Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
September 1979
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Index

An asterisk (*) denotes a table; a dagger (†) denotes a chart; fn. denotes a footnote.

  • Abu Dhabi

    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78

    • Oil facility financing, 112*

  • Afghanistan

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

  • Africa

    • Balance of payments, 16*, 27

    • Economic activity, 10

    • International reserves, 23-24, 57*

    • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

    • Output, 11*

    • Prices, 11*

    • Trade, 27

  • Algeria

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Argentina

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • International reserves, 48*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75, 110*

    • Trade, 26 (fn.)

  • Articles of Agreement

    • Article IV, 33, 40, 44, 45, 63, 87

    • Article V, 76

    • Article VIII, 55, 64; members accepting obligations of, 64-65, 116*

    • Article XIV, 63-64

    • Article XVIII, 65

    • Article XXII, 55

    • Second Amendment, 60, 63, 65, 69

  • Asia

    • Balance of payments, 16*, 27

    • Economic activity, 10

    • International reserves, 23-24, 57*

    • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

    • Output, 11*

    • Prices, 11*

    • Trade, 27

  • Australia

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Economic activity and policies, 12

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Quota increase, 116*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Austria

    • Balance of payments, 20

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Exchange rate, 18, 98*

    • International reserves, 48*, 57*

    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 74, 78

    • Oil facility financing, 112*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Trade, 20

  • Bahamas

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Bahrain

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Balance of Payments

    • Adjustment, 2, 12, 17, 23, 29, 31, 32, 33, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 52-53, 54-55; gradual approach to, 7, 30;

    • key policy issues, 29-32

    • Current account balances: distribution of, 19-20; for 1973-79, 15*

    • Domestic economic policies, effect on,33

    • Effect of: countries’ demand management policies on, 39, 43; domestic economic policies on, 44; exchange arrangements on, 42, 45; exchange rate variability on, 19, 39; export growth on, 43; import substitution on, 43; oil price increases on, 24

    • Exchange rate changes, effect on, 38

    • Financing, 1, 23, 24, 29, 31, 49, 52-53

    • Global pattern, 13-15

    • Global summary, 1975-78, 16*

    • See aglso individual countries

  • Bangladesh

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 104*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • Bank for International Settlements

    • (BIS), 87; holder of SDRs, 67

  • Barbados

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold purchase from Fund, 81

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Belgium

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Exchange rate, 18, 98*

    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

    • International reserves, 48*, 57*

    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78

    • Oil facility financing, 112*

    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Benin

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Board of Governors

    • Committee on Reform of the International Monetary System and Related Issues (Committee of Twenty), 56

    • Interim Committee on the International Monetary System (Interim Committee), 60, 61-62, 65, 67, 80, 86; communiqués, 140-45

    • Joint Ministerial Committee of the Bank and the Fund on the Transfer of Real Resources to Developing Countries (Development Committee), 61,74, 140 (fn.)

    • Resolutions on: allocations of SDRs, 60; Seventh General Review, 54; Sixth General Review, 61

  • Bolivia

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold purchase from Fund, 81

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota increase, 62

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Botswana

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota increase, 62

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Brazil

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • International reserves, 48*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Trade, 26 (fn.)

  • Budget of Fund, 153

  • Buffer Stock Financing by Fund, 54, 61,71†, 72, 74, 108*

  • Burma

    • Balance of payments, 43

    • Economic policies, 43

    • Exchange rate, 43, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

  • Burundi

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

  • Cameroon

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • Canada

    • Balance of payments, 17†, 20, 21*

    • Capital flows, 22

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Economic activity, 5†, 6, 7, 8†, 9, 18, 19†, 37

    • Exchange rate, 17, 18, 34, 35†, 36†, 37, 98*

    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

    • International reserves, 22, 57*

    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78

    • Oil facility financing, 112*

    • Output, 3*

    • Prices 3*

    • SDRs,’68, 69*, 70*, 102*, 104*

  • Cape Verde

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Membership in Fund, 90, 116* (fn.)

    • Quota established, 90

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Capital Markets, 22, 25, 29, 37, 52-53, 71; borrowing in, 23, 24, 29, 31

  • Central African Empire

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • Chad

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Chile

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 70, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70, 102*, 104*

  • China, Republic of

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Proposed gold distribution from Fund, 81 (fn.)

    • Quota increase, exception to proposal, 61

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Trade, 26 (fn.)

