Appendix III Technical Assistance and Training, Relations with Other International Organizations, and External Relations

International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
January 1992
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Technical assistance and training are extended by the Fund to members in a wide range of economic and financial areas, either at Fund headquarters or through staff missions to a member country. Staff from almost every department and bureau of the Fund may be provided in response to a member’s request. Assistance may relate to a whole range of subjects, including economic policy, balance of payments adjustments programs, legal matters, debt management, exchange and trade issues, financial sector topics, and accounting, statistics, and data processing.

The IMF Institute trains officials of member countries, both at headquarters and overseas, through courses and seminars held in Arabic, English, French, and Spanish. It also organizes briefings for visiting officials and provides lecturing assistance to training programs of member countries and other international organizations in areas of Fund expertise.

During 1991/92, training at headquarters consisted of 15 courses and five seminars for senior officials, attended by 639 participants. The program included four 12-week courses on financial programming and policy, one special 9-week course on financial programming and policy specifically directed at centrally planned economies in transition, four 10-week courses on techniques of financial analysis and programming, and two courses on programming and policies for medium-term adjustment (one for eight weeks and one for nine weeks). The financial programming and policy course covered financial programming and adjustment issues for officials with substantial macroeconomic training and practical experience; the course on techniques of financial analysis and programming provided a more elementary review of similar issues; and the course on programming and policies for medium-term adjustment emphasized technical and policy aspects of medium-term adjustment programs. Eight-week courses were presented on balance of payments methodology, money and banking statistics (two courses), and government finance statistics (in collaboration with the Statistics Department). Seminars for senior officials were held on Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs in Africa: Issues for the 1990s, on fiscal policies in Eastern Europe (held in London, in collaboration with the Fiscal Affairs Department), and on aspects of tax policy and tax administration, one for Chinese tax officials (in collaboration with the Fiscal Affairs Department) and the other on Fund programs in Eastern Europe (held in Paris).

The Institute conducted 19 overseas courses and two seminars for high-level officials, and provided lecturing assistance in eight instances to six training organizations. Ten of these courses and one of the seminars were held in the former U.S.S.R. and the Eastern European countries undergoing a transition from planned to market-oriented economies. The Institute also organized 27 briefings at headquarters for a total of 312 visiting officials.

The Institute provided support to regional training institutions, mainly through lecturing assistance and “training of trainers.” It is currently in the process of establishing, with five other international institutions, a new regional training center in Vienna for Eastern Europe and the former U.S.S.R. Courses are expected to begin in September 1992.

The Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department (known prior to May 1, 1992 as the Central Banking Department) provides technical assistance on central banking and financial sector issues through advisory missions involving staff and outside experts and through the assignment of resident experts. The objective is to strengthen monetary management and prudential regulation and develop members’ financial systems, often as part of structural reforms underlying Fund-supported adjustment programs.

In 1991/92, the department provided a total of 128 experts and consultants who participated in its missions or were assigned to advisory or executive positions with central banks and monetary authorities of 79 countries and three regional organizations, representing 334 assignments and 68 man-years of assistance. The major part (86 percent) of this assistance was in the broad areas of research and policy, bank regulation and supervision, and central banking operations. Assistance in central bank accounting, organization and methods, and external debt made up the remainder. The equivalent of 152 man-years of these assignments was implemented with external funding arrangements with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) (17 assignments and 10 man-years) and the Japan Administered Account (19 assignments and 5.2 man-years).

Departmental staff carried out 78 advisory missions in 1991/92, giving advice on a wide range of policy issues including monetary management, development of money markets, bank regulation and supervision, recapitalization of central banks, the structure of the financial system, and (in cooperation with the Legal Department) banking legislation.

During 1991/92, the department expanded its intensive technical assistance effort in Eastern Europe and the former U.S.S.R. In each of these countries the department, in cooperation with 5 to 10 central banks, has formed teams of consultants and staff to develop and implement a broad program of technical assistance aimed at modernizing central banking. Areas of particular focus include banking supervision, economic and monetary research, foreign exchange and domestic money market development, monetary and exchange rate management, payments and settlement systems, central bank accounting, internal audit, and organizational structure of a central bank. Altogether, 20 central banks have collaborated in these programs, making available 86 staff who have visited (often making multiple visits) and worked under management of departmental staff in the modernization exercise. The cooperating central banks themselves have contributed significantly through bilateral training opportunities and extensive support for these programs. In addition to these arrangements, senior policy advisors have been provided to four countries to enable periodic consultations with the central bank authorities at the highest level in Eastern Europe.

