E. Increases in Quotas of Fund Members-Seventh General Review
- International Monetary Fund
- Published Date:
- June 1992
Report of the Executive Board to the Board of Governors
1. Article III, Section 2(a) of the Articles of Agreement provides that “The Board of Governors shall at intervals of not more than five years conduct a general review, and if it deems it appropriate, propose an adjustment of the quotas of the members. It may also, if it thinks fit, consider at any other time the adjustment of any particular quota at the request of the member concerned.” This report and the attached Resolution on increases in quotas under the current, i.e., the Seventh, General Review are submitted to the Board of Governors in accordance with Article III, Section 2.
In their Resolution of March 22, 1976,* the Board of Governors decided that “The Seventh General Review of Quotas shall be completed by February 9, 1978.” The review was not completed by that date. At its meeting in Mexico City in April 1978, considerable progress was made by the Interim Committee toward achieving a consensus on the Seventh Review as reflected in the communiqué issued at the end of its meeting on April 30, 1978.
2. At the last meeting of the Interim Committee in Washington in September 1978, understandings were reached on all major issues of the Seventh Review, as reflected in the relevant passages from the Committee’s communiqué of September 24, 1978, as follows:
The Committee resumed its discussion of the Seventh General Review of Quotas and considered three major issues relating to it: the size of the overall increase in quotas, selective quota adjustments, and the method of payment of the increases in quotas. These issues were considered by the Committee in conjunction with the various issues relating to the SDR with which they are regarded as interrelated. The Committee recalled its view that there was a need for an increase in total quotas under the Seventh Review that would be adequate to meet the expected need for conditional liquidity over the next five years. The Committee also recalled its view that an adequate increase would strengthen the available sources of balance of payments financing by enhancing the ability of the Fund to provide such financing without heavy recourse to borrowing and by furthering the process of international adjustment.
The Committee’s view was that an increase in the overall size of quotas of 50 percent would be appropriate to bring about a better balance between the size of the Fund’s resources and the need of members for balance of payments financing over the medium term. The Committee noted that the Executive Board does not intend to propose a general adjustment in quotas for five years after the Board of Governors approves the increase in quotas under the Seventh Review, unless there is a major change in the world economy and its financing needs.
The Committee noted with satisfaction that agreement had been reached on selective quota increases for 11 developing member countries: Iraq, Iran, Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and the United Arab Emirates.
Taking into account the conclusions reached on the issues relating to SDRs, including allocations of SDRs, the Committee was of the view that, for the quota increases proposed as a result of this review, participants in the Special Drawing Rights Department should pay 25 percent of the quota increase in SDRs and that nonparticipants should pay the equivalent of 25 percent of the increase in foreign exchange.
The Committee agreed to request the Executive Board to prepare and complete by November 1, 1978, for final decision and vote by the Board of Governors before the end of the year, a proposed resolution on increases in the quotas of members, which would include necessary provisions dealing with participation, the effective date of quota increases, and the method of payment of the increases in accordance with the understanding reached in the Committee.
The communiqué also included the following passage:
The Committee reached the conclusion … [on the issues related to SDRs] … with the understanding that these conclusions are interrelated and must be adopted in their entirety together with the understandings reached by the Committee on the Seventh General Review of Quotas. In the view of the Committee, therefore, decisions on all these issues relating to SDRs and on the Seventh General Review should be taken at the same time.
3. The Executive Board has considered a number of factors, both of a qualitative and quantitative nature, that affect the expected need for conditional liquidity and the Fund’s ability to finance that need over the medium term without heavy reliance on borrowing. One factor is the extent of the growth of, and possible fluctuations in, the value of international transactions; another factor is the likely continuation of relatively large payments imbalances for many countries in the next few years. In these circumstances, the demand for balance of payments financing may well rise, and the Fund’s resources should be sufficient to permit the Fund to finance a reasonable share of that demand.
Furthermore, the Executive Board, while acknowledging the contribution made by the international capital markets to the effective functioning of the international monetary system over the last few years, believes that an increase in Fund quotas can promote the process of international adjustment in ways that could not be achieved through the private markets. The Fund provides its members with balance of payments financing on the understanding that these members will follow appropriate policies of economic adjustment. In these circumstances, members’ access to the Fund’s resources must be sufficiently large to induce members with substantial balance of payments needs to use those resources and to pursue economic policies and programs which the Fund is able to support. While access to the Fund’s resources in terms of quota is now considerably in excess of the traditional policy norm of 100 percent of quota under the credit tranche policy, the ratio between access to Fund credit and payments imbalances is considered to be lower than a decade ago.
