Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2005


International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
Published Date:
September 2005
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(Position as of December 31, 2004)

Status Under IMF Articles of Agreement
Article VIIIDate of acceptance: October 10, 1995.
Exchange Arrangement
CurrencyThe currency of Brunei Darussalam is the Brunei dollar.
Other legal tenderThe Singapore dollar also circulates as customary tender.
Exchange rate structureUnitary.
Currency board arrangementThe Brunei dollar is issued by the Brunei Currency and Monetary Board (BCMB) only against payments in Singapore dollars and at par. Under the terms of a 1967 Currency Interchangeability Agreement (CIA) between the BCMB and the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), the Singapore dollar is customary tender in Brunei Darussalam and the Brunei dollar in Singapore. The BCMB and MAS have accepted each other’s currency and have agreed to mutual exchange at par and without charge. They have instructed their banks to do the same with their customers. Any excess Brunei or Singapore currency is repatriated regularly, with the issuing institution bearing the costs, and settlements are made in the other country’s currency. The BCMB deals only in Singapore dollars and does not quote rates for other currencies. Banks, however, are free to deal in all currencies, with no restrictions on amount, maturity, or type of transaction.
The Brunei Association of Banks fixes daily buying and selling rates for electronic transfers and sight drafts in 17 other currencies on the basis of the interbank quotations for these currencies in relation to the Singapore dollar. Banks in Brunei Darussalam must apply these rates for transactions with the general public for amounts up to B$100,000. Exchange rates for amounts exceeding B$100,000 are set competitively by each bank on the basis of the current interbank quotations for the Singapore dollar on the Singapore market.
Exchange taxNo.
Exchange subsidyNo.
Forward exchange marketThere is no forward market for foreign exchange in Brunei Darussalam. However, as a result of the CIA, foreign exchange risk may be hedged in terms of Singapore dollars by resorting to facilities available in that country, including foreign currency futures and options traded on the Singapore International Monetary Exchange, over-the-counter forward transactions arranged by banks in Singapore, and the short-term foreign exchange swap market operated among the banks in the Singapore money market.
Arrangements for Payments and Receipts
Prescription of currency requirementsn.a.
Payments arrangements
Regional arrangementsBrunei Darussalam is a member of the ASEAN.
Administration of controlThere are no formal exchange controls since the Exchange Control Act was repealed in 2000.
International security restrictionsNo.
Payments arrearsNo.
Controls on trade in gold (coins and/or bullion)
Controls on domestic ownership and/or tradeOnly banks licensed to operate in Brunei Darussalam and gold dealers and jewelers specifically authorized by the MOF may buy and sell gold bars. Gold bars are not subject to import duty, but a 5% duty is levied on the importation of gold jewelry.
Controls on external tradeYes.
Controls on exports and imports of banknotesNo.
Resident Accounts
Foreign exchange accounts permittedYes.
Held domesticallyYes.
Held abroadYes.
Accounts in domestic currency held abroadn.a.
Accounts in domestic currency convertible into foreign currencyYes.
Nonresident Accounts
Foreign exchange accounts permittedThere is no distinction between accounts of residents and nonresidents of Brunei Darussalam.
Domestic currency accountsYes.
Convertible into foreign currencyYes.
Blocked accountsNo.
Imports and Import Payments
Foreign exchange budgetNo.
Financing requirements for importsNo.
Documentation requirements for release of foreign exchange for importsNo.
Import licenses and other nontariff measures
Negative listA few imports are banned or restricted for environmental, health, safety, security, or religious reasons. Alcoholic beverages may be imported only by nonresident non-Muslims.
Import taxes and/or tariffsSome 70% of items (including basic foodstuffs, construction materials, and educational materials) are exempt from customs duties. Most other goods are subject to tariff rates of 5%, 15%, or 20%. The maximum tariff is 30%.
State import monopolyNo.
Exports and Export Proceeds
Repatriation requirementsNo.
Financing requirementsn.a.
Documentation requirementsNo.
Export licensesExport licenses are required for alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, diesel, gasoline, kerosene, rice, salt, and sugar.
Without quotasYes.
Export taxesNo.
Payments for Invisible Transactions and Current Transfers
Controls on these transfersThere are indicative limits or bona fide tests for all payments for invisible transactions and current transfers.
Trade-related payments
Indicative limits/bona fide testYes.
Investment-related paymentsInterest payments are subject to a 20% withholding tax. Information is not available on the payment of amortization of loans and depreciation of direct investments.
Indicative limits/bona fide testYes.
Payments for travel
Indicative limits/bona fide testYes.
Personal payments
Indicative limits/bona fide testYes.
Foreign workers’ wages
Indicative limits/bona fide testYes.
Credit card use abroad
Indicative limits/bona fide testYes.
Other payments
Indicative limits/bona fide testYes.
Proceeds from Invisible Transactions and Current Transfers
Repatriation requirementsNo.
Restrictions on use of fundsNo.
Capital Transactions
Controls on capital transactionsYes.
Controls on capital and money market instrumentsNo.
Controls on derivatives and other instrumentsNo.
Controls on credit operationsNo.
Controls on direct investment
Inward direct investmentThere are no sectoral controls, but activities relating to national food security and those based on local resources require some degree of local participation. Industries producing for the local market that are not related to national food security and industries that solely export may be fully foreign owned. Joint ventures are particularly encouraged in export import industries and activities supporting such industries. At least one-half of the directors of a company must be either Brunei citizens or residents of Brunei Darussalam.
Controls on liquidation of direct investmentNo.
Controls on real estate transactions
Purchase locally by nonresidentsOnly Brunei citizens are allowed to own land. However, foreign investors may lease land on a long-term basis, including sites destined for industry, agriculture, agroforestry, and aquaculture.
Controls on personal capital transactions
Transfer of gambling and prize earningsYes.
Provisions specific to commercial banks and other credit institutions
Maintenance of accounts abroadYes.
Lending to nonresidents (financial or commercial credits)Yes.
Lending locally in foreign exchangeYes.
Differential treatment of deposit accounts in foreign exchange
Reserve requirementsYes.
Liquid asset requirementsYes.
Differential treatment of deposit accounts held by nonresidents
Reserve requirementsYes.
Provisions specific to institutional investorsNo.
Other controls imposed by securities lawsNo.
Changes During 2004
No significant changes occurred in the exchange and trade system.

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