Policy-oriented research by the department in 1991/92 included completion of papers on money market development and monetary management, central bank independence, and monetary adjustment and the implementation of adjustment programs in Africa. Departmental staff also completed editing books on banking crises and on the evolving role of central banks.

The department’s Legislation Data Bank, which contains the banking laws of some 150 countries, has provided the basis for prompt responses to a large number of inquiries from member countries for information and advice.

In 1991/92 the provision of technical assistance by the Fiscal Affairs Department increased sharply, owing mainly to the large volume of assistance given to the states of the former U.S.S.R. A total of 82 countries received help in 1991/92. There were 147 missions and other short-term assignments by staff, headquarters-based consultants, and panel experts, and 47 long-term assignments by panel experts. This translates into an increase in technical assistance of more than 30 percent over the previous year. The growth in the share of externally financed assignments continues, with over 30 percent of the total use of panel experts on short- and long-term assignments being funded by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Japan Administered Account (JAA).

The department’s technical assistance continues to be focused primarily on the areas of tax policy, tax and customs administration, expenditure control, budgetary accounting, and treasury management. There has, however, been increasing work on the design of social safety nets and the reform of social security systems. Such assistance has been especially in demand in the states of the former U.S.S.R. and in Eastern Europe, given the priority that is attached to cushioning the marked impact of price reform and other adjustment measures on living standards. In addition to its commitment in these countries, FAD remained heavily involved in the countries of Africa and South America, particularly in terms of expert assignments.

The Legal Department’s technical assistance work rose substantially during 1991/92. The increase reflects growing awareness in the Fund, in other international organizations, and in member countries that both stability and development are integrally related to the legal framework of the financial and fiscal sectors. An increase in work was recorded in all areas: in the Western Hemisphere, Africa, and Asia, as well as in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. During the year, the department participated in 56 missions involving 29 different member countries. In the course of this work, the Legal Department has drawn on its staff, as well as on the expertise of legal scholars and practitioners. The department’s technical assistance work is largely in response to requests from member countries, but it also provides technical assistance to other international organizations.

The department continues to focus its technical assistance work in banking, currency, and fiscal areas, while also working on matters such as basic civil law. In the areas of banking and currency legislation, the subjects include, among other things, central and general bank legislation, and exchange control regulations. In these areas, the department (1) drafts legislation, (2) reviews laws and draft legislation prepared by the authorities, and (3) provides related legal advice. In carrying out these tasks, the Legal Department cooperates closely with the relevant area departments, the Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department, and other departments, to ensure that the legal services, especially the drafting of legislation, accommodate and reflect sound policy objectives.

In the fiscal area, the department has drafted new income tax, value-added tax, tax administration and customs laws, and provided comments and advice on existing and proposed legislation. The department works closely with area departments and the Fiscal Affairs Department, helping member countries to translate policy decisions into law.

Technical assistance activities of the Statistics Department continued to expand in 1991/92. During the fiscal year, the department mounted 44 technical assistance missions, 16 of which were multi-topic, to 37 countries. By comparison, in 1990/91 the department conducted 37 such missions, 8 of which were multitopic, to 33 countries. The 44 missions involved a total of 103 trips. The doubling of multi-topic missions responded to the need of many countries, especially new applicants for membership in the Fund, to address a broad range of statistical issues in the context of a consistent macroeconomic framework.

The department’s program continued to focus mainly on countries that were actual or prospective users of Fund resources, on countries with statistical infrastructures at an early stage of development, and, increasingly, on countries of Eastern Europe and the former U.S.S.R. with statistical systems that need to be adapted to the requirements of economic analysis in a market economy. In 1991/92, staff of the department made 40 trips on 12 technical assistance missions to the countries of the European Department II. Seven of these were multi-topic missions.

