Article V Section 2(b)
- International Monetary Fund
- Published Date:
- June 1991
Financial and Technical Services
Establishment of the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust*
1. The Fund adopts the Instrument to Establish the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust that is annexed to this decision.
2. The Fund is committed, if it appeared that any delay in payment to the Trust to lenders would be protracted, to consider fully and in good faith all such initiatives as might be necessary to assure full and expeditious payment to lenders.
Decision No. 8759-(87/176) ESAF
December 18, 1987, as amended by
Decision Nos. 9115-(89I40) ESAF
March 29, 1989, 9488-(90/106) ESAF
July 2, 1990, 9555-(90/146) ESAF
September 24, 1990, 9585-(90/161) ESAF
November 15, 1990
Instrument to Establish the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust
To help fulfill its purposes, the International Monetary Fund (hereinafter called the “Fund”) has adopted this Instrument establishing the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust (hereinafter called the “Trust”), which shall be administered by the Fund as Trustee (hereinafter called the “Trustee”). The Trust shall be governed by and administered in accordance with the provisions of this Instrument.
Section I. General Provisions
Paragraph 1. Purposes
The Trust shall assist in fulfilling the purposes of the Fund by providing loans on concessional terms (hereinafter called “Trust loans”) to low-income developing members that qualify for assistance under this Instrument, in order to support programs to strengthen substantially and in a sustainable manner their balance of payments position and to foster growth.
Paragraph 2. Accounts of the Trust
The operations and transactions of the Trust shall be conducted through a Loan Account, a Reserve Account, and a Subsidy Account. The resources of the Trust shall be held separately in each Account.
Paragraph 3. Unit of Account
The SDR shall be the unit of account for commitments, loans, and all other operations and transactions of the Trust, provided that commitments of resources to the Subsidy Account may be made in currency.
Paragraph 4. Media of payment of contributions and exchange of resources
(a) Resources loaned or donated to the Trust shall be received in a freely usable currency, subject to the provisions of (c) below, and provided that resources may be received by the Subsidy Account in other currency.
(b) Payments by the Trust to lenders or donors shall be made in U.S. dollars or such other media as may be agreed between the Trustee and such lenders or donors.
(c) Loans or donations to the Trust may also be made in or exchanged for SDRs in accordance with such arrangements as may be made by the Trust for the holding and use of SDRs.
(d) The Trustee may exchange any of the resources of the Trust, provided that any balance of a currency held in the Trust may be exchanged only with the consent of the issuers of such currencies.
Section II. Trust Loans
Paragraph 1. Eligibility and conditions for assistance
(a) Any member eligible for assistance from the Structural Adjustment Facility shall be eligible for assistance from the Trust.
(b) This assistance shall be committed and provided under the same conditions and on the same terms as prescribed in paragraph 14 of the regulations for the administration of the Structural Adjustment Facility, subject to the provisions of this Section.
(c) Before approving a three-year arrangement, the Trustee shall be satisfied that the member is making an effort to strengthen substantially and in a sustainable manner its balance of payments position.
(d) Commitments under three-year arrangements may be made during the period from January 1, 1988 to November 30, 1992.
(e) After the expiration of the third annual arrangement for an eligible member, the Trustee may approve an additional annual arrangement for that member, if it is satisfied that the performance of the member under the arrangement has been satisfactory and that the member has adopted appropriately strong measures in response to its external circumstances in an effort to strengthen substantially and in a sustainable manner its balance of payments position. Commitments under such additional annual arrangements shall be within the access limits determined in accordance with paragraph 2 of this Section, and may be made during the period specified in (d) above.
Paragraph 2. Amount of Assistance
(a) An initial maximum limit on access to the resources of the Trust shall be established by the Trustee, as a proportion of members’ quotas in the Fund, and provisions shall be made for a limit up to which that maximum limit may be exceeded in exceptional circumstances. The maximum access limit and the exceptional maximum limit shall be subject to review from time to time by the Trustee in the light of actual utilization of resources available to the Loan Account, and in any event not later than March 31, 1989.
(b) To the extent that a member has notified the Trustee that it does not intend to make use of the resources available from the Trust, the member shall not be included in the calculations of the access limits on Trust loans.
(c) The access for each member that qualifies for assistance from the Trust shall be determined on the basis of an assessment by the Trustee of the Balance of payments need of the member and the strength of its adjustment program.
(d) The amount of resources committed to a qualifying member under a three-year arrangement and the amounts for the second- and third-year arrangements shall be reviewed at the time of the consideration of each annual program. The Fund may increase the overall amount of resources committed under a three-year arrangement, when increasing the amount to be made available for the second disbursement under an annual arrangement to help meet adverse external contingencies occurring during the period of the arrangement. The amounts committed to a member shall not be reduced because of developments in its balance of payments, unless such developments are substantially more favorable than envisaged at the time of approval of the three-year arrangement and the improvement for the member derives in particular from improvements in the external environment.
(e) Any commitment shall be subject to the availability of resources to the Trust.
