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Malawi

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
August 2012
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Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Overview

The Malawi Growth and Development Strategy II (MGDS II) is the overarching operational medium term strategy for Malawi for the next five years, 2011 to 2016. It is designed to attain the country’s Vision 2020. The underlying philosophy of MGDS II is to continue creating wealth through sustainable economic growth and infrastructure development. It presents a policy framework that articulates issues related to both economic growth and social development. The MGDS II is meant to serve as a single reference document for policy makers in Government, the private sector, civil society, donors, the international community and co-operating partners on the country’s socio-economic development priorities.

The MGDS II is framed on six broad thematic areas namely; sustainable economic growth; social development; social support and disaster risk management; infrastructure development; governance; and gender and capacity development. The strategy recognizes that issues of gender and capacity development are cross cutting and therefore have been addressed under a separate theme. To ascertain immediate economic benefits for the people of Malawi, the MGDS II will in the next five years focus on the following nine key priority areas: Agriculture and Food Security; Transport Infrastructure and Nsanje World Inland Port; Energy, Industrial Development, Mining and Tourism; Education, Science and Technology; Public Health, Sanitation, Malaria and HIV and AIDS Management; Integrated Rural Development; Green Belt Irrigation, and Water Development; Child Development, Youth Development and Empowerment; and Climate Change, Natural Resources and Environmental Management. Figure 1 is a schematic view of the relationship between themes and KPAs.

Figure 1:Relationship between KPAs and Thematic Areas

1.2 Main Assumptions of MGDS II

The MGDS II is premised on the following assumptions:

  • The country sustains and accelerates real GDP growth rates to continue on its poverty reduction path;

  • Prudence in management of fiscal and monetary policies;

  • Continued political stability;

  • Conducive macroeconomic environment;

  • Increased diversification and value addition of export commodities to effectively drive export led growth;

  • Effective aid management and further improvement in domestic debt management;

  • Adequate resources and capacity to implement MGDS II activities;

  • Good governance is entrenched and institutionalised to avoid wastage of scarce resources;

  • Effective social protection programmes are designed to mitigate negative side effects of growth and development; and

  • Continued political will.

1.3 MGDS II Outline

The MGDS II is organized as follows: Chapter 1 is an introduction and presents an overview and main assumptions of the strategy. Chapter 2 presents the background and outlines past development policies; Chapter 3 summarizes the macroeconomic environment and expenditure framework within which the MGDS II will be implemented. Chapter 4 presents in detail the thematic areas of the MGDS II while Chapter 5 presents the key priority areas. Finally, Chapter 6 presents the implementation, monitoring and evaluation framework.

Chapter 2: Background

The MGDS II succeeds the MGDS (2006-2011) as an overarching operational medium term national development strategy, designed to attain the nation’s Vision 2020. It is a product of a highly consultative process involving a broad range of stakeholders. It therefore, represents a consensus on how Malawi can further accelerate the attainment of its development objectives. The MGDS II also incorporates lessons learnt from the implementation of the MGDS and simultaneously addresses the MDGs.

The successful implementation of this strategy, therefore, requires commitment of all stakeholders. Government will spearhead the implementation of the MGDS II. However, all stakeholders including the private sector, civil society organizations, donors, cooperating development partners, and the general public have varying responsibilities in the implementation process to ensure the attainment of the set goals.

2.1 Overview of Development Policies

Since the launch of the Malawi Vision 2020 on 31st March, 1998 Government has implemented two medium term national development strategies: Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy (MPRS) and MGDS. The MGDS II, therefore, becomes the third national development strategy. It translates the goals and objectives that emerged from a nation-wide consultation process as reflected in Vision 2020.

2.2 National Development Policies

2.2.1 Malawi Vision 2020

Vision 2020 is a policy framework that sets out a long-term development perspective for Malawi. It emphasizes long term strategic thinking, shared vision and visionary leadership, participation by the population, strategic management and national learning. The Vision 2020 states that “by the year 2020 Malawi as a God fearing nation, will be secure, democratically mature, environmentally sustainable, self-reliant with equal opportunities for and active participation by all, having social services, vibrant cultural and religious values and a technologically driven middle-income economy”.

2.2.2 Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy

In May 2002, Government launched the MPRS which presented a first attempt to translate long-term vision into medium term focused action plans. The MPRS became the overarching medium term strategy of the Government for reducing poverty in the country. The goal of the MPRS was to achieve “sustainable poverty reduction through empowerment of the poor”.

The MPRS was built around four strategic pillars namely: sustainable pro-poor growth; human capital development; improving the quality of life of the most vulnerable; and good governance. In addition, it had four key cross cutting issues namely: HIV and AIDS, gender, environment, science and technology. The implementation period for the MPRS was three years ending in the 2004/05 fiscal year.

In the second half of 2005, the MPRS was reviewed to draw lessons from its implementation. The lessons are summarized in the report “Comprehensive Review of the MPRS 2005” and the findings informed the strategic direction of the MGDS. The notable achievement of the MPRS was the decline in poverty levels from 54.1 percent to 52.4 percent. Also important was the fact that Ministries and Departments implemented their activities in line with the MPRS framework. However, there were some short falls that hampered the implementation process. These included failure by Ministries and Departments to translate the activities into the budget and Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF), slow implementation of the devolution process, and funding not based on priorities defined by MPRS.

2.2.3 Malawi Growth and Development Strategy

Government launched the MGDS in 2007. It was designed as an overarching operational medium-term strategy for Malawi to attain the nation’s Vision 2020 and the MDGs for the period 2006 to 2011. The main aim of the MGDS was to create wealth through sustainable economic growth and infrastructure development as a means of achieving poverty reduction. It presented a policy framework that balanced issues related to both economic growth and social development.

To ascertain immediate economic benefits for the people of Malawi, the MGDS focused on the following six key priority areas: Agriculture and Food Security; Irrigation and Water Development; Transport Infrastructure Development; Energy Generation and Supply; Integrated Rural Development; and Prevention and Management of Nutrition Disorders, HIV and AIDS. These key priority areas were also expected to accelerate the attainment of the MDGs in the areas of health, education, gender, environment, and governance. They were isolated from the MGDS five thematic areas namely; sustainable economic growth; social protection and disaster risk management; social development; infrastructure development and improving governance. The MGDS recognized that issues of HIV and AIDS, science and technology, gender, empowerment and environment were cross cutting and as such they were streamlined within the five thematic areas.

Annual reviews were conducted throughout the period of MGDS to draw lessons from its implementation. These lessons, among other things, informed the strategic direction of the MGDS II.

2.2.4 International Development Commitments

The MGDS II recognizes Government’s commitment to several global agreements and declarations including the MDGs, and the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. Government through the MGDS II is committed to the MDGs as internationally agreed targets for eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; achieving universal primary education; promoting gender equality and empowering women; reducing child mortality; improving maternal health; combating HIV and AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensuring environment sustainability; and developing global partnership for development. The country has made progress on all its targets and is on track to attain five of the eight MDGs targets by the year 2015.

On eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, the poverty headcount has declined from 50 percent in 2005 to 39 percent in 2010 while the proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy requirement has decreased from about 22 percent in 2005 to 15 percent in 2009. Under universal primary education, there has been an increase in primary school net enrolment from 73 percent in 2006 to 83 percent in 2009 while youth literacy rate has increased from 74.9 percent in 2005 to about 84 percent in 2009. Progress has also been made on gender equality and empowerment of women. The ratio of girls to boys in primary school has increased from 0.95 in 2005 to 1.03 in 2009. The proportion of seats held by women in Parliament has significantly improved from 14 percent in 2004 to 22 percent in 2009 (Malawi MDG Report, 2010).

In addition, progress has also been made on reducing child mortality and improving maternal health. Infant mortality rate has declined from 76 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2004 to 66 per 1,000 live births in 2010, while under-five mortality rate has declined from 133 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2004 to 112 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2010. Maternal mortality rate has declined from 984 births per 100,000 live births in 2004 to 675 births per 100,000 live births in 2010. The HIV prevalence rate among pregnant women aged 15 to 24 years has declined from about 14.3 percent in 2005 to 12 percent in 2009, while deaths associated with tuberculosis cases has declined from 19 percent in 2005 to 8 percent in 2009 (DHS Report, 2010).

Although progress has been made in all the goals, Malawi is still lagging behind in achieving targets in three goals, namely; improve maternal health, achieve universal primary education and promote gender equality and women empowerment. In this respect, efforts will be made to achieve all the MDG targets during the implementation of this strategy.

2.3 Situation Analysis

The economy of Malawi is dependent on agriculture. The sector remains the country’s main foreign exchange earner with tobacco, sugar, tea, coffee and cotton as major export products followed by manufacturing and tourism. The country’s dependence on this sector renders its economy vulnerable to shocks hence the need to diversify. In recent years, efforts have been made to diversify the economy to other sectors such as mining, tourism and service sectors. Consequently, the contribution of other sectors including mining to GDP has increased over the years with agriculture declining from about 38 percent in 1994 to about 27 percent in 2010.

Prior to MGDS implementation (2002 to 2005), GDP growth rate averaged 3.5 percent against the target of 5.2 percent. On the other hand, during the implementation period of the MGDS (2006 to 2011), the economy performed remarkably well, with an average real GDP growth rate of 7.5 per cent compared to a target of 6 percent. During the same period, inflation rate declined to single digit levels, and bank lending rate also declined.

Over the past years, there has been significant reduction in the number of people living in poverty from 52 percent in 2004 to 39 percent in 2010. In addition the country has seen significant improvement in infrastructure development in the transport, health and education sectors. Consequently, there has been an increase in the provision of and access to social services. The proportion of the population with access to safe potable water and basic sanitation increased from 73 percent and 84 percent in 2005 to 80 and 93 percent, respectively, in 2010. HIV prevalence declined from 14 percent in 2005 to 12 percent in 2010. In the health sector, birth attended by skilled personnel increased from 38 percent in 2005 to 58 percent in 2010 and maternal mortality and infant mortality declined from 984 per 100,000 live births and 76 per 1,000 births to 675 deaths and 72 deaths, respectively during the same period. Life expectancy also increased from 40 years in 2005 to 49 years in 2010 (DHS, 2010).

Although Malawi has improved the welfare of its citizens, the country still faces a number of challenges including: insufficient energy generation and supply; high transportation costs; inadequate skilled human resource; inadequate financial resources; narrow export base; inadequate diversification; high illiteracy levels; high population growth; over dependence on rain-fed agriculture and HIV and AIDS pandemic.

In addition, Malawi has challenges to meet some of the MDGs namely: improving maternal health, achieving universal primary education and promoting gender equality and empowering women. The themes and key priority areas in this strategy, therefore, aim to address the above challenges while consolidating the achievements attained during the MGDS implementation.

2.4 Overview of MGDS Implementation

The MGDS has generally been effective as an instrument of achieving the country’s developmental goals. Having experienced stagnant and at times negative growth spanning over 15 years prior to the implementation of the MGDS, poverty had increased significantly; incomes dwindled; and the livelihoods of the majority of Malawians adversely impacted upon. The introduction of MGDS has reversed some of these challenges. Although still not sufficient, Malawi has begun to record positive economic growth as well as impressive results on many MDGs indicators.

2.4.1 Aid Effectiveness

At the start of the MGDS, Malawi received significant debt cancellations under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative and the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) in 2006 when the outstanding external debt stock was reduced from US$2.97 billion as of end 2005 to US$0.52 billion in August 2006. This debt relief led to increased fiscal space arising from the debt service savings, thus permitting increased Government spending on priority areas. The debt relief led to improved debt indicators thereby increasing the scope for the Government to acquire more external aid in the form of concessional loans.

Aid disbursement remained stable over the last three fiscal years of MGDS implementation, 2007/08 to 2009/10. Traditional donors continued to provide the majority of the aid support with EU contributing the largest disbursements in 2009/10 Fiscal Year (FY) followed by World Bank and DfID. Other key donors were USAID, Norway and AfDB. During the same period, new donors like the Peoples Republic of China and the Republic of India began to play an increasingly important role. However, aid has been concentrated in a small number of sectors with Economic Governance being the largest recipient sector of overall donor support followed by Health; Agriculture; Education; and Water and Sanitation in that order in 2009/10 Fiscal Year. In contrast, the 5 smallest recipient sectors were Public Administration; Tourism, Wildlife and Culture; Energy and Mining; Gender, Youth Development and Sports; and Trade, Industry and Private Sector Development.

During the same period, aid predictability was high but undermined by a couple of key donors with aid disbursement modalities shifting from Pooled Sector Support to General Budget Support. Budget Support increased to 30 percent in 2009/10 FY from 21 percent in 2008/09 FY of total donor receipts by Government while Pooled Sector Support declined from 24 percent in 2008/09 FY to 17 percent in 2009/10 FY.

In this regard, Government will assume that external resources will be forthcoming to support the MGDS II activities following international commitments made by the G8 Nations at the Gleneagles Summit in 2005 as well as similar commitments by both bilateral and multilateral donors.

2.4.2 Macroeconomic Performance

MGDS projected a 6 percent annual GDP growth rate as the level at which meaningful poverty reduction would be achieved. The economy performed well as GDP growth rate averaged 7.5 percent at the end of the five year period. The above average growth rate emanated from good performance in strategic sectors such as agriculture, construction, mining and services. During MGDS implementation, domestic resource mobilisation increased as a share of GDP from 17.5 percent of GDP in 2006 to 22.6 percent of GDP in 2010 while expenditure averaged 35 percent of GDP. Expenditures throughout the period were within their MGDS target of 39 percent of GDP. Consequently, fiscal balances significantly improved to -2.9 percent of GDP.

Within the same period, monetary policy was geared towards achieving price stability whilst providing sufficient room for private sector activity. Reserve money continued to be the nominal anchor for prices and money supply and its growth was programmed to expand at about the pace of nominal GDP to contain inflationary pressures and manage domestic demand. Subsequently, inflation declined from 10.1 percent in December 2006 to 6.3 percent in December 2010.

2.4.3 Sector Performance

Agriculture: The country’s introduction of the Farm Input Subsidy Programme (FISP) to smallholder farmers in the year 2005/06 has demonstrated the importance and value of investing in food crops as a step towards sustained economic growth and poverty reduction. The 2010 MDG Report attributed the country’s sharp decline in poverty levels between 2005 and 2010 to FISP. Welfare Monitoring Survey1 reports indicate that the number of Malawians at risk of hunger has been decreasing overtime due to FISP. In the period before 2005 about 5 million Malawians were at risk of hunger. This reduced to about 500,000 in year 2008. Furthermore, maize production increased from 1.22 million metric tons in 2005 to 3.4 million metric tons in 2010 (Economic Report, 2011).

Energy: During the implementation of MGDS, the sector registered a number of achievements including establishment of the Malawi Energy Regulatory Authority (MERA) in 2007; rehabilitation of Tedzani I & II in which 40MW of installed capacity was restored. In addition, there has been an increase in the percentage of households with access to electricity from 4 in 2005 to 9 in 2010. This is partly due to successful implementation of rural electrification program which has increased the number of trading centres connected to electricity from 45 in 2005 to 182 in 2010. Furthermore, there has been a decline in the proportion of population using solid fuels from 94.8 percent in 2005 to 78 percent in 2010.

Education: Government implemented a number of programmes in the education sector leading to the following achievements: primary school net enrolment increased from 73 percent in 2006 to 83 percent in 2009. The proportion of pupils starting grade one who reach grade five increased from 69 percent in 2000 to 76 percent in 2008 (UNDP, 2010). Completion rate in primary school has improved from 26.8 percent in 2005 to 53 percent in 2008. Primary school dropout rate has declined from 22 percent in 2005 to 5 percent in 2008.

Health: The sector registered a number of achievements including reduction in infant mortality rate from 76 per 1,000 in 2004 to 66 per 1,000 in 2010; reduction in under-five mortality rate from 133 per 1,000 in 2004 to 112 per 1,000 in 2010; reduction in maternal mortality rate from 984 per 100,000 in 2004 to 675 per 100,000 in 2010; reduction in the prevalence of HIV among 15-24 year old pregnant women attending antenatal care from 14 percent in 2004 to 12 percent in 2009; reduction in malaria in-patient case fatality rate from 7 percent in 2004 to 3.2 percent in 2010 and increase in proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel from 38 percent in 2004 to 75 percent in 2009 (DHS, 2010).

Nutrition: A number of interventions were implemented to improve nutrition. The interventions include school health and nutrition programmes; vitamin A supplementations; and nutrition support programmes. These interventions have resulted in improvement of nutrition indicators. For instance, the percentage of underweight children decreased from 22 percent in 2004 to 13 percent in 2010 (DHS, 2010).

Mining: During the implementation of MGDS, contribution of mining to GDP rose from 3 percent in 2005 to 10.8 percent in 2010 partly attributed to the Kayelekera Uranium Mine (Annual Economic Report, 2010).

Transport: The transport sector carried out a number of interventions aimed at improving the quality of infrastructure. Some of the recent achievements include an increase in paved road network from 3,663 km in 2004 to 4,073 km in 2010; 215 km of the paved road network rehabilitated out of the 293 km during the same period (RA, 2011). The preparation of the Transport Sector Investment Plan (TSIP) will bring about coordinated and competitive development of all transport modes and enhancement of intermodal transport along the corridors. In addition, in the roads subsector Government has adopted the Road Sector Programme (RSP) to guide both the medium and long term investment programmes in the subsector.

Water Development: The sector made notable achievements and these include increased adoption of improved irrigation technologies, construction of dams, rehabilitation of irrigation schemes and promotion of Water and Sanitation Hygiene (WASH). The country’s proportion of the population with access to basic sanitation increased from 84 percent in 2005 to 93 percent in 2009. There was an increased percentage of the population with access to safe potable water from 73 percent in 2005 to 84 percent in 2009 (WMS, 2009).

Natural Resources and Environmental Management: The sector registered remarkable progress in a number of areas including compliance with the Environmental Management Plans (EMP) of development projects and programs; setting standards on pollution control and waste management; increased public awareness on environment and natural resources management; increased land area under industrial plantations; improved protection of river catchment areas, increased land area under industrial plantations from 1609 ha in 2005 to 5784 ha in 2010; reduced tonnage of ozone depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) from 5.9 tonnes in 2005 to almost zero in 2010; and increased customary land area planted with trees from 77,810 ha in 2005 with 194,524,672 trees to 187,791 ha with about 275 million trees planted in 2010 (Department of Forestry, 2010).

Tourism: To improve tourism, Government undertook a number of development projects that transformed the tourism landscape. These include construction of access roads to tourist sites in Mangochi; improvement of airports and airstrips and construction of Mpale Cultural Village. In addition, Government started constructing a 1500-seater International Conference Centre which is expected to boost the tourism potential of the country.

Private Sector Development, Industry and Trade: A number of reforms were undertaken including establishment of a commercial court and simplification of trade regime. These reforms coupled with macroeconomic and political stability led to attraction of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). According to the Reserve Bank of Malawi, FDI in 2010 amounted to USD 9.2 million.

Science and Technology: During implementation of MGDS, Government carried out a number of reforms aimed at improving research and development and application of science and technology in the country. These reforms include establishment of the National Commission for Science and Technology as an apex body in all matters of research, science and technology; and review of the National Science, Technology and Innovation Policy; and development of the National Intellectual Property Policy.

Rural Development: On rural development, a number of interventions were made to assist rural communities. These include community development programmes; subsidized farm inputs; rural industrialization; public works programme; construction of school buildings, teacher’s houses and clinics; water supply schemes; and improvement of other rural social infrastructure.

Wildlife and Culture: The sector registered a number of achievements and these include improved quality and standards of tourism units; improved wildlife conservation; animal translocation and restocking; construction and rehabilitation of national monuments and other cultural infrastructure; and research on national heritage.

Land: Government implemented a number of initiatives including re-allocation of land to poor households largely through the Community Based Rural Land Development Project (CBRLDP) and introduction of land administration and management courses at tertiary level. The sector also embarked on design and implementation of a computerized title deed registration system.

Population: Under this sub-sector, there was an increased provision of sexual and reproductive health services which raised awareness and contributed to a high proportion of the population using contraceptives. During the same period there was an increase in primary school girls’ completion rate. These contributed to a reduction in the fertility rate from 6.0 in 2005 to 5.7 in 2010 (DHS, 2005; 2010).