The department’s technical assistance activities were principally concentrated in the areas of monetary, balance of payments, and government finance statistics. Technical assistance in real sector statistics was provided in the areas of prices, production, trade, and national accounts. While technical assistance was mainly delivered through short-term visits of staff and headquarters-based consultants, it also included an increasing number of medium-term and resident assignments of experts, which were largely financed under the Executing Agency Agreement with the UNDP or with resources from the Japan Administered Account (JAA). During 1991/92, there were 12 active assignments in eight countries; 6 of the assignments were financed under UNDP/IMF projects, and 5 were financed under the JAA. In addition, a significant amount of assistance in statistics was provided through the participation of Statistics Department staff in 26 missions of other departments; these involved 28 trips and included 15 missions to EUR II countries.

The department’s training activities continued apace. Specialized training was provided at headquarters to familiarize national statisticians with statistical methodologies and with their application. Also, as part of the IMF Institute’s program, the department offered two courses in money and banking statistics and one each in balance of payments and government finance statistics. In addition, departmental staff lectured at a government finance statistics course that was organized by the Arab Monetary Fund and gave a regional course in money and banking statistics in Hungary for participants from the countries of central and Eastern Europe.

The Bureau of Computing Services provides limited technical assistance in electronic data processing (EDP) to member countries. This assistance is in direct support and facilitates the work of economic and financial missions of the Fund. Examples of EDP technical assistance include automation of external debt data, development of time-series data bases, and guidance in computerization in areas of statistics, central banking operations, tax administration, budget and treasury operations, and fiscal policy and planning. During 1991/92, bureau staff conducted missions to Angola, Namibia, Chile, Malaysia, United Arab Emirates, Bulgaria, and Poland. Looking ahead to the next several years, an increase in the number of requests for short-term EDP technical assistance is expected. With new countries joining the Fund, and with many member countries now developing computer systems to process, analyze, and manage economic and financial information, the Fund may increasingly be called upon to provide EDP assistance. Also, with the expanding use of desktop microcomputers and associated applications software and networking systems, member countries may look toward the Fund for overall strategic guidance and advice in data organization and management, statistical and financial processing, and estimation and modeling.

The Bureau of Computing Services continued to receive a large number of delegations and official visitors from member countries and from international and regional institutions. During 1991/92, numerous specialized technology training courses on the Fund’s computing systems, applications, and facilities were conducted. The training program comprises presentations, lectures, demonstrations, and formal classes, which typically range from one week to one month. The EDP training focused on time-series data-base management, statistical analysis and forecasting, office automation, and the use of applications using data communications networks between large central computers and desktop microcomputers. Owing to the expanding role of technology and with the proliferation of microcomputers within member countries, it is anticipated that demand for electronic data and document access and exchange between the member countries and the Fund will increase. Also, the number of visitors and delegations from member countries that request to come to the Fund for technology discussions and information exchange will increase substantially.

Relations with Other International Organizations

An important role of the Fund as a member of the international financial community is to cooperate with other international and regional organizations that share common responsibilities, interests, and goals. Close ties are maintained with, among others, the United Nations, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD).

Primary responsibility for maintaining a liaison with many of these organizations rests with the three Fund offices located away from headquarters. The Special Representative to the United Nations is responsible for relations with the UN and its specialized agencies. The Office in Europe, located in Paris, deals in particular with the BIS, CEC, and OECD. The Geneva Office maintains close relations with GATT, UN Conference on Trade and Development, and other UN organizations located in Geneva. Liaison activities include attendance at meetings, participation in seminars and expert groups, and exchange of information and documents. The work of these offices is supplemented, when necessary, by assignment of staff and technical experts from headquarters. In addition, staff members participate in meetings and seminars, such as those of the regional economic and financial organizations in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East.

The Fund has continued to maintain a unique relationship with the World Bank. Collaboration between the two institutions includes joint participation in missions, regular exchange of documents and information, and attendance at each other’s Executive Board meetings, conferences, and seminars. Fund staff participate in a number of aid coordination meetings held under World Bank auspices, including Aid Groups, Consultative Groups, and Donors Conferences. Cooperation with the World Bank has grown this past year in response to the far-reaching changes in the economies of central and Eastern Europe. Staff members consulted with their colleagues in the World Bank for the preparation of economic reviews of the independent states that constituted the former U.S.S.R. The first eight of these studies issued in April 1992, examined the economies of Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russian Federation, Ukraine, the economy of the former U.S.S.R. in 1991, and common issues and in-terrepublic relations in the former U.S.S.R. Reviews of economies of other states of the former U.S.S.R. followed in early 1992/93.