Paragraph 3. Disbursements
(a) Any disbursement shall be subject to the availability of the resources to the Trust.
(b) Disbursements shall normally be made on the fifteenth and the last day of the month, provided that if these days are not business days of the Trustee, the disbursement shall be made on the preceding business day. Following a member’s qualification for a disbursement, the disbursement shall be made on the first of these value dates for which the necessary notifications and payment instructions can be issued by the Trustee.
(c) No disbursement under any commitment to a member shall be made after the expiration of the period specified in Section III, paragraph 3.
Paragraph 4. Terms of loans
(a) Interest on the outstanding balance of a Trust loan shall be charged at the rate of one half of one percent per annum subject to the provisions of Section IV, paragraph 5, and provided that interest at a rate equal to the rate of interest on the SDR shall be charged on the amounts of any overdue interest on or overdue repayments of Trust loans.
(b) Trust loans shall be disbursed in a freely usable currency as decided by the Trustee. They shall be repaid, and interest paid, in U.S. dollars or other freely usable currency as decided by the Trustee. The Managing Director is authorized to make arrangements under which, at the request of a member, SDRs may be used for disbursements to the member or for payment of interest or repayments of loans by the member to the Trust.
(c) Paragraph 7(3) of the Regulations for the Administration of the Structural Adjustment Facility shall not apply to Trust loans.
Paragraph 5. Modifications
Any modification of these provisions will affect only loans made after the effective date of the modification, provided that modification of the interest rate shall apply to interest accruing after the effective date of the modification.
Section III. Borrowing for the Loan Account
Paragraph 1. Resources
The resources held in the loan Account shall consist of:
(a) the proceeds of loans made to the Trust for that Account; and
(b) payments of principal and interest on Trust loans, subject to the provisions of Section V, paragraph 3.
Paragraph 2. Borrowing authority
The Trustee may borrow resources for the Loan Account on such terms and conditions as may be agreed between the Trustee and the respective lenders subject to the provisions of this Instrument.
Paragraph 3. Commitments
Commitments of loans to the Trust for the Loan Account shall extend through June 30, 1992. The Commitment period with respect to a loan to the Trust may be extended by mutual Agreement between the Trustee and the lender. The Managing Director is authorized to conclude such agreements on behalf of the Trustee.
Paragraph 4. Drawings on loan commitments
(a) Drawings on the commitments of individual lenders over time shall be made so as to maintain broad proportionality of these drawings relative to commitments.
(b) Calls on a lender’s commitment shall be suspended temporarily if, at any time prior to December 31, 1991, the lender represents to the Trustee that it has a liquidity need for such suspension and the Trustee, having given this representation the overwhelming benefit of any doubt, agrees. The suspension shall not exceed three months, provided that it may be extended for further periods of three months by agreement between the lender and the Trustee. No extension shall be agreed which, in the judgment of the Trustee, would prevent drawing of the full amount of the lender’s commitment.
(c) Following any suspension of calls with respect to the commitment of a lender, calls will be made on that commitment thereafter so as to restore proportionality of calls on all lenders as soon as practicable.
Paragraph 5. Payments to lenders
(a) The Trust shall make payments of principal and interest on its borrowing for the Loan Account from the payments into that account of a principal and interest made by borrowers under Trust loans. Payments of the authorized subsidy shall be made from the Subsidy Account in accordance with Section IV of this Instrument, and, as required, payments shall be made from the Reserve Account in accordance with Section V of this Instrument.
(b) The Trust shall pay interest on outstanding borrowing for Trust loans promptly after June 30 and December 31 of each year, unless the particular modalities of a loan to the Trust make it necessary for the Trustee to agree with the lender on interest payments at other times.
Section IV. Subsidy Account
Paragraph 1. Resources
The resources held in the Subsidy Account shall consist of:
(a) the proceeds of donations made to the Trust for that Account;
(b) the proceeds of loans made to the Trust for that Account; and
(c) net earnings from investment of donated or borrowed resources held in that Account.
Paragraph 2. Donations
The Trustee may accept donations of resources for the Subsidy Account on such terms and conditions as may be agreed between the Trustee and the respective donors, subject to the provisions of this Instrument. To the extent possible, annual contributions should be made before May 30 of each year.
Paragraph 3. Borrowing
The Trustee may, in exceptional circumstances, borrow resources for the Subsidy Account from official lenders on such terms and conditions as may be agreed between the Trustee and the lenders; in order
(a) to prefinance an amount that is firmly committed to be donated to the Trust for the Subsidy Account; repayment of principal and any payments of interest on such borrowing shall be contingent upon the receipt by the Subsidy Account of the Trust of the donation that has been prefinanced;
(b) that the Subsidy Account may benefit from net investment earnings on the proceeds of a loan extended at a concessional interest rate; repayment of principal and any payment of interest on such borrowing shall be made exclusively from the proceeds of liquidation of the investment and the earnings thereon.