  • Colombia

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

  • Committee of Twenty

    • See Board of Governors

  • Comoros

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Compensatory Financing by Fund, 54, 71†, 72, 74, 108*

  • Conditionality on Use of fund Resources,31, 55, 62, 136-38

  • Congo, People’s Republic of the

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

  • Consultations with Fund Members,63, 64

  • Costa Rica

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Cyprus

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Denmark

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Exchange rate, 18, 98*

    • International reserves, 48*, 57*

    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

    • Quota increase, 62

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

  • Developing Countries

    • See Primary Producing Countries

  • Development Committee

    • See Board of Governors

  • Djibouti

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Membership in Fund, 90, 116* (fn.)

    • Quota established, 90

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Dominica

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Membership in Fund, 90, 116* (fn.)

    • Quota established, 90

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Dominican Republic

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

  • Economic Uncertainty, Pervasiveness of, 29-32

  • Ecuador

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota increase, 62

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

  • Egypt

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 112*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • El Salvador

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota increase, 62

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

  • Equatorial Guinea

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold purchase from Fund, 81

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota increase, 116*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Ethiopia

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

  • Euromarkets

    • Discussion of possible measures to control growth of, 53

    • Eurocurrency deposits, 22, 53

    • Group of Ten agreement of 1971, 53

    • Growth of, 52–53

    • Official borrowing in, 53

    • Official holdings of Eurocurrencies, 51, 52*, 53, 58*, 59*

    • Use in increasing official reserves, 53

  • Europe

    • Economic activity, 1

    • Output, 3*, 11*

    • Prices, 3*, 11*

  • European Community (EC), 40

  • European Currency Unit (ECU), 40, 46

  • European Monetary System (EMS)

    • Establishment, 18, 37, 40

    • Exchange rates, 18

    • Foreign exchange holdings of participants, 46

    • Participants, 47*, 101*

  • Exchange Markets

    • Comparison with other financial markets 37

    • Conditions in, 1–2, 17–18, 20, 30, 31, 33, 34

    • Effect of speculative capital flows on, 17, 20

    • Forward markets, 20, 37, 42

    • Official intervention, 17, 30, 33, 40, 45–46, 49, 51

  • Exchange Rates

    • Arrangements, 33, 34, 41, 42, 55, 64

    • Attitudes toward flexibility, 33, 34, 38, 39, 40, 43

    • Balance of payments, effect on, 14–15

    • Effect of: balance of payments on, 15, 17, 34, 37; capacity utilization on, 34, 37; geographic concentration of trade on, 41; inflation rate on, 43; underlying economic and financial conditions on, 34, 37, 40

    • Effective rates, 17, 20, 30, 34, 36t, 41, 42; for major industrial countries, 17†

    • European common margins arrangement (“snake”), 18, 40

    • European Monetary System (EMS), 18, 37, 40, 101* (fn.)

    • Expectations, 20, 37, 40, 51–52

    • List as of June 30, 1979, 98*–101*

    • Policies, 40, 43, 44, 45–46, 64

    • Relative costs and prices, effect on, 38

    • Role in international adjustment process, 33, 38, 39

    • Terms of trade, effect on, 17

    • Uncertainty, 37

    • Variability, 33, 34, 35t, 37, 39, 41, 42, 44, 45–46, 51†, 55

    • Variables related to exchange rate changes, 38*

    • See also individual countries

  • Exchange Restrictions, 21, 43, 44, 45

  • Executive Board

    • Agreement on terms and conditions of gold sales, 60

    • Approval of stand-by arrangements, 63

    • Changes in membership, 149–52

    • Establishment of supplemental surveillance procedure, 64

    • Extension of period of consent to quotas, 61

    • Forthcoming review of supplementary financing facility, 75

    • Guidelines for use of Fund resources, 60, 62

    • List of Executive Directors and voting power, 146–48

    • Proposals for quota increases under Seventh General Review, 61

    • Review and adjustment of terms and conditions for gold auctions by Fund, 79, 80