As part of long-standing cooperative arrangements with the GATT, the Fund provides documents and takes part in meetings held by the GATT for consultations with member countries on trade restrictions imposed for balance of payments purposes. Meetings attended by Fund staff also include the GATT Council of Representatives, as well as the annual sessions of the Contracting Parties to the GATT. Progress within the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations continues to be closely monitored by the Geneva Office and through staff attendance at meetings of the trade negotiating groups.

The Managing Director plays an active role in maintaining the Fund’s relations with other international organizations by participating in meetings sponsored by various international and regional organizations, most notably the United Nations and its specialized agencies. He addressed the General Conference of the International Labor Organization in Geneva on June 10, 1991 and on July 8, 1991, addressed the plenary session of Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in Geneva. The Managing Director also addressed the Ad Hoc Committee of the Whole of the General Assembly on the Final Review of the United Nations Program of Action for African Economic Recovery and Development (UNPAAERD) in New York on September 3, 1991, and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean of the United Nations (ECLAC) in Santiago, Chile, on November 29, 1991. On December 6, 1991, he spoke at a panel discussion on Improved Investment Climate in Latin America and the Caribbean sponsored by the Inter-American Development Bank and the Inter-American Investment Corporation in Washington, D.C. and on February 11, 1992, he addressed UNCTAD VIII in Cartagena, Colombia.

External Relations

Public interest in the work of the Fund widened considerably in 1991/92, and the Fund further broadened its efforts to explain its work and policies to a wider audience.

The sharply increased level of attention focused on the Fund, both by the media and the general public, was inspired by developments in the states of the former U.S.S.R., the large increase in applications for Fund membership, the continuing reform process in Eastern Europe, the liquidity position of the Fund and potential future use of its financial resources, the ratification process of the Ninth General Review of Quotas and the Third Amendment to the Articles of Agreement, and the Fund’s continuing role in the debt strategy. To help satisfy this expanding interest, the Managing Director and senior staff delivered speeches on a broad range of economic issues at both international and national forums. Staff members also delivered papers and participated in a wide range of conferences, seminars, and symposiums. The Fund organized and cosponsored a seminar for nonofficials in Lahore during October 1991 and in Abu Dhabi in January 1992.

The Fund considerably expanded its contacts with the international news media during the year, with particular emphasis on the Pacific Rim, Eastern Europe, and the former U.S.S.R. Management and senior staff played an active role in expanding these contacts through interviews, press conferences, and briefings for the press to explain major issues and developments, and by participating in seminars for the media designed to broaden knowledge about the institution and its functions. At headquarters, and during information missions, the external relations staff gave presentations on the role and work of the Fund to representatives of the press, and to academic, business, labor, and political groups from Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and North America.

The new film series on the Fund, “One World—One Economy” was widely disseminated, and the broadcast media made extensive use of it. The series is available in a number of languages, and broadcast standards. It was distributed worldwide to schools, universities, television stations, and the general public.

The IMF Visitors’ Center remained active in the organization of events for the local community and international visitors, with an increase in the number of seminars on international economic issues held within the Economic Forum and the International Seminars series. The Center hosted cultural events, such as art exhibitions, film screenings, and concerts through expanding cooperation of embassies and Washington-based international organizations.


The Fund’s active publications program is an important means of disseminating information about its work and about international monetary and financial topics that relate to its areas of concern. During 1991/92, the number of titles and range of subject matter covered in publications continued to expand. In particular, a decision was taken in April 1992 to publish the series of economic reviews of the states of the former U.S.S.R., making available to the public a considerable amount of detailed information on these states that had hitherto not been accessible. In addition to reviews on each of the 15 individual states, two companion papers—The Economy of the Former U.S.SM. in 1991 and Policy Issues and Interrepublic Relations in the Former U.S.S.R.—were also published. The biannual World Economic Outlook, available in English, French, and Spanish, and other publications in the World Economic and Financial Surveys and Occasional Papers series continued to attract considerable attention. A number of Occasional Papers covered developments in specific Fund member countries, particularly developments in the new members of Eastern Europe. The statistical publications were redesigned to enhance their accessibility and visual appeal. As part of the Fund’s active publication marketing program, the International Financial Statistics was made available in CD-ROM format. A complete list of publications issued during the financial year appears in Table III.1.