Child Development and Protection: A number of initiatives were implemented to address some of the challenges faced by children. Achievements include increased number of early child development centres from 5,945 in 2005 to 8,933 in 2010; increased primary school net enrolment; increased number of girls accessing primary level education thereby helping to achieve gender parity; and decreased infant mortality and child mortality rates. In addition, regulatory and policy framework for the protection of children has been put in place.

Youth Development and Empowerment: Achievements under this sub-sector include; increased access to capital through the establishment of the Youth Enterprise Development Fund; expansion of the university student intake; construction of secondary school boarding facilities for girls; improving access to sexual and reproductive health, HIV and AIDS services; and establishment of information centres.

Social Support and Disaster Risk Management: A number of initiatives were implemented aimed at fighting poverty. These resulted in the decline of poverty incidence from 52 percent in 2004 to 39 percent in 2009. This trend was accompanied by a reduction in ultra-poverty from 22 percent in 2005 to 15 percent in 2009. This achievement is largely attributed to agricultural farm inputs subsidy programme which on average benefited 1.3 million Malawians per year since 2005. In addition, Government implemented Targeted Support to School Meals; Public Works programme; Village Savings and Lending; and Microcredit programmes. Government also continued piloting the Social Cash Transfer (SCT) programme.

Information and Communication: A number of achievements were made including connection to the optic fibre cable resulting in improved delivery of telecommunication services; increased mobile phone coverage; increased provision of broadcasting services; increased postal and courier service and automation of some of Government’s operations and services.

Housing and Urban Development: Achievements registered under this sub-sector include the following: maintained houses under government lease, constructed Government Offices; conducted quinquennial valuations and supplementary valuation rolls; decentralized the Rural Housing Programme; commenced a National Slum Upgrading Programme; and developed Guidelines on Safer House Construction. In addition, Malawi Housing Corporation (MHC) continued to construct houses.

Economic Governance: Malawi experienced a stable macroeconomic environment characterized by a high GDP growth rate, low inflation rate, a stable exchange rate, and sustainable levels of both domestic and foreign debt. The challenge is therefore to sustain and accelerate the positive economic growth and continue with a stable macroeconomic environment.

Democratic Governance: The country experienced positive developments including successful presidential and parliamentary elections; a motivated civil service; a growing number of civil society and non-governmental organizations; and deepening constitutionalism. On justice and the rule of law a number of legal and policy reforms were carried out. These included legal and policy reforms, and the strengthening of some of the key institutions of governance that led to increased access to legal system.

Gender: Achievements made under gender sector include increased proportion of women in the National Assembly from 14 percent in 2004 to 22 percent in 2009; increased number of women in decision making positions in public service; establishment of victim support units; and achievement of gender parity at primary school level.

Capacity Development: Initiatives implemented in the public sector have had a number of positive results. These include an increased number of trained personnel in key sectors including health and education, institutional development of ministries, departments and organizations; establishment of Leadership Development Framework and implementation of the Public Sector reform program.

HIV and AIDS Management: Prevalence of HIV and AIDS among pregnant women within the age group of 15 to 24 years has declined from 15 percent in 2005 to 12 percent in 2009. Factors contributing to this positive development include increased awareness programmes in HIV prevention and behavioural change, increased access to a number of preventive interventions, increased access to HIV and AIDS Testing and Counselling (HTC) sites, and the PMTCT programme.

Challenges

Despite the achievements outlined above, the country still faces a number of challenges which MGDS II endeavours to address. The specific challenges are covered in the relevant sections of the strategy.

2.5 Lessons Learnt from Implementation of MGDS

The following lessons from MGDS will strengthen the implementation of MGDS II:

  • Successful implementation of any national development strategy requires commitment from all stakeholders;

  • A strong indicator framework is critical for measuring progress towards defined goals, outcomes and targets;

  • Availability of data is crucial for monitoring progress of MGDS implementation;

  • Strengthened human and financial capacity is crucial for successful implementation of the MGDS;

  • Alignment of the national budget and sector strategies to the national development strategy; and

  • Alignment of donor support to the national development strategy.

2.6 The MGDS II Formulation Process

Stakeholders Consultations: Just like its predecessor, the MGDS II is a product of a highly consultative and participatory process that identified specific themes and confirmed strategies to be employed. It is also acknowledged that successful implementation of the MGDS II requires commitment from all stakeholders including the public and private sectors, civil society organizations (CSOs), development partners, the international community, donors and the general public.

To facilitate the formulation, Government established structures to guide and oversee the MGDS II formulation process. These structures include a ministerial committee to provide political guidance; a steering committee to provide policy guidance; and a core drafting team to provide technical expertise to the process. A number of consultative meetings and workshops were held with all stakeholders to seek their input in the strategy. The consultative meetings and workshops targeted all district councils, Government Ministries and Departments, civil society organizations and non-governmental organizations, the private sector, development partners, the academia, the youth, children and chairpersons and vice-chairpersons of parliamentary committees, and all the sixteen Sector Working Groups (SWGs).

The MGDS II, therefore, represents the aspirations of all Malawians. However, it should be clear to all stakeholders that the real challenges lie in realizing MGDS II objectives and targets. Unless the strategies contained in this document are implemented, the country’s efforts in realizing its vision will have been wasted. Government is committed to ensuring the implementation of the MGDS II, using the Budget as the key tool and expects that all stakeholders will play their part in implementation as was the case at formulation stage.

Chapter 3 Macroeconomic Framework

3.1 Introduction

Malawi has since the year 2000 implemented two medium term national development strategies to address developmental challenges of the country. These strategies are the Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy (MPRS) implemented from 2002 to 2005 and the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) from 2006 to 2011. From 2011 to 2016, Malawi will be guided by the MGDS II. This chapter lays out the macroeconomic framework for the MGDS II. The projections are primarily based on output from macroeconomic model for Malawi2.

The overall goal of the MPRS was to achieve sustainable poverty reduction through empowerment of the poor. During the implementation of this strategy, GDP growth averaged 3.5 percent against the target of 5.2 percent. The main thrust of the MGDS was to reduce poverty through sustained economic growth and infrastructure development. During the implementation of this strategy, GDP growth averaged 7.5 percent against the target of 6 percent. This high growth rate emanated from agriculture, distribution, construction, mining and services sectors. Table 3.1 below compares the performance of the two strategies.

Table 3.1:Real GDP Growth and Inflation
TargetAchievement
MPRS (2002–2005)
Real GDP5.23.5
Inflation (end period)<1016.9
MGDS (2006-2011)
Real GDP6.07.5
Inflation (end period)<106.33

During the MGDS implementation, fiscal balances averaged −2.9 percent of GDP due to improved fiscal management. Domestic resource mobilisation as a share of GDP increased from 17.5 percent in 2006 to 22.6 percent in 2010. Expenditures throughout the implementation period averaged 35 percent of GDP thus staying within the target of 39 percent of GDP. In addition, Government’s domestic debt dropped to 16 percent of GDP from 25 percent of GDP registered at the beginning of MGDS.

Over the same period, monetary policy was geared towards achieving price stability whilst providing sufficient room for private sector activity. Reserve money continued to be the nominal anchor for prices and money supply growth was programmed to expand at about the same pace of nominal GDP to contain inflationary pressures and manage domestic demand. Consequently, inflation eased significantly from 10.1 percent in December 2006 to 6.3 percent in December 2010.

Monetary policy was largely accommodative to stimulate demand hence the bank rate was adjusted downwards by 2.0 percentage points in August 2010 from 15.0 percent to 13.0 percent.

3.2 Medium Term Macroeconomic Prospects

The medium term projections for MGDS II are aimed at consolidating the gains achieved during the implementation of the previous strategy. Government will continue to pursue sound economic policies geared at increasing and sustaining economic growth, maintaining inflation rate at single digit, maintaining flexible exchange rate and improving foreign reserve position. [During the implementation period of the MGDS II, the economy is expected to achieve an average GDP growth rate of 7.2 percent]. The following sections provide the macroeconomic assumptions and projections employed to drive the economy during the MGDS II implementation. Table 3.2 below shows a summary of projections for key selected indicators.

Table 3.2:Summary of Selected Indicators, 2011–2016
201120122013201420152016
OUTPUT AND PRICES (percentage growth)
GDP at Constant Prices6.97.17.47.37.47.3
GDP deflator8.67.97.56.96.46.2
Inflation (annual average)8.77.97.46.86.15.9
FISCAL OPERATIONS\1 (percent of GDP)
Total revenue and Grants32.129.828.327.727.226.8
Tax and non-tax revenue24.224.124.224.124.024.0
Grants7.95.74.23.63.22.8
Total expenditure31.929.226.825.825.024.3
Overall balance0.20.61.51.92.22.5
EXTERNAL SECTOR (percent of GDP)
Exports of goods and services22.823.223.724.124.625.0
Imports of goods and services38.838.337.837.336.836.3
Current account balance−18.8−17.3−15.7−14.4−13.0−11.7
Overall balance−7.8−9.5−10.0−9.5−8.8−8.0
Source: Ministry of Development Planning & Cooperation, MalawiMod.

3.2.1 Output and Prices

The prospects for high growth in GDP are premised on the gains from MGDS and are projected to be largely driven by agriculture, mining, distribution, construction and services sectors. Consequently, private consumption is projected to increase by 6.7 percent due to improvements in real disposable income. Consumption in the smallholder sector is expected to grow significantly by 5.0 percent annually over the MGDS II period.

An increase in national investment will be a catalyst for the projected growth which in turn will create broad based employment. Investment will be built on foundations laid in the previous strategy with emphasis in areas of infrastructure development, such as electricity generation and supply, transportation and irrigation.

During the MGDS II implementation period, average annual inflation is expected to decline from 8.7 percent to 5.9 percent. Despite the risk of an increase in international commodity prices, domestic prices will be suppressed due to availability of domestically produced food stuff on the market as a result of continued policy on farm input subsidy program.

3.2.2 Fiscal Operations

Fiscal policy in MGDS II will largely aim at restricting the growth of fiscal deficits. Government will endeavour to boost domestic resource mobilization, consequently reducing domestic borrowing. Increased public investment will be geared towards supporting export diversification and economic growth. Accordingly, during the implementation period, fiscal performance is expected to remain solid with overall fiscal balance for the period averaging a surplus of 1.5 percent of GDP.

Total revenue and grants are projected to average 28.7 percent of GDP against an average total expenditure projection of 27.2 percent of GDP. On the other hand, domestic resources are expected to average 24.1 percent of GDP.

Financing for MGDS II key priorities and themes will be through the national budget in the context of a three year Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF). However, the budgetary resources fall short of the needs-based resource requirements for the country to achieve all its objectives. It is expected that the resource gap will be complemented by the private sector and other stakeholders. The budgetary allocation to the key priorities and themes are presented in chapter six on the Implementation Framework while Annex 3 gives detailed needs-based resource requirement for MGDS II.

3.2.3 External Sector and Monetary Operations

During the MGDS II implementation period, the goal will be to improve the current account position. Emphasis will be on pursuit of an export led growth with major investments in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and tourism sectors. Within the agricultural sector the objective will be to increase the country’s market share in traditional agricultural products such as sugar, cotton, coffee and tea as well as diversifying away from tobacco into wheat, cassava, macadamia nuts, fruits, pulses and vegetable commodities among others. This will also aim at increasing value addition on mining and tourism products.

Monetary policy will continue to gear towards achieving price stability but at the same time giving sufficient room for private sector activity. Resonating around the projected strong economic growth, broadly defined money supply is expected to grow at a pace consistent with nominal GDP in a bid to contain inflationary pressures. Domestic credit will be expected to pick up in the medium term to support private activities and investment. Foreign direct investment will also be encouraged in the mining, tourism and manufacturing sectors to boost investment in the country. Private sector credit is envisaged to remain strong. It is expected that private sector growth will take advantage of a conducive macroeconomic climate projected in the MGDS II period. Over the same period, the exchange rate will continue to be market determined.

3.4 Challenges and Risks

While the economy will be on a trajectory for growth over the period, there are several factors that may pose challenges and risks in attaining the growth rates projected in the strategy. Major risks include:

  • (i) Unstable world economic output and commodity prices coupled with deteriorating terms of trade;

  • (ii) Unpredictable and unreliable aid flows which can affect implementation of the fiscal policy; and

  • (iii) Unfavourable weather conditions and natural calamities of disasters that can derail agricultural production in the country.

Chapter 4 Thematic Areas

The MGDS II rests on six thematic areas that are covered in this chapter. These themes holistically address all the needs of the country to achieve sustainable socio-economic development, but also attain the MDGs. It is believed that effective implementation of the strategies therein will take the Malawi economy to a higher level of development. It is, however, recognized that the resource envelope to finance the requisite activities is limited and hence the need to prioritise. The priorities within priorities which this strategy has identified emanate from these six themes. The six themes are: Sustainable Economic Growth; Social Development; Social Support and Disaster Risk Management; Infrastructure Development; Governance; and Cross-Cutting Issues.

Theme 1: Sustainable Economic Growth

Sustainable economic growth is key to poverty reduction and improvements in the living standards of Malawians. Over the past five years, Malawi’s economic growth has continued to exceed expectations with an annual growth rate averaging 7.5 percent compared to the projected 6 percent. During the same period, poverty levels declined from 50 percent to 39 percent4. This is attributed to sound macroeconomic policies and a stable political environment. During the implementation of MGDS, Malawi also experienced strong donor support, increased foreign direct investment and transformation in infrastructure, among other developments. However, the country still faces a number of challenges such as inadequate energy supply, narrow export base, climate change, environmental degradation, and unemployment.

To address these challenges, the Government through MGDS II will continue implementing interventions aimed at ensuring sustainable economic growth. These require action on multiple fronts to deliver on inclusive growth. In this respect, emphasis will be to maximize the contribution of potential growth sectors such as agriculture; tourism; and mining while creating an enabling environment for private sector participation and development; fostering job creation; empowering rural communities; ensuring equitable access to land; and promoting sustainable use of the environment.

The Sustainable Economic Growth thematic area comprises eight sub-themes namely: agriculture; mining; natural resources and environmental management; industry, trade and private sector development; rural development; tourism; labour and employment; and land. Table 4.1 presents a summary of the long-term goals and medium-term expected outcomes of each of the sub-themes.

Table 4.1:Sustainable Economic Growth Theme
Sub ThemeGoalMedium-Term Outcomes
1. Agriculture - refer to Key Priority Area (KPA) Chapter
2. Natural Resources and Environmental ManagementEnhance sustainable management of forest resources and their contribution to national economy.
  • Increased forest cover; and

  • Increased incomes from forestry products and services.

3. Mining - refer to KPA Chapter
4. Private Sector Development, Industry and TradeDevelop and promote a conducive environment that will enhance inclusive private sector growth and competitiveness.
  • Improved environment for domestic and foreign investments created;

  • Increased investments by both local and foreign entrepreneurs; and

  • Improved productivity and market access of enterprises.

5. Rural Development
5.1 DecentralizationEnhance decisionmaking and participation of local communities in development planning and implementation.
  • Empowered local government structures;

  • Enhanced participation and ownership of the development programmes by local communities; and

  • Improved coordination at district level.

5.2 RuralImprove living standards of rural communities through enhanced rural industrialization.
  • Enhanced product diversification;

  • Reduced rural-urban migration;

  • Reduced poverty among rural communities; and

  • Increased employment for rural population.

6. Tourism, Wildlife and Culture
6.1 WildlifeConserve and manage wildlife in both protected areas and natural habitats.
  • Improved wildlife management; and

  • Improved institutional and regulatory framework.

6.2 CultureUphold and promote national heritage for identity, posterity and development.
  • Improved preservation of Malawi’s cultural heritage and values; and

  • Increased promotion and development of Malawi’s culture.

7. Labour and EmploymentStimulate and ensure productive and decent employment for better standards of living.
  • Improved labour productivity;

  • Increased gainful and decent employment for all;

  • Strengthened legal, regulatory and institutional reforms;

  • Eliminated worst forms of child labour; and

  • Improved labour statistics.

8. LandEnsure equitable access to land and tenure security; efficient management and administration system, and ecologically balanced use of land and land-based resources.
  • Improved equitable access to land and tenure security;

  • Improved land planning, ecologically balanced land use and management; and

  • Improved provision of geospatial information.

Table 4.2:Summary of Social Development Theme
Sub-themeGoalMedium Term Expected Outcomes
1. PopulationManage population growth for sustainable socio-economic development.
  • Reduced fertility rate; and

  • Well managed migration.

2. Health – refer to KPA chapter
3. Education – refer to KPA chapter
4. Child Development and Protection – refer to KPA chapter
5. Youth Development – refer to KPA chapter
6. NutritionA well nourished population that effectively contributes to economic growth.
  • Reduced prevalence rate of nutrition disorders

Table 4.3:Summary of Social Support and Disaster Risk Management Theme
Sub-themeGoalMedium Term Expected Outcomes
1. Supporting the VulnerableImprove resilience and quality of life for the poor to move out of poverty and vulnerability.
  • Improved asset base and productive capacity of the poor; and

  • Improved social security interventions.

2. Disaster Risk ManagementReduce the social, economic and environmental impact of disasters.
  • Strengthened capacity for effective preparedness, response and recovery.

Table 4.4:Summary of Infrastructure Development Them
Sub-themeGoalsMedium Term Expected Outcomes
1. Energy-refer to KPA
2. Transport
2.1. Air transportEnsure a safe, efficient and competitive aviation industry
  • Improved safety and management in accordance with international standards;

  • Improved reliability and competitiveness;

  • Improved regulatory and institutional framework; and

  • Improved security in airports.

3. Water Development-refer to KPA
4. Information and Communication
4.1. Information and communicationIncrease utilization of ICT, ensure universal access to ICT products and services to improve service delivery in both public and private sectors.
  • Improved ICT broadband infrastructure;

  • Increased usage and access to information, communication services;

  • Improved postal and broadcasting services;

  • Improved ICT governance; and

  • Enhanced ICT capacity for the general public.

4.2. Media and communicationEnsure that the population has access to timely and relevant information, and increase popular participation of citizens in development, governance and democratic processes.
  • Increased access to information.

5. Housing and Urban Development
5.1. HousingIncrease access to decent housing with particular attention to low income households.
  • Increased availability of affordable and decent houses.

5.2. Urban developmentCreate a sustainable, economically and socially integrated urbanizing system.
  • Improved and sustainable urbanization system with a view to reducing slums.

Table 4.5:Summary of Governance Theme
Sub-themeGoalMedium Term Expected Outcomes
1. Economic GovernanceSustain and accelerate the positive economic growth within a stable macroeconomic environment.
  • Strengthened evidence-based planning and macroeconomic policy formulation;

  • Improved resource mobilization, allocation, and use of public resources;

  • Strengthened aid management systems; and

  • Improved access to financial services.

2. Corporate GovernanceEnsure well regulated, transparent, accountable and efficient business systems.
  • Improved and effective regulatory framework for the corporate world;

  • Improved investors’ perception of the country;

  • Improved efficiency in service delivery;

  • Reduced corruption and fraud; and

  • Increased corporate social responsibility.

3. Democratic Governance
3.1. Justice and Rule of LawEnsure access to justice and entrenched rule of law.
  • Improved and effective judicial system;

  • Enhanced transparency, accountability and efficiency of legal institutions.

3.2. Human RightsPromote and protect rights and freedoms as enshrined in the constitution of Malawi.
  • Enhanced awareness and practice of human rights and responsibilities;

  • Improved respect for human dignity and choice; and

  • Enhanced equitable access to opportunities.

3.3. ElectionsPromote free and fair elections
  • Transparent and democratic electoral process; and

  • Political parties with clear ideologies and functional internal democracy.

3.4. Peace and SecurityMake a secure and peaceful nation.
  • Improved methods of promoting national security and public order; and

  • Improved partnership and participation of all members of the public on issues of peace and security.

4. Public Sector ManagementDeliver services to the public in an efficient, demand driven and effective manner.
  • Enhanced public service leadership;

  • Improved performance and service delivery in the public service;

  • Harmonized and evidence based policies developed; and

  • Enhance implementation of Public Sector Reform Programmes.

