Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
September 1971
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INDEXES

Index A. International Monetary Fund

References to individual countries, other organizations, and subjects may be found in Index B

An asterisk (*) denotes a table, a dagger (†) denotes a chart

  • Articles of Agreement

    • Article IV

      • Section 5(c)(i)—Changes in par values, 37-38

      • Section 8, Maintenance of gold value of the Fund’s assets, 165

    • Article V, Transactions with the Fund, 202-203

      • Section 6(a), Purchases of currencies from the Fund for gold. 45, 46, 168

      • Section 7, Repurchase by a member of its currency held by the Fund, 45, 160-61, 162, 164, 167

      • Section 8(f), Payment of Fund charges, 181

      • Section 9, Remuneration, 47, 182

    • Article VII, Section 2(ii), Measures to replenish the Fund’s holdings of scarce currencies, 43, 168*

    • Article VIII, General Obligations of Members, 47-48, 155, 156*, 174-75

    • Article XII, Section 6(b), Reserves and distribution of net income, 182(fn), 183

    • Article XIV, Transitional Period, 47, 174-75

    • Article XXIII, Participants and Other Holders of Special Drawing Rights, 155

    • Article XXIV, Allocation and Cancellation of Special Drawing Rights, 155

    • Article XXV, Operations and Transactions in Special Drawing Rights, 39, 169, 171, 174

    • Article XXVI, Special Drawing Account, Interest and Charges, 181

    • Schedule B, Provisions with Respect to Repurchase by a Member of Its Currency Held by the Fund, 164

    • Schedule F, Designation, 39

  • Board of Governors

    • Allocation of special drawing rights, 169

    • Distribution of Fund’s net income, 182(fn), 183

    • Increases in quotas of members, 42, 43, 155, 156

    • Terms and conditions for membership of Fiji, 155

  • By-Laws, Rules and Regulations

    • Rule I, Repurchases and Charges in Respect of General Account Transactions, 164-65, 182, 203, 208-209

  • Consultations with Members

    • Articles VIII and XIV, 47, 48, 174-75

  • Exchange Rates

    • Changes, 37, 38, 83, 98, 100, 165, 167(fn)

    • Report and discussion on role in adjustment, 13-14

    • Study, 16, 37

    • See also Par Values of Members

  • Executive Board Decisions

    • 7-(648), Voluntary Repurchases, 161

    • 321-(54/32), Transactions and Computations Involving Fluctuating Currencies, 165

    • 1477-(63/8), as amended, Compensatory Financing of Export Fluctuations, 162* (fn)

    • 1687-(64/22), Exchange Transactions Prior to Establishment of Initial Par Value, 158*(fn)

    • 2192-(66/81), See 1477-(63/8)

    • 2901-(69/122) G/S, Use of Special Drawing Rights in Repurchases, and Payment of Charges, 169

    • 2914-(69/127), South Africa: Policy on Sales of Gold to the Fund, 168, 169

    • 3033-(70/38), Use of Special Drawing Rights in Payment of Remuneration, 182

    • 3049-(70/44), Effects of Amended Articles on Calculation of Monetary Reserves and Repurchase Obligations Pursuant to Article V, Section 7(b), 164, 202-203

    • 3087-(70/64), Transactions and Computations Involving Fluctuating Currencies—Application of Rules to the Canadian dollar, 165(fn)

    • 3130-(70/87), Use of Special Drawing Rights in Distribution of Net Income, 183(fn), 203-204

    • 3132-(70/87), Disinvestment of $400 million in U.S. Government Securities, 182, 204

    • 3150-(70/93), Sales of Gold by the Fund Under Article VII, Section 2(ii), in Accordance with Board of Governors Resolution: Increases in Quotas of Members—Fifth General Review, 43, 204-205

    • 3153-(70/95), Payments Arrears in Current International Transactions, 47-48, 205-206

    • 3179-(70/102), Fourth International Tin Agreement: Buffer Stock Financing Facility, 44, 207

    • 3294-(71/22), Replenishment of Currency Holdings by Sales of Gold, 46, 207-208

    • 3314-(71/33), Calculation of Repurchase Obligations, 165(fn), 208-209

    • 3315-(71/33), Repurchases: Small Amounts Included in Article V, Section 7(b) Obligations, 209

    • 3320-(71/34), Exclusion of Special Drawing Rights in Certain Calculations of Monetary Reserves for the Fund’s Financial Years Ending April 30, 1971 and 1972, 209-210

  • Executive Directors

    • List and voting power, 155, 211-13

    • Membership changes, 155, 214-17

  • External Debt Management

    • Role of Fund in assisting members, 48

  • Financial Statements

    • See Organization and Administration

  • General Account

    • Balance sheet, 223-24

    • Borrowing

      • Interest payment, 168

      • Repayment, 42, 46-47, 167, 182

      • See also General Account, General Arrangements to Borrow

    • Buffer stock financing, 44, 207

    • Canadian dollar transactions, 165, 167

    • Charges to members, 40, 44, 168, 180-81

    • Compensatory financing, 44, 45, 158*, 160, 161, 162*

    • Currency holdings and replenishment, 40, 41, 43, 45-46, 147, 148, 168, 207-208

    • Currency purchases by members, 42, 43-44, 93, 95, 156, 157, 158*, 159, 160, 162, 165*, 166t, 167

    • Currency repurchases by members, 27, 35, 40, 41, 42, 44-45, 159*, 160, 161, 162, 163*, 164, 165, 167, 168, 202

    • Distribution of net income, 41, 182*(fn), 183, 203-204

    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 46, 160, 167, 182

    • Gold

      • Disinvestment in U.S. Government securities, 21, 23, 45, 147, 168, 182, 204

      • Distribution of sales, guidelines for, 46

      • Holdings, 43, 45, 143, 147, 167-68

      • Interest on borrowing, 168

      • Purchases from members, 19 (fn), 21, 42, 45, 142, 144, 147, 168-69

      • Quota subscriptions, 21, 42, 43, 45, 146, 147, 168, 204-205

      • Remuneration, use in, 47, 168, 182

      • Replenishment, use in, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 148, 168, 207-208