    • Review of compensatory financing facility, 74

    • Review of extended Fund facility, 74

    • Review of early repurchase guidelines, 75

    • Review of method of calculating quotas, 62

    • Review of principles and procedures of designation in transfer of SDRs, 69

    • Review of rule on setting SDR interest rate, 82

    • Review of SDR’s role in General Resources Account, 76

    • Review of surveillance procedures, 64

    • Review of technical assistance services, 87

    • Review of world economic outlook, 64

    • Role in Article IV consultations, 64

    • Special surveillance of United States, 64

    • Work on new uses for SDR, 67

    • Work on substitution account, 60

  • Executive Board Decisions

    • Conditionality guidelines, 136–38

    • Definition of freely usable currencies, 69

    • Early repurchase guidelines, 138–39

    • Halving of SDR reconstitution obligation, 56

    • Interest rate on SDRs, rate of remuneration, and rates of periodic charges, 128–29

    • Meaning of “net creditor position in Fund,” 136

    • Permission granted for transfer of repayment claims under General Arrangements to Borrow, 78

    • Repurchase requirements for members, 81

    • Review of Decision on Trust Fund investment diversification, 87

    • Seventh General Review of Quotas, 118–23

    • SDRs: additional uses of, 56, 130–34; allocation for third basic period, 66, 123–28; allocation to new participants, 129; interest rate increased, 56; reconstitution, 67, 129–30

    • Subsidy Account, rate of subsidy, 85

    • Surveillance procedures, 136

    • Suspension of Democratic Kampuchea’s right to use SDRs, 71 (fn.)

    • Transferability of claims under oil facility, 135

    • Trust Fund, 86, 87, 134

  • Extended Fund Facility, 54, 63, 72, 73, 75, 108*, 112*, 113*; use with supplementary financing facility, 55, 74

  • Fiji

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 104*

  • Financial Markets

    • See Capital Marketsand Exchange Markets

  • Financial Programs Agreed with Fund, 63

  • Financial Statements of Fund, 155–77

  • Finland

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Economic activity and policies, 12

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75

  • Foreign Exchange Markets

    • See Exchange Markets

  • Foreign Exchange Reserves

    • See International Reserves

  • Foreign Investment

    • See International Investment

  • Foreign Trade

    • See International Trade

  • France

    • Balance of payments, 17†, 20, 21*

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Economic activity, 5†, 6†, 8†, 9†, 19†, 82†

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 17, 19, 34, 35†, 36†, 37*,98*

    • Foreign exchange holdings, 49

    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

    • International reserves, 48*, 57*

    • Official French franc claims on, 58*, 59*

    • Output, 3*

    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

    • Prices, 3*

    • Purchases from Fund, 77

    • SDRs, 69, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Trade, 20

  • Gabon

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

  • Gambia, The

    • Exchange rate, 98*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

  • General Arrangements to Borrow (GAB), 71, 72*, 76, 77, 83, 111

  • General Resources Account Transactions

    • Borrowing by Fund, 61, 72*, 77, 84*

    • Charges, 81–82, 83, 84*, 113*; payment in SDRs, 68*, 69

    • Gold sales: in auctions, 80

    • Holdings of: gold, 72*; members’ currencies, 83; SDRs, 68*, 69, 70, 71, 72*, 76, 83, 84*, 103*; usable currencies, 72*, 76, 77

    • Inclusion of SDRs and currencies in operational budget, 76

    • Operations and transactions with participants, 69

    • Purchases by members, 61, 68*, 69, 71, 72*, 73, 83

    • Quota payments by members, 68*

    • Receipt of SDRs, 103*, 104*–106*

    • Remuneration paid to members, 68*, 82, 83, 84*

    • Repurchases by members, 61, 68*, 69, 71, 72*, 75, 83, 138–39

    • SDR as unit of account, 67

    • Use of currencies, 69

    • Use of SDRs, 69, 103*, 104*–106*

  • Germany, Federal Republic of

    • Balance of payments, 15, 17†, 19, 20, 21*,38*

    • Capital flows, 20

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Economic activity and policies, 3–4, 5†, 6, 8†, 9†, 17–18, 19t, 40, 46, 82†

    • Exchange rate, 17, 34, 35†, 36†, 37*, 38*, 99*

    • Foreign exchange holdings, 49

    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

    • International reserves, 18, 20, 46, 48*, 57*

    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78

    • Official deutsche mark claims on, 58*, 59*

    • Output, 3*

    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

    • Prices, 3*

    • Role of deutsche mark as reserve currency, 55

    • SDRs, 68, 69*, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Trade, 19

  • Ghana

    • Economic policies, 43

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 43, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 104*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

  • Gold

    • ECUs issued in exchange for, 46

    • Holdings, 46, 47, 48, 58*

    • Price, 46, 48

    • Sales by Fund: distribution of profits, 71–72, 79, 87, 114*; for distribution, 46, 60, 72, 78–79, 80; in auctions, 60, 72*,78–80

  • Greece

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 104*

  • Grenada

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 86

  • Group of Ten, 53, 78

  • Guatemala

    • Eligibility for Trust Fund assistance, 86

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 74, 78 SDRs, 102*, 105*

  • Guinea

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

  • Guinea-Bissau

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

  • Guyana

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

  • Haiti

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73–74, 112*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • Honduras

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

  • Hong Kong

    • Trade, 26 (fn.)