Table 4.6:Summary of Gender and Capacity Development Theme
Sub-themeGoalMedium Term Expected Outcomes
1. GenderReduce gender inequalities and enhance participation of all gender groups in socio-economic development.
  • Increased meaningful participation of all gender groups in decision making; wealth creation and poverty reduction;

  • Reduced gender based violence at all levels; and

  • Enhanced gender mainstreaming across all sectors.

2. Capacity DevelopmentDevelop a productive and efficient workforce with necessary supporting equipment and infrastructure.
  • Enhanced workforce capacities and supportive systems;

  • Improved functioning of local training institutions; and

  • Improved administration, management and performance across all sectors.

Sub-Theme 1: Agriculture

The agriculture sector remains the main driver of economic growth in Malawi. It employs about 80 percent of the total workforce, contributes about 75 percent to foreign exchange earnings, and approximately 30 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The sector contributes significantly to national and household food security. It is, therefore, evident that investing in agriculture will foster economic growth and development and assist in attaining the aspirations of Malawians as stipulated in the country’s Vision 2020.

Recognizing the importance of the sector in fostering economic growth for the country, the Government of Malawi has been allocating substantial resources during the implementation of the MGDS as compared to the period prior to the MGDS. The average sector’s budget has been around 16 percent of the national budget for the five years of the MGDS implementation as compared to an average of 6.1 percent during the period before the MGDS. Average per capita spending on agriculture rose significantly from US$3.21 during the MPRSP period (2000-2005) to about US$16.25 during the MGDS period (2006-2009). With the increased resources, the sector implemented a number of interventions in land resource conservation, research, extension, crops and livestock development and capacity building to improve productivity and enhance its contribution to the country’s economic growth and contribute to the attainment of the MDGs of eradicating poverty and hunger by the year 2015.

The country’s introduction of the FISP to smallholder farmers in the year 2005/06 has demonstrated the importance and value of investing in food crops as a step towards sustained economic growth and poverty reduction. In the last six years to 2010, increased food production has contributed substantially to reduction of poverty and eradication of hunger in the country. Welfare Monitoring Survey5 reports indicate that the number of Malawians at risk of hunger has been decreasing overtime due to FISP. In the period before 2005 about 5 million Malawians were at risk of hunger. This number dropped to about 500,000 in 2008. Furthermore, maize production increased from 1.22 million metric tons in 2005 to 3.4 million metric tons in 2010. This high production partly contributed to the sector’s average growth of 6.4 percent per annum in recent years which is above the Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme’s (CAADP) target of 6 percent. Government is therefore committed to enhance efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability in implementing FISP.

Although there has been an increase in maize production and productivity, the sector still faces a number of challenges including low productivity, over dependence on rain-fed farming, low level of irrigation development, and low uptake of improved farm inputs. Furthermore, there are high transport costs, inadequate farmer organizations, insufficient extension services, inadequate markets and market information, limited access to agricultural credit, inefficient input and output markets and low technology development and transfer.

To attain the sector’s objectives and consolidate its contribution to economic growth, the sector has embarked on a coordinated approach to the implementation of programmes as outlined in Agricultural Sector Wide Approach (ASWAp). Focus areas are food security and risk management, agri-business and market development and sustainable land and water management. Other key areas include technology generation and dissemination and institutional strengthening and capacity building.

Agriculture and food security is one of the Key Priority Areas and with details on goals, expected outcome and strategies in the next chapter.

Sub-Theme 2: Natural Resources and Environmental Managemen

Natural resources form a principal source of social well being and economic development in Malawi. However, these resources are under constant stress from unprecedented human, industrial and other developmental activities which if not curbed might generate irreversible outcomes in the long-term. The Malawi UNCA Report (2010) estimates that unsustainable natural resource use cost Malawi about US$ 191 million, or 5.3 percent of GDP in 2010. These activities have resulted into a reduction in the proportion of land under forest cover from 41 percent in 1990 to 35 percent in 2008 (MDGs Annual Report, 2009). This is compounded by increased climate variations experienced in the form of prolonged dry spells, droughts, floods and temperature variability, which in turn have negatively affected the performance of sectors such as agriculture, natural resources, irrigation and water development, and energy.

During the past five years, the sector registered remarkable progress in a number of areas including compliance to the EMPs of development projects and programs; setting standards on pollution control and waste management; increased public awareness on environment and natural resources management; enhanced early warning; improved weather information systems; increased land area under industrial plantations from 1,609 ha in 2005 to 5,784 ha in 2010; and increased customary land area planted with trees from 77,810 ha in 2005 with 194,524,672 trees to 187,791 ha with about 275 million trees planted in 2010.

Despite the above achievements, the sector still faces a number of challenges which require immediate attention for the country to sustain the development achieved so far. Some of these challenges include climate variability, weak institutional capacity for managing climate change, inadequate mainstreaming of climate change issues; weak enforcement capacity of laws and regulations; accelerated deforestation and poor land use management practices.

In Malawi, forestry resources form a principal part of natural resources and contribute significantly to the socioeconomic development of the country. They provide forest goods and services such as catchment conservation, employment, industrial poles, timber for construction, fruits, mushroom and grass for thatching houses, medicine and herbs among others.

In view of this, Government through MGDS II will implement a number of interventions in the forestry subsector to sustain the country’s development. Climate change, natural resources and environmental management are a key priority area with details in the next chapter. The following are the goal, expected outcomes and key strategies for the forestry sub-sector.

Goal

The goal is to enhance sustainable management of forest resources and their contribution to national economy.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

  • Increased forest cover; and

  • Increased incomes from forestry products and services.

Key Strategies

  • Developing, conserving and protecting forest plantations, customary estates and natural woodlands;

  • Strengthening institutional capacity of the sector;

  • Improving forestry extension services, research, and information management;

  • Enforcing and ensuring compliance with agreed national, regional, and international obligations and legislation; and

  • Promoting large, medium and small scale forest enterprises.

Sub-Theme 3: Mining

Malawi has rich mineral resources that if sustainably exploited would significantly contribute towards economic growth and development. These resources include coal, uranium, gemstone, limestone, dimension stones, gypsum and rock aggregates. It is expected that exploration activities currently going on will also reveal a lot of other mineral deposits. For example, recent discoveries indicate that the country has substantial deposits of Niobium, uranium and Zircon at Kanyika in Mzimba.

Government recognises that development of the mining industry can significantly boost economic growth of the country through employment creation and generation of foreign exchange. During the implementation of MGDS, contribution of mining to GDP rose from 3 percent to 10 percent due to the opening of the Kayelekera Uranium Mine in 2009. The sector currently employs over 21,000 people. The overall value of all mineral exports improved from MK43 million in 2006 to over MK17.7 billion in 2010. This resulted in over MK2 billion in revenue generated by government in 2010. The sector increased its ability to supply mineral raw materials to industries by developing capacity of both small scale and large scale miners.

However, the sector faces numerous challenges including inadequate institutional capacity, outdated policies, low investment and non existence of a corporate entity to look at government and local Malawian shareholding in mining ventures. It is for this reason that Government, through the MGDS II will continue to create an enabling environment to attract more investments into the subsector. Mining is a key priority area with details on goal, outcome and strategies in the next chapter.

Sub-Theme 4: Private Sector Development, Industry and Trade

The private sector is the engine for economic growth and wealth creation. Government will continue to ensure creation of a conducive environment for private sector participation in industrial development and trade promotion. Increased industrial activities are critical for generating employment opportunities, expanded manufacturing base, enhancing value addition and diversifying exports. Besides enhancing foreign exchange earnings, trade promotion assists industries to benefit from economies of scale through expanded markets.

In the past five years, the country has undertaken a number of reforms including the establishment of a commercial court and simplification of trade regime. These reforms coupled with macroeconomic and political stability have led to an increase in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).

Despite these achievements, the sector still faces a number of challenges including inadequate energy supply, weak institutional and regulatory framework, insufficient supportive infrastructure, narrow export base, inability to meet standards, limited information about trade opportunities, high cost of doing business, limited value addition, and limited credit facilities.

Government, through MGDS II will continue implementing interventions in the sector. Trade and industrial development are key priority areas with details in the next chapter. The following are goal, expected outcomes and key strategies for private sector development.

Goal

The goal is to develop and promote a conducive environment that will enhance inclusive private sector growth and competitiveness.

Medium Term Expected Outcomes

  • Improved environment for domestic and foreign investments created;

  • Increased investments by both local and foreign entrepreneurs; and

  • Improved productivity and market access of enterprises.

Key Strategies

The main strategies will include:

  • Fostering pro-business legal and regulatory reforms;

  • Providing supportive infrastructure and services for both start-ups and expanding enterprises;

  • Promoting growth of local MSMEs;

  • Promoting private sector investment in rural areas;

  • Strengthening the capacity of private sector supporting institutions and PPPs;

  • Enhancing dissemination of business information;

  • Promoting adoption of modern and appropriate technologies;

  • Establishing a national investment company; and

  • Promoting and strengthening the development of cooperatives.

Sub-Theme 5: Rural Development

Malawi’s population is primarily rural based. It is estimated that 84.7 percent of the country’s population lives in rural areas and is involved in smallholder agriculture with limited access to basic needs such as health, education and transport infrastructure.

Government has prioritised decentralisation as a mechanism for improving rural livelihoods. The process provides people at district, and local levels with the ability to effectively plan and prioritise implementation of activities and democratically elect their local representatives. Furthermore, decentralization has offered a better mechanism for reducing bureaucracy; ensuring quality, timely and equitable provision of services; and enhancing transparency and accountability.

During the past five years efforts have been made to assist rural communities by implementing a number of programmes including community development programmes; FISP, rural industrialization with One Village One Product (OVOP) initiative as one of the major components; public works programme through which construction of some school buildings was carried out; construction of teacher’s houses and clinics; provision of water supply schemes; and improvement of other rural social infrastructure.

However, there is a need to continue implementing programmes to improve livelihoods of the rural communities and generate sustainable long term economic growth. Emphasis will be on fostering participation, ownership, and empowerment of rural communities. In this respect Government through MGDS II will continue promoting decentralisation in the provision of services to rural communities. With decentralization at the core, an integrated approach to rural development will be pursued. Integrated Rural Development is thus one of the key priority areas to be covered in details in the next chapter. In this section, goal, expected outcomes and key strategies for decentralization and rural industrialization will be covered.

Decentralization

Decentralization is the process of devolving some of the government functions from central government (line ministries) to the local government (local authorities). With decentralization, implementation of programmes is improved since the local population is encouraged to actively participate at all levels of decision making. This in turn helps to promote transparency and accountability at the local level.

Goal

The goal is to enhance decision-making and participation of local communities in development planning and implementation.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

  • Empowered local government structures;

  • Enhanced participation and ownership of the development programmes by local communities; and

  • Improved coordination at district level.

Key Strategies

  • Enhancing implementation of the decentralization process;

  • Strengthening community participation in development;

  • Strengthening coordination of local government systems;

  • Institutionalising the policy and oversight functions of the sectors that have devolved functions to the councils;

  • Promoting fiscal devolution and good financial management;

  • Strengthening the M&E system; and

  • Strengthening capacity of local government structures and stakeholders.

Rural industrialization

Most industries in Malawi are in urban areas due to lack of supportive infrastructure in rural areas. This has exacerbated rural unemployment, rural-urban migration, skewed development and poverty. Therefore, to foster balanced development, curb rural-urban migration and create employment for the rural population, government has been implementing rural industrialization.

Goal

The goal is to improve living standards of rural communities through enhanced rural industrialization.

Medium Term Expected Outcomes

  • Enhanced product diversification;

  • Reduced rural-urban migration;

  • Reduced poverty among rural communities; and

  • Increased employment for rural population.

Key Strategies

  • Promoting industrial projects in rural areas;

  • Promoting equal access to credit;

  • Strengthening and expanding OVOP initiatives in rural areas;

  • Promoting development of supportive infrastructure; and

  • Building capacity in product diversification, business management, and production processes.

Sub-Theme 6: Tourism, Wildlife and Culture

Tourism, wildlife and culture sector is one of the emerging sectors in Malawi with a potential to significantly contribute towards the country’s socio-economic development. Overall, the sector estimates that the contribution of tourism to the economy has grown steadily over the years. The sector has the potential to generate revenue; create employment; and promote MSMEs, among others. In Malawi, the physical environment (including lakes, wildlife, and mountains) and culture are an integral part of the tourism industry as they are a source of tourist attraction and can positively contribute to eco-tourism development of the country. Lake Malawi and the beautiful mountains throughout the country are major tourist attractions. Sustainable management of biodiversity, natural resources and preservation of cultural values alongside development of appropriate infrastructure have potential to boost the tourism industry.

The sector registered a number of achievements during implementation of MGDS. These include improved quality and standards of tourism units; improved wildlife conservation; construction and rehabilitation of national monuments and other cultural infrastructure; research on national heritage; and animal translocation and restocking. For example, through the restocking programme, the number of animals moved to various protected areas increased from about 100 in 2005 to 283 in 2010 (Department of National Parks and Wildlife).

Despite these achievements, the sector encountered a number of challenges such as inadequate supporting infrastructure; inadequate marketing of Malawi’s tourism products and services; human-animal conflicts; inadequate conservation and awareness; and lack of purpose-built cultural infrastructure.

Therefore, Government through MGDS II will continue implementing interventions in this sub-sector. Tourism is one of the key priority areas with details in the next chapter. Following are goals, expected outcomes and key strategies for wildlife and culture.

Wildlife

Tourism in Malawi is overwhelmingly wildlife and nature. It generates foreign exchange and contributes to economic growth. However, wildlife faces a number of challenges including poaching, low populations of animals in some protected areas; poor supporting infrastructure; low community participation in wildlife conservation; and insufficient institutional capacity.

Goal

The goal is to conserve and manage wildlife in both protected areas and natural habitats.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

  • Improved wildlife management; and

  • Improved institutional and regulatory framework.

Key Strategies

  • Strengthening institutional capacity to manage protected areas and ecosystems;

  • Improving law enforcement and effectiveness;

  • Reducing human – animal conflicts;

  • Promoting alternative livelihood sources for communities living around protected areas;

  • Promoting and regulating wildlife farming, utilization and trade;

  • Encouraging community wildlife conservation and monitoring;

  • Enhancing wildlife IEC programmes; and

  • Developing a database to monitor wildlife population trends.

Culture

Culture is another important aspect for tourism development. Malawi is endowed with a rich and diverse culture. The major challenge in the sub-sector is lack of purpose-built cultural infrastructure such as museums, arts centres and national archives buildings. Government, through MGDS II will therefore undertake a number of initiatives to promote Malawi’s culture as outlined below.

Goal

The goal is to uphold and promote national heritage for identity, posterity and development.

Medium-term Expected Outcomes

  • Improved preservation of Malawi’s cultural heritage and values; and

  • Increased promotion and development of Malawi’s culture.

Key Strategies

  • Preserve historical artefacts and upgrade retrieval system;

  • Preserve and construct national monuments;

  • Promote establishment of cultural centres;

  • Create public awareness on national heritage programs;

  • Promote and preserve local cultural diversity;

  • Promote research and documentation of Malawi’s cultural and natural heritage; and

  • Enhance the sub-sector’s institutional capacity.

Sub-Theme 7: Labour and Employment

Labour as a factor of production is a key component of growth. A skilled and productive labour force contributes meaningfully to economic growth and improved living standards. Earnings from employment drive consumption as well as investment which helps a country to realize sustained growth. Equal opportunity to employment is a right for all productive age-groups.

In the last 5 years, the economy grew by an average of 7.5 per cent, and invariably creating employment. Robust labour statistics is needed to determine the number, level and type of employment created during these years. This is one of the challenges to be addressed by the strategy. It should be noted, however, that according to the Annual Economic Business Survey, private sector formal employment rose from 709,118 in 2005 to 897,277 in 2010.

Other challenges in this sub-sector include low labour productivity, weak institutional and regulatory framework, inadequate skills development and lack of adherence to occupational safety and health standards. Recognizing that employment is cross-cutting, this strategy will emphasize labour intensive investments across all sectors to enhance employment generation and improve labour productivity. To achieve this, the strategy will pursue the following goal, medium term expected outcomes and strategies.

Goal

The goal is to stimulate and ensure productive and decent employment for improved standards of living.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

  • Improved labour productivity;

  • Increased gainful and decent employment for all;

  • Strengthened legal, regulatory and institutional reforms;

  • Eliminated worst forms of child labour; and

  • Improved labour statistics.

Key Strategies

  • Establishing an effective and efficient labour market information (LMI) system;

  • Promoting occupational safety and health;

  • Integrating child labour issues into development initiatives and interventions;

  • Integrating gender specific issues in all labour initiatives and interventions;

  • Reviewing, harmonizing and enforcing existing legislation on child labour;

  • Promoting labour intensive investments in the productive and service sectors;

  • Reducing all forms of discrimination in the labour market;

  • Promoting skills development, testing and certification; and

  • Promoting labour administration systems.

Sub Theme 8: Land

There are three legally recognized types of land tenure in Malawi: customary, public and private with customary land tenure being the most widespread category. Land is a basic factor of production and an important source of livelihood. It is a source of income, nation’s wealth, and provides cultural identity and shelter. Appropriate land interventions can therefore yield multiplier effects to the entire economy. Such interventions include formulation and implementation of appropriate land management and administration policies.

Over the past five years, Government implemented a number of initiatives including reallocation of land to poor households largely through the Community Based Rural Land Development Project (CBRLDP) and introduction of land administration and management courses at tertiary level. The sector also embarked on designing and implementing a computerized title deed registration system.

The major challenge facing the sector is increased demand for land emanating from rapid population growth, high rate of urbanization and improved economic growth. Other challenges include low institutional capacity, poor land practices, and insufficient public awareness on land laws.

Goal

The goal is to ensure equitable access to land and tenure security; efficient management and administration system; and ecologically balanced use of land and land-based resources.

Medium Term Expected Outcomes

  • Improved equitable access to land and tenure security;

  • Improved land planning, ecologically balanced land use and management; and

  • Improved provision of geospatial information.

Key Strategies

  • Promoting land ownership and title registration;

  • Providing physical development planning standards, management guidelines and legal framework;

  • Decentralizing land administration and management functions;

  • Developing a geospatial database and establishing a national Spatial Data Centre;

  • Preparing a National Spatial Framework for Strategic Physical Development Planning and Management;

  • Raising public awareness on land related laws, policies, and procedures; and

  • Developing mechanism for widespread dissemination of geographic information and digital mapping services.

Theme 2: Social Development

Social development is a major pillar for improving the well-being of Malawians. It contributes to reduction of poverty and plays a key role in raising economic productivity of the country. To achieve socio-economic development, Malawi requires a healthy and educated population that grows at a sustainable rate. High rates of population growth have far reaching implications on social and economic development of a country. Provision of social services such as health and education in the country is greatly affected by the prevailing population dynamics. Thus fertility, mortality and migration affect the population size, age-sex structure, life expectancy, dependency ratio and spatial distribution which in turn determine resource allocation.

Over the last five years, Government has significantly improved the provision of social services in health, education, child development and protection, youth development, nutrition and HIV and AIDS management. In addition, the country’s fertility rate has dropped from 6.0 in 2005 to 5.7 in 2010 (DHS 2005, 2010). However, the fertility rate is still high and remains a challenge to socio-economic development of the country. Recognizing the interrelated nature of population and socio-economic development, Government through this strategy will implement interventions focusing on population, education, health, child development and protection, youth development and nutrition

Sub-Theme 1: Population

Population influences all aspects of socio-economic development. Due to high fertility rate, Malawi’s population is growing rapidly at 2.8 percent per annum (PHC, 2008). This high population growth exerts pressure on provision of social services especially schools and health facilities and environment among others, resulting in decreased welfare of the average Malawian.

During MGDS implementation, Government increased the provision of sexual and reproductive health services which raised awareness and contributed to an increase in the proportion of the population using contraceptives. During the same period there was an increase in primary school girls’ completion rate. These have contributed to a reduction in the fertility rate from 6.0 in 2005 to 5.7 in 2010 (DHS 2005, 2010). The slight reduction in fertility rate underlines the major challenges that exist. These challenges include relatively low access to contraceptives, low women empowerment, high dropout rate amongst school going girls and early marriages.