      • Repurchase obligations, 164*, 168

      • Summary of transactions, 168*

      • Transactions with United States, 148; see also Disinvestment in U.S. Government securities

    • Income, expenditure, and reserves, 44, 47, 180-83, 220, 225

    • Remuneration, 41, 47, 168, 182, 183

    • Replenishment, See General Account, Currency holdings and replenishment

    • Reserve positions in Fund, 18†, 19*, 21, 22*, 25*, 27, 28*, 29*, 36, 42

    • Stand-by arrangements, 43-44, 158*, 159, 160, 161*, 166†

    • Transactions in special drawing rights, 21, 22*, 38, 39, 40-41, 42, 45, 46, 47, 169, 171, 172-73*, 174, 175*, 181

  • Gold

    • Subsidy programs of members, 151

    • See also General Account, Gold

  • International Organizations

    • Relations with, 48, 179-80

  • Managing Director

    • Addresses, etc., 179, 180

  • Membership

    • Barbados, 43, 155

    • Fiji, 155

    • Total, 155

    • Western Samoa, 155

    • Yemen Arab Republic, 43, 155

  • Monetary Reserves Data

    • Reporting by members, 164-65, 202, 210

  • Organization and Administration

    • Audit Committee, 222, 229, 183

    • Budget, 183, 218-19

    • Financial statements, 221-30

    • Staff, 180

    • Staff Retirement Fund, 229-30

  • Par Values of Members

    • Changes, 3, 37-38, 83, 100, 101, 133, 134, 155-56

    • Established, 37, 155, 156

    • See also Exchange Rates

  • Payments Arrears

    • Policy on, 47-48, 205-206

  • Publications, 183-84

  • Quotas of Members

    • Fifth General Review, increases, 21, 42-43, 45, 147, 148, 155, 156, 157*, 204-205

    • New members, 43, 155

  • Services to Members

    • Balance of Payments Division, 178

    • Bureau of Statistics, 47, 175, 177

    • Central Banking Service, 47, 175-76

    • Fiscal Affairs Department, 47, 175, 177, 178

    • IMF Institute, 47, 178

    • Technical assistance, 47, 175-78

  • Special Drawing Account

    • Balance sheet, 227

    • Designation system, 39, 40, 169, 171, 174*

    • Participants, 38, 42-43, 155, 172-73*

    • Special drawing rights

      • Allocations, 3, 12, 13, 18, 21, 22*, 23*, 25, 27, 32*, 35, 38, 41*, 43, 86, 93, 112, 115†, 118†, 119, 120†, 121, 155, 169, 170*, 172-73*, 228

      • Holdings by General Account, 21, 22*, 39, 171*, 174, 228

      • Holdings by participants, 21, 27, 38, 39-40, 41*, 172-73*, 228

      • International reserves

        • Impact on, 21, 22*, 29, 32, 35-36

        • Per cent of, 18†, 19*, 27, 29*, 38

      • Monetary reserve calculations, 209-210

      • Requirement of need, 39, 40, 169

      • Summary of transactions and operations, 172-73*, 228

      • Transfers between participants, 38, 39, 169, 171, 172-73*, 174, 228

        • Transfers to and from General Account

        • Distribution of net income, 171*, 174, 175*, 183, 203-204, 228

        • Interest, charges, and assessments, 38, 40, 41, 169, 171*, 172-73*, 174, 181, 228

        • Remuneration, 47, 171*, 175*, 182, 228

        • Replenishment of currencies, 40, 45, 46, 171*, 175*, 228

        • Repurchases, 38, 40, 41, 159*, 162, 164, 169, 171*, 174, 228

      • Transfers, summary statement, 171*, 228

      • Unit of value, 21 (fn), 169 (fn)

    • Summary of participants’ positions, 41-42

Index B. Countries, Organizations, and Subjects

An asterisk (*) denotes a table, a dagger (†) denotes a chart

  • Afghanistan

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 162*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157* Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 161*

  • Africa

    • Balance of payments, 81*, 120*, 125

    • Capital movements, 121

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 69*, 73*, 74-75

      • Imports, 76*, 77

      • Terms of trade, 69*

      • Trade balance, 79-80

    • International reserves, 28*

    • See also individual countries

  • Algeria

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*, 79

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Argentina

    • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 127, 200*, 201*

    • Economic situation and policy, 126-27

    • Exchange rate, 127

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 126

      • Imports, 76*, 80

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*, 175*

    • Prices, 126

  • Asia

    • Balance of payments, 81*, 120*, 200*, 201*

    • Capital movements, 121

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 69*, 72, 73*

      • Imports, 77

      • Terms of trade, 69*

      • Trade balance, 79

    • International reserves, 28*

    • See also individual countries

  • Australia

    • Balance of payments, 114, 118, 199*

    • Capital movements, 13, 118

    • Economic situation and policy, 118

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 72, 73*, 118

      • Imports, 76*, 77, 118

      • Trade balance, 77, 78*

    • Gold production and subsidy program, 143*, 144, 151

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • International reserves, 118

    • Prices and wages, 118

  • Austria

    • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*, 101, 186*

    • Capital movements, 87*, 108*, 136

    • Discount rate, 104

    • Economic situation and policy, 101

    • Euro-currency position, 108*

    • Exchange market, 11, 133

    • Exchange rate, 10-11, 100, 133, 135, 136, 138; see also IMF, Par value

    • Foreign trade, 57*, 60, 61*, 101

    • Gold sales, 43

    • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Quota, 42

      • Par value, 3, 37-38, 83, 101, 134

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Prices, 101

  • Bahrain

    • Gold imports from United Kingdom, 148

  • Balance of Payments

    • Adjustment process, 11, 13-17

    • Industrial countries, 10, 12, 81*, 82, 83*, 87*, 186-98*

    • Primary producing countries—less developed, 3, 13, 81*, 86, 119-32, 200-201*

      Primary producing countries—more developed, 3, 13, 81*, 86, 112, 114, 115, 116*, 117-18, 199*

