Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions, 2007


International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
Published Date:
October 2007
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(Position as of December 31, 2006)

Status under IMF Articles of Agreement
Article VIIIDate of acceptance: October 10, 1995.
Exchange Measures
Restrictions and/or multiple currency practicesNo restrictions as reported in the latest staff report as of December 31, 2006.
International security restrictionsNo.
References to legal instruments and hyperlinksn.a.
Exchange Arrangement
CurrencyThe currency of Brunei Darussalam is the Brunei dollar.
Other legal tenderThe Singapore dollar also circulates as customary tender.
Exchange rate structureUnitary.
Currency board arrangementThe Brunei dollar is issued by the Brunei Currency and Monetary Board (BCMB). Under the terms of the Currency Interchangeability Agreement (CIA), signed in 1967, which remains in effect between the BCMB and the Monetary Authority of Singapore, the monetary authorities agreed to the mutual exchange of each other’s currency, at par without charge, into notes and coins issued by them. Both the authorities and banks in Brunei Darussalam and Singapore are obliged to accept each other’s currency at par, and the currencies are customary tender in the territory of the other country. Excess Brunei or Singapore currency is repatriated regularly, and the cost of repatriation is borne by the currency issuing authority. The BCMB deals only in Singapore dollars and does not quote rates for other currencies. Banks, however, are free to deal in all currencies, with no restriction on amount, maturity, or type of transaction.
The Brunei Association of Banks fixes daily buying and selling rates for electronic transfers and sight drafts in 17 other currencies on the basis of the interbank quotations for these currencies in relation to the Singapore dollar. Banks in Brunei Darussalam must apply these rates for transactions with the general public for amounts up to B$100,000. Exchange rates for amounts exceeding B$100,000 are set competitively by each bank on the basis of the current interbank quotations for the Singapore dollar on the Singapore market.
Exchange taxNo.
Exchange subsidyNo.
Forward exchange marketThere is no forward market for foreign exchange in Brunei Darussalam. However, as a result of the CIA, foreign exchange risk may be hedged in terms of Singapore dollars by resorting to facilities available in that country, including foreign currency futures and options traded on the Singapore International Monetary Exchange, over-the-counter forward transactions arranged by banks in Singapore, and the short-term foreign exchange swap market operated among the banks in the Singapore money market.
References to legal instruments and hyperlinksn.a.
Arrangements for Payments and Receipts
Prescription of currency requirementsn.a.
Payments arrangements
Regional arrangementsBrunei Darussalam is a member of ASEAN.
Administration of controlThere are no formal exchange controls since the repeal of the Exchange Control Act in 2000.
Payments arrearsNo.
Controls on trade in gold (coins and/or bullion)
On domestic ownership and/or tradeFollowing the repeal of the Exchange Control Act, dealings in gold are not controlled or restricted.
On external tradeGold bars are not subject to import duty, but a 5% duty is levied on the importation of gold jewelry.
Controls on exports and imports of banknotesNo.
References to legal instruments and hyperlinksn.a.
Resident Accounts
Foreign exchange accounts permittedYes.
Held domesticallyYes.
Held abroadYes.
Accounts in domestic currency held abroadn.a.
Accounts in domestic currency convertible into foreign currencyYes.
References to legal instruments and hyperlinksn.a.
Nonresident Accounts
Foreign exchange accounts permittedThere is no distinction between accounts of residents and nonresidents.
Domestic currency accountsYes.
Convertible into foreign currencyYes.
Blocked accountsNo.
References to legal instruments and hyperlinksn.a.
Imports and Import Payments
Foreign exchange budgetNo.
Financing requirements for importsNo.
Documentation requirements for release of foreign exchange for importsNo.
Import licenses and other nontariff measures
Negative listA few imports are banned or restricted for environmental, health, safety, security, or religious reasons. Alcoholic beverages may be imported only by nonresident non-Muslims.
Other nontariff measuresYes.
Import taxes and/or tariffsAbout 68% of items (including basic foodstuffs, construction materials, and educational materials) are exempt from customs duties. Most other goods are subject to tariff rates of 5%, 15%, or 20%. The maximum tariff is 30%.
State import monopolyNo.
References to legal instruments and hyperlinksn.a.
Exports and Export Proceeds
Repatriation requirementsNo.
Financing requirementsn.a.
Documentation requirementsNo.
Export licensesExport licenses are required for alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, diesel fuel, gasoline, kerosene, rice, salt, and sugar.
Without quotasYes.
With quotasn.a.
Export taxesNo.
References to legal instruments and hyperlinksn.a.
Payments for Invisible Transactions and Current Transfers
Controls on these transfersThere are indicative limits or bona fide tests for all payments for invisible transactions and current transfers.
Trade-related payments
Indicative limits/bona fide testYes.
Investment-related paymentsInterest payments are subject to a 20% withholding tax. Information is not available on the payment of amortization of loans and depreciation of direct investments.
Indicative limits/bona fide testYes.
Payments for travel
Indicative limits/bona fide testYes.
Personal payments
Indicative limits/bona fide testYes.
Foreign workers’ wages
Indicative limits/bona fide testYes.
Credit card use abroad
Indicative limits/bona fide testYes.
Other payments
Indicative limits/bona fide testYes.
References to legal instruments and hyperlinksn.a.
Proceeds from Invisible Transactions and Current Transfers
Repatriation requirementsNo.
Restrictions on use of fundsNo.
References to legal instruments and hyperlinksn.a.
Capital Transactions
Controls on capital transactionsYes.
Repatriation requirementsNo.
Controls on capital and money market instrumentsNo.
Controls on derivatives and other instrumentsNo.
Controls on credit operationsNo.
Controls on direct investment
Inward direct investmentThere are no sectoral controls, but activities relating to national food security and those based on local resources require some degree of local participation. Industries producing for the local market that are not related to national food security and industries that solely export may be fully foreign owned. Joint ventures are particularly encouraged in export-import industries and activities supporting such industries. At least one-half of the directors of a company must be either Brunei citizens or residents of Brunei Darussalam.
Controls on liquidation of direct investmentNo.
Controls on real estate transactions
Purchase locally by nonresidentsOnly Brunei citizens are allowed to own land. However, foreign investors may lease land on a long-term basis, including sites destined for industry, agriculture, agroforestry, and aquaculture.
Sale locally by nonresidentsn.a.
Controls on personal capital transactions
Gifts, endowments, inheritances, and legaciesn.a.
Settlements of debts abroad by immigrantsn.a.
Transfer of assetsn.a.
Transfer of gambling and prize earningsYes.
References to legal instruments and hyperlinksn.a.
Provisions Specific to the Financial Sector
Provisions specific to commercial banks and other credit institutions
Maintenance of accounts abroadYes.
Lending to nonresidents (financial or commercial credits)Yes.
Lending locally in foreign exchangeYes.
Differential treatment of deposit accounts in foreign exchange
Reserve requirementsYes.
Liquid asset requirementsYes.
Differential treatment of deposit accounts held by nonresidents
Reserve requirementsYes.
Provisions specific to institutional investors
Pension fundsn.a.
Investment firms and collective investment fundsn.a.
References to legal instruments and hyperlinksn.a.
Changes during 2006
No significant changes occurred in the exchange and trade system.

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