  • Iceland

    • Economic activity, 12

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Quota increase, 62

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

  • Income and Expenses of Fund, 61, 83, 84*, 154*

  • India

    • Balance of payments, 43

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 43, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 76, 109*

    • SDRs, 69, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75

    • Trade, 26 (fn.)

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • Indonesia

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota increase, 62

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

  • Industrial Countries

    • Balance of payments, 1, 2, 13, 14, 15–29, 31, 51

    • Capital flows, 22, 31

    • Consumer prices, 5†

    • Cyclical economic developments, 14–15

    • Domestic demand, 4†

    • Economic activity and policies, 1, 3–5, 6, 7, 9–10, 12, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 26–27, 30,31,40, 45

    • Eurocurrency deposits, 22

    • Exchange rates, 1, 13, 14, 15, 17–19, 21,30, 31,34, 41*, 42*

    • Fiscal balances, 8†

    • Foreign exchange holdings, 46, 52

    • Gross national product, 6†

    • Interest rates, 9†, 82†

    • International banking regulation, 54

    • International reserves, 21, 47, 57*

    • Lending for oil facility, 54

    • Manufactured goods, 39

    • Monetary expansion, 8†

    • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

    • Output, 3*, 4†

    • Prices, 3*

    • Purchases and repurchases from Fund, 71

    • Receipts from third gold distribution, 71

    • Relative prices of manufactures, 19†

    • Trade, 12, 13, 15*, 19, 28

    • See also individual countries

  • Interim Committee

    • See Board of Governors

  • International Adjustment Process, 1, 2, 12, 15, 20, 21, 31–32, 45, 53, 55, 63; role of Fund, 54, 55; speed of, 33, 38

  • International Investment

    • Direct investment, 39

    • Effect of: exchange rate changes on, 39; exchange rate uncertainty on, 37; international disparities in interest rates on, 39; relative costs on, 39

    • Primary producing countries, 41

    • Uncertainties and risks of, 21

  • International Organizations

    • Fund relations with, 88–90

  • International Reserves

    • Adequacy, 33, 45–46, 49, 51, 52–53, 54, 55, 65

    • Borrowed from capital markets, 22, 23, 24, 29,31,45, 65

    • Changes in countries’ holdings of, 48*

    • Changes in 1978, 46

    • Composition, 45, 46, 52–53, 55, 56, 65

    • Composition of reserve change, 58*

    • Distribution, 22, 23, 45–46, 52–53, 57*

    • Foreign exchange holdings, 22, 45–46, 47–48, 49, 50t, 51, 52*, 55, 58*, 59*

    • Global stock, 52–53

    • Gold holdings, 46, 47, 48, 58*

    • Growth, 33, 47–48, 51

    • Management by monetary authorities, 55

    • Official holdings, 46, 50†, 51†

    • Relative value of reserve assets, 55

    • Reserve positions in Fund, 46, 47–48, 58*

    • SDRs, 47*, 55, 58*, 65

    • Use in exchange rate intervention, 18, 33

    • See also individual countries

  • International Sugar Agreement (1977), 61,72, 74

  • International Trade

    • Competitive positions of countries, 19

    • Effect of: exchange rate variability on, 37, 39, 41, 42, 44–45; international investment on, 39; relative price changes on, 39, 44–45

    • Export promotion, 43

    • Growth, 23

    • Import demand, 14

    • Import substitution, 43

    • Inflation of trade prices, 12

    • Manufactured goods, 39

    • Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN), 27

    • Prices of oil and manufactures, 141

    • Protectionism, 9, 26–27

    • Restrictions, 42, 43

    • Subsidies, 43

    • Summary, 1962–78, 13*

    • Terms of trade, 12, 14, 15*, 19, 20, 23, 28, 29

    • Trade prices, 15*, 23

    • Unit value, 13*

    • Value, 12

    • Volume, 12, 13*, 19

    • World imports, value of, 48

    • World trade model, 39

  • Iran

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Economic activity, 11, 28

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Oil facility financing, 112*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Trade, 28

  • Iraq

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota increase, 116*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

  • Ireland

    • Economic activity and policies, 12

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

  • Israel

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 70, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70, 102*, 105*

    • Trade, 26 (fn.)