Paragraph 4. Authorized subsidy
The Trustee shall draw upon the resources available in the Subsidy Account to pay the difference, with respect to each interest period, between the interest due by the borrowers and the interest due on resources borrowed for Trust Loans.
Paragraph 5. Calculation of subsidy
(a) The amount of the subsidy shall be determined by the Trustee in the light of (i) the objective of ensuring that the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility is a highly concessional facility and, to the extent possible, of reducing the rate of interest charged on Trust loans to 0.5 percent, (ii) the rate of interest on resources available to the Loan Account, and (iii) the availability and prospective availability of resources to the Subsidy Account.
(b) The Trustee shall keep the operation of the Subsidy Account under review. If at any time it determines that resources available or committed are likely to be insufficient to reduce the rate of interest on Trust loans to 0.5 percent throughout the operation of the Trust, the Trustee shall seek such additional resources as may be necessary to achieve this objective.
(c) Should adequate additional resources not be forthcoming to reduce the rate on Trust loans to 0.5 percent, the Trustee shall recalculate the subsidy with a view to reducing that interest rate to the lowest feasible rate that could be applied throughout the remaining life of the Trust. The rate of interest charged on all outstanding loans by the Trust shall be adjusted accordingly in the succeeding interest periods. Borrowers shall be notified promptly of such adjustments. Further recalculations and adjustments shall be made in subsequent interest periods, as necessary in light of developments with respect to the rate of interest on resources available to the Loan Account and to the availability of resources to the Subsidy Account.
(d) If the interest due to lenders for an interest period has exceeded the interest due by borrowers together with the authorized subsidy under paragraph 4 of this Section for that period, and payment to lenders of that difference has been made from the Reserve Account in accordance with Section V, paragraph 2, an amount equivalent to that difference shall be added to the interest due by borrowers for the succeeding interest period. Payment of that amount shall be made to the Reserve Account in accordance with Section V, paragraph 3. The additional interest due shall not be taken into account in the calculation of the authorized subsidy for that same interest period.
Paragraph 6. Termination arrangements
Upon completion of the subsidy operations authorized by this Instrument, the Fund shall wind up the affairs of the Subsidy Account. Any resources remaining in the Subsidy Account shall be used first to reduce to the fullest extent possible, in accordance with this Instrument, to 0.5 percent the interest rate paid by borrowers, by means of payments to borrowers. Any resources remaining after that subsidization shall be distributed to donors and lenders that have contributed to the subsidy operation shall be distributed to donors and lenders that have contributed to the subsidy operation, in proportion to their contributions. For the purposes of this distribution, account will be taken of donations, the net earnings from investment of the proceeds of concessional loans extended to the Subsidy Account under paragraph 3(b) above, and the subsidy element of concessional loans extended to the Trust under Section III; the subsidy element associated with such loans shall be calculated as the difference, if positive, between the SDR rate of interest and the interest on such loans, applied to the amount of the loans during the period they were outstanding.
Section V. Reserve Account
Paragraph 1. Resources
The resources held in the Reserve Account shall consist of:
(a) transfers by the Fund from the Special Disbursement Account in accordance with Decision No. 8760-(87/176), adopted December 18, 1987;
(b) net earnings from investment of resources held in the Reserve Account;
(c) net earnings from investment of any resources held in the Loan Account pending the use of these resources in operations; and
(d) payments of overdue principal or interest or interest thereon under Trust loans, and payments of interest under Trust loans to the extent that payment has been made to a lender from the Reserve Account.
Paragraph 2. Use of resources
The resources held in the Reserve Account shall be used by the Trustee to make payments of principal and interest on its borrowing for Trust loans, to the extent that the amounts available from receipts of repayment and interest from borrowers under Trust loans, together with the authorized subsidy under Section IV, paragraph 4, are insufficient to cover the payments to lenders as they become due and payable.
Paragraph 3. Payments to the Reserve Account
Any payments of overdue principal or interest or interest thereon under Trust loans, and any payments of interest under Trust loans to the extent that payment has been made to a lender from the Reserve Account, shall be made to the Reserve Account.
Paragraph 4. Review of resources
If resources in the Reserve Account are, or are determined by the Trustee likely to become, insufficient to meet the obligations of the Trust that may be discharged from the Reserve Account as they become due and payable, the Trustee shall review the situation in a timely manner.
Paragraph 5. Reduction of resources and liquidation
(a) Whenever the Trustee determines that amounts in the Reserve Account of the Trust exceed the amount that may be needed to cover the total liabilities of the Trust to lenders that are authorized to be discharged by the Reserve Account, the Trustee shall retransfer such excess amount to the Fund’s Special Disbursement Account.
(b) Upon liquidation of the Trust, all amounts in the Reserve Account remaining after discharge of liabilities authorized to be discharged by the Reserve Account shall be transferred to the Special Disbursement Account.
Section VI. Transfer of Claims
Paragraph 1. Transfers by lenders
(a) Any lender shall have the right to transfer at any time all or part of any claim to any member of the Fund, to the central bank or other fiscal agency designated by any member for purposes of Article V, Section 1 (“other fiscal agency”), or to any official entity that has been prescribed as a holder of SDRs pursuant to Article XVII, Section 3 of the Fund’s Articles of Agreement.
