APPENDIX III Technical Assistance and Training, Relations with Other International Organizations, External Relations, and Staffing Issues

International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
January 1993
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Technical Assistance

Technical assistance and training are extended by the Fund to members in a wide range of economic and financial areas, either at Fund headquarters or through staff missions to a member country. Staff from almost every department and bureau of the Fund may be provided in response to a member’s request. Assistance may relate to a whole range of subjects, including economic policy, balance of payments adjustments programs, legal matters, debt management, exchange and trade issues, financial sector topics, accounting, statistics, and data processing.

IMF Institute

The IMF Institute trains officials from member countries and those that are expected to become members. Courses and seminars are held at headquarters and at national or regional centers and are offered in Arabic, English, French, and Spanish; interpretation into local languages is available for national or regional offerings. Courses at the newly opened Joint Vienna Institute are taught in English with Russian interpretation. The Institute also helps other national or regional training institutions with lecturing assistance and organizes briefings for visiting officials.

During 1992/93, training at headquarters consisted of 13 courses and 3 seminars for senior officials, attended by 553 participants. The program included three 12-week courses on financial programming and policy, five 10-week courses on techniques of financial analysis and programming, and one 9-week course on programming and policies for medium-term adjustment. The financial programming and policy course covered financial programming and adjustment issues for officials with substantial macroeconomic training and practical experience; the course on techniques of financial analysis and programming provided a more elementary review of similar issues; technical and policy aspects of medium-term adjustment programs were emphasized in the course on programming and policies for medium-term adjustment. Two 8-week courses were presented on balance of payments methodology, one 6-week course on money and banking statistics (in collaboration with the Statistics Department), and an 8-week course on public finance (in collaboration with the Fiscal Affairs Department). Seminars for senior officials were held on current legal issues affecting central banks (in collaboration with the Legal Department), public expenditure policy and management (in collaboration with the Fiscal Affairs Department), and exchange rate policies in developing economies and economics in transition.

The Institute conducted eight courses and two seminars in Africa and a course in Lebanon, and provided lecturing assistance twice to local institutions. These efforts included a seminar for high-level officials from Francophone countries held in Bamako, Mali, in November 1992, and a three-week course in macroeconomic management for officials from five Lusophone African countries in Lisbon, Portugal, in April and May 1993. The latter course was organized in cooperation with the Portuguese authorities and the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank.

The Joint Vienna Institute, set up in cooperation with five other international organizations and with help from Austria and a number of other national donors, went into operation in September 1992 and was officially inaugurated in October of that year. It trains officials and some private sector managers from members in Central and Eastern Europe, the former U.S.S.R., and Asia that are in transition to market systems. IMF training at the Vienna Institute during 1992/93 consisted of 8 courses and a seminar for senior officials, attended by 263 participants. The program included one 3-week course on public expenditure, one 6-week course on aspects of public finance (in collaboration with the Fiscal Affairs Department), two 3-week courses on basic economics, two 6-week courses on macroeconomic and financial policies, one 2-week course on bank supervision (in collaboration with the Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department), and one 3-week course on government finance statistics (in collaboration with the Statistics Department). A seminar for senior officials was held on transition and adjustment in conjunction with the inauguration ceremonies in October 1992.

A program of external courses on macroeconomic management for economies in transition was jointly conceived and financed by the Fund and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), with help from other sources. A pilot scholarship program for promising young officials seeking longer-term training at advanced educational institutions was also launched with co-financing initially from the UNDP. The program is already being expanded considerably with help from Japan and a number of countries in the Middle East. The Institute will not only manage the program but also help design a course of study in collaboration with participating universities that will focus training on the needs of participants.

In addition to residential training courses in Washington and Vienna, the Institute conducted 21 overseas courses and 12 seminars for high-level officials, and provided lecturing assistance in eight instances to six training organizations. Six of these courses and seven of the seminars were held in the former US.S.R and Central and Eastern European countries. The Institute also organized 22 briefings at headquarters for a total of 368 visiting officials from member countries. With the exception of staff and teaching materials provided by the Institute, all costs of overseas training are covered either by local partners or through cofinancing arrangements with the UNDP or other collaborating institutions. The scope of such cofinancing activities is expanding.