  • Italy

    • Balance of payments, 4, 15, 17†, 20, 21*

    • Charges paid to Fund, 70

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Economic activity, 4, 5, 6†, 8†, 9†, 19†

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 17, 18–19, 34, 35†, 36†, 37*, 99*

    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

    • International reserves, 48*, 57*

    • Output, 3*

    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

    • Prices, 3*

    • Purchases and repurchases from Fund, 70, 71, 73, 75, 77, 78, 109*

    • SDRs, 69, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 72, 75, 77, 110*

    • Trade, 4, 20

  • Ivory Coast

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • Jamaica

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 112*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

  • Japan

    • Balance of payments, 4, 15, 17t, 19, 21, 38*

    • Capital flows, 20–21

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Economic activity and policies, 1, 3–4, 5†, 6†, 7, 8†, 9†, 17–18, 19†, 20, 40, 46, 82†

    • Exchange rate, 17, 19, 20, 34, 35†, 36†, 37*, 38*, 99*

    • Foreign exchange holdings, 49

    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

    • International reserves, 18, 20–21, 46, 48*, 57*

    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78

    • Output, 3*

    • Prices, 3*

    • Remuneration paid by Fund, 71

    • SDRs, 68, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Trade, 4, 19

  • Jordan

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota increase, 116*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

  • Kampuchea, Democratic

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Proposed gold distribution from Fund, 81 (fn.)

    • Proposed quota increase, 61, 90, 116* (fn.); exception to proposal, 61–62

    • SDRs, 71 (fn.), 102*, 105*, 106*

    • Suspension of right to use SDRs, 71 (fn.)

  • Kenya

    • Balance of payments, 43

    • Exchange rate, 43, 99*

    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 112*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • Korea

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75, 110*

    • Trade, 26 (fn.)

  • Kuwait

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78

    • Oil facility financing, 112*

  • Lao Peoples Democratic Republic

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

  • Latin America and Caribbean

    • Balance of payments, 16*, 27

    • Economic activity, 10

    • International reserves, 57*

    • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

    • Output, 11*

    • Prices, 11*

    • Trade, 27

  • Lebanon

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Participation in Special Drawing Rights Department, 65, 90

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

  • Lesotho

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold purchase from Fund, 81

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

  • Less Developed Countries

    • See Primary Producing Countries

  • Liberia

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

  • Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Participation in Special Drawing Rights Department, 65, 90 SDRs, 102*, 105*

  • Luxembourg

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • International reserves, 57*

    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

  • Madagascar

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold purchase from Fund, 80

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

  • Malawi

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota increase, 62

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85

  • Malaysia

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota increase, 62

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

  • Maldives

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 66, 102*, 105*

  • Mali

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • Malta

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

  • Mauritania

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota increase, 116*

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • Mauritius

    • Eligibility for Trust Fund assistance, 86

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangements with Fund, 110*

  • Membership in Fund, 90

  • Mexico

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 112*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 76, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75

    • Trade, 26 (fn.)

  • Middle East

    • Balance of payments, 16*, 27

    • International reserves, 57*

    • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

    • Output, 11*

    • Prices, 11*

    • Trade, 27

  • Morocco

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold purchase from Fund, 81

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 105*, 112*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85

  • Nepal

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota increase, 62

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

  • Netherlands

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Economic policies, 73

    • Exchange rate, 73, 99*

    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

    • International reserves, 48*, 57*

    • Lending for supplementary financing facility, 78

    • Oil facility financing, 112*

    • Participation in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.), 101* (fn.)