To address the above challenges, Government through this strategy will pursue the following goal, outcomes and key strategies.

Goal

The goal is to manage population growth for sustainable socio-economic development.

Medium - Term Expected Outcomes

Medium term expected outcomes include the following:

  • Reduced fertility rate; and

  • Well managed migration.

Key Strategies

In responding to challenges posed by demographic dynamics, Government will implement the following strategies:

  • Enhancing the provision, access, delivery and utilization of SRH services to all including the vulnerable and disadvantaged groups;

  • Advocating girls’ education and delayed marriage;

  • Promoting the small family concept;

  • Providing SRH education for both in- and out-of-school sexually active population;

  • Strengthening migration and national vital registration systems; and

  • Addressing the vulnerabilities caused by population ageing, migration and rapid urbanization, and the interdependence of population and the environment.

Sub-Theme 2: Health

A healthy population is key to increased productivity and sustainable economic growth. There is a strong correlation between health status and level of development. In general poor health is costly to households and the economy. In particular, access to health care is low among the rural poor and the cost of maintaining better health is high.

The country’s health indicators show that there are a number of challenges including high prevalence of preventable diseases, high mortality rates, high prevalence of HIV, high incidence of malaria cases, high incidence of TB cases, limited access to maternal health services, low institutional capacity, inadequate supply of essential drugs and inadequate health infrastructure.

During the implementation of MGDS, the country registered a number of achievements including reduction in infant mortality rate from 76 per 1,000 in 2004 to 66 per 1,000 in 2010; under five mortality rate from 133 per 1,000 in 2004 to 112 per 1,000 in 2010; maternal mortality rate from 984 per 100,000 in 2004 to 675 per 100,000 in 2010; and HIV prevalence from 11.8 percent in 2004 to 10.6 percent in 2010 (DHS, 2004 and 2010). In addition there has been a reduction in malaria in-patient case fatality rate from 7 percent in 2004 to 3.2 percent in 2010 (Malaria Indicator Survey, 2010); increase in TB cure rate from 74 percent in 2004 to 88 percent in 2010 (Health Sector Annual Report, 2010) and increase in proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel from 38 percent in 2004 to 75 percent in 2009 (WMS, 2009).

Despite these achievements, the country still faces a number of challenges including high prevalence of diseases, high mortality rates, high prevalence of HIV, high incidence of malaria cases, limited access to maternal health services, low institutional capacity, inequitable access and utilization of EHP services, inefficiency of health care system, high prevalence of health risk factors, inadequate supply of essential drugs, and inadequate health infrastructure.

To adequately address health challenges and to raise the health status of all Malawians, Government has identified Public Health, Sanitation, Malaria and HIV and AIDS Management as a key priority area. Details of the goals, outcomes and strategies of the health sub-theme are presented in the next chapter.

Sub-Theme 3: Education

Education is essential for social-economic development and industrial growth. It is an instrument for empowering the poor, the weak and the voiceless as it provides them with equal opportunity to participate in local and national development. It is through education that group solidarity, national consciousness and tolerance of diversity is enhanced. In essence, Government wishes to ensure better access and equity, relevance and quality, good governance and efficient management in all education sub-sectors. The sector is directly linked to the two MDGs namely 1) achieve universal primary education, and 2) promote gender equality and empower women.

During the last five years, Government carried out a number of initiatives aimed at improving quality and relevance of education as well as access to education. Within this period primary school curriculum was revised and new teaching and learning materials procured and distributed. Teacher training was expanded using Teacher Training Colleges (TTCs) and Open Distance Learning (ODL). Primary school net enrolment increased from 73 percent in 2006 to 83 percent in 2009. According to the Education Management Information System (EMIS 2010), dropout rate at standard one declined from 23 percent in 2005 to 12.7 percent in 2010. Survival rate at standard eight improved from 26.1 percent in 2005 to 48.8 percent in 2010. In addition, 17 girls’ hostels each of a maximum capacity of 224 beds were constructed. Furthermore, enrolment in public technical colleges increased from 800 students in 2005 to 1,326 in 2010.

Despite these achievements, the country is still constrained by a number of challenges which render the education system inefficient and inequitable. Some of the challenges include: high illiteracy rate; limited integration of students with special needs; shortage of qualified teachers; inadequate and inferior physical learning infrastructure; poor participation of school committees and their communities in school management; inadequate teaching and learning resources such as libraries; laboratories and computers; low enrolment of girls in technical institutions; relatively high unit cost of training a student in the public universities and technical colleges; and limited human capacity and material resources.

Recognizing the important role education plays in the country’s development, Government has identified education as one of the key priorities. Key outcomes and strategies are discussed in detail in the next chapter under Education Science and Technology key priority area.

Sub-Theme 4: Child Development and Protection

Children are the future of every nation. In Malawi, children aged 0 to 9 years, constitute a significant proportion of the population. Investing in child development guarantees future human capital and productivity. Children are vulnerable to abuse, violence, neglect, malnutrition and subject to harmful cultural practices. The AIDS pandemic has hit children hard by creating a growing number of orphans and making them destitute. They therefore need special protection so that they grow into productive and responsible citizens.

Over the past five years, progress was made in addressing some of the challenges faced by children. For example, Early Child Development Centres were increased from 5,945 in 2005 to 8,933 in 2010 (Ministry of Women, Children and Community Development). In addition, primary school net enrolment increased; the number of girls accessing primary level education rose to almost achieving gender parity; and infant and child mortality rates decreased. Regulatory and policy framework for the protection of children was also put in place.

Nevertheless, children in Malawi still face a number of challenges which are of social, economic, political and cultural in nature. These threaten their individual potential and the future of the nation in general. It is in this context that addressing child issues is one of the priorities of Government’s development agenda. Key outcomes and strategies are discussed in detail in the next chapter under child development, youth development and youth empowerment key priority area.

Sub-Theme 5: Youth Development

The youth, aged 10 to 29 years, constitutes a significant and growing labour force for the country. They provide a vast human resource potential, which, if properly nurtured can greatly contribute to sustainable economic growth and development. The youth are energetic, industrious, and willing to learn and adopt new innovations.

Over the past five years some progress has been made in addressing challenges faced by the youth. These include increased access to capital through the establishment of the Youth Enterprise Development Fund; expansion of the university student intake; improved technical and vocational training, construction of secondary school boarding facilities for girls; improving access to Sexual and Reproductive Health, HIV and AIDS services; and establishment of information centres.

Nonetheless, there still exist a number of social, cultural and economic factors that limit the youth’s contribution to sustainable economic growth and development. Some of these limiting factors include high illiteracy and innumeracy levels; inadequate technical, vocational and entrepreneurial skills; limited access to credit facilities; high unemployment rate; poor access to guidance and counselling services; poverty and deprivation; marginalization in decision making processes; early marriages and teenage pregnancies. High prevalence of HIV and AIDS and limited access to SRH services further compounds the ability of the youth to meaningfully contribute to socio-economic development of the country.

Recognizing the potential that the youth have in fostering the growth of the economy, Government has included Youth Development and Empowerment as a key priority area in this development strategy.

Sub-Theme 6: Nutrition

Adequate nutrition is a prerequisite for human development. It is critical for one’s physical and intellectual development, and work productivity hence an integral element for the socioeconomic development. It is also important in the attainment of most MDGs particularly those related to hunger and poverty, education, child and maternal health, and mitigation of HIV and AIDS. Government having recognized that malnutrition is a silent crisis and is characterized by high levels of nutrition disorders such as stunting, wasting and underweight, included prevention and management of nutrition disorders amongst the priority intervention areas.

Sufficient nutrition is crucial for building and maintaining the immune system to enable it fight infections. In the absence of adequate nutrition, the body’s immune system is weak and vulnerable to attack by various infections. This affects one’s productivity and quality of life. One such infection is HIV and AIDS. The interaction between HIV and AIDS and nutrition will be discussed in detail under Public Health, Sanitation, Malaria and HIV and AIDS Management key priority area in the next chapter.

During the last five years, Government implemented a number of interventions to improve nutrition. The interventions included school health and nutrition programmes; Vitamin A supplementations; and nutrition support programmes. These interventions have resulted in improvement of nutrition indicators. For instance, the percentage of underweight children decreased from 22 percent in 2004 to 13 percent in 2010 (DHS, 2010). In addition, iodine status improved among school aged children and women. Outcomes of severely malnourished children also improved as a result of early case detection and timely treatment.

However, the country still faces a number of challenges mainly emanating from the underlying causes of under-nutrition. These include low household incomes, poor child feeding and care practices, inadequate education and lack of knowledge which lead to poor food processing and utilization and sometimes cultural beliefs which deny women and children consumption of high nutritive value foods. Other constraints include low institutional capacity and inadequate mainstreaming of nutrition in sectoral programmes. To address these challenges, Government will continue to place nutrition issues on its development agenda.

Goal

The goal is to have a well nourished population that effectively contributes to development of the country.

Medium-Term Expected Outcome

In the medium term, it is expected that there will be reduced prevalence of nutrition disorders.

Key Strategies

Key strategies include:

  • Promoting exclusive breastfeeding practices for children aged 0-6 months;

  • Promoting optimal feeding practices for children aged 6-24 months and beyond;

  • Promoting optimal feeding of a sick child during and after illness;

  • Promoting the prevention, control and treatment of micronutrient deficiency disorders, particularly those caused by Vitamin A, Iodine and Iron deficiencies, including food fortification;

  • Improving access to nutrition supplements for malnourished children, expectant, lactating mothers, the elderly and physically challenged;

  • Promoting access to at least one nutritious meal and related health and nutrition services for the school-going children;

  • Strengthening capacities for households and communities to attain adequate nutrition;

  • Preventing and controlling nutrition related non-communicable and other diseases;

  • Scaling up innovative interventions in quality management of malnutrition among the various population groups;

  • Strengthening institutional and human capacities for the effective delivery of nutrition services;

  • Promoting health lifestyles; and

  • Promoting production and access to high nutritive value foods for diversified and nutritious diets.

Theme 3: Social Support and Disaster Risk Management

Poverty headcount and extreme poverty levels have declined significantly since 2005. The country has also experienced improved economic growth averaging 7.5 percent per year. However, despite the reduction in poverty levels and impressive economic growth, there are still sections of the population in extreme poverty that still require social support. In addition, the country has been experiencing a number of disasters that have negatively affected national development and led to loss of lives due to inadequate early warning infrastructure and mitigation measures. Despite the food surplus the country enjoyed during the last five years, natural disasters such as drought led to food insecurity in selected districts which required humanitarian assistance. This theme is therefore aimed at continued provision of social support to the vulnerable and strengthening disaster risk management.

Over the last five years, a number of initiatives were implemented aimed at fighting poverty. These resulted in the decline of poverty incidence from 50 percent in 2005 to 39 percent in 2009. This trend was accompanied by a reduction in ultra-poverty from 22 percent in 2005 to 15 percent in 2009. This achievement is largely attributed to agricultural FISP which on average benefited 1.3 million Malawians per year since 2005. In addition, the Government implemented Targeted Support to School Meals, Public Works Programme, Village Savings and Lending and Microcredit programmes and continued piloting the SCT programme.

Sub-Theme 1: Supporting the Vulnerable

Vulnerability is defined as people’s inability to meet their basic needs due to exposure to a hazard and lack of resilience. In Malawi, the most vulnerable include the elderly, the chronically sick, orphans and other vulnerable children, persons with disabilities, and destitute families. These categories of people are vulnerable to risk and lack resilience, which constrains them from engaging in higher economic return activities to enable them move out of chronic poverty and ultimately above the poverty line.

During the last five years, implementation of the SCT managed to increase the assets of the poor while the School Meals programme resulted in an upsurge in primary school attendance and retention. In all, the proportion of the disadvantaged receiving conditional and unconditional cash transfer increased from 4 percent in 2005 to 37 percent in 2010. At the same time the Public Works Program increased its coverage from 130,000 people in 2009 to 335,225 in 2010. The government also developed National Social Support framework to guide the design and implementation of social support interventions.

Despite these achievements, social support activities continue to face challenges. These challenges include: unavailability of regulatory instruments for programme implementation which compromise beneficiary targeting, financial sustainability and continuity of programmes. In addition, direct assistance and social transfers were limited in coverage largely due to financial constraints.

In the next five years, Government intends to refocus its attention on productivity enhancement interventions that are developmental in nature as well as provision of welfare support to improve social economic status of the vulnerable section of the population.

Goal

The goal is to improve resilience and quality of life for the poor to move out of poverty and vulnerability.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

In the medium-term, it is expected that Malawi will have attained:

  • Improved asset base and productive capacity for the poor; and

  • Improved social security interventions.

Key Strategies

The expected outcomes above will be achieved through implementation of the following key strategies:

  • Enhancing and promoting predictable transfers to the most vulnerable and the ultra poor households;

  • Promoting longer term, skills oriented and asset enhancing interventions;

  • Establishing coherent and progressive social support synergies;

  • Promoting existing livelihood activities for the poor;

  • Promoting village savings and loans programmes; and

  • Improving and scaling up the Social Cash Transfer Programmes.

Sub-Theme 2: Disaster Risk Management

Malawi faces a number of disasters, both natural and manmade which include floods, drought, strong winds, hailstorms, landslides, earthquakes, pest infestations, disease outbreaks, fire, accidents, refugee influx and civil strife. The magnitude, frequency and impact of disasters have been increasing, in light of climate change, population growth and environmental degradation. Disasters disrupt people’s livelihoods, endanger human lives and food security, damage infrastructure and hinder economic growth and development among others. Disasters also increase poverty of rural and urban households and erode the ability of the national economy to invest in key social sectors which are important to reducing poverty. Poor households, particularly female headed are more vulnerable to disasters since women tend to be more reliant on the environment than men for food and are primary gatherers of water and firewood. It is, therefore, important to address disaster risks for the socio-economic development of the country.

Currently the DRM is facing a number of challenges which include, lack of policy and strategy to effectively coordinate DRM activities; inadequate institutional capacity both at local and national levels to effectively carryout DRM activities; insufficient coverage and depth of disaster reduction activities; lack of an updated and upgraded risk assessment system for early warning; limited investment in knowledge and education for disaster risk reduction; and non-existence of a multi stakeholder forum for coordination of disaster risk management activities.

In the next five years, Government will implement a number of activities aimed at improving preparedness, response and recovery from disaster, and risk management.

Goal

The goal is to reduce social, economic and environmental impact of disasters.

Medium-Term Expected Outcome

In the medium term, it is expected that Malawi will have attained strengthened capacity for effective preparedness, response and recovery.

Key Strategies

In responding to the challenges faced within the DRM, government will implement the following strategies:

  • Developing and strengthening DRM policy and institutional frameworks;

  • Mainstreaming DRM into policies, strategies and programmes;

  • Strengthening DRM coordination mechanisms among stakeholders;

  • Enhancing capacity on the use of GIS and other remote sensing technologies;

  • Developing an integrated national EWS;

  • Implementing mitigation measures in disaster prone areas;

  • Promoting awareness, access, distribution and utilization of reliable and relevant DRM information; and

  • Incorporating DRM in all school curricula.

Theme 4: Infrastructure Development

Infrastructure is one of the key prerequisites for economic growth. It is a key component for creating an enabling environment for private sector driven growth and provision of timely and quality social services. Government has singled out energy, transport and water development as some of the key priority areas for the MGDS II. It is envisaged that development of the prioritized infrastructure will contribute to the realization of sustained economic development for Malawi.

There are five sub themes under infrastructure development, namely: Energy, Transport; Water Development; Information and Communication; and Housing and Urban Development. Out of these, energy, transport and water development will be discussed in detail in the chapter on key priority areas.

Sub-Theme 1: Energy

A well-developed and efficient energy system is vital for socio-economic development. In this respect, increasing generation capacity, improving transmission, distribution and supply of electricity will contribute to an efficient energy system in the economy. Improving the distribution and supply of other energy sources will complement an efficient energy system. During the implementation of the MGDS, the energy sector registered a number of achievements including establishment of the Malawi Energy Regulatory Authority (MERA) in 2007; pre-feasibility study on construction of an Oil Pipe line from Beira to Nsanje which revealed viability of the Oil Pipe line project; rehabilitation of Tedzani I & II in which 40MW of installed capacity was restored; training of 400 biomass briquette producers, 100 briquette stove producers, 230 ceramic liner producers, and establishment of 20 briquette production centres, 24 briquettes stove production centres and 7 ceramic liner production centers in the cities as alternative energy sources to reduce dependence on charcoal and firewood. As a result of promotion of use of alternative sources of energy, there has been a decline in the proportion of the population using solid fuels from 94.8 percent in 2005 to 78 percent in 2010.

In addition, there has been an increase in the percentage of households with access to electricity from 4 in 2005 to 9 in 2010. This is partly due to successful implementation of rural electrification program which has increased the number of trading centres connected to electricity from 45 in 2005 to 182 in 2010. Furthermore, within the same period, 6 villages were energized with Solar/Wind hybrid systems and this too has contributed to the increased access to electricity.

Despite these achievements, energy generation capacity in Malawi is low and has often been cited as one of the major constraints to industrial development. Recognizing the importance of energy in the economic development of the country, Government has put energy as one of the key priority areas in this development strategy.

Sub-Theme 2: Transport

Efficient transportation system provides better connectivity to local, regional and international markets. This reduces cost of production and marketing of goods and services through, among other things, reduction in lead times. Thus investment in the transport system plays a major role in socio-economic development. This investment involves the development of infrastructure and provision of services in all modes of transport, namely road, rail, air and water. Furthermore, the provision of high quality and affordable transport infrastructure improves access to social services such as education, health, markets and communication facilities.

During the implementation of the MGDS, the transport sector carried out a number of interventions aimed at improving the quality of infrastructure. The paved road network increased from 3,663 km in 2004 to 4,073 km in 2010; 215 km of the paved road network was rehabilitated out of the 293 km during the same period. Fuel levy now meets all the country’s routine road maintenance requirements. Other interventions included the preparation of the Transport Sector Investment Plan (TSIP) that will bring about coordinated and competitive development of all transport modes and enhancement of intermodal transport along the corridors. In addition, in the roads subsector Government has adopted the RSP to guide both the medium and long term investment programmes in the road transport subsector.

However, there are critical issues that are negatively impacting on the performance of the transport sector, which include: high construction costs; limited absorptive capacity of the available resources in the road sub-sector; lack of balanced competition and connectivity among the modes; limited supply of skilled artisans; inadequate investment in construction machinery; poor condition of most ports; and old navigation aids.

Government recognizes that improved transport infrastructure and services are crucial for economic development and has included road, rail and water transport as focus areas within Transport Infrastructure and Nsanje World Inland Port key priority area. This key priority area is covered in detail in the next chapter. Air transport is discussed below.

Air Transport

Air transport is the most efficient and effective means of transportation. It has the potential to promote tourism and enhance prospects for economic growth. Government recognizes that there is need to continuously improve air transport infrastructure and services to enhance trade, tourism and investment. To ensure air transport efficiency, Government will pursue the following goal; medium term expected outcomes and strategies.

Goal

The goal is to ensure a safe, efficient and competitive aviation industry.

Medium Term Expected Outcomes

In the medium term it is expected that Malawi will have attained:

  • Improved safety and management in accordance with international standards;

  • Improved reliability and competitiveness;

  • Improved regulatory and institutional framework; and

  • Improved security in airports.

Key Strategies

Main strategies include:

  • Promoting and facilitating a competitive and efficient air transport industry;

  • Providing safe, efficient, reliable aviation infrastructure and services;

  • Strengthening legislative and regulatory frameworks;

  • Promoting effective safety and security oversight systems;

  • Undertaking reforms in the aviation sector;

  • Strengthening institutional capacity;

  • Implementing environmental protection measures; and

  • Promoting PPPs to facilitate private investment.

Sub-Theme 3: Water Development

Water development is key to the socio-economic development of the country. It has direct linkages with sectors such as agriculture, industry, natural resources, health, tourism, energy and fisheries. Water is a fundamental catalyst for energy, transport, health, agriculture and biodiversity. Water development will also facilitate GBI development to increase agricultural production and productivity. Furthermore, improved water supply services have direct impact on lives of women and children by reducing the burden of water carriage for households.