In this regard, work is in progress on developing a Scholarship Program for Asia in collaboration with Japanese authorities and a similar program for the Middle East with help from national donors from the region. The Japan-IMF Scholarship Program will aim to train a limited number of young officials from economies in transition for a period of about one year at Saitama University (Japan). The Middle East program will send officials from selected countries for training at Warwick University (England).

The Institute, in cooperation with the Research Department, has initiated an internal training program for Fund economists. Five internal training courses and seminars took place in fiscal year 1992/93, attended by 200 economists.

Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department

The Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department (known prior to May 1, 1992 as the Central Banking Department) provides technical assistance on central banking and financial sector issues. The objective of this assistance is to strengthen monetary management and prudential regulations, and to develop members’ financial systems, often as a component of structural reforms underlying Fund-supported adjustment programs.

The department provides technical assistance in the broad areas of currency issue and reform, foreign exchange management and operations, bank accounting and payments systems, central bank operations, instruments of monetary policy (including capital markets), and banking regulations and supervision. Technical assistance is delivered through advisory missions (which may include participation by outside experts), assignments of long-term resident experts, visits by short-term experts, and through lectures and workshops—developed and sponsored by the department alone, and in collaboration with other units in the Fund (e.g., the IMF Institute) and other international and regional organizations (e.g., the OECD, BIS).

In 1992/93, the department provided technical assistance to 109 countries and regional organizations. Compared with 1991/92, the department more than doubled its mission work, undertaking 110 advisory missions and sponsoring or participating in 11 seminars and technical assistance workshops. Another 42 missions were undertaken in 1992/93 to assess needs and coordinate technical assistance programs, particularly for the countries comprising the former Soviet Union.

Growth in the department’s technical assistance program also was reflected in the increased use of outside experts, which grew to about 74 person years in 1992/93 from 62 years in 1991/92. Assistance was provided in 1992/93 by 295 outside experts, who made almost 500 individual expert trips. Of this total, approximately 53 expert years—70 percent—were provided by 79 long-term experts residing in member countries. The remaining 21 expert years of. assistance were provided by 216 experts who accompanied departmental missions or made separate, short visits organized by the department. External financing—from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Japan Administered Account (JAA), and the International Development Agency (IDA) acting as administrator for a grant from Japan—accounted for about 17 person years (24 percent) of expert time.

Dominating the growth in the department’s 1992/93 technical assistance program were its intensive assistance efforts in the states of the former Soviet Union and Central and Eastern Europe, which accounted for about 55 percent of all advisory missions and more than two thirds of all expert trips. Following the pattern established in Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria, the department has formed teams of staff and experts to develop and implement comprehensive programs of technical assistance aimed at establishing and modernizing central banks in each of the newly emerging countries. Twenty-three cooperating central banks have joined with the department to provide more than 125 staff to participate in these teams. While a broad range of subjects has been covered in the countries of the former Soviet Union, particular focus has been given to monetary policies and operations, banking supervision, currency issue, foreign exchange, payments and settlement systems, and accounting. In the latter two areas, the department developed and delivered technical assistance workshops for officials from throughout the former Soviet Union. The success of these workshops is leading to the development of similar programs in other areas—public debt and foreign exchange—for delivery in the coming financial year. Long-term experts served in residence at the central banks in the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, and Ukraine, and resident advisors will be arriving shortly in several other states.

In the areas of policy, review, surveillance, and jurisdiction, the department’s role and responsibilities were expanded significantly in 1992/93. Two divisions were created to conduct analyses and reviews of the structural and institutional aspects of monetary and exchange rate policies, and another new division now has jurisdictional responsibility for exchange practices and publishes the Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions.

The department’s Legislation Data Bank, which contains banking laws from some 150 countries, continues to provide the basis for prompt responses to a large number of inquiries from member countries.

Fiscal Affairs Department

Technical assistance provided by the Fiscal Affairs Department has been directed mainly at supporting countries’ efforts in connection with Fund-supported adjustment programs. In addition, the department provides technical assistance as part of major UNDP and World Bank projects. This has enabled the department to broaden and deepen the impact of its programs in member countries. The main change in 1992/93 was in the pattern of activity in the states of the former Soviet Union. Much of the initial wave of assistance to these countries had been provided in the context of multipurpose missions, intended both to advise on a broad range of topics and to identify areas where more targeted assistance is needed. In 1992/93, targeting of technical assistance was more precise, with particular focus on treasury systems, tax administration, and social safety nets.