    • Purchases from Fund, 71, 73

    • SDRs, 68, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*

  • New Zealand

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Economic activity and policies, 12

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*

  • Nicaragua

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

  • Niger

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

  • Nigeria

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • International reserves, 48*

    • Oil facility financing, 112*

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

  • Nonindustrial Countries

    • See Primary Producing Countries

  • Norway

    • Balance of payments, 20

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • International reserves, 57*

    • Oil facility financing, 112*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Trade, 20

  • Official Development Assistance (ODA), 31

  • Oil Facility in Fund

    • Borrowing by Fund, 54, 72*, 112*

    • Charges, 113*

    • Interest payments by Fund, 84

    • Purchases under, 72*, 85*

    • Repayment by Fund, 54, 71, 76, 77, 78, 112*, 135, 136

    • Repurchases under, 71, 75, 83, 85, 109*–110*

    • Use of Fund resources, 71†

    • See also Subsidy Account

  • Oman

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Oil facility financing, 112*

    • Quota increase, 116*

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 2, 28; contributions of members to Trust Fund, 86, 87

  • Pakistan

    • Exchange rate, 99*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • Panama

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

  • Papua New Guinea

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold purchase from Fund, 80

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 105*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85

  • Paraguay

    • Eligibility for Trust Fund assistance, 86

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota increase, 62

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

  • Peru

    • Economic activity and policies, 73

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold purchase from Fund, 81

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

  • Philippines

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 112*

    • Gold purchase from Fund, 80

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota increase, 62

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Use of buffer stock facility, 74

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85

  • Portugal

    • Balance of payments, 29

    • Economic activity and policies, 12, 29

    • Exchange rate, 29, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

    • Trade, 29

  • Primary Producing Countries

    • Balance of payments, 24–27, 41, 42, 43

    • Borrowing from capital markets, 24, 29

    • Economic activity and policies, 10, 30, 41,42, 43

    • Effect of exchange rate variability on, 41

    • Effect of floating exchange rates on, 40

    • Exchange rates, 33–34, 42, 43

    • Forward exchange facilities and markets, 42

    • Purchases from Fund, 73

    • Stand-by arrangements with Fund, 72

    • Trade, 20, 24, 40, 41, 42, 43

    • See also individual countries

    • Less Developed Countries

      • Major Oil Exporting Countries

        • Balance of payments, 2, 13, 15*, 16*, 27–28, 49

        • Capital flows, 22

        • Commodity prices, 14†

        • Deposits in private banks, 52

        • Economic activity and policies, 10, 11–12, 28

        • Eurocurrency deposits, 52

        • Exchange arrangements, 41*

        • Foreign exchange holdings, 49

        • International reserves, 47, 52, 57*

        • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

        • Oil facility financing, 54

        • OPEC price increases of June 1979, 2

        • Output, 11*

        • Prices, 11*

        • Trade, 2, 12–13, 15*, 27–28

        • See also Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

      • Non-Oil Developing Countries

        • Balance of payments, 1, 2, 13, 15*, 16*, 22–23, 25–26, 27, 31, 43

        • Borrowing from private banks, 23, 31

        • Capital flows, 22–23, 31

        • Debt and debt service, 26†, 27†

        • Economic activity and policies, 2, 10–11, 30–31

        • Exchange arrangements, 41*

        • Export earnings, 24†

        • Import volume, 24†

        • International reserves, 47, 57*

        • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

        • Output, 11*

        • Prices, 11*

        • Trade, 1, 2, 12–13, 15*, 22–23, 24–27, 31

        • Use of official financing, 25

  • More Developed Countries

    • Balance of payments, 2, 13–14, 15*, 16*, 28–29

    • Economic activity and policies, 2, 10, 12, 28–29, 30

    • Exchange arrangements, 41*

    • Exchange rates, 12, 29, 30

    • International reserves, 46–47, 57*

    • Official holdings of Eurodollars, 59*

    • Output, 11*

    • Prices, 11*

    • Trade, 2, 12, 13, 15*, 28–29

  • Publications of Fund, 117*

  • Qatar

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

  • Quotas of Fund Members

    • Increases in, 33, 60, 61, 116*

    • Seventh General Review, 32, 54, 56, 60, 61, 65, 118–23

    • Sixth General Review, 54, 60, 61, 77, 90

  • Romania

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Lending to Trust Fund, 86

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

  • Rwanda

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota payment to Fund, 70

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 106*

  • St. Lucia

    • Application for Fund membership, 90

  • St. Vincent

    • Application for Fund membership, 90

  • São Tomé and Principe

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • SDRs, 102*, 106*

  • Saudi Arabia

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Foreign exchange holdings, 47

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • International reserves, 47, 48*

    • Oil facility financing, 112*

    • Participation in Special Drawing Rights Department, 65, 90

    • SDRs, 102*, 106*

  • Senegal

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • Seychelles

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • SDRs, 102*, 106*

  • Sierra Leone

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 106*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • Singapore

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Participation in Special Drawing Rights Department, 65, 90

    • Quota increase, 61, 90

    • SDRs, 102*, 106*

    • Trade, 26 (fn.)