Water, sanitation and hygiene services also make a significant contribution to public health and alleviation of the burden on curative health services by reducing disease transmission. Improved water supply, sanitation and hygiene facilities in schools significantly contribute to the quality of education by reducing disease burden among children and staff, improving school attendance and retention particularly among girls, improving attraction and retention of teachers and provides more effective learning through a safe and conducive environment.

The sector made notable progress during the implementation of MGDS. These include increased adoption of improved irrigation technologies, construction of dams, and rehabilitation of irrigation schemes and promotion of WASH. The country’s proportion of population with access to basic sanitation increased from 84 percent in 2005 to 93 percent in 2009. There was an increased percentage of population with access to safe potable water from 73 percent in 2005 to 84 percent in 2009 (WMS, 2009).

The water sector is facing challenges which include: degradation of water resources; vandalism of water facilities; limited access to potable water hence women walking long distances to fetch the water; inadequate promotion of hygiene and sanitation; inadequate water reservoirs; inadequate capacity of contractors and consultants; and poor state of suitable infrastructure for the effective management, treatment and disposal of solid and liquid waste. Due to the importance of water development, sanitation and greenbelt irrigation, Government has included them within key priority areas detailed in the next chapter.

Sub-Theme 4: Information and Communication

Information is a vital resource for all human kind throughout all stages of life. It is therefore important that information should be made available in a form that is applicable and usable, and at the right time. Use of ICT enhances the production, transportation and provision of information to the general public for human development as well as for making informed decisions. This sub-theme comprises ICT, and Media and Communication.

During the implementation of the MGDS, the sector made a number of achievements including connection to the optic fibre cable resulting in improved delivery of telecommunication services; increased mobile phone coverage; increased provision of broadcasting services; increased postal and courier service and automation of some of Government’s operations and services.

Despite these achievements the sector still faces a number of challenges. These include: low usage and adoption of electronic and online services; lack of effective regulatory frameworks; high communication costs; high printing costs; lack of coordination and collaboration on ICT infrastructure development; intermittent availability of service, low geographic coverage; low local content in terms of provision of information; inadequate institutional and human capacity and low usage of modern broadcasting technology.

Goal

The goal is to ensure better access to information.

Information and Communication Technology

Well developed information and communication technology system is essential for the development of a country. Malawi’s ICT is still underdeveloped. In this respect Government will implement ICT strategies that will facilitate e-services, increase public sector efficiency, grant citizens access to public services by making them available online (e-government). It will also promote production of exportable ICT products and services, encourage economic diversification in areas such as tourism, financial services, medical research, and telecommunication and create new jobs. Improvement of network connectivity will reduce communication costs thereby increasing access to information by majority of people living in the country.

Goal

The goal is to increase utilization of ICT, ensure universal access to ICT products and services to improve service delivery in both public and private sectors.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

The expected medium term outcomes include:

  • Improved ICT broadband infrastructure;

  • Increased usage and access to information and communication services;

  • Improved postal and broadcasting services;

  • Improved ICT governance; and

  • Enhanced ICT capacity for the general public.

Key Strategies

Main strategies include:

  • Developing a reliable, fast, adaptive and robust national ICT infrastructure that feeds into international networks;

  • Mainstreaming ICT into sector policies and strategies and operations;

  • Improving ICT service access by rural and underserved communities;

  • Promoting the participation of private ICT service providers;

  • Promoting information, education and communication on ICT;

  • Improving efficiency in delivering postal services;

  • Migrating from analogue to digital television broadcasting;

  • Improving the regulatory framework for the sector;

  • Developing a comprehensive national database; and

  • Developing public online services.

Media and Communication

Media and communication is an important tool in promoting mass participation in decision making as well as in developmental processes. Media and communication provide alternatives to the public to express their developmental aspirations and priorities, and in shaping the public perception on a variety of important issues. Thus, the availability of a vibrant media and communication sub sector is a prerequisite to development.

Goal

The goal is to ensure that the population has access to timely and relevant information, and increase popular participation of citizens in development, governance and democratic processes.

Medium Term Expected Outcomes

In the medium term, it is expected that there will be increased access to information.

Key Strategies

The expected outcomes above will be achieved through implementation of the following key strategies:

  • Promoting distribution of publications;

  • Promoting screening of developmental video documentaries to communities;

  • Strengthening regulatory framework to facilitate free flow of information;

  • Abridging, translating and distributing policies and other important documents into major vernacular languages;

  • Strengthening IEC on topical issues;

  • Promoting discussion forums on topical issues; and

  • Enhancing skills capacity of media personnel.

Sub-Theme 5: Housing and Urban Development

Housing and urban development is crucial in the development of the country. Adequate and quality housing is one of the key indicators of development as it relates to basic needs and is crucial in assessing living conditions of a population. Currently Malawi has a high rate of urbanization estimated at 6.3 percent. Proper housing and structured urbanization reduces the rise in unplanned settlements, crime and the strain on government capacity to provide adequate security and social services. Regularization and titling of land is expected to facilitate use of land and property thereon, as collateral to obtain credit from financial institutions for investment.

During the implementation of MGDS, achievements registered include the following: maintained houses under government lease, constructed Government Offices, conducted quinquennial valuations and supplementary valuation rolls, decentralized the Rural Housing Programme, commenced a National Slum Upgrading Programme, developed Guidelines on Safer House Construction and continued construction of houses by the Malawi Housing Corporation.

Despite these achievements, the sub-sector still faces a number of challenges. These include: outdated and inadequate legislation and related procedures; high investment costs; inadequate capacity; lack of housing finance, particularly for low-income households; unclear mandate of local authorities in relation to housing delivery and involvement of traditional leaders in land delivery for housing development within urban areas; limited access to land for housing development; and development of unplanned settlements.

Goal

The goal is to increase access to decent housing and provide guidelines for infrastructure development.

5.1 Housing

Good housing contributes to economic growth and poverty reduction. It adds to the reduction of the health burden from infectious and parasitic diseases and accidents. It also provides security and is a large asset base and a source of income.

The nation has a large housing deficit. The 2008 Population and Housing Census indicates that out of 2,869,933 houses, 21.4 percent were permanent, 34.18 percent were semipermanent while 44.42 percent were classified as traditional. The Malawi Urban Housing Profile of 2009 revealed that to meet the housing demands in the urban areas, there is a need to construct 21,000 houses per year for a period of ten years. This, therefore, means that the majority of Malawians are living in houses that are not decent.

Goal

The goal is to increase access to decent housing with particular attention to low income households.

Medium Term Expected Outcomes

In the medium term, it is expected that there will be increased availability of affordable and decent houses.

Key Strategies

  • Strengthening institutional, legal and regulatory framework;

  • Strengthening capacity for decentralized housing delivery;

  • Promoting PPPs in housing delivery;

  • Scaling up the provision of basic infrastructure and services particularly in informal settlements;

  • Promoting national housing financing mechanisms;

  • Promoting planning to improve quality of rural and urban housing and settlement patterns;

  • Providing safe and adequate space to public institutions and officers; and

  • Developing and promoting the use of local building materials.

5.2 Urban Development

Malawi’s urbanization is growing at 6.3 percent per annum. The growth of urbanization in Malawi is exacerbated by high rural-urban migration and population growth. The result is increasing urban poverty whose most visible manifestations are the slums which continue to develop in and around the cities and towns in Malawi. These settlements are characterized by poor access to physical infrastructure such as roads, electricity and poor access to social services such as education, health, insecure tenure and poor housing conditions. It is therefore important that the focus should be to provide proper plans for urban areas and emerging towns.

Goal

The goal is to create a sustainable, economically and socially integrated urbanizing system.

Medium-Term Expected Outcome

In the medium term it is expected that there will be improved and sustainable urbanization system with a view to reduce slums.

Key Strategies

The key strategies include:

  • Providing support to processes of urban renewal and slum upgrading;

  • Supporting the development of utilities, mechanisms and structures in local authorities and urbanizing systems for the provision of critical urban infrastructure;

  • Enforcing rules and regulations on land use and physical plans;

  • Promoting PPPs in the development of urban infrastructure; and

  • Improving infrastructure facilities in slum areas and restrict the formation of new slums.

Theme 5: Governance

Malawi Government recognizes that the successful implementation of its development strategy depends on the prevalence of good governance. Good governance implies the provision of an efficient regulatory regime that ensures the absence of corruption; promulgation of consistent policies to eradicate poverty and the provision of appropriate institutions to support human existence. Good governance keeps in check distortionary incentives and ensures equitable allocation and distribution of public resources. It enhances public security and safety, and guarantees property and personal rights, which in turn creates a conducive environment for private sector investment. In this respect, Government has put in place mechanisms to manage societal affairs in accordance with democratic principles.

In the last five years, progress was made in improving governance as manifested by ongoing legal and economic policy reforms, coupled with the establishment and strengthening of key institutions of governance.

In line with the Malawi constitution which guarantees human rights, including the right to economic activity, the strategy will, among other things, continue to address issues related to access to economic opportunity, private sector participation, efficient stewardship of public resources, promotion of democratic governance institutions and justice and the rule of law.

There are four sub-themes under governance, namely economic governance, corporate governance, democratic governance and public sector management.

Government realizes that corruption is cross cutting in nature and affects all elements of governance and that it retards growth and development activities, increases the gap between the rich and the poor, and discourages investments. In this respect, it will continue pursuing strategies aimed at promoting integrity, transparency and accountability with the ultimate goal of curbing corruption and fraud at all levels.

In the past five years, Malawi registered a number of achievements including a rise in Malawi’s corruption perception index, reduced average time taken to complete and prosecute corruption cases and increased public awareness. According to a report from the Transparency International, corruption in Malawi is on the decline.

To sustain these achievements and to further curb corruption and fraud Government will implement the following strategies: mainstreaming anti-corruption strategies in all institutions; promoting prevention of corruption; enhancing investigation of all suspected corrupt practices; promoting prosecution of all offenders; fostering public support in the fight against corruption; promoting IEC on corruption; strengthening capacity and partnerships for all institutions dealing with corruption; implementing National Anti Corruption Strategy and Promoting independence of all institutions dealing with corruption.

Sub-Theme 1: Economic Governance

A stable macroeconomic environment is vital for economic growth and is a catalyst for investment and industrial development. In the past five years, Malawi experienced a stable macroeconomic environment characterized by a high GDP growth rate, low inflation rate, a stable exchange rate, and sustainable levels of both domestic and foreign debt. This is partly attributed to the Public Finance and Economic Management (PFEM) reforms that were undertaken to ensure financial prudence. However, the economy is still facing a number of challenges including high interest rate, limited coverage of banking services and low access to credit especially in the rural areas.

MGDS II will endeavour to sustain and accelerate the positive economic growth and continue with a stable macroeconomic environment as well as continue to support reforms under PFEM programmes.

Goal

The goal is to sustain and accelerate the positive economic growth within a stable macroeconomic environment.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

In the medium term, it is expected that there will be:

  • Strengthened evidence-based planning and macroeconomic policy formulation;

  • Improved resource mobilization, allocation, and use of public resources;

  • Strengthened aid management systems; and

  • Improved access to financial services.

Key Strategies

The key strategies include:

  • Harmonizing the national budget and priorities in the national development strategy;

  • Diversifying sources of government revenue;

  • Improving revenue collection and administration system at both national and local government levels;

  • Pursuing sound macroeconomic policies;

  • Ensuring that external support is aligned to the national development strategy;

  • Ensuring that sectoral and local plans are aligned to the national development strategy;

  • Improving management of financial and non financial assets;

  • Expanding and improving financial services to MSMEs;

  • Strengthening monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of national development strategies and programmes;

  • Enhancing evidence based public policy formulation;

  • Improving national procurement, audit and reporting systems at all levels;

  • Enhancing international cooperation and development diplomacy;

  • Developing capacity for negotiating bilateral and multilateral agreements; and

  • Improving legal and regulatory framework of the financial sector.

Sub-Theme 2: Corporate Governance

Good corporate governance is an important element in the creation of an enabling environment for rapid and sustainable private sector development. Strengthening good corporate governance and implementation of the code of best practices is expected to enhance private sector performance through reduced corruption and fraud within the public and private sector and improve investors’ perception of Malawi. This in turn will lead to increased levels of domestic and foreign direct investment.

Goal

The goal is to ensure well regulated, transparent, accountable and efficient business systems.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

The expected outcomes include:

  • Improved and effective regulatory framework for the corporate world;

  • Improved investors’ perception of the country;

  • Improved efficiency in service delivery;

  • Reduced corruption and fraud; and

  • Increased corporate social responsibility.

Key Strategies

The key strategies include:

  • Improving and strengthening business regulatory framework and developing a clear regulatory regime for parastatals;

  • Promoting the adoption of good corporate governance code of conduct;

  • Strengthening the Institute of Directors; and

  • Promoting zero tolerance to corruption.

Sub-Theme 3: Democratic Governance

Malawi Government recognizes that broad based growth and improvement in the quality of life and social wellbeing can take place if good democratic governance prevails at all levels. Good governance can therefore foster economic growth and aid the attainment of the

National and Millennium Development Goals. Equally important in the attainment of national development goals is good local governance. Local governance entails creation of a democratic environment and institutions at district and community levels, promotion of accountability, encouraging local participation in decision making and mobilizing masses for socio-economic development in their respective areas. Decentralization is one of the implementing tools for local governance.

In the past five years, democratic governance has improved in Malawi. The country experienced positive developments that included successful presidential and parliamentary elections, growing civil society and non-governmental organizations, and deepening constitutionalism.

5.3.1 Justice and Rule of Law

Malawi Government recognizes that adherence to a strong justice system and rule of law is an important factor that guarantees an enabling legal and regulatory framework and encourages the achievement of sustainable economic growth and development. The Malawi constitution also reaffirms Malawi’s commitment to the rule of law. To enhance this, the Government of Malawi established oversight institutions to promote transparency, accountability and integrity.

In the past five years, a number of positive developments were registered. These included legal and policy reforms, and the strengthening of some of the key institutions of governance that resulted in an increased access to legal system.

Despite the above achievements, a number of challenges remain. These include low institutional capacity, inadequate infrastructure, poor protection of vulnerable groups like women and children, high costs of legal services and shortage of legal experts. In addition, the vulnerable and marginalized are not fully empowered to seek and demand their rights.

Goal

The goal is to ensure access to justice and entrenched rule of law.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

In the medium term it is expected that there will be:

  • Improved and effective judicial system; and

  • Enhanced transparency, accountability and efficiency of oversight institutions.

Key Strategies

The key strategies include:

  • Fostering independence and credibility of the judicial system;

  • Promoting supremacy and respect for the constitution;

  • Strengthening capacity of sector institutions;

  • Promoting law reforms to consolidate democracy and human rights;

  • Increasing citizen awareness of the country’s laws, procedures and institutions;

  • Enhancing consistency of domestic laws with international standards;

  • Promoting a justice and legal system that is responsive to marginalized groups; and

  • Promoting a people-centred, accessible, affordable, and expeditious justice system.

5.3.2 Human Rights

The Malawi Government recognizes that good governance hinges on the respect for human rights. The observance of human rights allows for equity in terms of participation in the development process and a fair distribution of development gains by all.

In the past five years a number of achievements were made including the development of a legislative framework for protection of the human rights, and increased awareness of basic human rights.

However, there are a number of challenges facing the subsector. These include limited coverage of human rights messages especially to the most vulnerable, low capacity of government institutions that deal with human rights, poor conditions in the country’s prisons and a rise in domestic violence and rape.

Goal

The goal is to promote and protect human rights and freedoms as enshrined in the constitution of Malawi.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

In the medium term it is expected that there will be:

  • Enhanced awareness and practice of human rights and responsibilities;

  • Improved respect for human dignity and choice; and

  • Enhanced equitable access to opportunities.

Key Strategies

  • Enhancing human rights awareness and education;

  • Promoting equitable access to economic, political and social opportunities;

  • Strengthening legal protection and equitable treatment for marginalized populations, women and children;

  • Ensuring respect for prisoners’ rights;

  • Eliminating all forms of discrimination; and

  • Strengthening capacity of human rights institutions.

5.3.3 Elections

The Malawi Government recognizes the importance of free and fair elections to allow the people to freely choose public office holders. In the recent past, Malawi has progressed in ensuring free and fair elections, especially for the president and parliamentarians. The successful 2009 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections was a manifestation of maturing democracy in the country. However, inadequate public awareness of the electoral processes and logistical problems remain some of the main challenges.

Goal

The goal is to promote free and fair elections.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

In the medium term it is expected that there will be:

  • Transparent and democratic electoral processes; and

  • Political parties with clear ideologies and functioning internal democracy.

Key Strategies

  • Enhancing credibility, management and accountability of electoral processes;

  • Improving governance in political parties;

  • Enhancing implementation of law reforms to facilitate free and fair elections at national and local levels;

  • Enhancing independence of elections governing bodies; and

  • Fostering informed and active participation in local governance.

5.3.4 Peace and Security

Peace and security are essential preconditions which must be guarded for the nation to achieve social, economic and political prosperity. Furthermore, common experience has shown that nations in conflict always tend to lose their grip and fail to concentrate on national growth and development policies.

To this end, peace and security arrangements need to address a wide range of issues aimed at safeguarding the nation’s sovereignty, territorial integrity and national interests. This entails ensuring efficient and effective security mechanisms for defence, public and state sectors all of which must be coordinated in a manner that reflects Government’s growth and development strategies. Consequently, there is need for adequate personnel, equipment and infrastructure to address all cross-cutting issues affecting peace and security.

Goal

The goal is to continue to make Malawi a secure and peaceful nation

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

Medium term expected outcomes include:

  • Improved methods of promoting national security and public order; and

  • Improved partnership and participation of all members of the public on issues of peace and security.

Key Strategies

  • Improving the responsiveness of all security sectors to communities’ security needs;

  • Strengthening partnership for risk management between the private and security sectors;

  • Improving the responsiveness of all security sectors;

  • Enhancing community integration and participation in promoting a secure, peaceful and crime free environment;

  • Ensuring safe and secure borders;

  • Rehabilitating and expanding security establishments; and

  • Improving infrastructure for development and expansion of security establishments.

Sub-Theme 4: Public Sector Management

Effective public sector management is necessary for the creation of a conducive environment for efficient delivery of public goods and services at central and local levels. The Malawi public sector has generally been disciplined and hard working. This is attributable to a number of factors, including an upward salary adjustment in the past five years and an improvement in conditions of service especially in some of the strategic sectors of the civil service.

The public sector, however, is faced with a number of challenges that include salary levels that do not meet basic living conditions especially for the lower grades. This, compounded by slow promotion, slow recruitment and insufficient resources and equipment leads to low morale in the civil service.

Goal

The goal is to deliver services to the public in an efficient, demand driven and effective manner.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

In the medium term, it is expected that the following will be achieved:

  • Enhanced public service leadership;

  • Improved performance and service delivery in the public service;

  • Harmonized and evidence based policies developed; and

  • Enhanced implementation of Public Sector Reform programmes.

Key Strategies

Key strategies include:

  • Developing and strengthening leadership capacities for effective management of the public service;

  • Ensuring an effective and functional public service commission;

  • Improving conditions of service for public service employees;

  • Enhancing evidence-based policy making;

  • Promoting participatory public policy formulation;

  • Strengthening mechanisms for coordination and utilization of resources;

  • Developing capacity to implement public sector reforms; and

  • Strengthening equal participation of women and men in leadership and management positions.

Theme 6: Gender And Capacity Development

Gender, capacity development, and research and development, HIV and AIDS, nutrition, environment, climate change, population and science and technology are critical issues that cut across and impact all sectors of the economy. This thematic area will, however, focus on gender and capacity development as the other issues are discussed in the key priority areas.

In terms of gender, there has been little success in the systematic mainstreaming in sector programs. In the area of capacity development there have been improvements, but there is still a lot that needs to be done across the public and private sectors.

Sub-Theme 1: Gender

Gender implies attributes, roles, activities, responsibilities and potentialities associated with men and women, girls and boys. In Malawi boys and girls, men and women assume culturally different identities and traits. The status is worse among females as compared to their male counterparts. For instance, a female headed household has 14 percent less consumption per capita than a male headed household mainly due to gender based differences in access and control over resources (UN Malawi, 2010).