Legal Department

During 1992/93, the Legal Department continued to provide technical assistance in the central and general banking, foreign exchange, and fiscal areas. This assistance included drafting legislation, reviewing draft legislation, and providing overall legal advice. Much of the assistance has been directed to members that are in the process of transforming their centrally planned economies and are seeking expertise regarding the legal steps that must be taken for this process to be successful.

Statistics Department

The technical assistance activities of the Statistics Department reached an unprecedented level during 1992/93. The department conducted 106 technical assistance missions, 17 of which were multitopic, to 43 countries. By. comparison, in 1991/92 the department conducted 44 such missions, 16 of which were multi-topic, to 37 countries.

The large increase in the mission load was mainly in response to the continuing needs of countries in transition, which continued the process of adapting their statistical systems to better serve economic analysis and policy in a market economy. The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union received about 73 percent of all technical assistance provided by the department during the year, involving 175 trips by staff, headquarters-based consultants, and outside experts on 77 missions. Eleven of these were multitopic missions. In addition to this effort in the transition economies, the department continued to provide technical assistance to many other member countries, principally those that were actual or prospective users of Fund resources or whose statistical infrastructure was at an early stage of development. There were 29 missions to these countries, compared with 24 missions in 1991/92.

The department’s technical assistance activities were again principally concentrated in the areas of monetary, balance of payments, and government finance statistics. In response to the pressing operational needs of the Fund, the department also fielded technical assistance missions in price statistics and in national accounts statistics to some countries of the former Soviet Union.

The provision of technical assistance in 1992/93 also involved an increasing number of outside experts for both short-term and medium and long-term assignments. Many of the projects using such experts were financed under the Executing Agency Agreement with the UNDP or with resources from the JAA. During the year, there were 27 active assignments involving 15 countries and one regional seminar, two of which were financed under the UNDP program, and 25 under the JAA. In addition, a significant amount of assistance was provided through participation of the department’s staff in 27 missions of other departments, 23 of which were to EUR II countries.

The department continued to offer training at headquarters to national statisticians on statistical methodologies and their application, mainly through courses at the IMF Institute. The department’s training program also included a seminar on government finance statistics at the headquarters of the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) and a balance of payments seminar for the Asia-Pacific Region. The department also presented its first course at the Joint Vienna Institute in government finance statistics.

Treasurer’s Department

The demand for the Treasurer’s Department’s technical assistance increased sharply in 1992/93, as a result of the unfamiliarity of most new members with Fund financial transactions and accounting practices. Eight new members from the former Soviet Union requested assistance in establishing Fund accounts and conducting financial transactions with the Fund, including the payment of quotas. A total of ten single-person missions were sent to these countries for a period of 3–6 days each. This technical assistance covered such areas as the opening of Fund accounts and explanations of their role, the computation of the amounts to be deposited to the Fund accounts, the preparation of nonnegotiable non-interest-bearing government notes to substitute for national currency, the use of the same-day SDR borrowing mechanism for the payment of the reserve asset portion of quotas, and the use of proper communication procedures to conduct financial transactions with the Fund.

Two other technical assistance missions were sent during the year, one to a member country in Asia and the other to a member country in Africa, for about one week each. The mission to the member in Asia involved two staff members who provided training on a wide range of topics related to the Fund’s financial structure and operations including the General and SDR Departments, administered accounts, the role and determination of quotas, financial facilities, the operational budget and designation plan, the Fund’s liquidity, remuneration, burden sharing, and charges.

The mission to the member in Africa provided a briefing to the staff of the member’s central bank on financial transactions with the Fund and technical advice on accounting and financial reporting for Fund transactions and operations. Particular areas of emphasis were the distinction between accounting for the General Department and the SDR Department, and the treatment of the valuation adjustment of the Fund’s accounts arising from exchange rate changes.