In recent years, the Fund has established or expanded a number of special facilities to help deal with certain balance of payments problems of its members. Some of them, notably the Extended Fund Facility and the expanded Compensatory Financing Facility, which are of a continuing character, have increased access to Fund resources in relation to quota without additional financing being available to the Fund. On the other hand, borrowing by the Fund for the Oil Facilities of 1974 and 1975 and the Supplementary Financing Facility, which is expected to come into operation shortly, entailed, or will entail, the creation of claims on the Fund’s general resources which are encashable on demand if a lender has a balance of payments need. Moreover, as was the case with the Oil Facilities, the resources provided under the Supplementary Financing Facility will augment members’ access for a limited period of time only. At the end of that period, the Fund will be faced with both a reduction in the resources available to meet the needs of members and possibly large liquid liabilities relative to its quotas.
In view of the possibility of large payments imbalances over the next few years and the distribution of such imbalances, the Fund’s liquidity position is likely to be vulnerable, even though the volume of usable currencies available to the Fund has recently increased. Resources made available through increases in quotas give the Fund a more assured access to resources than borrowing.
In light of the above considerations, the Executive Board is of the view that, in general, increased access to the Fund’s resources should, over the longer run, normally result from an increase in Fund quotas.
4. For these reasons, and in accordance with the understandings reached by the Interim Committee at its meeting on September 24, 1978, the Executive Board now proposes to the Board of Governors increases in Fund quotas of 50 percent for most members and special increases for 11 members. The Executive Board does not intend to propose a general adjustment of quotas for five years after the Board of Governors adopts this Resolution, unless there is a major change in the world economy and its financing needs.
5. The Executive Board will review the customary method of calculating quotas after the Seventh General Review of Quotas has been completed. In the context of the next general review of quotas, the Executive Board will examine the quota shares of members in relation to their positions in the world economy with a view to adjusting those shares better to reflect members’ relative economic positions while having regard to the desirability of an appropriate balance in the composition of the Executive Board.
6. Under the proposed Resolution, a member will be able to consent to the increase in its quota at any time on or before November 1, 1980. Therefore, unless this period is extended by the Executive Board, members will have until November 1, 1980 to take whatever action may be necessary under their laws to enable them to give their consent.
7. It is proposed that the increase in a member’s quota will take effect on the latest of the following three dates:
- (a) The date on which the Fund receives the member’s consent to the increase in quota;
- (b) The date of the payment of the increase in subscription; and
- (c) The date on which the Fund determines that the participation requirement in paragraph 2 of the proposed Resolution has been satisfied. The proposed Resolution provides, however, that if the participation requirement in paragraph 2 has not been met by June 30, 1980, no increase in quotas under the Seventh Review would become effective until after October 5, 1980, so that there would be no changes in quotas during, or shortly before, the 1980 Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors, when the next election of Executive Directors will take place. If the participation requirement were met during the period July 1 to October 5, 1980, increases in quotas would become effective only after October 5, 1980.
The participation requirement in paragraph 2 is reached when the Fund determines that members having not less than 75 percent of the total of quotas on November 1, 1978 have consented to increases in their quotas. In determining whether this degree of participation has been reached, the Fund will take into account all consents to increases, whether they are increases to the maximum amount provided for or to a smaller amount.
8. The proposed Resolution does not provide for increases in quotas by fixed installments. A member will be able, however, to consent to an increase smaller than the maximum provided for. The member will be able to consent to further increases, up to the maximum provided for, at a later date, provided it is within the period for consent under paragraph 3 of the proposed Resolution.
9. The proposed Resolution provides that a member must pay the increase in its subscription within 30 days after (a) the date on which the member notifies the Fund of its consent, or (b) the date on which the participation requirement is met, whichever is the later.
10. Reflecting the understandings reached at the September 1978 meeting of the Interim Committee, 25 percent of the increase in quotas proposed as a result of the current review should be paid in SDRs for those members that are participants in the Special Drawing Rights Department, and 25 percent of the increase in the quotas of nonparticipants should be paid in the currencies of other members specified by the Fund, subject to their concurrence. The balance of the increase shall be in a member’s own currency. These payments are in accordance with the prescription of Article III, Section 3(a), and therefore it is not necessary to include any provision for the payment of increases in the Resolution.
