Exchange Rate Arrangements and Anchors of Monetary Policy1,2
- International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
- Published Date:
- September 2004
|Monetary Policy Framework|
|Exchange rate anchor||Monetary|
with no separate
legal tender (41)
|Islands||St. Kitts and||d’Ivoire*||Chad*||Ireland|
|Fed. States of||St. Lucia||Bissau||Rep. of||Luxembourg|
|Dem. Rep. of|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|China—Hong Kong SAR|
|China, P.R. of†7|
|Bahrain, Kingdom of||Latvia|
|Barbados||Libyan Arab Jamahiriya|
|China, P.R. of†7||Seychelles|
|Syrian Arab Rep.6|
|United Arab Emirates|
|Venezuela, Rep. Bolivariana de|
|Within a cooperative||Other band||Hungary†|
|Crawling pegs (5)||Bolivia*||Tunisia|
|Managed floating with no preannounced path for the exchange rate (50)||Bangladesh*||Czech Rep.||Argentina*||Afghanistan, I.S. of|
|Iran, I.R. of||Kenya||India4|
|Serbia and Montenegro*12||São Tomé and Príncipe|
|Trinidad and Tobago|
|Independently floating (34)||Malawi||Australia||Albania*||Japan4|
|Canada||Congo, Dem. Rep. of||Papua New Guinea4|
|Yemen, Rep. of||Guatemala*†||Tanzania*||United States4|
Classification of Exchange Rate Arrangements and Monetary Policy Frameworks
The classification system is based on the members’ actual, de facto, regimes, which may differ from their officially announced arrangements. The scheme ranks exchange rate regimes on the basis of the degree of flexibility of the arrangement. It distinguishes among the more rigid forms of pegged regimes (such as currency board arrangements); other conventional fixed peg regimes against a single currency or a basket of currencies; exchange rate bands around a fixed peg; crawling peg arrangements; and exchange rate bands around crawling pegs, in order to help assess the implications of the choice of exchange rate regime for the degree of independence of monetary policy. This includes a category to distinguish the exchange arrangements of those countries that have no separate legal tender. The system presents members’ exchange rate regimes against alternative monetary policy frameworks with the intention of using both criteria as a way of providing greater transparency in the classification scheme and to illustrate that different forms of exchange rate regimes could be consistent with similar monetary frameworks. The categories are explained in the compilation guide.
Members’ exchange rate regimes are presented against alternative monetary policy frameworks in order to present the role of the exchange rate in broad economic policy and help identify potential sources of inconsistency in the monetary-exchange rate policy mix. The monetary policy frameworks listed are as follows:
Exchange rate anchor
The monetary authority stands ready to buy or sell foreign exchange at given quoted rates to maintain the exchange rate at its preannounced level or range (the exchange rate serves as the nominal anchor or intermediate target of monetary policy). These regimes cover exchange rate regimes with no separate legal tender, currency board arrangements, fixed pegs with or without bands, and crawling pegs with or without bands, where the rate of crawl is set in a forward-looking manner.
Monetary aggregate target
The monetary authority uses its instruments to achieve a target growth rate for a monetary aggregate (reserve money, Ml, M2, etc.), and the targeted aggregate becomes the nominal anchor or intermediate target of monetary policy.
Inflation targeting framework
This involves the public announcement of medium-term numerical targets for inflation, with an institutional commitment by the monetary authority to achieve these targets. Additional key features include increased communication with the public and the markets about the plans and objectives of monetary policymakers and increased accountability of the central bank for obtaining its inflation objectives. Monetary policy decisions are guided by the deviation of forecasts of future inflation from the announced inflation target, with the inflation forecast acting (implicitly or explicitly) as the intermediate target of monetary policy.
IMF-supported or other monetary program
This involves implementation of monetary and exchange rate policy within the confines of a framework that establishes floors for international reserves and ceilings for net domestic assets of the central bank. As the ceiling on net domestic assets limits increases in reserve money through central bank operations, indicative targets for reserve money may be appended to this system.
The country has no explicitly stated nominal anchor, but rather monitors various indicators in conducting monetary policy. This is also used when no relevant information on the country is available.