Executive Directors and Staff

A list of Executive Directors and their voting power on April 30, 1992, is given in Appendix VI. The changes in membership of the Executive Board during 1991/92 are shown in. Appendix VII.

In the financial year ended April 30, 1992, there were 187 appointments to the Fund’s regular staff and 89 separations. At the end of the financial year, the staff numbered 1,861 and was drawn from 107 countries.

During the financial year, new departments were established in the Fund in recognition of its expanding role and responsibilities. The former Asian Department was divided into a Central Asian Department and Southeast Asia and Pacific Department; a European II Department was established to handle relations with the new states of the former U.S.S.R.; the former Bureau of Statistics was retitled the Statistics Department; and, effective May 1, 1992, the. Central Banking Department was renamed the Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department.

Table III.1
Publications Issued, Financial Year Ended April 30, 1992
Reports and Other Documents

Annual Report of the Executive Board for the Financial Year Ended April 30, 1991
(English, French, German, and Spanish). Free.
By-Laws, Rules and Regulations Forty-Seventh Issue (English and French). Free.
Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions, Annual Report 1991.
$39.50 ($20.00 to full-time university faculty members and students).
Selected Decisions of the International Monetary Fund and Selected Documents, Sixteenth Issue (English). Free.
Summary Proceedings of the Forty-Sixth Annual Meeting of theBoard of Governors. Free.
Periodic Publications
Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook Vol. 42. A two-part yearbook. $45.00 a year.
Direction of Trade Statistics

Quarterly, with yearbook. $86.00 a year. $43.00 to full-time university faculty members and students. $25.00 for yearbook only.
Government Finance Statistics Yearbook

Vol. 15, 1991. (Introduction and titles of lines in English, French, and Spanish). $48.00.
International Financial Statistics

Monthly, with yearbook (English, French, and Spanish). $188.00 a year. $94.00 to full-time university faculty members and students. $50.00 for yearbook only.
Staff Papers

Four times a year. $46.00 a year. $23.00 to full-time university faculty members and students.
The five publications listed above may be obtained at a special rate of $290.00 ($145.00 to full-time university faculty members and students).
Magnetic tape subscriptions to Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, Direction of Trade Statistics, Government Finance
Statistics Yearbook, and International Financial Statistics are also available. International Financial Statistics is also available on CD-ROM. Price information is available on request.
Finance and Development

Issued jointly with the World Bank; quarterly (English, Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish). Free. Airspeed delivery, $20.00.
IMF Survey