    • Summary, 27, 81*

    • See also individual countries

  • Bank for International Settlements

    • Euro-dollar deposits, 32

    • Gold transactions, 143, 144*, 146, 148*

  • Barbados

    • IMF

      • Membership, 43, 155

      • Special drawing rights, 155, 170*, 172*

  • Belgium

    • Balance of payments, 32*, 100

    • Capacity utilization, 58*

    • Capital movements, 32*, 100, 104, 110, 133, 136

    • Discount rate, 104

    • Economic situation and policy, 100

    • Euro-currency position, 110

    • Exchange market, 3, 10-11, 83, 100, 133

    • Exchange rate, 100, 135, 137†, 138

    • Exports, 67†

    • Gross national product, 57*, 100

    • Interest rates, 104-105

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 167*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 32*, 39, 170*, 172*, 174

    • International reserves, 28*, 32*

    • Prices and wages, 67†, 100

    • See also Belgium-Luxembourg

  • Belglum-Luxembourg

    • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*, 187*

    • Bond issues, 111*

    • Capital movements, 87*, 108*

    • Euro-currency position, 108*

    • Exchange controls, 134

    • Exchange market, 38, 134

    • Foreign trade, 57*, 60*, 61*

    • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

  • Bolivia

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Botswana

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Brazil

    • Balance of payments, 32*, 122*, 123, 125, 200*, 201*

    • Capital movements, 32*

    • Economic situation and policy, 125-26

    • Exchange rate policy, 75

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 75, 125-26

      • Imports, 76*, 80

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gross national product, 126, 130*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 162*, 163*, 164*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 32*, 170*, 172*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • International reserves, 32*

    • Prices and wages, 126

  • Burma

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Exports, 74

    • Gold sale to United States, 148

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 160, 162*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • Stand-by arrangement, 161*

  • Burundi

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 160, 162*

      • Currency repurchase, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

  • Cameroon

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Canada

    • Balance of payments, 10, 12, 32, 83*, 84†, 85†, 87*, 90, 91. 188*

    • Bond issues and yields, 91, 110, 111, 113†

    • Budget, 91, 92

    • Capital movements, 10, 32, 84†, 86*, 87*, 90, 91, 108*, 109, 110

    • Discount rate, 104

    • Economic policy, 81, 90, 91, 92

    • Economic situation, 6, 7, 90-92

    • Euro-currency position, 108*, 109, 110

    • Exchange market, 133

    • Exchange rate, 3, 12, 33, 37, 38, 91, 134, 135, 136†, 139†, 165

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 51*, 52, 60*, 61, 66†, 90, 91

      • Imports, 54*, 57*, 90, 91

      • Trade balance, 9, 54, 55†, 61, 63

    • Gold production and subsidy program, 143*, 144, 151

    • Gross national product, 4†, 56*, 57*, 91

    • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

    • Interest rates, 90-91, 104, 105*†

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 167*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 32*, 39-40, 91, 170*, 172*, 175*

    • International reserves, 27, 28*, 32*, 91

    • Prices and wages, 4†, 6, 7, 63, 64*, 65, 66† 91-92

    • Tax reform, 92

    • Unemployment, 91, 92

    • Wages, 92

  • Capital Movements

    • Impact on reserves and domestic credit conditions, 29, 32-33, 36, 102

    • Interest rate differentials and speculative flows, 6(fn), 10, 20, 81-82, 83, 133, 139-40, 141

    • Measures to influence, 14-17, 134, 139

    • See also individual countries

  • Central African Republic

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158, 159*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Central America

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • See also Western Hemisphere and individual countries

  • Ceylon

    • Balance of payments, 122*, 129, 200*, 201*

    • Budget, 129

    • Currency note substitution, 129

    • Economic situation and policy, 129

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 162*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • Money supply, 129

  • Chad

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Chile

    • Balance of payments, 123, 200*, 201*

    • Foreign trade, 73*, 75, 76*, 78*

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • China, Republic of

    • Balance of payments, 123, 200*, 201*

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 71, 73*

      • Imports, 76*, 77, 79

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gold purchase from United States, 148

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Par value, 37, 156

      • Special drawing rights, 39 (fn)

  • Colombia

    • Balance of payments, 122*, 125, 200*, 201*

    • Economic situation and policy, 125

    • Exchange rate policy, 125

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 75, 125

      • Imports, 76*, 80, 125

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gold production, 143*

    • Gross national product, 125, 130*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 162*

      • Currency repurchase, 161, 162*, 163*, 164*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

  • Congo, Democratic Republic of

    • Balance of payments, 122*, 124, 200*, 201*

    • Economic situation and policy, 124

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 75

      • Imports, 76*, 79

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gold production, 143*

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Par value, 37, 156

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Congo, People’s Republic of the

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Costa Rica

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 167*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Cmea Countries, mainland China, etc.

    • Gold transactions, 142, 144*

  • Cyprus

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Dahomey

    • Exports, 75

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Denmark

    • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*, 101, 189*

    • Capital movements, 87*, 101, 104

    • Discount rate, 104

    • Economic situation and policy, 101

    • Foreign trade, 57*, 60*, 61*, 62

    • Import/gross national product ratio. 57*

    • Incomes policy, 101

    • Interest rates, 101, 104, 105*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*, 164*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • Prices and wages, 101

  • Dominican Republic

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Foreign trade, 75, 80

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 162*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*, 175*

  • Ecuador

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Exports, 75

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 155, 156*

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 162*

      • Currency repurchase, 162*, 163*, 164*

      • Par value, 37, 156

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

  • El Salvador

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 162*

      • Currency repurchase, 160, 162*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

  • Equatorial Guinea

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Ethiopia

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF quota increase, 157*

  • Euro-Currency Markets

    • Components, 103

    • Euro-dollar borrowing by Europe and United States, 3, 88-89, 90, 103, 109, 134, 136-37

    • Expansion, 15-16, 102, 103

    • Interest rates, 81, 98, 102, 103, 104, 105†, 109, 112, 133, 139, 141

    • International reserves, role in, 23-25

    • Official holdings, 15, 23, 24-25, 36, 103

    • Positions of banks in United Kingdom, 108*

  • Europe

    • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*

    • Bond issues, 111, 112

    • Capital movements, 3, 6, 87*, 134

    • Economic situation and policy, 6, 9, 81

    • Euro-dollar borrowing, 103

    • Foreign trade, 53, 54*, 63

    • Gold transactions, 148

    • Interest rates, 6, 81, 134

    • See also individual countries

  • European Economic Community

    • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*

    • Bond issues, 111*

    • Capital movements, 87*

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 8 (fn), 51*, 52

      • Trade balance, 55†, 61*

    • Gross national product, 4†

    • Interest rates, 133

    • Prices, 4†, 8 (fn)