  • Solomon Islands

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Membership in Fund, 90, 116* (fn.)

    • Quota established, 90

    • Quota payment to Fund, 70

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

  • Somalia

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 102*, 106*

  • South Africa

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 70, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70, 102*, 106*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75

  • Spain

    • Balance of payments, 29

    • Capital flows, 29

    • Charges paid to Fund, 70

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Economic activity and policies, 12, 29

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • International reserves, 29, 48*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70, 102*, 106*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 75, 110*

  • Special Drawing Rights

    • Allocation, 23, 33, 48, 55, 58, 60, 65, 104*–106*, 129; for third basic period, 66, 123–28

    • Characteristics, 33, 55, 65

    • Currencies pegged to, 41

    • Currencies transferred for, 69, 107*

    • Holdings: by General Resources Account, 58*, 68*, 69, 76, 84*, 103*; by “other holders,” 67; by participants, 46, 47*, 48, 58*, 66, 104*–106*

    • Inclusion in operational budget, 76

    • Interest, charges, and assessments, 68*, 70, 83, 84*,103*, 104*–106*, 129

    • Interest rate on, 65, 66, 82, 128

    • Priority sales by Fund, 76

    • Private market for, 67

    • Purchases and repurchases by members, 69, 76, 103*, 108*

    • Quota payments in, 68*

    • Reconstitution of participants’ holdings, 65, 66, 68,71, 103*, 129–30

    • Remuneration paid to members, 70–71, 82†, 103*; rate of, 128–29

    • Replenishment of participants’ currencies, use in, 103*

    • Role as reserve asset, 46, 55, 65, 66–67

    • Role in international monetary system, 33

    • Transactions and operations, summary of, 104*–106*

    • Transfers: by agreement, 67, 68, 69*, 103*, 104*–106*, 107*; to and from General Resources Account, 68*, 69, 71, 103*, 104*–106*; total, 68*, 103*; with designation, 68, 69, 70*, 76, 103*, 104*–106*, 107*

    • Uses, 33, 55, 65, 67–68, 130–34

    • See also individual countries

  • Special Drawing Rights Department

    • Participants, 60, 65, 66, 90

    • Transactions and operations, 68

    • See also Special Drawing Rights

  • Sri Lanka

    • Balance of payments, 43

    • Exchange rate, 43, 100*

    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73–74, 112*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 105*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Staff of Fund, 91

  • Stand-By Arrangements for Fund Members, 63, 72, 73, 75, 83, 108*, 110*, 111*; use of supplementary financing facility under, 55, 74

  • Subsidy Account, 84–86

  • Substitution Account, 33, 55, 56, 60

  • Sudan

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 75

    • Gold purchase from Fund, 80

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

    • Use of supplementary financing facility, 75

  • Supplementary Financing Facility

    • Borrowing by Fund, 54, 74, 78

    • Charges, 75, 81, 113*

    • Establishment, 60, 74

    • Extended arrangements, use with, 55

    • Interest rate payable by Fund, 78

    • Main features, 74

    • Purchases by members, 74, 81

    • Purposes, 54–55, 63

    • Repayment, 136

    • Repurchases by members, 74

    • Stand-by arrangements, use with, 55

  • Suriname

    • Acceptance of Article VIII obligations, 65

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Membership in Fund, 116* (fn.)

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 106*

  • Surveillance over Exchange Rate Policies

    • Applicability, 45

    • Article IV authority for, 44

    • Executive Board review of procedures, 64, 136

    • Fund’s approach to, 32, 34, 44

    • Supplemental surveillance procedure, 44, 64, 136

    • United States, 64

  • Swaziland

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Purchases from Fund, 73

    • SDRs, 102*, 106*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

  • Sweden

    • Balance of payments, 20

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

    • International reserves, 57*

    • Oil facility financing, 112*

    • Quota increase, 62

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Trade, 20

  • Switzerland

    • Association with General Arrangements to Borrow, 77

    • Balance of payments, 20

    • Borrowing by Fund, 72*, 77

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Economic activity and policies, 5, 17—18, 40, 46