(b) The transferee shall, as a condition of the transfer, notify the Trustee prior to the transfer that it accepts all the obligations of the transferor relating to the transferred claim with respect to renewal and new drawings, and shall acquire all the rights of the transferor with respect to repayment of an interest on the transferred claim.
Paragraph 2. Transfers among electing lenders
(a) Any lender to the Loan Account (“electing lenders”) may inform the Trustee that it stands ready, upon request by the Trustee, to purchase claims on the Trust from any other electing lender, provided that the holdings of claims so acquired shall at no time exceed the amount communicated to the Trustee and subject to the other provisions of this Section. A list of electing lenders and the amounts communicated by them shall be established separately by the Trustee. This list may be extended and the amounts therein increased in accordance with communications received subsequently.
(b) An electing lender shall have the right to transfer temporarily to other electing lenders part or all of any claim arising from its loans to the Trust under Section III, if the electing lender represents to the Trustee that it has a liquidity need to make such transfer and the Trustee, having given this representation the overwhelming benefit of any doubt, agrees.
(c) The Trustee shall allocate each transfer by an electing lender under this provision to all other electing lenders in proportion to the amounts by which the respective maximum holdings listed in the attachment exceed actual holdings of claims acquired under this provision; provided, however, that no allocation shall be made to an electing lender if it represents to the Trustee that it has a liquidity need for exclusion from an allocation and the Trustee agrees, in which case allocations to the remaining electing lenders shall be adjusted accordingly.
(d) The purchaser of any claim transferred under this provision shall assume, as a condition of the transfer, any obligation of the transferor, relating to the transferred claim, with respect to the renewal of drawing on loans to the Trust and to new drawings on loans in the event a renewal, having been requested, is not agreed by the transferor.
(e) Transfers of claims under this provision shall be made in exchange for freely usable currency and shall be reversed in the same media within three months, provided that such transfers may be renewed, by agreement between the transferor and the Trustee, for further periods of three months up to a total of one year. Notwithstanding the above, the transferor shall reserve a transfer under this provision not later than the date on which the transferred claim is due to be repaid by the Trust.
(f) Interest on claims transferred under this Section shall be paid by the Trust to the transferor in accordance with the provisions of the transferor’s lending agreement with the Trust. The transferor shall pay interest to the transferee(s) on the amount transferred, so long as the transfer remains outstanding, at a daily rate equal to that set out in Rule T-l of the Fund’s Rules and Regulations; such interest shall be payable three months after the date of a transfer or of its renewal, or on the date the transfer is reversed, whichever is earlier.
Section VII. Administration of the Trust
Paragraph 1. Trustee
(a) The Trust shall be administered by the Fund as Trustee. Decisions and other actions taken by the Fund as Trustee shall be identified as taken in that capacity.
(b) Subject to the provisions of this Instrument, the Fund in administering the Trust shall apply the same rules as apply to the operation of the General Resources Account of the Fund.
(c) The Trustee, acting through its Managing Director, is authorized:
(i) to make all arrangements, including establishment of accounts in the name of the International Monetary Fund, which shall be accounts of the Fund as Trustee, with such depositories of the Fund as the Trustee deems necessary; and
(ii) to take all other administrative measures that the Trustee deems necessary to implement the provisions of this Instrument.
Paragraph 2. Separation of assets and accounts, audit and reports
(a) The Resources of the Trust shall be kept separate from the property and assets of all other accounts of the Fund, including other administered accounts, and shall be used only for the purposes of the Trust in accordance with this Instrument.
(b) The property and assets held in the other accounts of the Fund shall not be used to discharge liabilities or to meet losses arising out of the administration of the Trust. The resources of the Trust shall not be used to discharge liabilities or to meet losses arising out of the administration of the other accounts of the Fund.
(c) The Fund shall maintain separate financial records and prepare separate financial statements for the Trust.
(d) The audit committee selected under Section 20 of the Fund’s By-Laws shall audit the financial transactions and records of the Trust. The audit shall relate to the financial year of the Fund.
(e) The Fund shall report on the resources and operations of the Trust in the Annual Report of the Executive Board to the Board of Governors and shall include in that Annual Report the report of the audit committee on the Trust.
Paragraph 3. Investment of resources
(a) Any balances held by the Trust and not immediately needed in operations shall be invested.
(b) Investments may be made in any of the following: (i) marketable obligations issued by an international financial organization and denominated in SDRs or in the currency of a member of the Fund; (ii) marketable obligations issued by a member or by a national official financial institution of a member and denominated in SDRs or in the currency of that member; and (iii) deposits with a commercial bank, a national official financial institution of a member, or an international financial institution that are denominated in SDRs or in the currency of a member. Investment which does not involve an exchange of currency shall be made only after consultation with the member whose currency is to be used, or, when an exchange of currencies is involved, with the consent of the issuers of such currencies.