Bureau of Computing Services

Owing to limited budgetary and staff resources, the Bureau of Computing Services has a narrowly focused technical assistance program. It provides for a few short-term missions to member countries in direct support of the economic and financial work of the Fund. During 1992/93, missions were undertaken to several central banks and ministries of finance (Korea, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Ukraine, Poland, and Bulgaria) to provide assistance in the planning and development of computer systems for the processing, analysis, and reporting of economic, financial, and administrative information. Advice and guidance to these countries, as well as to other countries visited in the past were provided in the areas of economic information systems, central banking operations, tax administration, budget and treasury operations, strategic contingency, and recovery planning in the event of a computer systems disaster.

During 1992/93, the Bureau of Computing Services also continued to receive a large number of delegations and visitors from member countries and international institutions for computer training. Various short technology training courses were based upon the Fund’s application systems and areas of expertise. As a result of the expanding role of technology within member country institutions and with the continuing explosion of desktop microcomputers and associated application software, it is anticipated that the number of requests to the Fund for short-term computer technical assistance will increase. Such assistance would provide overall guidance in the development of computer systems for the collection, storage, and processing of economic and financial data, and would facilitate easy access to and exchange of data and documents between the member countries and the Fund. Also, demand is expected to increase for computer training courses at headquarters on the Fund’s computer application systems.

Relations with Other International Organizations

In fulfilling its role as a member of the international financial community, it is essential for the Fund to maintain close relations with other international and regional organizations having similar responsibilities, interests, and goals. Close ties are maintained with several organizations, including the United Nations, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the CEC, and the Bank for International Settlements (BIS).

The responsibility for liaison with these organizations rests with the three offices of the Fund located away from headquarters. The Director of the Fund Office in the United Nations and Special Representative to the United Nations is responsible for relations with the UN and its subsidiary bodies, as well as with many other UN organizations located outside the United States. The Office in Europe, which is located in Paris, manages the Fund’s relations with BIS, CEC, and OECD, and the Geneva Office is responsible for relations with the GATT, the UN Conference on Trade and Development, and other UN organizations located in Geneva. When necessary, the work of these offices is supplemented by assignment of staff and technical experts from headquarters. In addition, staff members participate in meetings and seminars, such as those of the regional economic and financial organizations in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East, including the regional development banks.

The Fund and the World Bank maintain a unique relationship, and the two institutions collaborate in a variety of ways including joint participation in missions, attendance at each other’s Executive Board meetings, joint preparation of policy framework papers, and regular exchange of documents and information. Fund staff attend a number of aid-coordination meetings including Aid Groups, Consultative Groups, and Donors Conferences, all of which are held under the auspices of the World Bank.

Fund staff continue to be involved in long-standing cooperative arrangements with the GATT regarding consultations with common member countries on trade restrictions imposed for balance of payments purposes. In addition to providing pertinent documents, Fund staff attend sessions of the GATT Council of Representatives, the Contracting Parties to the GATT, and several standing GATT committees. A successful conclusion to the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations is of great importance to the Fund, and its progress is closely monitored by the Geneva Office and by staff attendance at meetings of selected trade negotiating groups.

During the past year, the transition to market-based economic systems in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as in the states of the former Soviet Union, has led to an urgent need for training. To meet this need, the Fund joined with the CEC and four other international organizations in creating the Joint Vienna Institute to provide a channel through which the knowledge and practical experience of the six sponsoring organizations can be shared with officials from economies in transition in the area. The other sponsors of the Joint Vienna Institute, which was inaugurated in October 1992, are the BIS, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the World Bank, and the OECD.

The role of the Managing Director is vital in maintaining relations with other international and regional organizations, most notably the United Nations, where he attended meetings of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC). He addressed the UN Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED) on June 8, 1992 in Rio de Janeiro and the High-Level Meeting of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in New York on July 7, 1992. The Managing Director also addressed the Joint Vienna Institute at its official opening in Vienna on October 5, 1992, and on February 10, 1993 he presented remarks at the opening session of the IDB/UNDP Forum on Social Reform and Poverty held in Washington, DC.

External Relations

In a year in which the membership of the Fund progressed toward universality, public and media interest in its work increased markedly. In response, the Fund expanded its efforts to explain its work and policies to a wider audience.