In addition, girls and boys experience some form of GBV during their life time. For example, Burton (2005) showed that 65 percent of girls and 35 percent of boys were subjected to GBV. The experience of violence increases the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. This could probably explain the fact that HIV prevalence among women and girls is still disproportionately higher at 12.9 percent than the national average of 10.6 percent while that of their male counterparts is at 8.1 percent (DHS, 2010).

Evidence has shown that the MDGs targets that are lagging behind have very pronounced gender connotations. This could be evidence of a policy and implementation gap in gender that a number of consecutive National Plans of Action have not been able to address effectively (UN Malawi, 2010).

Most sector plans are not clear on strategies to address gender disparities although this is recognized as being critical. Lack of gender disaggregated data, poor commitment to resource allocation towards gender mainstreaming and institutional capacity to analyze and systematically mainstream gender in all sectors remain the major challenges. In addition, other challenges include high incidences of HIV and AIDS prevalence and poverty among women and girls, increased GBV including intimate partner violence, sexual violence, human trafficking and harmful traditional and cultural practices.

Despite these challenges, a number of achievements were made during implementation of the MGDS which this development strategy will sustain and improve upon. The achievements include: increase in the proportion of women in the National Assembly from 14 percent in 2004 to 22 percent in 2009, increased number of women in decision making position in public service, establishment of victim support units, and achievement of gender parity at primary school.

Goal

To reduce gender inequalities and enhance participation of all gender groups in socioeconomic development.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

Expected medium outcomes include:

  • Increased meaningful participation of all gender groups in decision making; wealth creation and poverty reduction;

  • Reduced gender based violence at all levels; and

  • Enhanced gender mainstreaming across all sectors.

Key Strategies

The main strategies include:

  • Promoting women entrepreneurship and involvement in cooperatives;

  • Promoting equal access to appropriate technologies and micro-finance schemes;

  • Advocating for affirmative action to increase representation of women in politics and decision making positions;

  • Enhancing awareness on GBV;

  • Strengthening GBV service delivery systems;

  • Strengthening legal and regulatory framework;

  • Mainstreaming gender at all levels;

  • Promoting access to quality education for girls; and

  • Strengthening gender disaggregated research and documentation.

Sub-Theme 2: Capacity Development

For any country to develop it requires skilled and knowledgeable work force with the appropriate supporting infrastructure and equipment, and proper institutional arrangement. Government recognizes the need to develop capacity at all levels for a successful implementation of its development programmes. This entails change of mind set, orientation of skills, work processes re-engineering, improvement of institutional set up and provision of appropriate supporting equipment.

Initiatives implemented in the public sector have had a number of positive results. These include an increased number of trained personnel in key sectors including health and education, institutional development of ministries and departments, establishment of Leadership Development Framework and implementation of the Public Sector Reform Program.

Despite these achievements, there has been lack of an enabling policy framework to coordinate various capacity development initiatives. There are also concerns that the country’s local institutions of higher learning do not adequately support the needs of the economy. Furthermore, there is inadequate investment in supporting infrastructure and equipment by both the public and private sectors.

Government will therefore reorient and expand existing investment in infrastructure and equipment through, among other initiatives, PPPs. It will also provide a conducive environment for the development of skills and knowledge to respond to the needs of the economy.

Goal

The goal is to develop a productive and efficient workforce with necessary supporting equipment and infrastructure.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

The sector’s overall medium term expected outcomes include the following:

  • Enhanced workforce capacities and supportive systems;

  • Improved functioning of local training institutions; and

  • Improved administration, management and performance across all sectors.

Key Strategies

The key strategies include:

  • Developing and strengthening human and institutional capacities;

  • Mainstreaming capacity development in all sectors;

  • Promoting effective performance management systems;

  • Promoting capacity development at all levels;

  • Enhancing coordination in resource mobilization and utilization;

  • Promoting and establishing professional and skills development centres;

  • Enhancing investments in infrastructure and equipment;

  • Promoting PPPs; and

  • Strengthening academic institutions to respond to the needs of the economy.

Chapter 5 Key Priority Areas

MGDS II identifies nine Key Priority Areas (KPAs) which have been drawn from the six thematic areas discussed in the previous chapter. The (KPAs) have been isolated with the view to accelerate the development that has been achieved over the years. In this respect, Government will concentrate its efforts on these key priority areas in the medium-term in order to achieve its overall policy objective of economic growth as a means of reducing poverty in the country. The Key Priority Areas are: Agriculture and Food Security; Transport Infrastructure and Nsanje World Inland Port; Energy, Industrial Development, Mining and Tourism; Education, Science and Technology; Public Health, Sanitation, Malaria and HIV and AIDS Management; Integrated Rural Development; Green Belt Irrigation and Water Development; Child Development, Youth Development and Empowerment; and Climate Change, Natural Resources and Environmental Management. Table 5.1 at the end of this chapter summarizes these key priority areas.

Table 5.1:Summary of Key Priority Areas
Key Priority AreaGoalMedium Term Expected Outcomes
1. Agriculture and Food Security
1.1 Agricultural Productivity and DiversificationIncrease agricultural productivity and diversification.
  • Increased smallholder farmers’ output per unit area;

  • Increased agricultural diversification;

  • Increased production of high value agricultural commodities for exports;

  • Improved agricultural research, technology generation and dissemination;

  • Increased livestock and fish production; and

  • Reduced land degradation.

1.2 Food SecurityEnsure sustained availability of food to all Malawians at all times at affordable prices.
  • Food self – sufficiency at household and national levels;

  • Increased and sustained food accessibility; and

  • Enhanced agricultural risk management.

2. Energy, Industrial Development, Mining and Tourism
2.1 EnergyGenerate and distribute sufficient amount of energy to meet national socio economic demands
  • Improved capacity and efficiency in energy generation, transmission and distribution; and

  • Increased availability and access to energy.

2.2 Industrial DevelopmentDevelop and expand industrial sector with emphasis on value addition and employment creation
  • Expanded industrial base;

  • Increased employment;

  • Increased industrial output; and

  • Increased value addition.

2.2.1 TradeIncrease supply of value-added goods and services for domestic and international market while sustaining competitive advantage.
  • Enhanced production, diversification and competitiveness of tradable commodities;

  • Enhanced access to both traditional and emerging export markets;

  • Improved legal, regulatory and institutional framework, and

  • Increased domestic and international market share.

2.2.2 Agro-ProcessingMove up the value chain in key crops, and increase agro-processed products for both domestic and export markets.
  • Increased value addition to agricultural products; and

  • Diversified agro-processed products.

2.3 MiningIncrease production and value addition of mineral resources.
  • Updated geological information system;

  • Increased exploration and mining;

  • Increased participation by small and medium miners; and

  • Improved legal and institutional framework.

2.4 TourismDevelop and promote a vibrant tourism industry.
  • Increased contribution of the tourism industry to GDP;

  • Improved environment for doing business in tourism;

  • Increased number of tourists; and

  • Increased local participation in the tourism industry.

3.0 Transport Infrastructure and Nsanje World Inland Port
3.1 Road InfrastructureEnsure provision of safe, affordable, accessible and high quality road transport system.
  • Reduced lead times and cost on exports and imports; and

  • Improved domestic and cross border mobility and connectivity.

3.2 Rail TransportDevelop an efficient and effective rail network.
  • Improved regional and international connectivity;

  • Improved regulatory and institutional framework; and

  • Improved rail infrastructure and reliability.

3.3 Inland Water Transport InfrastructurePromote inland water transport system and improve access to the sea.
  • Improved inland water transportation system;

  • Improved interface with rail and road transport; and

  • Reduced transport costs.

3.3.1 Nsanje World Inland PortOpen up the country to ports along the Indian Ocean and reduce costs of goods.
  • Reduced transport costs;

  • Reduced lead times on exports, and

  • Decreased cost of shipping, low costs of cross-border and transit trade, and lower cost to reach domestic, regional and international markets.

4.0 Education, Science and Technology
4.1 EducationImprove access to quality and relevant education.
  • Expanded equitable access to education;

  • Improved quality and relevance of education; and

  • Improved management and governance of the education system.

4.2. Science and TechnologyEnhance the contribution of research, science and technology to national productivity and competiveness.
  • Well-coordinated science and technology generation and dissemination;

  • Improved operation of Research and Development institutions; and

  • Increased adoption of appropriate technologies.

5.0 Public Health, Sanitation, Malaria and HIV and AIDS Management
5.1 Public HealthControl and prevent occurrence and spread of diseases.
  • Reduced incidence and prevalence of diseases;

  • Improved maternal and child health;

  • Increased and sustained coverage of high quality EHP services;

  • Reduced health risk factors among the population;

  • Improved equity and efficiency in the delivery of EHP; and

  • Strengthened performance of health support systems.

5.2 SanitationEnsure use of improved sanitation facilities and adoption of safe hygiene practices.
  • Improved hygiene practices;

  • Increased access and usage of improved sanitation facilities; and

  • Improved management and disposal of waste.

5.3 MalariaReduce malaria-related morbidity and mortality.
  • Reduced incidence of malaria;

  • Increased coverage of malaria prevention; and

  • Increased access to appropriate malaria treatment.

5.4 HIV and AIDS ManagementPrevent spread of HIV infection and mitigate the health, socioeconomic and psychosocial impact of HIV and AIDS.
  • Reduced HIV infection and transmission rate;

  • Improved quality of lives of People Living with HIV (PLHIVs), OVCs and affected individuals and households; and

  • Improved dietary practices of PLHIVs, OVCs and affected individuals and households.

6.0 Integrated Rural DevelopmentImprove rural livelihoods.
  • Improved local governance systems and structures;

  • Well coordinated local development planning;

  • Improved investment in rural areas;

  • Increased rural incomes;

  • Strengthened rural participation in development programmes; and

  • Reduced rural-urban migration.

7.0 Green Belt Irrigation and Water Development
7.1 Green Belt IrrigationIncrease agricultural production and productivity through intensification of irrigation
  • Increased land under irrigation;

  • Reduced dependence on rain-fed agriculture;

  • Increased agricultural production and productivity; and

  • Increased household income levels.

7.2 Water DevelopmentImprove access to water through an integrated water management system
  • Well developed and managed water resources; and

  • Increased access to safe water points within 500m distance.

8.0 Child Development, Youth Development and Empowerment
8.1 Child DevelopmentEnsure that children grow into productive and responsible citizens.
  • Improved equitable access to quality child development services;

  • Reduced number of children living below the poverty line; and

  • Strengthened national child protection systems to reduce children’s vulnerability to violence, abuse, and exploitation.

8.2 Youth Development and EmpowermentEnhance effective youth participation in economic activities.
  • Increased absorption of skills, technology and innovations by the youth;

  • Increased youth participation in decision making processes; and

  • Improved coordination of youth programs.

9.0 Climate Change, Natural Resources and Environmental Management
9.1 Climate Change ManagementEnhance resilience to climate change risks and impacts.
  • Improved climate change mitigation and adaptation measures.

9.2 Natural Resources and Environmental ManagementEnsure sustainable management and utilization of the environment and natural resources.
  • Improved environmental and natural resource management;

  • Improved regulatory framework for harmonized environmental and natural resource management;

  • Reduced environmental pollution and degradation.

5.1 Agriculture and Food Security

Agriculture is key to food security, economic growth and wealth creation. However, the sector faces a number of challenges including over-dependence on rain-fed farming, low absorption of improved technologies, poor support infrastructure, inadequate markets, weak private sector participation, low level of irrigation development, and lack of investment in mechanization.

As a key priority area, the main focus is to increase agricultural productivity and diversification for sustainable economic growth. Furthermore, the strategic link between agriculture and other sectors will be strengthened to ensure accelerated growth and development.

5.1.1 Agricultural Productivity and Diversification

The agriculture sector has been experiencing growth in productivity of maize and tobacco. However, this growth has been slow and below the expected potential. The sector therefore is still characterized by low productivity levels. The major contributing factors affecting productivity in the smallholder farming sub-sector in Malawi is low input use, over-reliance on rain-fed agriculture, inadequate access to agricultural credit, inadequate access to output and input markets, and failures in technology development and transfer. This is further exacerbated by climate change effects such as erratic rains and droughts.

The dominance of tobacco and maize in the agriculture sector has limited the potential of other crops, hence the need for the country to develop an agricultural diversification policy. The policy will intensify diversification of traditional and non traditional crops and animals for both domestic and export markets. Efforts will therefore focus on improving access to credit, land, markets and research and development among others. The diversification policy will, among other things, endeavour to move away from tobacco.

Goal

The goal is to increase agriculture productivity and diversification.

Medium - Term Expected Outcomes

The medium-term expected outcomes include:

  • Increased smallholder farmers’ output per unit area;

  • Increased agricultural diversification;

  • Increased production of high value agricultural commodities including cotton, wheat and macadamia nuts for exports;

  • Improved agricultural research, technology generation and dissemination;

  • Increased livestock and fish production; and

  • Reduced land degradation.

Key Strategies

Key strategies include:

  • Providing effective extension services;

  • Strengthening linkages of farmers to input and output markets;

  • Enhancing livestock and fisheries productivity;

  • Promoting appropriate technology development, transfer and absorption;

  • Improving access to inputs;

  • Promoting contract farming arrangements;

  • Promoting irrigation farming;

  • Promoting production of non traditional crops;

  • Improving agricultural production for both domestic and export markets;

  • Strengthening farmer institutions; and

  • Promoting soil and water conservation techniques.

5.1.2 Food Security

Maize has remained the main staple food for Malawians hence national food security has mainly been defined in terms of access to maize. The country’s self sufficiency in food has been premised on the implementation of the Farm Inputs Subsidy Programme (FISP). Other food crops such as rice, cassava, sorghum, and potatoes are alternatives to maize in many parts of the country. Furthermore, these are complemented by livestock and fish products. Therefore, this strategy will have a holistic approach to food security taking into account access to a diversified range of food products.

Goal

The goal is to ensure sustained availability and accessibility of food to all Malawians at all times at affordable prices.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

The medium term expected outcomes include:

  • Food self-sufficiency at household and national levels;

  • Increased and sustained food availability and accessibility; and

  • Enhanced agricultural risk management.

Key Strategies

  • Improving the functioning of agricultural markets;

  • Ensuring an effective early warning system;

  • Promoting income generating activities;

  • Increasing national food storage capacity;

  • Promoting dietary diversification;

  • Improving agricultural market systems;

  • Improving coordination and management of food aid and imports;

  • Implementing policies to reduce dependency on food aid;

  • Strengthening and scaling-up market based risk management initiatives;

  • Reducing post harvest losses;

  • Strengthening PPPs in agriculture;

  • Providing technical and regulatory services; and

  • Strengthening farmer-led extension and training services.

The agriculture sector is dominated by tobacco, tea and sugar as the major foreign exchange earners. During the implementation of this development strategy, the country will diversify by promoting wheat, cotton, and coffee and production of fruits and vegetables. In this regard, government will deploy policies to promote diversification in the agriculture sector.

5.2. Energy, Industrial Development, Mining and Tourism

Energy, industrial development, mining and tourism have the potential to contribute towards wealth creation, foreign exchange generation, and job creation thereby improving living standards and accelerating national economic growth and development. A well-developed and efficient energy system is vital for industrial, mining, tourism and integrated rural development. Increasing generation, transmission and distribution of electricity and other energy sources will lead to improved service delivery and increased output in the economy. However, the country’s energy generation and supply is inadequate to meet the current industrial, mining and tourism demands. This therefore calls for investment in the energy sector to realize full potential in the industrial, mining and tourism sectors among other areas.

Besides inadequate energy, there are a number of other constraints that negatively affect industrial development, mining and tourism. These include low compliance to standards, low investment, high transport costs and poor access to both domestic and foreign markets. Government will therefore work with the private sector to address these constraints.

5.2.1 Energy

Malawi continues to face a number of challenges in the energy sector including inadequate capacity to generate electricity which results in frequent blackouts and brownouts. This lack of reliable power is a key constraint to development in Malawi. The current installed capacity of 283 Megawatts is far much less than the estimated demand of 334 Megawatts. Unavailability of access to modern energy services contributes to low economic activity and productivity, lower quality of life and deters new investments across the country, in particular affecting key sectors of mining and manufacturing.

The country is currently experiencing shortages of liquid and gas fuels due to logistical problems. Government will, therefore, continue to emphasize on improving and expanding electricity generation, supply and distribution systems. In addition, government will improve supply of liquid and gas fuels to meet the increasing demand.

Goal

The goal is to generate and distribute sufficient amount of energy to meet national socioeconomic demands.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

In the medium term it is expected that there will be:

  • Improved capacity and efficiency in energy generation, transmission and distribution; and

  • Increased availability and access to energy.

Key Strategies

  • Developing additional power stations;

  • Promoting the use of renewable sources of energy;

  • Improving management of energy generation, transmission, distribution and supply;

  • Enhancing urban and rural electrification;

  • Increasing liquid fuel stock-holding and distribution capacity;

  • Developing long-term systems of tapping and delivering liquid fuel;

  • Promoting public- private partnerships in energy generation and distribution; and

  • Improving regulatory environment.

5.2.2 Industrial Development

The development of industries is an integral part of a nation’s economic growth and development. It is key to attainment of the country’s aspiration of transforming from predominantly importing and consuming to producing and exporting. Currently, manufacturing sector contributes about 11 percent to the GDP but has high potential of contributing more. An increase in industrial activities contributes to job creation which in turn expands the market base of the economy. Malawi’s industry is facing a number of challenges such as lack of incentives, high interest rates, high transport costs, and unreliable energy supply. Consequently, there are low investments in the sub sector leading to low industrialization and exports of unprocessed products.

Considering that Malawi’s population is rural based and dependent on agriculture, special attention will be given to rural industrialization and agro-processing.

Goal

The goal is to develop and expand the industrial sector with emphasis on value addition and employment creation.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

Medium term expected outcomes include:

  • Expanded industrial base;

  • Increased employment;

  • Increased industrial output; and

  • Increased value addition.

Key Strategies

  • Promoting the use of modern environmentally friendly technologies in manufacturing;

  • Facilitating accreditation of quality assurance institutions and enhancing quality standards;

  • Enhancing backward and forward linkages in the industrial sector;

  • Undertaking industrial reforms;

  • Encouraging provision of infrastructure and support services for industrial development;

  • Promoting efficient safety management practices; and

  • Promoting value addition in existing and potential products.

5.2.2.1 Trade

• Trade plays an important role in economic growth and development. For a country like Malawi, trade is of particular significance in employment creation and poverty reduction. Trade encourages technology transfer, economies of scale and competition thereby enhancing productivity and welfare gains. Malawi is undertaking a number of trade reforms such as simplified trade regime, and one stop border posts. These reforms are aimed at improving both domestic and foreign trade.

• The country’s major trading partners include EU, COMESA, SADC and other emerging economies. Over the years, the country has been involved in a number of bilateral and multilateral negotiations and agreements with the view to promote market access and expand the number of its trading partners.

• The sub-sector faces a number of challenges such as high transportation cost, lack of market information, inadequate energy supply, narrow market base, lack of adherence to international standards and low levels of trade expertise. On the export market, the sub-sector is currently dominated by tobacco which is facing problems due to anti-smoking lobby. Within agriculture, it is therefore important for the country to diversify its export base away from tobacco. To address these challenges the country intends to pursue the following goal, outcomes and strategies.

Goal

The goal is to increase supply of value-added goods and services for domestic and international markets while sustaining competitive advantage.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

  • Enhanced production, diversification and competitiveness of tradable commodities;

  • Enhanced access to both traditional and emerging export markets;

  • Improved legal, regulatory and institutional framework; and

  • Increased domestic and international market share.

Key Strategies

  • Simplifying and streamlining trade and customs procedures;

  • Promoting trade integration;

  • Promoting consumer loyalty to domestically produced goods;

  • Improving fair trading and intellectual property rights;

  • Promoting efficient and modernized boarder infrastructure to facilitate trade;

  • Promoting adherence to standards in tradable products;

  • Promoting exports;

  • Promoting trade in services;

  • Promoting product and market diversification;

  • Strengthening investment and export promoting institutions;

  • Improving coordination amongst private sector trade institutions; and

  • Improving trade network and information for exports.