Section VIII. Period of Operation and Liquidation
Paragraph 1. Period of operation
The Trust established by this Instrument shall remain in effect for as long as is necessary, in the judgment of the Fund, to conduct and to wind up the business of the Trust.
Paragraph 2. Liquidation of the Trust
(a) Termination and liquidation of the Subsidy Account shall be made in accordance with the provisions of Section IV, paragraph 6.
(b) All other resources, if any, shall be used to discharge any liabilities of the Trust, other than those incurred under Section IV, and any remainder shall be transferred to the Special Disbursement Account of the Fund.
Section IX. Amendment of the Instrument
The Fund may amend the provisions of the Instrument, except this Section and Section I, paragraphs 1 and 2; Section III, paragraphs 4 and 5; Section IV, paragraphs 4 and 6; Section V; Section VI; Section VII, paragraph 2(a) and (b); Section VIII, paragraph 2(b).
The Chairman’s Summing Up of the Discussion on the Enhancement of the Structural Adjustment Facility—Operational Arrangements Executive Board Meeting 87/171, December 15, 1987
Let me summarize the agreed position on a number of important points.
1. Establishment of the enhanced adjustment facility and review of the existing facility
Directors reviewed the existing Structural Adjustment Facility and agreed that it should continue to operate as in the past. The existing facility will continue to be available to eligible members that already have arrangements under the facility as well as to those that have not yet requested use of the facility’s resources.
Directors agreed that a new lending facility—the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility—should be established and that it will operate concurrently with the existing Structural Adjustment Facility. The enhanced facility will be financed from two Fund-related sources—the Special Disbursement Account and the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust—and will also include the possibility that other lenders might support enhanced structural adjustment arrangements through loans to qualifying members in association with loans under the enhanced facility. For a member qualifying for an arrangement under the enhanced facility, resources will be provided from the Special Disbursement Account to the extent that the member has not exhausted its potential access under the existing facility; resources made available in excess of these amounts will be provided from the Trust and from associated sources.
Until the cutoff date for commitment of resources, eligible members that have not yet made use of the resources of the Structural Adjustment Facility will have the option to request a full three-year arrangement under either the existing facility or the enhanced facility. Members currently making use of the resources of the existing facility may request a new three-year arrangement under the enhanced facility or continue their current arrangement to its conclusion. If a member currently using the resources of the Structural Adjustment Facility chooses to request a new three-year arrangement under the enhanced facility, that request should normally be made at the time of expiration of an annual arrangement under the existing facility. However, earlier replacement of an existing arrangement by a three-year arrangement under the enhanced facility could also be permitted in exceptional cases.
2. Terms and conditions of loans under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment facility
Commitments of resources under the enhanced facility will be made upon approval of a three-year arrangement. All commitments and disbursements will be subject to the availability of resources. Commitments may be made at any time until the cutoff date. Most Directors agreed, taking into account the limited period of time during which the resources would be made available by contributors, that the cutoff date should be November 30, 1989. At the same time, most Directors considered that the final date for disbursements should not now be extended beyond June 30, 1992, although it was recognized that maintenance of this date would imply that there would be little flexibility to accommodate delays under annual programs in arrangements that were agreed later in the commitment period. This matter will be kept under review as experience is gained with the facility.
Disbursements from the Special Disbursement Account in conjunction with enhanced structural adjustment arrangements will be provided under the financial terms applying to loans under the existing facility, as amended. To the extent possible, the financial terms applying to loans from the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust will be the same as those under the existing facility. In particular, it was agreed that the maturities of loans will be five and a half to ten years. Most Directors also believed that it would be appropriate to set the initial interest rate charged on loans from the Trust at 0.5 percent per annum, even if the amount of firmly committed resources in the Subsidy Account was initially not fully sufficient for this purpose, but additional resources were confidently expected. These Directors indicated that if it appeared, because of inadequate contributions or future adverse developments in interest or exchange rates, that resources available or committed to the Subsidy Account were likely to be insufficient to maintain the rate of interest at 0.5 percent throughout the period of operation of the Trust, the Fund should seek the additional resources necessary to achieve this objective. This issue is to be kept under review, and the interest rate will be adjusted as necessary at the beginning of each six-month interest period whenever resources available to the Subsidy Account are judged insufficient to maintain a rate of 0.5 percent on loans under the enhanced facility.
The intended terms for the Trust’s lending, with which you have agreed, determine the essential features of the borrowing arrangements that will have to be concluded by the Fund as Trustee for the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust and the lenders to it. These have been set out in a prototype circulated to potential lenders and annexed to EBS/87/245. While there will need to be comparability in substance among agreements, there will no doubt need to be alterations to the form and structure of this prototype to meet the particular legal and institutional requirements of individual lenders, and we will be flexible in meeting these requirements. There was further discussion of the security to be provided to the claims on the Trust. Directors accepted that the proposals that had been put forward to safeguard the resources lent to the Trust were adequate to provide the necessary assurance to potential creditors. Although noting the views of some Directors, I have repeated that the phrase “all such initiatives as might be necessary” had to be understood to include the possible use of gold.