    • Swap transactions, 29, 30-31*

  • European Free Trade Association

    • Exports, 51*, 52

  • European Fund

    • Gold transactions, 144*

  • Exchange Rates

    • Report and discussion on role in adjustment, 13-14, 16

  • Fiji

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF membership, 155

  • Finland

    • Balance of payments, 114*, 115, 116, 199*

    • Capital movements, 13

    • Economic situation and policy, 115-16

    • Exchange market, 133

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 72, 73*

      • Imports, 76*, 77

      • Trade balance, 77, 78*

    • Incomes policy, 72, 115-16

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*, 175*

    • Prices and wages, 115, 116

  • Foreign Exchange Markets

    • Forward quotations, 138-41

    • Recent developments, 133-35

    • Spot quotations, 135-38

  • France

    • Balance of payments, 10†, 12, 32*, 83, 84†, 85†, 87*, 95, 190*

    • Banks’ reserve requirements, 107, 134

    • Bond issues and yields, 111*, 113†

    • Capacity utilization, 58*

    • Capital movements, 10†, 32*, 83*, 85†, 87*, 95, 104, 107, 108*, 110, 133, 134, 137

    • Debt repayment, 95

    • Discount rate, 96, 104

    • Economic situation and policy, 95-96

    • Euro-currency position, 108*, 110

    • Exchange market, 133, 135

    • Exchange rate, 135, 137, 139†, 140

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 8, 60*, 61, 62, 65, 67†, 95

      • Imports, 57*, 62, 95

      • Trade balance, 9, 54, 55†, 61*, 62

    • Gold

      • Market, 149-50, 151

      • Transactions, 148

    • Gross national product, 4†, 56*, 57*, 96

    • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

    • Industrial production, 95, 96

    • Interest rates, 104, 105, 107, 140

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase, 46, 95, 159

      • Currency repurchase, 46, 156*, 164*, 167

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 46, 167*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 32*, 170*, 172*

      • Stand-by arrangement, 161*

    • International reserves, 27, 28*, 32*, 95

    • Prices, 4†, 8, 64*, 65, 67†, 96

    • Swap transactions, 23, 29

  • Gabon

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • The Gambia

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

    • Fund relations with, 179, 180

  • Germany

    • Balance of payments, 10, 11, 32*, 82, 83*, 84†, 85†, 86*, 87*, 97-98, 191*

    • Banks

      • Credit changes, 97†

      • Reserve requirements, 97, 98, 107, 134

    • Bond issues and yields, 111*, 112, 113†

    • Capacity utilization, 58, 59

    • Capital movements, 3, 6, 10, 11, 20, 32*, 33, 83, 85†, 87*, 98, 107, 108*, 110, 133, 135, 136

    • Currency revaluation, effects of, 65, 96, 97, 98

    • Discount rate, 96, 98, 104

    • Economic situation and policy, 9, 82, 96-98

    • Employment, 97†

    • Euro-currency position, 107, 108*, 110

    • Exchange market, 133

    • Exchange rate, 3, 10, 11, 37, 38, 83, 98, 107, 134, 135, 137†, 138, 139†, 140, 167 (fn)

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 60, 62, 64*, 65, 67†

      • Imports, 56, 57*, 58†, 59

      • Trade balance, 9, 55†, 61*, 62

    • Gold sale to United States, 148*

    • Gross national product, 4, 56*, 57*, 96, 97†

    • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

    • Interest rates, 96, 98, 104, 105*, 106†, 107

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 167*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 32*, 39, 40, 170*, 172*, 175*

    • International reserves, 20, 27, 28*, 32*, 33, 98

    • Prices and wages, 4†, 8, 64, 65, 67†, 96, 97†

    • Tax measures, 97

    • Wages, 96, 97

  • Ghana

    • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 200*, 201*

    • Debt rescheduling, 127, 128

    • Economic measures, 128

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 75

      • Imports, 76*, 79

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gold production, 143*

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 162*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 161*, 170*, 172*

  • Gold

    • Absorption by private holders, industry, and arts, 141, 142, 144*, 145†, 146-47, 149

    • Holdings, 18†, 19*, 21, 22*, 142, 144-46, 147

    • Markets, 141-42, 149-51

    • Movements, 147-49

    • Prices, 141, 142, 149-51, 169

    • Production, 142, 143-44, 145†, 146*

    • Sales, private, 142

    • Subsidy programs, 151

    • Two-tier price system, 18 (fn)

    • See also Index A, General Account

  • Greece

    • Balance of payments, 116*, 199*

    • Exchange market, 133

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 72, 73*

      • Imports, 76*, 77

      • Trade balance, 77, 78*

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*, 175*

  • Guatemala

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase, 161, 162*, 163*, 164*

      • Currency repurchases, 44-45, 162*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

  • Guinea

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Guyana

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 160 (fn), 161*

  • Haiti

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase, 162*

      • Currency repurchase, 160, 161, 162*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

  • Honduras

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase, 158*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Hong Kong

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 72, 73*

      • Imports, 76*, 77

      • Trade balance, 78*

  • Iceland

    • Balance of payments, 158*

    • Exports, 72

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 161, 162*

      • Currency repurchase, 44, 160, 162, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • India

    • Balance of payments, 122*, 123-24, 128-29, 200*, 201*

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 74

      • Imports, 76*, 79

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gold market, 151

    • Gross national product, 128, 130*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 44-45, 162*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 38, 40, 170*, 172*

    • Monetary policy, 128

  • Indonesia

    • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 127-128, 200*, 201*

    • Debt rescheduling, 127

    • Economic situation and policy, 127-28

    • Exchange rate, 128

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 74, 76*

      • Imports, 79

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 127, 170*, 172*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