Twice monthly, but only once in December (English, French, and Spanish). Private firms and individuals are charged at an annual rate of $60.00.
Occasional Papers
No. 80. Domestic Public Debt of Externally Indebted Countries By Pablo E. Guidotti and Manmohan S. Kumar.
No. 81. Currency Convertibility and the Transformation ofCentrally Planned Economies By Joshua E. Greene and Peter Isard.
No. 82. Characteristics of a Successful Exchange Rate System By Jacob A. Frenkel, Morris Goldstein, and Paul R. Masson.
No. 83. Economic Reform in Hungary Since 1968 By Anthony R. Boote and Janos Somogyi.
No. 84. Financial Liberalization, Money Demand, and MonetaryPolicy in Asian Countries By Wanda Tseng and Robert Corker.
No. 85. Thailand: Adjusting to Success—Current Policy Issues By David Robinson, Yangho Byeon, and Ranjit Teja with Wanda Tseng.
No. 86. Ghana: Adjustment and Growth, 1983-91 By Ishan Kapur, Michael T. Hadjimichael, Paul Hilbers, Jerald Schiff, and Philippe Szymczak.
No. 87. Financial Assistance from Arab Countries and ArabRegional Institutions By Pierre van den Boogaerde.
No. 88. Value-Added Tax: Administrative and Policy Issues Edited by Alan A. Tait.
No. 89. The Romanian Economic Reform Program By Dimitri G. Demekas and Mohsin S. Khan.
No. 90. The Internationalization of Currencies: An Appraisal of the Japanese Yen By George S. Tavlas and Yuzuru Ozeki.
No. 91. Economic Policies for a New South Africa Edited by Desmond Lachman and Kenneth Bercuson with a staff team comprising Daudi Ballali, Robert Corker, Charalambos Christofides, and James Wein.
No. 92. Stabilization and Structural Reform in the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic: First Stage By Bijan B. Aghevli, Eduardo Borensztein, and Tessa van der Willigen.
No. 93. Regional Trade Arrangements By Augusto de la Torre and Margaret R. Kelly.
No. 95. The Fiscal Dimensions of Adjustment in Low-Income Countries By Karim Nashashibi, Sanjeev Gupta, Claire Liuksila, Henri Lorie, and Walter Mahler.
Occasional Papers No. 80-86 are available for $10.00 each, with a special price of $7.50 each to full-time university faculty members and students, and Nos. 90-95 are $15.00 each, with a special price of $12.00 each to full-time university faculty members and students.
World Economic and Financial Surveys
World Economic Outlook: A Survey by the Staff of theInternational Monetary Fund (May 1991) (English, French, and Spanish). $30.00 ($20.00 to full-time university faculty members and students).
World Economic Outlook: A Survey by the Staff of theInternational Monetary Fund (October 1991) (English, French, and Spanish). $30.00 ($20.00 to full-time university faculty members and students).
Private Market Financing for Developing Countries By a Staff Team from the Exchange and Trade Relations Department. $20.00 ($12.00 to full-time faculty members and students).
Balance of Payments Manual Fourth Edition (French). $7.50.
Banking Crises: Cases and Issues Edited by V. Sundararajan and Tomas J.T. Baliho. $22.50.
Central and Eastern Europe: Roads to Growth Moderator: Georg Winckler. $22.00.
Current Legal Issues Affecting Central Banks, Vol. 1 Edited by Robert C. Effros. $42.50.
The Evolving Role of Central Banks Edited by Patrick Downes and Reza Vaez-Zadeh. $28.50.
The IMF Statistical Systems in Context of Revision of the United Nations: A System of National Accounts Edited by Vicente Galbis. $35.00.
Fiscal Policies in Economies in Transition Edited by Vito Tanzi. $24.50.
International Financial Policy: Essays in Honor of Jacques J. Polak Edited by Jacob A. Frenkel and Morris Goldstein. $30.00.
Macroeconomic Models for Adjustment in Developing Countries Edited by Mohsin S. Khan, Peter J. Montiel, and Nadeem U. Haque. $20.00.
Public Expenditure Handbook: A Guide to Public Policy Issues in Developing Countries Edited by Ke-Young Chu and Richard Hemming. $22.50.
Economic Reviews
Common Issues and Interrepublic Relations Belarus
Economic Transformation in the Fifteen Republics of the Former U.S.S.R. (speech by M. Camdessus).
The Economv of the Former U.S.S.R. in 1991
Russian Federation
The Economic Reviews are $10.00 each.
Assisting Reform in Central and Eastern Europe By John M. Starrels. (English, French, and Spanish). Free.
The Challenges Facing the IMF By Michel Camdessus. Free.
Dealing with the Unexpected: The IMF’s Response to the Middle East Crisis By David M. Cheney (English, French, Spanish). Free.
The IMF and the World Bank? How Do They Differ? By David Driscoll (Russian). Free.
IMF Assistance to Sub-Saharan Africa By F.L. Osunsade and Paul Gleason. (English, French, and Spanish). Free.
Ten Misconceptions About the IMF By the External Relations Department (Russian). Free.
Three Addresses by Michel Camdessus (English, French, and Spanish). Free.
What Is the International Monetary Fund? By David Driscoll (Russian). Free.
Copies of the Fund’s publications may be obtained from Publication Services, International Monetary Fund, 700 19th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20431, U.SA

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