I should also comment on a few specific financial issues raised in the papers. First, most Directors did not favor the inclusion of a provision on rescheduling because, inter alia, it was considered that this would create undue complications in light of the limited period for which resources were being committed by contributors and also because it was felt that such a provision could threaten the integrity of the Reserve that most contributors find to be an essential component of the facility. Second, most Directors did not find it appropriate to provide for temporary encashment of claims through the use of the Reserve, given the relatively small amounts that will be available in the early years and the importance of the Reserve as security for claims. Third, it appeared generally acceptable to most directors that the provision for temporary suspension of calls should apply to all lenders. I should note in this connection that we appreciate the position of several contributors who are providing support to the enhanced facility, despite a very difficult balance of payments situation of their own.
3. Framework for lending under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility
Resources to be made available under the enhanced facility will be committed upon Board approval of a three-year arrangement and disbursements will be made semiannually in accordance with the provisions specified in annual arrangements. The preparation of policy framework papers will be an essential element of the enhanced facility, and the policy framework process will be strengthened to reflect the summing up of the June 1987 review of the structural adjustment facility (EBM/87/93, 6/19/87), as well as continuing discussions with eligible recipient countries, the World Bank, and the interested donors.
Directors were in broad agreement that the objectives of programs under the enhanced facility should be to promote, in a balanced manner, both balance of payments viability and growth through mobilization of domestic and external resources, improvements in resource allocation, and the removal of structural impediments. Such programs should involve a substantial effort to strengthen the external payments position in a sustainable manner, and in particular to assure substantial progress during the three-year program period toward an overall position and structure of the balance of payments that is consistent with orderly relations with creditors and a reduction in restrictions on trade and payments, while permitting the timely servicing of obligations to the Fund.
Directors agreed that monitoring of enhanced programs supported by arrangement under the enhanced facility will be conducted through benchmarks. Most Directors favored the establishment of quarterly quantitative benchmarks for the key financial variables, and the use of structural benchmarks to monitor implementation of the most important structural policy measures. Most Directors supported the establishment of some benchmarks, including, where appropriate, some structural benchmarks, as semiannual performance criteria in all cases. In addition, midyear reviews will also be required in most cases. I have fully noted the reservations expressed by a number of Directors regarding the treatment of benchmarks as performance criteria, and I assure you that performance criteria will be limited in number and will generally involve only a subset of the benchmarks. Similarly, prior actions will be required sparingly, but when necessary to lay the basis for a long or difficult adjustment process, and particularly where arrangements involve a front-loading of disbursements. In the event of a substantial delay in completion of a midyear review or in agreeing on an annual program, the total amount of resources to be made available to a member could be reduced or rephased over the remaining period of the arrangement.
Most Directors agreed that access to the resources of the enhanced facility will be differentiated according to the strength of the member’s adjustment program and its financing need. The structure of the member’s external debt and its prospective debt service burden, along with the expected evolution of other macroeconomic aggregates, will be important elements in this assessment. Directors generally agreed that access under three-year enhanced structural adjustment arrangements will be subject to a maximum limit of 250 percent of quota. However, Directors stressed again that the access limits do not constitute entitlements, and they agreed that access should normally be below the maximum and that the guidelines should be applied so that the rate of access for all qualifying members would average about 150 percent of quota. It was also indicated that, in highly exceptional circumstances, the maximum could be exceeded, but it was not envisaged that access would exceed 350 percent of quota even in these cases. These access limits, along with the operation of both the enhanced facility and the existing facility, will be subject to review in light of experience and the utilization of the available resources.
Directors agreed that the amount of resources committed to an individual qualifying member under a three-year enhanced structural adjustment arrangement and the amounts for the second- and third-year arrangements will be reviewed at the time of consideration of each annual program. However, most Directors indicated that, subject to the availability of resources, the amounts committed to a member would not normally be reduced because of developments in its balance of payments. However, in the event that balance of payments developments were markedly more favorable than envisaged at the time of approval of the three-year arrangement, and particularly because of improvements in the external environment, it would be suggested that the member reduce voluntarily its use of enhanced resources, either by requesting lower access at the time of approval of an annual arrangement or by forgoing in whole or in part a midyear disbursement.
Directors agreed that disbursements of loans under enhanced structural adjustment arrangements will be made semiannually, upon approval of annual arrangement, and subsequently, on the basis of observance of performance criteria and, in most cases, completion of a midyear review. A range of views was expressed regarding the possibility of a limited front-loading of disbursement in some cases. Nonetheless, there seems to be a consensus that, subject to the availability of resources, the guideline should be that a uniform distribution of disbursements would be preferable and that any front-loading should not result in first-year disbursements exceeding 40 percent of the total amount to be made available under the three-year enhanced structural adjustment arrangement. However, I take it that there may be scope for a higher first-year disbursement in some very exceptional cases. Existing policies regarding members with overdue obligations to the Fund will be retained; how best to deal with cases of large and protracted arrears is a question to which we will return soon, but in a different context.