5.2.2.2 Agro-Processing

Agro-processing in Malawi has potential to contribute effectively to the country’s economic growth. However, most of Malawi’s agricultural products are mainly traded as primary commodities. This is partly due to poor and inadequate supportive infrastructure, low level of vocational skills, weak marketing and distribution systems and low investment in agro-processing.

Considering that Malawi’s economy is agro-based, government has in the past five years implemented a number of initiatives including the One Village One Product (OVOP) to add value to agricultural products. Government, therefore, will continue prioritizing industries that add value to agricultural products. Focus is on sugar, tea, cotton, wheat, coffee, honey, cassava, macadamia nuts, cashew nuts, soya beans, groundnuts and chillies.

Goal

The goal is to move up the value chain in key crops, and increase agro-processed products for both domestic and export markets.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

  • Increased value addition to agricultural products; and

  • Diversified agro-processed products.

Key Strategies

  • Improving supporting infrastructure for agro-processing;

  • Promoting investment in agro-processing with special focus on private sector participation;

  • Improving policy and regulatory frameworks impacting on agro-processing;

  • Promoting OVOP on agricultural products; and

  • Strengthening capacity for small and medium scale agro-processing enterprises.

5.2.3 Mining

Malawi has abundant mineral resources that can be exploited. These resources include bauxite, heavy mineral sands, monazite, coal, uranium, precious and semi-precious stones, limestone, niobium, dimension stones and rock aggregates. Government recognises that the development of the mining industry can significantly improve the country’s foreign exchange earnings and contribute to economic growth and development. To derive maximum potential of the mining industry, Government will pursue the following goal, expected outcomes and key strategies.

Goal

The goal is to increase production and value addition of mineral resources.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

The medium-term expected outcomes include the following:

  • Updated geological information system;

  • Increased exploration and mining;

  • Increased participation by small and medium miners; and

  • Improved legal and institutional framework.

Key Strategies

The following are the key strategies for realizing the sector’s objectives:

  • Producing detailed geological map of Malawi;

  • Strengthening institutional capacity of the sector;

  • Developing an integrated data management system;

  • Strengthening seismic monitoring;

  • Promoting both local and foreign investment;

  • Enforcing environmental, occupational health and safety in the mining sector; and

  • Enforcing legislations on sustainable use and management of mineral resources.

5.2.4 Tourism

Tourism is one of the merging sectors in Malawi. It has potential to generate revenue, employment, improve infrastructure, and promote MSMEs as well as conservation of wildlife and culture. The sector has direct linkages with other sectors of the economy.

To improve tourism, Government has undertaken a number of development projects that have transformed the tourism landscape. These include construction of access roads to tourist sites, improvement of airports and airstrips and construction of Mpale Cultural Village. In addition, Government has constructed a 1500-seater International Conference Centre which is expected to boost the tourism potential of the country.

However, a number of challenges such as poor supporting infrastructure, poor service delivery, uncoordinated and insufficient marketing of tourism products and inadequate purpose-built cultural infrastructure impede attainment of the sector’s full potential.

To ensure a vibrant tourism industry, Government will pursue the following goal, outcomes and strategies.

Goal

The goal is to develop and promote a vibrant tourism industry.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

  • Increased contribution of the tourism industry to GDP;

  • Improved environment for doing business in tourism;

  • Increased number of tourists; and

  • Increased local participation in the tourism industry.

Key Strategies

  • Providing infrastructure that is supportive to tourism development;

  • Promoting the development of high-quality tourism facilities in designated areas including Lake Malawi;

  • Enforcing tourism industry standards and planning controls;

  • Strengthening institutional capacity at all levels;

  • Promoting eco-tourism;

  • Promoting participation of local investors in the tourism industry; and

  • Enhancing marketing of Malawi’s tourism products.

5.2 Transport Infrastructure and Nsanje World Inland Port

An integrated transport system is a catalyst for development. Improved road, rail and inland water transport infrastructure is central for better domestic and international connectivity. A well developed transport infrastructure reduces lead time on imports and exports, costs of goods and services and improves access to markets and social services.

Government embarked on transport infrastructure maintenance, rehabilitation and upgrading programme during MGDS implementation. However, major focus was on road infrastructure as a result, other modes of transport infrastructure remain underdeveloped in the country. Government, therefore, will develop the other modes of transport along side road infrastructure. In this respect, Government will focus its attention on rail and water transport infrastructure while continuing with the improvement of road infrastructure. This is expected to reduce transportation costs and facilitate export-led growth.

5.3.1 Road Infrastructure

Road transport is the dominant mode of transport in Malawi. In this respect, the country has over the years been constructing, rehabilitating, and upgrading road infrastructure. However, most feeder roads still remain in poor condition especially in rural areas. This has been compounded by the enormous backlog road maintenance that has led to high transportation costs in most parts of the country.

Goal

The goal is to ensure provision of a safe, affordable, accessible and high quality road transport system.

Expected-Medium Term Outcomes

In the medium-term improved road transportation is expected to contribute to:

  • Reduced lead times and cost on exports and imports; and

  • Improved domestic and cross border mobility and connectivity.

Key Strategies

  • Ensuring comprehensive and coordinating planning of road and other modes of transport;

  • Providing adequate network of roads based on appropriate standards;

  • Enhancing routine road maintenance and upgrading;

  • Building technical and institutional capacity at all levels;

  • Promoting competition in the construction industry;

  • Improving management of road network throughout the country;

  • Enhancing axle load control;

  • Promoting high road safety standards and traffic management; and

  • Enhancing PPPs in the transport system.

5.3.2 Rail Transport

Malawi recognizes that an efficient rail transport is relatively cheaper than road and air transport. Rail transport has potential to significantly reduce transport costs of goods and services because of its predominance in the transportation of bulk freight over long distances.

The railway infrastructure in the country is in poor condition due to lack of maintenance and inadequate investment. A study6 commissioned to ascertain the investment required to revamp the rail transport sub sector revealed that there is need for an urgent financial injection into this sub-sector for emergency works before overhaul rehabilitation works can commerce. The poor state of the infrastructure has greatly compromised railway safety and efficiency. The sub-sector is greatly uncompetitive despite the fact that the rail freight cost is cheaper than road and air transport.

Goal

The goal is to develop an efficient and effective rail network.

Medium-Term Expected-Outcomes

  • Improved regional and international connectivity;

  • Improved regulatory and institutional framework; and

  • Improved rail infrastructure and reliability.

Key Strategies

  • Rehabilitating and expanding the railway line and related infrastructure;

  • Creating linkages to ports, industrial sites and regional and international markets;

  • Promoting railway safety and environmental protection; and

  • Improving operational efficiency and commercial viability of the existing railway infrastructure and levels of service.

5.3.3 Inland Water Transport Infrastructure

Water transport is relatively cheaper than any other mode of transport. It provides a better and cheaper alternative for transporting bulky and heavy goods domestically and internationally. Malawi has an advantage in water transport as it is endowed with lakes and navigable rivers. However, the country’s water transport system is not fully developed and faces a number of challenges including dilapidated port infrastructure; ageing fleet of vessels; and capacity problems. Given the current transport constraints, this mode of transport has been prioritized to compliment other transport modes. Focus will be on the development of Nsanje world inland port and Shire-Zambezi Waterway, construction and rehabilitation of ports along Lake Malawi and acquisition of vessels.

Goal

The goal is to promote inland water transport system and improve access to the sea.

Medium-Term Expected-Outcomes

The medium term expected outcomes are:

  • Improved inland water transportation system;

  • Improved interface with rail; and road transport; and

  • Reduced transport costs.

Key Strategies

  • Developing an efficient and productive maritime transport system;

  • Improving port infrastructure;

  • Opening up navigable rivers;

  • Promoting affordable and safe water transport system; and

  • Promoting Public Private Partnerships in the industry.

5.3.3.1 Nsanje World Inland Port

During MGDS implementation, the country completed the initial phase of the Nsanje World Inland Port which included construction of port berth and formal demarcation of land for development. When fully developed, the Port will integrate the four modes of transportation of road, rail, air and water into a multimodal transport system that will connect Malawi to other regional sea ports. The second phase will include construction and provision of related infrastructure and services which will eventually turn Nsanje District into a city. The port will have additional infrastructure such as an international airport that will connect the Shire Zambezi waterway to other domestic and regional airports. It will also have improved road and railway networks which will link the port to other markets and cities domestically and regionally.

The goal is to open up the country to ports along the Indian Ocean and reduce costs of goods. The medium term expected outcomes will include reduced transport costs; reduced lead times on exports; and decreased cost of shipping, low costs of cross-border and transit trade, and lower cost to reach domestic, regional and international markets.

Key activities will include dredging, acquiring vessels; constructing an international airport; maintaining and rehabilitating the railway network from Nsanje to other parts of the country; rehabilitating and constructing the road network to and from Nsanje; establishing port regulation and regulatory system; and developing social infrastructures such as schools, hospitals and markets.

5.4 Education, Science and Technology

Education, science and technology are some of the major catalysts for socio-economic development. An educated and highly skilled population will help in accelerating economic growth and development. In addition, further developments in all sectors of the economy will require highly skilled and educated workforce and application of science and technologies. Government will continue to undertake reforms and strengthen education system, science, technology and innovation to enhance their contribution to the socio-economic development of the country.

5.4.1 Education

The Government recognizes the role of an educated population as a necessity for sustainable development. It is through the provision of education that people acquire relevant knowledge, skills, expertise and competencies to actively participate in socio-economic activities.

The education system in Malawi comprises three broad categories namely basic education; secondary education; and tertiary and vocational education. Basic education includes Early Childhood Development (ECD) mainly implemented in Gender and Child Development and Community Development Ministry, Primary and Out-of-School Youth and Adult Literacy. Tertiary and vocational education encompasses Teacher Education, Higher Education, and Technical and Vocational Training. Government through this strategy will continue improving quality, equity, relevance, access and efficiency in education.

In basic education, the aim will be to develop the child’s full cognitive, emotional and physical potential through increased retention and completion rates. In complementing this, enrolment in secondary education will be increased, while focussing on upgrading quality, and on retention of girls. The main aim will be to provide the student with an enriched academic basis for gainful employment in the informal, private and public sectors.

Tertiary and vocational education will play a vital role in complementing basic and secondary school education. The main focus at this level will be to produce high quality professionals with relevant knowledge and skills that meet demands of the economy. Access to higher education, technical and vocational training, teacher, and university education will be increased, and universities/colleges will be expanded and rehabilitated, among other initiatives.

The education sector has embarked on a Sector Wide Approach (SWAp) to accelerate the achievement of sector outcomes. This approach aims at pulling together all stakeholders within the sector to work towards achieving similar goals and objectives. To enhance quality, equity, relevance, access, and efficiency of education at all levels, Government will pursue the following goal, outcomes and strategies.

Goal

The goal is to improve access to quality and relevant education.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

  • Expanded equitable access to education;

  • Improved quality and relevance of education; and

  • Improved management and governance of the education system.

Key Strategies

  • Accelerating rehabilitation of existing learning institutions and construction of additional education infrastructure at all levels;

  • Establishing new universities and colleges;

  • Training and recruiting additional teaching staff;

  • Scaling up school meals program;

  • Introducing standardized testing to measure and monitor quality of learning and teaching;

  • Reviewing and reforming school and college curricula to address national needs at all levels;

  • Providing adequate and relevant teaching and learning materials;

  • Strengthening the provision of technical and vocational training;

  • Providing a conducive environment for girls education including boarding facilities;

  • Providing a conducive environment for students with special education needs;

  • Promoting systematic and regular inspection of all learning institutions;

  • Decentralizing the management and financing of the education system;

  • Scaling up school health and nutrition, and HIV and AIDS programmes;

  • Strengthening coordination and provision of ECD and CBE;

  • Promoting the role of private sector and private financing in education system;

  • Promoting Public Private Partnerships in the provision of education infrastructure and services;

  • Strengthening education management and information systems;

  • Scaling up child friendly schools programmes; and

  • Increasing number of girls opting for mathematics and science subjects at all levels.

5.4.2 Science and Technology

Science and technology is vital for national socio-economic development. Technology is generated through continuous research, hence a well-coordinated research and development is a basis for increasing the stock of knowledge to devise and apply new technologies. In addition, increased application of technology and innovation is the main route for the creation of additional wealth through increased productivity. Government recognizes the importance of this sub-sector and will continue implementing reforms aimed at enhancing contribution of research, science and technology to economic development.

During implementation of MGDS, Government carried out a number of reforms aimed at improving research and development and application of science and technology in the country. These reforms include establishment of the National Commission for Science and Technology as an apex body in all matters of research, science and technology; introduction of science and technology as a subject at primary school level; review of the National Science, Technology and Innovation policy; and the development of the National Intellectual Property Policy.

However, the country continues to face a number of challenges and these include weak scientific and technological development and utilization; weak institutional capacity; weak linkages between research, science and technology institutions and users; limited number of institutions undertaking research and development; inadequate research and development infrastructure; lack of commercialization of results and information systems; and poor utilization of research results.

To address these challenges, Government will therefore seek to create a conducive environment for research, science and technology development by pursuing the following goal, outcomes and strategies.

Goal

The goal is to enhance the contribution of research, science and technology to national productivity and competitiveness.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

  • Well coordinated science and technology generation and dissemination;

  • Improved operation of research and development institutions; and

  • Increased adoption of appropriate technologies.

Key Strategies

  • Promoting adoption, transfer and utilization of appropriate technologies;

  • Promoting prioritized, focused and multi-disciplinary research and development;

  • Mainstreaming research, science and technology development across all sectors;

  • Enhancing linkages between research, science and technology institutions and users;

  • Strengthening institutional and regulatory framework including protection of intellectual property rights;

  • Strengthening capacity for research, science and technology institutions;

  • Promoting IEC on research, science and technology development;

  • Promoting PPPs in generating and disseminating appropriate technology; and

  • Improving scientific and technological infrastructure for research and development and innovation.

5.5 Public Health, Sanitation, Malaria and HIV and AIDS Management

Malawi Government recognizes that a healthy population is necessary to achieve sustainable economic growth and development. In 2004, the Government established a plan of action covering the period between 2004 and 2010, which was implemented using the Sector Wide Approach (SWAp).

In the MGDS II, Government will introduce and implement the Malawi Health Sector Strategic Plan (MHSSP) which will focus attention on the provision of quality health services using cost effective strategies to reduce mortality and morbidity. Special focus will be given to health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which are not on course for achievement. The 2010 Malawi MDG Report indicates that the country is likely to reduce child mortality (MDG 4) and reduce the spread of HIV and AIDS, Malaria and TB (MDG 6) while targets for improving maternal health (MDG 5) are not on course. Malawi has relatively reduced maternal mortality from 984 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2004 to 675 in 2010. During the implementation of the MGDS II, efforts will be directed towards maternal health to meet the MDG target of 155 deaths per 100,000 live births by 2015. The disease burden due to malaria and HIV and AIDS is still high and special attention will also be directed to them.

The strategy includes most cost-effective interventions for non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, mental health interventions, and provision of surgical services in rural and district hospitals.

To support this, the sector will direct its efforts in implementing programmes that target public health (including maternal and child health), sanitation, malaria, and HIV and AIDS management.

5.5.1 Public Health

Public health in Malawi mainly focuses on prevention of diseases to prolong life. It constitutes promoting good health practices and life styles through information, education and communication; controlling and preventing diseases; tackling hygiene and the broader determinants of health; and screening for diseases. Since public health interventions target communities, their delivery maximizes benefits and yield significant positive externalities in terms of individuals who do not fall sick as a result of others receiving primary and secondary prevention interventions. This reduces the burden on curative health.

Although Malawi has made progress in a number of areas in the health sector, the country continues to face a number of challenges in public health. These include high prevalence of HIV and AIDS, high incidence of malaria, Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), and relatively high maternal and child mortality rates. Other challenges include emerging public health concerns such as lifestyle related diseases,7 and Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) tuberculosis and TB/HIV co-infection.

Government will, therefore, continue to promote and support public health programmes in the country.

Goal

The goal is to control and prevent occurrence and spread of diseases.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

The medium term outcomes will include:-

  • Reduced incidence and prevalence of diseases;

  • Improved maternal and child health;

  • Increased and sustained coverage of high quality EHP services;

  • Reduced health risk factors among the population;

  • Improved equity and efficiency in the delivery of EHP; and

  • Strengthened performance of health support systems.

Key Strategies

Effective delivery of quality public health service requires multi-dimensional approach including the provision, strengthening and coordination of the various health care service institutions. Main strategies will include:-

  • Increasing geographical access to EHP services;

  • Improving availability of essential drugs and medical supplies;

  • Building human resource capacity at all levels;

  • Strengthening health support system;

  • Increasing availability of health technologies for prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation;

  • Improving the quality of diagnosis and treatment of communicable and non communicable diseases;

  • Strengthening health policies, legal and regulatory framework;

  • Implementing integrated vector control management;

  • Promoting water and food safety;

  • Improving the capacity of the health sector to respond to emergencies;

  • Exploring and implementing alternative health financing mechanisms;

  • Promoting community participation in the design and implementation of health services;

  • Strengthening community health service delivery system;

  • Strengthening availability and utilization of quality integrated family planning services;

  • Improving availability and utilization of quality integrated maternal and neonatal care services;

  • Strengthening and promoting initiatives to improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment of emerging diseases such as cancer, and high blood pressure; and

  • Promoting health enhancing behavior and life styles.

5.5.2 Sanitation

Sanitation and good hygiene practices contribute to the reduction of water borne and other related diseases. A clean and healthy environment is not only essential, but also a prerequisite for a healthy and productive society. Compared to many other sub-Saharan countries, Malawi has made tremendous progress in achieving universal access to basic sanitation. Overall access to improved latrine is estimated at 46 percent; with 43 percent in rural areas and 65 percent in urban areas.

During the implementation of MGDS, the country made progress in the area of sanitation and hygiene. These include improved access to potable water from 73 percent in 2005 to 84 percent in 2009 and improved access to basic sanitation from 84 percent in 2005 to 93 percent in 2009 (WMS, 2009).

Malawi still faces a number of challenges in the area of sanitation and hygiene. These include relatively low access to improved sanitation, low access to running water, inadequate sewer facilities, unsystematic disposal of liquid, solid and other forms of waste, inadequate capacity to manage sewer facilities and inability to separate organic and inorganic components of waste to facilitate composting.

Considering the above challenges and the role sanitation plays to improve the health of the population, Government through this strategy will pursue the following goal, outcomes and strategies.

Goal

The goal is to ensure use of improved sanitation facilities and adoption of safe hygiene practices.

Medium-Term Expected Outcome

In the medium term, it is expected that there will be:

  • Improved hygiene practices;

  • Increased access and usage of improved sanitation facilities; and

  • Improved management and disposal of waste.

Key Strategies

The key strategies include:

  • Promoting utilization of improved sanitation facilities;

  • Providing improved sanitation facilities in schools, health care centres, community based child care centres, markets and all other public places;

  • Promoting adoption of safe hygiene practices;

  • Improving management and disposal of both liquid and solid waste;

  • Enhancing information, education and communication on sanitation and hygiene;

  • Promoting research waste management;

  • Promoting private sector participation in the provision of sanitation and hygiene services;

  • Enhancing institutional capacity; and

  • Strengthening regulatory frameworks.

5.5.3 Malaria

Malaria is endemic and continues to be a major public health problem in Malawi. It is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-five children and pregnant women. It is estimated that the number of presumptive cases of malaria increased from 3.7 million in 2005 to 6.1 million in 2009. Therefore, Government has prioritized reduction of malaria cases in line with MDG8 commitment.

During the implementation of MGDS Government undertook a number of initiatives to combat malaria. These included distributions of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs), piloted indoor residual spraying and changed the primary anti-malaria treatment from Sulphadoxine- pyremethamine (SP) to Artemether-lumefantrine (LA).

Consequently, health facility in-patient death rates due to malaria have decreased from 5.6 percent to 3.4 percent in 2004 and 2009, respectively. ITNs ownership improved from 38 percent in 2006 to 60 percent in 2010. In addition, it is estimated that in 2010, 56 percent of children under five years of age sleep under an ITN up from the 25 percent in 2006.