      • Technical assistance, 175

    • Prices, 128

  • Industrial Countries

    • Balance of payments, 10, 12, 81*, 82, 83*, 87*, 186-98

    • Capital movements, 10, 82, 86*, 87*, 104

    • Classification, 52 (fn)

    • Economic policy, 5-6, 14-15, 16, 81, 100

    • Economic situation, 5, 51-52, 53, 100

    • Euro-currency holdings, 19*

    • Exchange rates, 35

    • Foreign trade

    • Exports, 52, 54*, 59, 60*, 61, 63

      • Imports, 8-9, 52, 53, 54*, 56-59

      • Trade balance, 9, 54, 55†, 61*, 63

    • Gross national product, 4†, 5, 6, 51*, 56, 57*

    • Import/gross national product ratio, 9, 52, 56-57, 59

    • Import/reserves ratio, 26†

    • IMF

      • Currency purchases, 157, 166†

      • Special drawing rights, 12, 27, 41-42

      • Stand-by arrangements, 166†

    • International reserves, 20, 27, 28*

    • Prices, 4†, 5, 7, 8, 63, 64-68

    • See also individual countries

  • Interest Rates

    • See Capital Movements, Euro-Currency Markets, and individual countries

  • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

    • Fund relations with, 179, 180

  • International Bond Market Issues and yields, 102-103, 110-13

  • International Monetary Fund

    • See Index A

  • International Monetary System

    • Adjustment process, 14-16

    • Recent developments, 9-13

    • Principles and characteristics, 13-14, 20-21

  • International Reserves

    • Adjustment process, impact on, 33-35

    • Capital movements, effects of, 29, 32, 33, 36

    • Components

      • Foreign exchange, 3, 18†, 19-20, 22*, 23, 25*, 27, 28*, 29*, 36

      • Gold, 18†, 19*, 21, 22*, 25, 27, 28*, 29*

      • Reserve positions in IMF, 18†, 19*, 21, 22*, 25*, 27, 28*, 29*, 36, 42

      • Special drawing rights, 18†, 19*, 21, 22*, 25*, 27, 28*, 29*, 38

    • Developments, 20, 25-29

    • Domestic economies, impact on, 32-33

    • Euro-currency market, effects of, 23-25

    • Import/reserves ratio, 25, 26, 34

    • Measurement, 18 (fn)

    • Policy issues, 35-36

    • Special drawing rights, effects of, 18-19, 27, 29, 32, 35, 36

    • Summary, 19*, 25*

  • Iran

    • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 124, 132, 200*, 201*

    • Economic situation, 132

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 74

      • Imports, 76*, 79

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gross national product, 130*, 132

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Iraq

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 162*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 155, 170*, 172*

  • Ireland

    • Balance of payments, 116*, 199*

    • Decimal currency system, 156

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 72, 73*

      • Imports, 76*, 77

      • Trade balance, 77, 78*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Israel

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*, 175*

  • Italy

    • Balance of payments, 10†, 12, 83*, 84†, 85†, 87*, 98, 99, 192*

    • Bond issues and yields, 111, 113†

    • Capacity utilization, 58*

    • Capital movements, 10†, 12, 85†, 86*, 87*, 98, 99, 104, 108*, 110, 133, 135, 137

    • Discount rate, 99, 104

    • Economic situation and policy, 98-99

    • Euro-currency position, 108*, 110

    • Exchange market, 133, 135

    • Exchange rate, 134, 135, 137, 141

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 60*, 62, 67†, 99

      • Imports, 57*, 99

      • Trade balance, 55†, 61*, 62-63, 65, 99

    • Gold transactions, 43, 148

    • Gross national product, 4, 56*, 57*, 99 (fn)

    • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

    • Interest rates, 99, 104, 105*, 106†

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Borrowing by Fund, 46-47, 167, 182

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 38, 170*, 172*, 175*

    • International reserves, 12, 28*, 99

    • Prices and wages, 4, 64*, 65, 67†, 98

    • Tax measures, 99

  • Ivory Coast

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 75

      • Imports, 76*, 79

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Jamaica

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Exports, 75

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

      • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Japan

    • Balance of payments, 10†, 12, 32*, 83*, 84†, 85†, 87*, 93, 193*

    • Bond issues, 111*

    • Budget, 92-93

    • Capital movements, 10†, 20, 32*, 85†, 87*, 93, 107, 108*, 110, 133, 134, 138

    • Discount rate, 93, 104

    • Economic situation and policy, 6, 92-93

    • Euro-currency position, 107, 108*, 110

    • Exchange rate, 134, 135, 136†, 138

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 51*, 52, 60*, 61, 63*, 65, 66†, 92

      • Imports, 8, 53, 54*, 57*, 107, 134

      • Trade balance, 9, 55†, 61-62

    • Gold

      • Holdings, 143, 147

      • Imports from United Kingdom, 148-49

      • Production, 143*

    • Gross national product, 4†, 6, 56, 57*, 92

    • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

    • Interest rates, 105, 107, 134

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Borrowing by Fund, 46-47, 167, 182

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 32*, 40, 93, 170*, 172*, 175*

    • International reserves, 12, 27, 28* 32*, 93

    • Prices and wages, 4, 8 (fn), 52, 63*, 64*, 65, 66†, 92

  • Jordan

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Kenya

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*, 79

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Khmer Republic

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Exports, 74

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 42 (fn), 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Korea