4. Relationship with other Fund facilities
Directors noted that members qualifying for loans under the enhanced structural adjustment facility would retain eligibility for access to the Fund’s general resources. Access to those resources will have to be examined carefully on a case-by-case basis, taking into account a range of factors envisaged in the present guidelines, including past performance and use of Fund resources, terms, the possible availability of financing from the enhanced facility and other sources, and the speed and time profile of the anticipated balance of payments adjustment.
The Chairman’s Remarks at the Conclusion of the Discussion on the Enhancement of the Structural Adjustment Facility—Legal Documentation Executive Board Meeting 87/176, December 18, 1987
Two issues of substance raised during this meeting deserve special mention. First, it was reconfirmed that lending to the ESAF Trust could be considered as part of a member’s official reserves by the Fund. Second, it was explained that access to the Fund’s general resources could be provided for members that had extended loans to the Trust and that needed liquidity in an amount not exceeding their claim. Purchases under these circumstances would be allowed if the member represented that it had a need, because of developments in its reserves in the sense of Article V, Section 3(b)(ii), and that the Fund agreed that the purchase was justified taking into account the amount of the requested purchase and the existence of a claim on the Trust. If the liquidity problem can be addressed on its own, there would be no need for an adjustment program to solve the balance of payments problem. Moreover, those purchases could be given certain characteristics by a decision to be taken when required. For instance, it could be decided, with respect to such purchases, to provide for special repurchase periods and for their exclusion from the definition of reserve tranche purchases. Those decisions would need to be adopted by an 85 percent majority. On the occasion on which this question was discussed, I heard no objections by an Executive Director to this approach, which had been suggested in the staff papers that have been discussed by the Board.
Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility-Access Limits
The Fund as Trustee under the Instrument to Establish the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust decides:
1. In accordance with Section II, paragraph 2(a) of the Instrument to Establish the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust, the initial maximum limit on access of each eligible member to the resources of the Trust shall be set at 250 percent of the member’s quota in the Fund, minus any remaining access of the member to the resources of the Structural Adjustment Facility, and minus resources committed to the member for loans in association with Trust loans.
2. The maximum limit in paragraph 1 may be increased in exceptional circumstances not to exceed 350 percent of the member’s quota in the Fund, subject to the same deductions as in paragraph 1.
Decision No. 8845-(88/61) ESAF
April 20, 1988
Pursuant to Section II, Paragraph 2(a) of the Instrument to Establish the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust (the Instrument), the Fund as Trustee has reviewed the maximum limit on access to the resources of the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust and the exceptional maximum access limit established by Decision No. 8845-(88/61) ESAF, adopted April 20, 1988. These access limits shall be further reviewed in accordance with Section II, paragraph 2(a) of the Instrument and in any event not later than June 30, 1990.
Decision No. 9119-(89/40) ESAF
March 29, 1989
Pursuant to Section II, Paragraph 2(a) of the Instrument to Establish the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust, the Fund as Trustee has reviewed the maximum limit and the exceptional maximum limit on access to the resources of the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust established by Decision No. 8845-(88/61) ESAF, adopted April 20, 1988. These limits shall be further reviewed not later than July 31, 1991.
Decision No. 9489-(90/106) ESAF
July 2, 1990
Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility—Interest Rate on Trust Loans
The Fund as Trustee under the Instrument to Establish the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust decides:
In accordance with Section II, paragraph 4(a) and Section IV, paragraph 5 of the Instrument to Establish the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust, the interest rate on loans from the Trust shall be set at 0.5 percent effective April 20, 1988.
Decision No. 8846-(88/61) ESAF
April 20, 1988
Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility—Borrowing for Loan Account—Consultation with Creditors
The Managing Director is authorized to confirm that he does not intend to propose to the Executive Board borrowing of more than SDR 6 billion for the Loan Account of the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust except after consultation with all creditors regarding the justification for such additional borrowing and the adequacy of the Trust’s Reserve in relation thereto.
Decision No. 9056-(89/2) ESAF
January 11, 1989
Enhanced Surveillance: Procedures for Transmittal of Staff Reports
When the Executive Board has approved a request by a member for consultations under the Fund’s policy on enhanced surveillance, the annual and midyear consultation reports prepared by the Fund staff in accordance with that policy in respect of the member may be transmitted by the member to creditor banks and other creditor financial institutions party to the arrangements specified by the member in the request for consultations, on the understanding that the recipients of the reports have assured the member that the reports will not be used for any purpose other than those of the arrangements specified in the member’s request to the Fund and will be kept confidential; and that the reports shall not be transmitted by the member earlier than two weeks after their circulation to members of the Executive Board.