An extraordinary amount of attention was generated by the membership process involving the states of the former U.S.S.R. and Switzerland, the central role the Fund is playing in assisting economies in transition, the creation of the systemic transformation facility, the completion of the Ninth General Review of Quotas and the ratification of the Third Amendment to the Articles of Agreement, the uncertain outlook for the world economy resulting from currency disturbances in Europe, and the Fund’s continuing role in the debt strategy. To explain these developments, the Managing Director and senior staff delivered speeches on an extensive range of economic issues in both international and national forums. Staff members also delivered papers and participated in a wide range of conferences, seminars, and symposiums.

The Fund’s contacts with the international news media continued apace during the year, with particular emphasis on Central Europe and states of the former U.S.S.R. Management and senior staff actively developed these contacts through interviews, press conferences, and briefings for the press to explain major issues and developments and by participating in seminars for the media designed to broaden knowledge about the institution and its functions. At headquarters, and during field missions, External Relations staff gave presentations on the role and work of the Fund to representatives of the press, and to academic, business, labor, and political groups from Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, North America, the Baltic states, and states of the former U.S.S.R.

In the IMF Visitors’ Center, the Economic Forum and International Seminar series attracted large professional audiences, while cultural events, such as art exhibits, film screenings, and concerts produced in cooperation with embassies and other international organizations, continued to be well received by the local community. A Russian version of the film “One World, One Economy,” was produced for public presentation and distribution.


The Fund’s publications continued to be the major means of distributing information about its work and related monetary and financial issues. As the number of titles and range of subject matter expanded during 1992/93, the distribution of Fund publications also widened. In particular, a number of publications were translated into Russian for distribution in the states of the former U.S.S.R. These included the Economic Review on the Russian Federation and Pamphlet No. 45, Financial Organizations and Operations of the IMF. During the year, issuance of the first series of Economic Reviews of the states of the former U.S.S.R. was completed, and the first three titles—Moldova, Armenia, and Azerbaijan—of a second series were published.

In addition to two regular editions of the biannual World Economic Outlook, published in May and October 1992, a special World Economic Outlook: Interim Assessment was published in January 1993. The Interim Assessment took account of substantial developments in the world economy that had occurred since the release of the October edition of the World Economic Outlook. Following a decision of the Board, an Arabic edition of the World Economic Outlook began publication in October 1992. It joined the existing editions in English, French, and Spanish.

Nine Occasional Papers were published during the year. These covered developments in individual member countries, regional issues, and topics relating to the evolving international monetary system. Eight papers, including the World Economic Outlook, were published in the World Economic and Financial Surveys series, covering such issues as international capital markets, developments in exchange and payments systems, trade, and private market financing for developing countries. Statistical publications included a Report on the Measurement of International Capital Flows and relevant background papers. The report was prepared by a Working Party established by the Board under the chairmanship of Baron Godeaux (see Annual Report, 1992, pages 40–41).

Under the Fund’s active program for marketing publications, priority was given to promoting the World Economic Outlook and related publications and to expanding the distribution of the International Financial Statistics in CD-ROM format. A complete list of publications issued during the financial year appears in Table III.1.

Table III.1Publications Issued, Financial Year Ended April 30, 1993
Official Reports and Other Documents

Annual Report of the Executive Board for the Financial Year Ended April 30, 1992

(English, French, German, and Spanish). Free.
By-Laws, Rules and Regulations

Forty-Seventh Issue

(English and French). Free.
Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions, Annual Report 1992

$39.50 ($20.00 to full-time university faculty members and students).
Selected Decisions of the International Monetary Fund and Selected Documents, Seventeenth Issue

(English). Free.
Summary Proceedings of the Forty-Seventh Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors

Periodic Publications
Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook

Vol. 43. A two-part yearbook. $45.00 a year.
Direction of Trade Statistics

Quarterly, with yearbook. $86.00 a year ($43.00 to full-time university faculty members and students). $25.00 for yearbook only.
Government Finance Statistics Yearbook

Vol. 16, 1992 (Introduction and titles of lines in English, French, and Spanish). $48.00.
International Financial Statistics

Monthly, with yearbook (English, French, and Spanish). $188.00 a year ($94.00 to full-time university faculty members and students). $50.00 for yearbook only.
Staff Papers