    • Balance of payments, 123, 200*, 201*

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 72, 73*

      • Imports, 76*, 77

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

      • Quota, 42

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

  • Kuwait

    • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*, 79

    • Gold transactions, 148

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Quota increase, 42, 157*

  • Laos

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Latin America

    • Balance of payments, 120*, 125, 200*, 201*

    • Capital movements, 108*, 121

    • Euro-currency position, 108*

    • Foreign trade, 53

    • Import/reserves ratio, 26†

    • International reserves, 28*

    • Swap transactions, 30-31*

    • See also Western Hemisphereand individual countries

  • Lebanon

    • Gold market, 151

    • IMF quota, 42

  • Lesotho

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

  • Liberia

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

  • Libyan Arab Republic

    • Balance of payments, 32*, 123, 200*, 201*

    • Capital movements, 32*

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*

      • Imports, 76*, 79

      • Trade balance, 78*, 80

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF quota increase, 42, 157*

    • International reserves, 32*

  • Luxembourg

    • Exchange market, 134

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Quota, 42

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 172*

    • See also Belgium-Luxembourg

  • Malagasy Republic

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Malawi

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

      • Par value, 37, 156

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Malaysia

    • Balance of payments, 123, 125, 200*, 201*

    • Economic situation and policy, 124-25

    • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*, 79, 124, 125

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

  • Mali

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 161*

  • Malta

    • Balance of payments, 199*

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 40, 170*, 173*

  • Mauritania

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Mauritius

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Mexico

    • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 126, 200*, 201*

    • Capital inflows, 123, 126

    • Economic situation and policy, 126

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 75, 126

      • Imports, 76*, 80, 126

      • Trade balance, 78*, 80

    • Gold production, 143*

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170, 173*, 175*

      • Prices and wages, 126

  • Middle East

    • Balance of payments, 81*, 120*, 200*, 201*

    • Capital movements, 108*, 121

    • Euro-currency position, 108*

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 69*, 73*, 74

      • Imports, 77

      • Terms of trade, 69*

      • Trade balance, 78*, 79

    • Import/reserves ratio, 26†

    • International reserves, 28*

    • See also individual countries

  • Minerals and Metals

    • Prices, 64, 68, 69

  • Morocco

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 74

      • Imports, 76*, 79

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

  • Nepal

    • IMF

      • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Netherlands

    • Balance of payments, 32*, 83*, 87*, 101, 194*

    • Bond issues and yields, 111, 113†

    • Capacity utilization, 58*

    • Capital movements, 20, 32*, 33, 87*, 101, 104, 108*, 110, 133, 136

    • Discount rate, 104

    • Economic situation and policy, 100-101

    • Euro-currency position, 108*, 110

    • Exchange market, 10, 133 Exchange rate, 3, 10, 37, 38, 83, 100, 101, 134, 135, 137†, 138, 140, 167(fn)

    • Foreign trade, 60*, 61*, 57*, 67†, 100

    • Gold holdings and purchase, 143, 147, 148

    • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

    • Interest rates, 104, 105, 106†, 107

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 167*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 32*, 39, 170*, 173*, 174, 175*

    • International reserves, 28*, 32*

    • Prices and wages, 65, 67†, 68, 100

    • Swap transactions, 140

  • New Zealand

    • Balance of payments, 114, 118, 199*

    • Capital movements, 118

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 72, 73*

      • Imports, 76*, 77

      • Trade balance, 77, 78*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 162*, 163*

      • Quota, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170,* 173*

  • Nicaragua

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase, 158*

      • Currency repurchase, 161, 163*, 164*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

  • Niger

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Nigeria

    • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 131, 200*, 201*

    • Development plan, 131

    • Economic situation, 131

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 75, 131

      • Imports, 76*, 79, 131

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Money supply, 131

  • Nordic Countries

    • Swap transactions, 30-31*

    • See also individual countries

  • Norway

    • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*, 195*

    • Capital movements, 87*, 101

    • Economic situation and policy, 101-102

    • Exchange market, 133

    • Foreign trade, 57*, 60*, 61*, 62

    • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • International reserves, 101

    • Prices, 101

    • Tax measures, 101

  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

    • Fund relations with, 179, 180

  • Pakistan

    • Balance of payments, 123-24, 129, 200*, 201*

    • Economic situation, 129

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 74

      • Imports, 76*, 79, 129

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Currency repurchase, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Panama

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Imports, 80

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

  • Paraguay

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Exports, 75

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Peru

    • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 129, 200*, 201*

    • Cost of living, 129

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 75

      • Imports, 76*, 80

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase, 158*

      • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*, 170*, 173*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 161*

    • Repatriation of assets, 123, 129

  • Philippines

    • Balance of payments, 122*, 123, 127, 200*, 201*

    • Debt rescheduling, 127

    • Economic situation and policy, 127

    • Exchange rate, 127

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 74, 127

      • Imports, 76*, 79, 127

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gold production and subsidy program, 143*, 151

    • Gross national product, 127, 130*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • Prices, 127

    • Swap transactions, 30-31*

  • Portugal

    • Balance of payments, 116*, 199*

    • Exchange market, 133

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 72, 73*

      • Imports, 76*, 77

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gold holdings, 143, 147

    • IMF quota increase, 42

  • Prices

    • Commodity, 8, 53, 64, 68-71

    • Industrial countries, 4†, 5, 7, 8, 63, 64-68

    • Minerals and metals, 64, 68, 69

    • Primary producing countries, 5, 70-71

    • See also individual countries

  • Primary Producing Countries

    • Balance of payments, 3, 12, 13, 81*, 82, 86

    • Capital movements, 3, 13, 82, 86

    • Commodity prices, 68-71

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 8, 53, 54, 68, 72, 75, 86, 160

      • Imports, 53-54, 60, 61, 75, 76*, 86

      • Terms of trade, 3, 8, 69

      • Trade balances, 78*

    • Gross national product, 5

    • IMF

      • Currency purchases, 157, 160

      • Special drawing rights, 12, 41-42, 157

      • Stand-by arrangements, 44, 159

    • See also Primary Producing Countries—Less Developed, Primary Producing Countries—More Developedand individual countries

  • Primary Producing Countries—Less Developed

    • Balance of payments, 13, 81*, 86, 119-21, 200*, 201*

    • Bond issues, 110-111*

    • Capital movements, 120-21

    • Classification, 52 (fn)

    • Debt repayment, 127

    • Euro-currency holdings, 24*

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 51*, 52, 53, 54, 63*, 64, 69*, 72, 73*

      • Imports, 53, 54, 64, 76*, 77

      • Terms of trade, 8, 53, 69*

      • Trade balance, 9, 54, 55†, 78*

    • Gross national product, 51*, 52-53, 77, 130*

    • Import/reserves ratio, 26†, 27, 88

    • IMF special drawing rights, 13, 86, 119, 120†, 121

    • International reserves, 13, 27, 28*, 86, 88, 119-20, 121

    • Prices, 5, 70-71

    • See also individual countries

  • Primary Producing Countries—More Developed

    • Balance of payments, 13, 81*, 86, 112, 114, 115, 116*, 117, 118†, 200*

    • Capital movements, 112, 114, 115†, 118†

    • Classification, 52 (fn)