Decision No. 8222-(86/45)
March 12, 1986
The Chairman’s Summing Up of the Discussion of the Role of the Fund in Assisting Members with Commercial Banks and Official Creditors Executive Board Meeting 85/132, September 4, 1985
The procedures relating to enhanced surveillance that have been discussed by Directors were developed in response to the need to help members make progress toward addressing their debt problems and improving their relations with their creditors in an orderly manner and in a broader framework.
It was noted by many Directors that by adapting some of its policies, the Fund had played a central role in helping to limit the disruptions associated with the debt crisis and in promoting a normalization of debtor/creditor relations. Most Directors, however, observed that the practice of enhanced surveillance that had developed involved some risks. Some Directors stressed the risk of a possible weakening of Fund conditionality. Others feared that the Fund might tend to become too deeply and too specifically involved in relations with the commercial banks, and that generalized reliance on the Fund’s judgment by the international community could affect the Fund’s credibility and interfere with the normal functioning of the markets, which should rely eventually on the banks’ own assessments. In other words, enhanced surveillance in the view of most Directors should not become a substitute for stand-by and extended arrangements and should not “crowd out” or “dilute” the Fund’s normal procedures and transform the institution into a kind of universal credit-rating agency. In that vein, a majority of Directors, while recognizing the usefulness of practices that have evolved, considered that enhanced surveillance should be used on a limited basis under the guidance and control of the Executive Board, essentially to help promote MYRAs (multi-year rescheduling arrangements), although all MYRAs might not be associated with enhanced surveillance.
Criteria and Procedures
a. Criteria for the adoption of enhanced surveillance
While several Directors insisted on the need for flexibility and on the importance of avoiding too rigid criteria, most Directors felt that enhanced surveillance could be undertaken when the four following conditions are met:
First, at the request of a member country, who must initiate the procedures;
Second, in cases where a good record of adjustment has been shown;
Third, in cases in which a MYRA is needed to normalize market relations and to facilitate the return to voluntary or spontaneous financing;
Fourth, in cases where the member is in a position to present an adequate quantified policy program in the framework of consultations with the Fund staff, which are part of the procedure of enhanced surveillance.
b. Length of the Fund’s involvement
Directors thought that, on the whole, the early cases of enhanced surveillance had covered rather too long periods. They felt that in the future the Fund should try to limit the procedure to about the consolidation period of a MYRA. I would suggest that we should retain some flexibility and remain open to the possibility of extending enhanced surveillance a little beyond the consolidation period. If the Fund were to cut off enhanced surveillance at the end of the consolidation period, the communication of reports to the banks would be halted at a delicate time in the normalization of relations between the country and its creditors; i.e., at the time when the country will need more voluntary financing to meet external payments falling due. While we should try to limit enhanced surveillance as much as possible to the consolidation period, there might be occasions when an extension of enhanced surveillance into the period after consolidation may be necessary and warranted.
c. Trigger mechanisms
A number of Directors feared that staff involvement in the design and the negotiation of trigger mechanisms between the commercial banks and the member country risked diluting the banks’ responsibility in the monitoring process under MYRAs and risked engaging the Fund in providing on/off signals to the banks. Most Directors felt that the staff should not negotiate or take responsibility for designing and assessing trigger mechanisms. But, if the member wished, the Fund staff would not refuse to give its views on the purely technical merits or drawbacks of such mechanisms. It is important to emphasize that the Fund should take no active part in the negotiation of the design of these trigger mechanisms.
d. Contents and distribution of staff reports
Directors stressed the need to ensure that staff reports to be issued to creditor banks under the policy of enhanced surveillance continue to provide full and frank assessments of the policies and economic prospects of member countries. While a number of Directors were of the view that staff reports should be made available to creditor banks under the enhanced surveillance procedures only after the Executive Board had met to discuss the reports, most Directors agreed that countries would be authorized to release these staff reports to their creditor banks not earlier than two weeks after their issuance to the Executive Board. The majority of Directors were of the view that authorization to release staff reports should be provided by a general decision pertaining to all cases for which enhanced surveillance is agreed rather than by an individual decision in each case. The reports to be released to creditor banks would reflect only the staffs views and would not contain any references to the discussions and views of the Executive Board. No amendments to the staff report other than the deletion of references to Board discussions would be made.
e. Involvement of the Executive Board
I understand that the procedure would be as follows: First, request by a member for enhanced surveillance; second, management assesses the case in accordance with the policies agreed by the Executive Board today and determines whether to submit the request for the endorsement of the Board. In cases where the criteria raise delicate problems of interpretation, management would continue to consult informally with Executive Directors at the earliest opportunity.
g. Review of the policy on enhanced surveillance
A number of Directors suggested that in view of the need to assess changing circumstances and the possible effects of the procedures for enhanced surveillance on the Fund and its policies, the Board should engage in a periodic review of the policy of enhanced surveillance, with an initial review to be held in about one year.
On the transfer of resources from the Special Disbursement Account to the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust and retransfer to the Special Disbursement Account, see Decision No. 8760-(87/176) on page 282. On the establishment of the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility, see Decision No. 8757-(87/176) SAF/ESAF on page 280.