Four times a year. $46.00 a year ($23.00 to full-time university faculty members and students).
The five publications listed above may be obtained at a special rate of $290.00 ($145.00 to full-time university faculty members and students).
Magnetic tape subscriptions to Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, Direction of Trade Statistics, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, and International Financial Statistics are also available. International Financial Statistics is also available on CD-ROM. Price information is available on request.
Finance & Development

Issued jointly with the World Bank; quarterly (English, Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish). Free. Airspeed delivery, $20.00.
IMF Survey

Twice monthly, but only once in December (English, French, and Spanish). Private firms and individuals are charged at an annual rate of $60.00.
Occasional Papers
No. 94. Tax Harmonization in the European Community: Policy Issues and Analysis

Edited by George Kopits.
No. 96. Policy Issues in the Evolving International Monetary System
By Morris Goldstein, Peter Isard, Paul R. Masson, and Mark P. Taylor.
No. 97. Rules and Discretion in International Economic Policy

By Manuel Guitian.
No. 98. Albania: From Isolation Toward Reform
By Mario I. Blejer, Mauro Mecagni, Ratna Sahay, Richard Hides, Barry Johnston, Piroska Nagy, and Roy Pepper.
No. 99. Mexico: The Strategy to Achieve Sustained Economic Growth
By Claudio Loser and Eliot Kalter.
No. 100. The Gambia: Economic Adjustment in a Small Open Economy
By Michael T. Hadjimichael, Thomas Rumbaugh, and Eric Verreydt.
No. 101. Spain: Converging with the European Community

By Michel Galy, Gonzalo Pastor, and Thierry Pujol.
No. 102. Financial Sector Reforms and Exchange Arrangements in Eastern Europe

By Guillermo Calvo, Manmohan S. Kumar, Eduardo Borenszstein, and Paul R. Masson.
No. 103. Liberalization of the Capital Account: Experiences and Issues

By Donald J. Mathieson and Liliana Rojas-Suárez.
Occasional Papers are available for $15.00 each, with a special price of $12.00 each to full-time university faculty members and students.
World Economic and Financial Surveys

World Economic Outlook: A Survey by the Staff of theInternational Monetary Fund

(May 1992) (English, French, and Spanish)

$30.00 ($20.00 to full-time university faculty members and students).
World Economic Outlook: A Survey by the Staff of the International Monetary Fund

(October 1992) (Arabic, English, French, and Spanish) $30.00 ($20.00 to full-time university faculty members and students).
World Economic Outlook—Interim Assessment: A Survey by the Staff of the International Monetary Fund

(January 1993) (English) $30.00 ($20.00 to full-time university faculty members and students).
Private Market Financing for Developing Countries

By a Staff Team in the Policy Development and Review Department led by Charles Collyns. $20.00

($12.00 to full-time university faculty members and students).
International Capital Markets: Developments, Prospects, and Policy Issues

By Morris Goldstein, David Folkerts-Landau, Mohamed El-Erian, Steven Fries, and Liliana Rojas-Suarez $20.00 ($12.00 to full-time university faculty members and students).
International Capital Markets—Part 1

By Morris Goldstein, David Folkerts-Landau, Peter Gaber, Liliana Rojas-Suarez, and Michael Spencer.

$20.00 ($12.00 to full-time university faculty members and students).
Developments in International Exchange and Payments Systems By a Staff Team from the Exchange and Trade Relations Department $20.00 ($12.00 to full-time university faculty members and students).
Issues and Developments in International Trade Policy By a Staff Team led by Margaret Kelly and Anne Kenny McGuirk.

$20.00 ($12.00 to full-time university faculty members and students).
Foreign and Intratrade Policies of the Arab Countries

Edited by Said El-Naggar.

Improving Tax Administration in Developing Countries

Edited by Richard M. Bird and Milka Casanegra de Jantscher.

Policies for African Development: From the 1980s to the 1990s

Edited by I. G. Patel.

Public Expenditure Management

By A. Premchand.

Structural Adjustment and Macroeconomic Policy Issues

Moderator: V. A. Jafarey.

The United States Economy: Performance and Issues

By a Staff Team Headed by Yusuke Horiguchi. $35.00.
Economic Reviews (1992)
The Economic Reviews are $10.00 each.
IMF Economic Reviews, 1993

No. 1. Armenia

No. 2. Moldova

No. 3. Azerbaijan
The IMF Economic Reviews are $15.00 each.

