.K. Department for International Development’s Independent Advisory Committee for Development Impact and sits on the boards of the European Evaluation Society and the U.K. Evaluation Society. He holds an aeronautical engineering degree from Ecole Nationale Superieure de l’Aeronautique (France) and a graduate degree in development economics and public affairs from the Woodrow Wilson School (Princeton University).
Murilo Portugal is the President of Febraban (Brazil). He is a former Deputy Managing Director of the IMF and Deputy Minister of Finance of Brazil. Mr. Portugal also served as an Executive Director of the IMF and of the World Bank. He has held other senior positions in Brazil including Secretary of the National Treasury, Office of the President; at the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Planning; as member of the board of the Banco do Brasil; and on various corporate boards. Mr. Portugal, who holds degrees in law and economics, was educated at Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil, and at the Universities of Cambridge and Manchester.
Yaga Venugopal Reddy is currently Professor Emeritus at University of Hyderabad, India and Distinguished Professor, IIT Madras. He was the 21st Governor of the Reserve Bank of India (2003–08). Prior to his appointment as Governor, Dr. Reddy was India’s Executive Director on the Board of the IMF. Dr. Reddy also served as Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India and Secretary in Ministry of Finance, Government of India. Dr. Reddy was also an advisor to the World Bank and on the IMF’s panel of consultants in fiscal affairs. He was elected as Honorary Fellow of the London School of Economics and Political Science in 2008. He is the recipient of the second highest Civil Award from the Government of India, viz., Padma Vibhushan, in April 2010.
Arrigo Sadun is the Executive Director for Albania, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, San Marino, and Timor-Leste. Prior to joining the Executive Board, Mr. Sadun was Director of Economic Research Department at the Ministry of Economy and Finance in Italy. He also held a number of positions in the private sector including President of Chase Econometrics and the WEFA Group (both in Philadelphia) and President of Business Information Group in Milan. He holds a degree in political science from La Sapienza University in Rome and M.A. in international relations and Ph.D. in international economics from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies.
Joanne Salop is an independent consultant specializing on evaluation issues in international financial institutions. She was Vice President for Results Management and Senior Advisor to the Managing Director for Operations of the World Bank. Previously in the Bank, she was the first Vice President of Operations Policy and Country Services, and before that the Chief Economist for South Asia. Earlier positions included assignments on Ghana and Nigeria in the Bank; on Hungary and Romania in the IMF; and at the Federal Reserve Board and the U.S. Federal Trade Commission. She holds a Ph.D. from Columbia University.
Moises Schwartz has been the Director of the IEO since 2010. Previously, Mr. Schwartz was President of the National Commission for Retirement Savings in Mexico. Between 2004 and 2006, he served as an Executive Director of the IMF, representing Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Spain, and Venezuela. Prior to that, Mr. Schwartz held several senior positions in Mexico’s public administration, including as the Finance Minister’s Chief of Staff and Director General of International Financial Affairs within the Ministry of Finance. He has also served as Director of Macroeconomic Analysis and Director of Economic Studies in Mexico’s Central Bank. Mr. Schwartz earned a bachelor’s degree in economics from the Tecnológico Autonómo de México and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of California, Los Angeles.
Louellen Stedman is a Senior Economist with the IEO, where she has worked since late 2008. From 1988 to 2005, Ms. Stedman was an official at the U.S. Treasury Department, serving in roles including Director of the Office of International Monetary Policy and Financial Attaché in London. She holds an MPA from the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University.
Edwin M. Truman, senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics since 2001, served as Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Treasury for International Affairs from December 1998 to January 2001 and as Counselor to the Secretary from March to May 2009. He directed the Division of International Finance of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System from 1977 to 1998. He is the author, coauthor, or editor of Sovereign Wealth Funds: Threat or Salvation? (2010), Reforming the IMF for the 21st Century (2006), A Strategy for IMF Reform (2006), Chasing Dirty Money: The Fight Against Money Laundering (2004), and Inflation Targeting in the World Economy (2003).