11. In accordance with paragraph 3 of the Interim Committee’s communiqué of September 24, 1978, the Executive Board has taken decisions on aspects of the special drawing right that are referred to in paragraph 5 of that communiqué. These decisions will become effective on the dates referred to in them if the proposed Resolution and the Resolution on allocations of SDRs become effective. The proposed Resolution provides that it will become effective if it and the proposed Resolution on the Allocation of Special Drawing Rights are adopted by the necessary majority of the total voting power for each.
12. The Executive Board recommends adoption of the attached Resolution. The attached Resolution is designed to enable the Board of Governors to vote at one time on all matters connected with the increases in quotas under the Resolution.
October 25, 1978
Proposed Resolution of the Board of Governors*
Whereas the Executive Board has submitted to the Board of Governors a report entitled “Increases in Quotas of Fund Members—Seventh General Review” containing recommendations on increases in the quotas of individual members of the Fund; and
Whereas the Executive Board has recommended the adoption of the following Resolution of the Board of Governors, which Resolution proposes increases in the quotas of members of the Fund as a result of the Seventh General Review of Quotas and deals with certain related matters, by vote without meeting pursuant to Section 13 of the By-Laws of the Fund;
Now, therefore, the Board of Governors hereby resolves that:
1. The International Monetary Fund proposes that, subject to the provisions of this Resolution, the quotas of members of the Fund shall be increased to the amounts shown against their names in the Annex to this Resolution, provided that any member may consent to an increased quota that is smaller than the one shown in the Annex, and may consent thereafter to further increases that raise its quota to the amount shown against its name in the Annex not later than the date prescribed by or under paragraph 3 below.
2. A member’s increase in quota as proposed by this Resolution shall not become effective unless the member has notified the Fund of its consent to the increase not later than the date prescribed by or under paragraph 3 below and has paid the increase in quota in full, provided that (a) no increase in quota shall become effective before the date of the Fund’s determination that members having not less than three-fourths of the total of quotas on November 1, 1978 have consented to increases in their quotas, and (b) if the determination has not been made before July 1, 1980, no increase in quota shall become effective until after October 5, 1980.
3. Notices in accordance with paragraph 2 above shall be executed by a duly authorized official of the member and must be received in the Fund not later than November 1, 1980, provided that the Executive Board may extend this period as it may determine.
4. Each member shall pay to the Fund the increase in its quota within 30 days after the later of (a) the date on which it notifies the Fund of its consent or (b) the date of the Fund’s determination under paragraph 2 above. If this determination is made in the period between July 1 and October 5, 1980, for the purpose of this paragraph it shall be deemed to have been made on October 5, 1980.
5. This Resolution shall become effective if it and the Proposed Resolution on Allocation of Special Drawing Rights for the Third Basic Period are adopted by the necessary majority of the total voting power for each.
|Proposed Maximum Quota|
|(In millions of SDRs)|
|19. Central African|
|22. China, Republic of||550.0|
|25. Congo, People’s Republic of the||25.5|
|26. Costa Rica||61.5|
|29. Dominican Republic||82.5|
|32. El Salvador||64.5|
|33. Equatorial Guinea||15.0|
|39. Gambia, The||13.5|
|40. Germany, Federal Republic of||3,234.0|
|58. Ivory Coast||114.0|
|62. Kampuchea Democratic||25.0|
|66. Lao Peopled Democratic Republic||24.0|
|84. New Zealand||348.0|
|92. Papua New Guinea||45.0|
|100. São Tomé and Principe||3.0|
|101. Saudi Arabia||1040.1|
|104. Sierra Leone||46.5|
|106. Solomon Island||3.2|
|108. South Africa||636.0|
|110. Sri Lanka||178.5|
|115. Syrian Arab Republic||94.5|
|119. Trinidad and Tobago||123.0|
|123. United Arab Emirates||202.6|
|124. United Kingdom||4,387.5|
|125. United States||12,607.5|
|126. Upper Volta||24.0|
|129. Viet-Nam, Socialist Republic of||135.0|
|130. Western Samoa||4.5|
|131. Yemen Arab Republic of||19.5|
|132. Yemen, People’s Democratic Republic of||61.5|