Background Papers: Report on the Measurement of InternationalCapital Flows

Report on Measurement of International Capital Flows


No. 45 Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF

By the Treasurer’s Department.

(French, Spanish, and Russian). Free.
No. 46 The Unique Nature of the Responsibilities of the International Monetary Fund

By Manuel Guitian

(English, French, and Spanish). Free.
The IMF in an Interdependent World Economy

By Michel Camdessus. Free.
One World—One Economy,

instructor’s guide to the four-part IMF film series of the same name (Russian).

Copies of the Fund’s publications may be obtained from Publication Services, International Monetary Fund, 700 19th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20431, U.S.A. Telephone (202) 623-7430. Telefax (202) 623-7201.

Executive Directors

A list of Executive Directors and their voting power on April 30, 1993, is given in Appendix VI. The changes in membership of the Executive Board during 1992/93 are shown in Appendix VII.

Staffing Issues

In the financial year ended April 30, 1993, there were 248 appointments to the Fund’s regular staff and 88 separations. At the end of the financial year, the staff numbered 2,021 and was drawn from 114 countries. The increase in staff was to help meet the unprecedented growth in demand for advice and assistance from the Fund, particularly by the states of the former Soviet Union. The additional staff resources are being used predominantly for country-specific work, including use of Fund resources, surveillance activities, and external training. Organizational changes resulted in the addition of three new divisions: one in European I Department to accommodate the work associated with new and prospective member countries of Central and Eastern Europe; one in the Statistics Department to carry out the increased workload arising from data maintenance and the flow of data from the states of the former Soviet Union; and a Russian division in the Bureau of Language Services to cope with the surge of translation requests and to meet interpretation needs at headquarters.

Administrative Tribunal

On December 21, 1992, the Board of Governors of the Fund adopted a resolution approving a statute proposed by the Executive Board for the establishment of an administrative tribunal to serve the Fund. The administrative tribunal will become operational once its members are duly appointed; the tribunal is empowered to review any employment-related decision taken on or after October 15, 1992.

The issue of the possible establishment of an administrative tribunal has been under consideration by the Executive Board since 1986. The first stage in this process was to review the major administrative tribunals established by other international organizations, including the major features of these tribunals and their general practices and procedures. Having agreed, in principle, that the Fund should have an administrative tribunal, the Executive Board conducted a comprehensive review of the various issues raised by the establishment of a tribunal. On that basis, a statute providing for the establishment of an administrative tribunal for the Fund was prepared, with accompanying commentary.

Under the terms of the statute as approved by the Board of Governors, all staff members will be entitled to have the tribunal review decisions that affect the terms and conditions of their employment. The tribunal is authorized to render judgments, binding on the Fund and on the staff, on whether a particular decision is lawful, and to order appropriate remedies if a staff member has been adversely affected by an unlawful decision. The tribunal has jurisdiction to review both decisions that are specific to an individual staff member and general decisions setting out or modifying the terms and conditions of employment.

The tribunal will consist of a president, two associate members, and two alternates, each of whom will be of the highest professional calibre. They will serve for fixed terms of two years, subject to reappointment. The tribunal will hold its sessions in Washington. It is expected that the tribunal will be serviced by a small secretariat, to serve under the direction of the tribunal’s president.

The tribunal will follow the procedures established in its governing statute, which are similar to those of other international administrative tribunals. The tribunal will supplement these procedures by adopting more detailed rules of procedure of specific matters, consistent with the general principles of the statute. The tribunal will build on the system of internal review of decisions already in place in the Fund, including the Grievance Committee.

If the tribunal concludes that a decision is inconsistent with the law of the Fund, it will be empowered to order appropriate remedies. The precise remedy will depend on the type of decision at issue and the adverse effect it has had on the staff member bringing the action. The normal form of relief would be the award of monetary damages, although nonmonetary relief could be appropriate in certain circumstances. However, the tribunal’s authority to order such relief is qualified by the right of Fund management to opt to pay monetary compensation in lieu of the action requested.

The tribunal is also authorized to award costs to successful staff members who have incurred legal expenses in presenting their cases, and to award reasonable costs against a staff member whose case is found to be frivolous and who is clearly abusing the tribunal process.

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