    • Economic policy, 114

    • Euro-currency holdings, 24*

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 51*, 53, 69*, 73*, 76*

      • Imports, 54, 64, 76*, 77, 114-15

      • Terms of trade, 8, 69*

      • Trade balance, 9, 51*, 55†, 77, 78*, 118†

    • Gross national product, 51*, 77

    • Import/reserves ratio, 26

    • IMF special drawing rights, 13, 86, 112, 115†, 118†

    • International reserves, 28*

    • Prices, 5

    • See also individual countries

  • Production

    • World output, 3, 5, 51*

  • Qatar

    • Gold imports from United Kingdom, 148

  • Rhodesia

    • Gold production, 143*

  • Rwanda

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Exports, 75

    • IMF

      • Currency repurchase, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 174

  • Saudi Arabia

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*, 79

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Quota increase, 157*

  • Scandinavian Countries

    • Bond issues, 111

    • Foreign trade, 61, 63

    • See also individual countries

  • Senegal

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*. 173*

  • Sierra Leone

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Singapore

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Exchange market, 133

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 74

      • Imports, 76*, 79

      • Trade balance, 78*, 79

    • Gold market, 149, 151

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Quota, 42

  • Somalia

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Currency repurchase, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 161*

  • South Africa

    • Balance of payments, 13, 114, 118, 142, 168-69, 199*

    • Capital movements, 13, 118

    • Economic situation and policy, 118-19

    • Exchange market, 133

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 72, 73*, 118-19

      • Imports, 76*, 77, 118, 119

      • Trade balance, 77, 78*

    • Gold

      • Holdings, 146, 149

      • Production, 142, 143, 144, 148, 149

      • Sales, 18 (fn), 21, 43, 141, 142, 144, 147, 148, 149, 168, 169

      • Subsidy program, 151

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

      • Gold sales to, 18 (fn), 21, 142, 144, 147, 149, 168, 169

      • Quota, 42, 142

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • International reserves, 142

  • Spain

    • Balance of payments, 13, 32*, 114*, 115, 116*, 117, 199*

    • Capital movements, 13, 32*, 117

    • Cost of living, 117

    • Discount rate, 117

    • Economic measures, 117

    • Economic situation and policy, 115, 117

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 72, 73*

      • Imports, 76*, 77, 117

      • Trade balance, 77, 78*

    • Gold holdings and sales, 142-43, 146, 148

    • Gross national product, 117

    • Interest rates, 117

    • IMF

      • Currency repurchase, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 32*, 40, 170*, 173*

    • International reserves, 32*, 117

  • Sudan

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 162*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 156*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

  • Swap Arrangements

    • Transactions, 19*, 20, 23, 25*, 29, 30-31*

    • See also individual countries

  • Swaziland

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Sweden

    • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*, 102, 135, 196*

    • Capital movements, 87*, 135

    • Discount rate, 104

    • Economic situation and policy, 102

    • Exchange market, 133

    • Exchange rate, 134, 135, 136†

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 60*, 66†, 102

      • Imports, 57*

      • Trade balance, 61*

    • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 167*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

    • International reserves, 102

    • Prices and wages, 66†, 102

  • Switzerland

    • Balance of payments, 83*, 87*, 101

    • Bond issues and yields, 112, 113†

    • Capital movements, 20, 32*, 86*, 87*, 101, 107, 108*, 110, 133, 136

    • Economic situation and policy, 101

    • Euro-currency position, 107, 108*, 110

    • Exchange market, 11, 133

    • Exchange rate, 3, 11, 83, 100, 101, 134, 135, 136, 138, 139†, 140

    • Foreign trade, 57*, 60*, 61*, 62

    • Gold

      • Holdings, 143, 147

      • Market, 149

      • Purchases, 148

    • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

    • Interest rates, 105f, 106†, 107, 140

    • International reserves, 28*, 32*

  • Syrian Arab Republic

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 162*

      • Currency repurchase, 160, 162*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

  • Tanzania

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

  • Thailand

    • Balance of payments, 123*, 125, 200*, 201*

    • Economic situation and policy, 125

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 74, 125

      • Imports, 76*, 79, 125

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 155, 170*, 173*

    • Tax increases, 125

  • Togo

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Trinidad and Tobago

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 162, 163*

      • Quota increase, 156*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Trucial States

    • Gold imports from United Kingdom, 148

  • Tunisia

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Exports, 74

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

      • Quota, 42

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 161*

  • Turkey

    • Balance of payments, 114*, 116*, 117, 199*

    • Currency devaluation, 37, 117, 155

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 72, 73*

      • Imports, 76*, 77

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gold holdings and sale, 147, 148

    • Gross national product, 117

    • Industrial production, 117

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*, 164*

      • Par value, 37, 155

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

  • Uganda

    • Balance of payments, 122*, 130-31, 200*, 201*

    • Exchange controls, 130

    • Foreign trade, 75, 129-30

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Nationalization measures, 129-30

  • U.S.S.R.