    • Exchange rate, 17, 34, 35†, 36†, 37*

    • Foreign exchange holdings, 49

    • International reserves, 46, 48*, 57*

    • Oil facility financing, 112*

    • Repayment by Fund, 76, 77, 83

  • Syrian Arab Republic

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota increase, 116*

    • SDRs, 102*, 105*

  • Tanzania

    • Economic policies, 43

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 43, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • Technical Assistance and Training by Fund, 87–88

  • Thailand

    • Balance of payments, 43

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 43, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Purchases from Fund, 73

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 110*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

  • Togo

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 102*, 106*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

  • Trinidad and Tobago

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Oil facility financing, 112*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

  • Trust Fund

    • Disbursements, 60, 71—72, 86, 115*

    • Gold auctions, 80, 86—87

    • Investments, 87, 134

    • Members eligible for assistance, 60, 86

    • SDR as unit of account, 67

    • Terms and conditions of loans, 86

    • Trust Instrument, 134

  • Tunisia

    • Exchange rate. 100*, 114*

    • SDRs, 102*, 106*

  • Turkey

    • Balance of payments, 29

    • Economic activity and policies, 12, 29

    • Exchange rate, 29, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

  • Uganda

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold purchase from Fund, 80

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 106*

  • United Arab Emirates

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Participation in Special Drawing Rights Department, 65, 90

    • SDRs, 102*, 106*

  • United Kingdom

    • Balance of payments, 15, 17†, 20, 21*

    • Charges paid to Fund, 70

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Economic activity and policies, 5, 6†, 7,8†, 9, 19t, 82†

    • Exchange rate, 17, 19, 34, 35†, 36†,37*,100*

    • Foreign exchange holdings, 49, 52

    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

    • International reserves, 47, 48*, 57*

    • Membership in European Monetary System, 40 (fn.)

    • Official sterling claims on, 58*, 59*

    • Output, 3*

    • Prices, 3*

    • Purchases and repurchases from Fund, 70, 71, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 109*

    • Role of sterling as reserve currency, 55

    • SDRs, 69, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 72, 75, 77, 110*

    • Trade, 20

  • United States

    • Balance of payments, 15, 17†, 19, 21*,30, 38*, 51, 52, 53, 76

    • Economic activity and policies, 1, 3–6,7, 8t, 9, 17–18, 19†, 20, 24, 30, 37,39_40, 46, 68, 73, 82†

    • Exchange rate, 17, 18, 20, 30, 36†, 37,38*, 49*, 50†, 100*

    • Foreign exchange holdings, 46

    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 111*

    • International reserves, 18, 46, 48* (fn.),57*

    • Official claims on, 52*, 58*, 59*

    • Oil price increases in, 2

    • Output, 3*

    • Prices, 3*

    • Purchases from Fund, 61, 71, 73, 76, 77, 78

    • Remuneration paid by Fund, 71

    • Repayment by Fund, 77

    • Role of dollar as reserve currency, 55

    • SDRs, 66, 68, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Trade, 19, 55

  • Upper Volta

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 102*, 106*

  • Uruguay

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 109*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 75, 110*

  • Venezuela

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • International reserves, 48*

    • Oil facility financing, 112*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

  • Viet Nam

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 102*, 106*

  • Western Samoa

    • Exchange arrangements, 41 (fn.)

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 110*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 110*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Use of oil facility, 85* Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • World Trade

    • See International Trade

  • Yemen Arab Republic

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

  • Yemen, People’s Democratic Republic of

    • Exchange rate, 100*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 110*

    • SDRs, 69*, 102*, 106*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Use of oil facility, 85*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85*

  • Yugoslavia

    • Contribution to Subsidy Account, 85

    • Contribution to Trust Fund, 86, 87

    • Exchange rate, 101*

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Quota payment to Fund, 70

    • Repurchases from Fund, 110*

    • SDRs, 69*, 70*, 102*, 106*

  • Zaïre

    • Economic policies, 43

    • Exchange arrangements, 41

    • Exchange rate, 43, 101*

    • Gold purchase from Fund, 80

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Repurchases from Fund, 110*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85

  • Zambia

    • Economic policies, 43

    • Eligibility for Trust Fund assistance, 86

    • Exchange rates, 43, 101*

    • Gold purchase from Fund, 81

    • Gold sales, profits received, 114*

    • Purchases and repurchases from Fund,73, 110*

    • SDRs, 70*, 102*, 106*

    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73,110*

    • Trust Fund disbursements, 115*

    • Use of Subsidy Account, 85

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