    • Gold sales, 142, 145†

  • United Arab Republic

    • Balance of payments, 123-24, 131, 200*, 201*

    • Economic situation and policy, 131

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 74, 131

      • Imports, 76*, 79

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 162*, 163*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

    • Loans and credits, 131

  • United Kingdom

    • Balance of payments, 10†, 12, 83*, 84†, 85†, 87*, 93, 94, 95, 197*

    • Bank credit, 94

    • Bond issues and yields, 111, 113†

    • Budget, 94

    • Capacity utilization, 58*, 59

    • Capital movements, 10†, 85†, 86*, 87*, 93, 94, 107, 108*, 109, 110, 133, 135, 137

    • Debt repayment, 93, 135

    • Decimal currency system, 156

    • Discount rate, 104

    • Economic policy, 81, 94, 95

    • Economic situation, 6, 93-95

    • Euro-currency market, 107, 108*, 109, 110

    • Exchange controls, 134

    • Exchange market, 133, 135

    • Exchange rate, 107, 134, 135, 136†, 139, 140

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 8 (fn), 60*, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66†, 93

      • Imports, 57*, 59, 62, 93, 94

      • Terms of trade, 93

      • Trade balance, 9, 55, 61*, 62

    • Gold

      • Market, 149, 150†, 169

      • Transactions, 148-49

    • Gross national product, 4†, 6, 56, 57*, 94

    • Import/gross national product ratio, 57*

    • Interest rates, 105†*, 106†, 107, 133, 140

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase, 46, 93, 159, 160, 166†

      • Currency repurchase, 27, 44, 46, 160, 163*, 167

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 46, 167*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 38, 39, 40, 41, 170*, 173*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*, 166†

    • International reserves, 28*

    • Money supply, 94

    • Prices and wages, 4†, 6, 7, 8 (fn), 64*, 65, 66†, 94

    • Sterling balances, dollar-value guarantee on, 18 (fn)

    • Swap transactions, 23, 29, 30-31*

  • United Nations

    • Fund relations with, 179

  • United States

    • Balance of payments, 3, 10, 11, 20, 21, 23*, 24, 25, 27, 36, 82, 83, 84†, 85†, 87*, 88†, 89, 90, 134, 198*

    • Banks

      • Liabilities, 109, 110

      • Reserve requirements, 90, 109, 110, 134

    • Bond issues and yields, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113†

    • Budget, 88†, 89

    • Capacity utilization, 58*, 59

    • Capital movements, 3, 10†, 11, 20, 24, 27, 82, 84†, 85†, 86*, 87*, 88†, 90, 107, 109, 133, 134; see also Euro-dollar borrowing

    • Discount rate, 90

    • Economic policy, 6, 9, 11, 20, 24, 81, 88, 89, 102, 103

    • Economic situation, 6, 7, 9, 24, 88-90

    • Euro-dollar borrowing, 3, 24, 88-89, 90, 103, 107, 108*, 109, 110, 133, 134, 136-37

    • Exchange market, 133, 135

    • Foreign trade,

      • Exports, 8, 51*, 52, 60*, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66†

      • Imports, 8, 53, 54*, 56, 57, 58†, 59

      • Trade balance, 9, 54, 55†, 61*, 62, 63, 65

    • Gold

      • Holdings, 21, 142, 147-48

      • Market, 151

      • Production, 143*, 144

      • Transactions, 21, 23, 43, 148; see also IMF, Gold transactions

    • Gross national product, 4†, 5, 6, 51*, 56, 57, 88, 89

    • Import/gross national product ratio, 57, 59

    • Import/reserves ratio, 26†

    • Interest rates, 10, 11, 24, 81, 88, 90, 103-104, 105†, 109, 134

    • IMF

      • Acceptance of Article VIII, 156*

      • Currency purchase, 43, 158*, 159, 166†, 167

      • General Arrangements to Borrow, 167*

      • Gold transactions, 21, 23, 45, 147, 148, 168, 204

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 21, 23, 27, 38, 39, 41, 170*, 173*, 174, 175*

      • Stand-by arrangement, 166†

    • International reserves, 20 (fn), 21, 23, 27, 28*

    • Money supply, 88†, 89, 90

    • Prices and wages, 4†, 6, 7, 8, 63, 64*, 65, 66†, 89, 90

    • Swap transactions, 20 (fn), 25, 27, 29, 30-31*

    • Unemployment, 6, 88

  • Upper Volta

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Uruguay

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Foreign trade, 75, 80

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 162*

      • Currency repurchase, 44, 160, 161, 162*, 163*, 164*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*, 175*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

  • Venezuela

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Foreign trade, 73*, 76*, 78*

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Viet-Nam

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • Exports, 74

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Western Hemisphere

    • Balance of payments, 120*, 200*, 201*

    • Capital movements, 121

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 69, 75

      • Imports, 77

      • Terms of trade, 69

      • Trade balance, 80

    • See also individual countries

  • Western Samoa

    • Application for Fund membership, 155

  • World Trade

    • Import/reserves ratio, 25, 26†, 34

    • Industrial countries, 8-9, 52, 53, 54*, 55, 56-59, 60*, 61*, 63

    • International reserves, effects of increases in, 34-35

    • Prices, 7-8, 34, 52, 57, 63-64, 68-69

    • Primary producing countries, 3, 8, 53-54, 60, 61, 68, 72, 75, 76*, 78*

    • Primary producing countries—less developed, 8, 9, 51*, 52, 53, 54, 55†, 63*, 64, 69*, 72, 73*, 76*, 77, 78*

    • Primary producing countries—more developed, 8, 9, 51*, 53, 54, 55†, 64, 69*, 73*, 76*, 77, 78*

    • Restrictions, 34-35

    • Trade balances, 9, 55†, 62

    • Value and volume, 3, 7†, 8, 34, 51, 52, 54*, 57

  • Yemen Arab Republic

    • Balance of payments, 200*, 201*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase, 158*, 159

      • Membership, 43

      • Quota increase, 42 (fn), 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 155, 170*, 173*

  • Yemen, People’s Democratic Republic of

    • IMF

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

  • Yugoslavia

    • Balance of payments, 13, 114*, 115, 116, 199*

    • Currency devaluation, 37, 117, 156

    • Discount rate, 116

    • Economic situation and policy, 115, 116-17

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 72, 73*, 116

      • Imports, 76*, 77, 116, 117

      • Trade balance, 77, 78*

    • IMF

      • Currency purchase and repurchase, 158*, 163*

      • Par value, 37, 156

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

      • Stand-by arrangements, 159, 161*

    • Prices and wages, 116, 117

    • Tax measures, 116

  • Zambia

    • Balance of payments, 123*, 124, 200*, 201*

    • Economic situation and policy, 124

    • Foreign trade

      • Exports, 73*, 75, 123, 124

      • Imports, 76*, 79

      • Trade balance, 78*

    • Gross national product, 130*

    • IMF

      • Currency repurchase, 163*, 164*

      • Quota increase, 157*

      • Special drawing rights, 170*, 173*

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