Realizing that Malaria is still a challenge in Malawi, Government will pursue the following goal, medium term expected outcomes and strategies.

Goal

The goal is to reduce malaria-related morbidity and mortality.

Medium Term Expected Outcomes

  • Reduced incidence of malaria;

  • Increased coverage of malaria prevention; and

  • Increased access to appropriate malaria treatment.

Key Strategies

  • Promoting directly observed treatment;

  • Developing capacity of community health workers in malaria case management;

  • Scaling up distribution of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs);

  • Promoting draining of mosquito breeding sites and larviciding;

  • Scaling up the delivery of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) services to other high malaria transmission districts; and

  • Increasing the number of health facilities providing parasitological diagnosis of malaria.

5.5.4 HIV/AIDS Management

Malawi has been negatively affected by the spread of HIV and AIDS pandemic. The pandemic has increased the incidence of other opportunistic diseases such as Tuberculosis and cancer. HIV and AIDS and the resulting opportunistic diseases have affected the quality of human capital, and have increased the burden on health service delivery system.

There is a strong correlation between HIV and AIDS and nutrition status of individuals. Good nutrition is crucial for building and maintaining the immune system to enable it fight infections. In the absence of good nutrition, the body’s immune system is weak and vulnerable to attack by various infections which affect ones quality of life. One such infection is HIV and AIDS. When the body is malnourished, an individual’s immune system is compromised. In addition, Anti-retroviral drug’s effectiveness in undernourished HIV and AIDS patient is decreased and toxicity increased. Malnutrition also accelerates the onset of AIDS and gives rise to other related illnesses. The HIV and AIDS pandemic has worsened the dual burden of malnutrition and disease.

Adult HIV prevalence decreased slightly between 2004 and 2010, from 11.8 to 10.6 percent, respectively. Factors contributing to this positive development include increased awareness programmes in HIV prevention and behavioural change, increased access to a number of preventive interventions, increased access to HIV and AIDS Testing and Counselling (HTC) sites, and the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) programme.

Despite the successes registered, combating HIV and AIDS remains a major challenge for Malawi. For instance, the disease has rendered 12 percent of children aged 0-17 orphaned and 7 percent vulnerable, according to the 2006 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS). In addition, there is still low uptake of PMTCT services among pregnant women and low uptake of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) among children and continued prevalence of cultural practices that enhance HIV transmission. In this regard, Government will implement strategies that are aimed at promoting prevention of new infections.

Goal

The goal is to prevent spread of HIV infection and mitigate the health, socio-economic and psychosocial impact of HIV and AIDS.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

The expected outcomes include:

  • Reduced HIV infection and transmission rate;

  • Improved quality of lives of People Living with HIV (PLHIVs), OVCs and affected individuals and households; and

  • Improved dietary practices of PLHIVs, OVCs and affected individuals and households.

Key Strategies

The expected outcomes above will be achieved through implementation of the following key strategies:

  • Promoting interventions that reduce HIV transmission;

  • Promoting HIV Testing and Counselling;

  • Promoting Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV;

  • Enhancing capacity of health care delivery system to manage HIV and related illnesses;

  • Promoting access to continuum of HIV treatment and care services;

  • Promoting access to quality Community Home Based Care (CHBC), palliative care and other support services;

  • Promoting support to PLHIVs, OVCs and affected individuals and households;

  • Promoting mainstreaming of HIV and AIDS;

  • Promoting effective coordination and management of the national HIV and AIDS response;

  • Promoting food and nutrition security among HIV and AIDS affected households;

  • Promoting reintegration of eligible PLHIV into economic activities; and

  • Promoting HIV and AIDS advocacy and awareness campaigns.

5.6 Integrated Rural Development

Malawi’s population is rural-based, with the majority depending on rain-fed agriculture and lacking access to basic amenities such as roads, health facilities, schools, markets, power supply, and water and communication infrastructure. Thus improving access to basic amenities is critical to improving living standards of rural communities and national development. Considering the need to improve the livelihoods of the rural communities, government will use an IRD approach. In this regard, initiatives like One Village One Product (OVOP), Malawi Rural Development Fund (MARDEF), Youth Enterprise Development Fund (YEDEF) and Local Development Fund (LDF) will play a crucial role in improving rural livelihoods.

IRD aims at resuscitating rural economies and transforming them into potential drivers of economic growth and development. Furthermore, it sets a platform for empowering rural people to exploit socio-economic opportunities and tackle challenges for securing their livelihoods. Poverty in Malawi is pervasive in rural areas with the latest Welfare Monitoring Survey putting the national poverty incidence at 39 percent in 2009. The persistence of rural poverty has moved government to a new consensus on addressing poverty reduction with the aim of leading rural areas to more efficient ways of tapping into development potential to improve their livelihood.

Efforts made to assist the poorest citizens of the country include community development programmes, FISP and a nationwide public works programme for ‘cash transfer safety net activities’. Development projects included the construction of school buildings; teacher’s houses and clinics; water supply schemes; subsidy programmes and the improvement of other rural social infrastructure. However, these programmes alone cannot achieve sustainable improvements in the livelihoods of the poor, nor generate sustainable long term economic growth due to lack of coordination, harmonization, resources and weak financial management systems.

Government, therefore, through this strategy will pursue the following goal, expected outcomes, and strategies.

Goal

The goal is to improve rural livelihoods.

Medium Term Expected Outcomes

  • Improved local governance systems and structures;

  • Well coordinated local development planning;

  • Improved investment in rural areas;

  • Increased rural incomes;

  • Strengthened rural participation in development programmes; and

  • Reduced rural-urban migration.

Key Strategies

  • Promoting income generating programmes;

  • Improving access to basic amenities;

  • Ensuring equal access to socio-economic opportunities;

  • Strengthening local institutional capacity;

  • Strengthening capacity of rural households to exploit income generating opportunities;

  • Promoting local economic development;

  • Promoting conducive environment for private sector investment;

  • Promoting the establishment of rural growth centres and satellite model villages; and

  • Promoting rural electrification programme.

5.7 Green Belt Irrigation and Water Development

Malawi depends on rain-fed agriculture to achieve food security, increased incomes and sustainable economic growth. Over-dependence on rain fed agriculture has led to low agricultural production and productivity due to weather shocks and natural disasters. Conversely, Malawi is endowed with vast water resources covering about 30 percent of the country. A well developed water system is therefore critical for irrigation intensification, potable water accessibility and sanitation. Government, through this strategy, will therefore prioritise Green Belt Irrigation (GBI) and water development.

5.7.1 Green Belt Irrigation

Green Belt Irrigation has the potential to increase agricultural production and productivity through intensified farming. Green Belt Irrigation will utilize the available abundant water resources in the country and increase area under irrigation from 90, 000 hectares to 400,000 hectares out of the potential 1,000,000 hectares. This will improve food security and rural livelihoods; promote agricultural diversification and value addition; reduce rural-urban migration; and contribute to sustainable economic growth and development. Government through this strategy has prioritized Green Belt Irrigation by pursuing the following goal, expected outcomes, and key strategies.

Goal

The goal is to increase agricultural production and productivity through intensification of irrigation.

Expected-Medium Term Outcome

The expected medium term outcomes include:

  • Increased land under irrigation;

  • Reduced dependence on rain-fed agriculture;

  • Increased agricultural production and productivity; and

  • Increased household income levels.

Key Strategies

The following are the key strategies to be pursued:

  • Promoting development of areas with irrigation potential;

  • Promoting rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure;

  • Promoting research and use of appropriate technologies in irrigation;

  • Enhancing IEC on irrigation;

  • Enhancing technical and administrative capacities in irrigated agriculture; and

  • Promoting the establishment of a well coordinated marketing system for products from irrigation farming.

5.7.2 Water Development

Water is an important resource for life, agriculture and industrial development. Recent economic developments and population growth in Malawi have increased the demand for water in both rural and urban areas. Government has, therefore, put high priority on water resources management and development.

In recent years, access to potable water has improved throughout the country. Statistics show that total water supply coverage has increased from 58 percent in 2004 to 76 percent in 2009.

In 2008 water supply coverage in rural areas of Malawi was at 64 percent from 58 percent in 2004. Despite these achievements, there are considerable challenges facing the country in the water sector. These include relatively low access to potable water, aging infrastructure, inadequate maintenance capacity, theft and vandalism resulting in more than 30 percent non-functionality of the infrastructure.

In this respect, Government will continue developing the water sector. Focus will include construction of dams, establishment of piped water systems and drilling of boreholes where gravity fed systems cannot work.

Goal

The goal is to improve access to water through an integrated water management system.

Expected-Medium Term Outcome

  • Well developed and managed water resources; and

  • Increased access to safe water points within 500m distance.

Key Strategies

  • Promoting development of potential multi-purpose dam sites and groundwater resources;

  • Improving existing water infrastructure;

  • Enhancing water resources monitoring, preservation, development and management;

  • Promoting user friendly technologies for water resources conservation and utilization;

  • Promoting the empowerment of local communities in water resources development and management;

  • Strengthening research in water resources development and management;

  • Increasing number of people connected to piped water supply systems in both urban and rural areas;

  • Strengthening institutionalization of practical operations and maintenance framework at all levels;

  • Strengthening and institutionalizing monitoring and evaluation system for water services;

  • Enhancing information, education and communication;

  • Promoting private sector participation in the provision of water services;

  • Promoting equitable distribution of water points to rural areas through GPS mapping; and

  • Enhancing institutional capacity at all levels.

5.8 Child Development, Youth Development and Empowerment

About 54 per cent of the total population in Malawi is younger than 18 years (PHC, 2008). With such a young population, dependence ratio in the country is high. This places heavy economic burden on the working population and puts pressure on the provision of basic needs and social services. The country’s young population is characterized by high incidences of poverty, violence, HIV and AIDS, malnutrition, abuse, poor health, high illiteracy rates and psychological disorders.

In order to protect and harness potential of young people, Government has included Child Development and Youth Development and Empowerment as a priority in this development strategy. Focus will be on the following social support; early childhood development; child protection; child survival and development; child and youth participation; economic empowerment; youth health; HIV prevention among youth and adolescents; institutional capacity development and infrastructure development.

5.8.1 Child Development

In Malawi, children aged 0 to 9 years constitute the majority of the total population. According to the 2008 Population and Housing Census, approximately 4.3 million persons of the total population of 13.1 million were children. Children are directly affected by problems stemming from poverty. This is manifested through child labour, high illiteracy rates, poor health, high incidence of malnutrition, high levels of child abuse and neglect.

To address these challenges, Government will establish a National Plan of Action for children and will pursue the following goal, outcomes and strategies.

Goal

The Goal is to ensure that children grow into productive and responsible citizens.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

In the medium term, it is expected that Malawi will have attained:

  • Improved equitable access to quality child development services;

  • Reduced number of children living below the poverty line; and

  • Strengthened national child protection systems to reduce children’s vulnerability to violence, abuse, and exploitation.

Key Strategies

In responding to the challenges being faced, government will implement the following strategies:

  • Protecting children against abuse, exploitation, neglect and violence;

  • Eliminating harmful cultural practices;

  • Promoting access to education, nutrition, health, counselling and HIV prevention services;

  • Reducing the adverse effects of poverty on children;

  • Promoting early childhood development and pre-primary education;

  • Establishing a legal and institutional framework for the promotion of early childhood development services;

  • Promoting the integration of child issues in sectoral policies and strategies;

  • Strengthening inter-sectoral coordination and capacity of all stakeholders;

  • Strengthening support to children infected and/or affected by HIV and AIDS;

  • Strengthening advocacy and awareness on child issues;

  • Establishing a system for timely birth registration for children;

  • Promoting exclusive breastfeeding practices for children aged 0-6 months;

  • Promoting optimal feeding practices for children aged 6-24 months and beyond; and

  • Promoting alternative care systems for vulnerable children.

5.8.2 Youth Development and Empowerment

The youth constitute a significant proportion of Malawi’s population. The 2008 Population and Housing Census reports that 40 percent of the population is young aged 10 to 29 years. With time, the youth population has been growing and this has implications on the socioeconomic development of the country. Investments in the current generation of young people will among other things improve productivity, reduce health costs and enhance social capital. The youth constitute a growing labour force of the country; failure to respond to their needs further aggravates poverty levels. Therefore Government, through this strategy, will pursue the following goal, outcomes and strategies.

Goal

The goal is to enhance effective youth participation in economic activities.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

In the medium term, it is expected that Malawi will have attained:

  • Increased absorption of skills, technology and innovations by the youth;

  • Increased youth participation in decision making processes; and

  • Improved coordination of youth programs.

Key Strategies

The expected outcomes above will be achieved through implementation of the following key strategies:

  • Improving youth’s technical, vocational, entrepreneurial and life skills;

  • Improving youth’s access to credit facilities for entrepreneurship;

  • Promoting youth participation in the decision making processes; Constructing and rehabilitating sports infrastructure;

  • Building and strengthening the capacity of institutions that are responsible for coordination and delivery of youth development and sports services;

  • Strengthening and establishing youth development centres; and

  • Improving access to Youth Friendly SRH, HIV and AIDS services; and

  • Eliminating GBV, harmful cultural practices, abuse and trafficking.

5.9 Climate Change, Natural Resources and Environmental Management

Natural resources form a principal source of social well being and economic development in Malawi. However, these resources are under constant stress from unprecedented human, industrial and other developmental activities which if not curbed might generate serious longterm impacts. The Malawi UNCA Report (2010) estimates that unsustainable natural resource use cost Malawi about US$ 191 million, or 5.3 percent of GDP in 2010. These activities have resulted into a reduction in the proportion of land under forest cover from 41 percent in 1990 to 34.5 percent in 2010 (MDGs Annual Report, 2010). This is compounded by increased climate variations experienced in the form of prolonged dry spells, droughts, intense rainfall, floods and temperature variability. This has in turn negatively affected the performance of sectors such as agriculture, natural resources, forestry, water and irrigation, energy, infrastructure, manufacturing, transport, tourism, and trade, among others.

During the implementation of the MGDS, various achievements were realized including enhanced early warning and improved weather information systems; increased land area under industrial plantations from 1,609 ha in 2005 to 5,784 ha in 2010; reduction in tonnage of ozone depleting substances such as CFC from 5.9 tonnes in 2005 to almost zero in 2009 and increased public awareness on environment and natural resources management.

Despite the achievements highlighted above, a number of challenges still exist which include: accelerated deforestation and poor land use and management practices; depletion and degradation of land and water based resources; weak information management systems; weak regulation enforcement mechanism; and inadequate mainstreaming of climate change issues in government policies and programs. The focus will be in the areas of climate change, natural resources and environment.

5.9.1 Climate Change Management

Malawi experiences a number of adverse climatic hazards such as prolonged dry spells, droughts, unpredictable rainfall patterns, floods and increased temperatures. Recently, these have increased in frequency, intensity and magnitude. This is partly attributed to effects of climate change and in all likelihood will worsen in the future.

Climate change effects also result in loss of human and animal life; compromised water quality leading to diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera and malaria and infrastructure loss. In addition, effects of climate change have adverse impacts on agriculture, fisheries, wildlife, gender, energy, education, health, and forestry sectors. Numerous reports on Climate change indicate that disasters related to climate change have escalated with time. Between 1970 and 2006, Malawi experienced over 40 weather related disasters most of which occurred in the late 1990s. It is estimated that the 1992 drought reduced the country’s maize production by 60 percent of its normal year production bringing about a 10 percent reduction in the country’s GDP (NAPA, 2006). It is therefore, necessary for the country to mainstream climate change mitigation and adaptation measures in all sectors for improved resilience and sustainable development.

Malawi, just like many developing countries, is vulnerable to effects of climate change. In recognition of this, Government has accorded special attention to climate change in this national development strategy. On its path towards climate resilient growth, Malawi, therefore aims at pursuing the following goal, outcomes and strategies.

Goal

The goal is to enhance resilience to climate change risks and impacts.

Medium-Term Expected Outcome

The medium term expected outcome is improved climate change mitigation and adaptation measures.

Key Strategies

  • Improving weather and climate monitoring, prediction systems, and information and knowledge management systems;

  • Promoting dissemination of climate change information for early warning, preparedness and response;

  • Developing and harmonizing climate change related strategies, policies and legislation;

  • Mainstreaming climate change issues in sectoral policies, plans and programmes;

  • Promoting climate change related education, training, awareness and capacity building;

  • Enhancing implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation programmes;

  • Implementing a comprehensive national climate change investment plan;

  • Enhancing cross sectoral co-ordination of climate change programmes;

  • Enhancing legal and regulatory framework on climate change; and

  • Developing and implementing appropriate green house gas mitigation programmes and actions.

5.9.2 Natural Resources and Environmental Management

Malawi is endowed with a diversity of natural resources including fertile soils, forests, abundant water, diverse flora and fauna. Approximately 80 percent of the country’s population depends on natural resources for their subsistence and household income. Natural resources and environment play a significant role in influencing social and economic development in Malawi. However, increasing population growth coupled with high poverty levels have led to an increase in exploitation of natural resources. Inadequate alternative livelihoods, unaffordable energy technologies and uncoordinated policies have exacerbated environmental degradation leading to social and economic consequences.

Government will therefore implement the following goal, outcomes and strategies to address the above challenges.

Goal

The goal is to ensure sustainable management and utilization of the environment and natural resources.

Medium-Term Expected Outcomes

  • Improved regulatory framework for harmonized environmental and natural resource management; and

  • Improved environmental and natural resource management; and

  • Reduced environmental pollution and degradation.

Key Strategies

  • Improving coordination of environment and natural resource programmes;

  • Developing capacity for Environment and Natural Resource Management (ENRM);

  • Enforcing compliance to environmental and natural resource management legislation;

  • Enhancing mainstreaming of environment and natural resource management issues in sectoral policies and programmes at national and local levels;

  • Promoting biodiversity conservation programs;

  • Promoting development and implementation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), voluntary carbon markets and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation of Forest (REDD) projects;

  • Promoting projects on waste management;

  • Harmonizing environment and natural resources management policies and legislation;

  • Strengthening education and public awareness programmes on environment and natural resources management;

  • Promoting use of environmentally friendly technologies and practices; and

  • Enhancing environmental protection, restoration and rehabilitation.

The following Table 5.1 shows the key priority areas, goals and medium term expected outcomes.

Chapter 6 Implementation Framework

6.1 Implementation Modalities

The MGDS II has been developed to allow all stakeholders to participate in the development of the country. Its implementation will, therefore, involve all stakeholders, including the three arms of Government: the Executive, Parliament, and Judiciary; and civil society and Faith Based Organizations (FBOs); private sector and the general public. Government will lead the implementation process through technical coordination and its consolidated national budget. It is expected that all stakeholder institutions including donors, development and co-operating partners will continue to align their activities and support to this national development agenda, MGDS II.

The alignment to the budget will be critical for its successful implementation. The Ministry of Development Planning and Cooperation and the Ministry of Finance will facilitate and ensure that all ministries and departments align their sectoral plans, activities and budgets to the development strategy. Wherever sectoral plans do not exist, efforts should be made to develop them. Budget submissions, therefore, will be expected to include only activities that are aligned to this national strategy.

To ensure that the MGDS II is formulated, implemented and monitored with full participation of all stakeholders, Government instituted Sector Working Groups (SWGs). Membership of the SWGs is diverse and includes line Ministry clusters, civil society, private sector, non-government organizations, donors and cooperating partners. The private sector was included as an active partner in all the Sector Working Groups to enhance dialogue between Government and the private sector led growth.

A summary operational table is presented in Annex 1 to guide the implementation of the MGDS II. This table represents strategies, actions and expected outcomes of the MGDS II. As conditions change during implementation, progress made against the activities, outputs and medium term expected outcomes will be assessed to make necessary adjustments. Such assessment will be made based on information coming from sector ministries as well as other stakeholders.

MGDS II has identified six thematic areas from which the nine key priority areas have been isolated. The following have been identified as critical issues that must be pursued to achieve the set goals and targets of the MGDS II:

  • Political will and change of the mind set;

  • Government and Parliament will play their constitutional roles in ensuring that the ultimate objective of MGDS II is achieved thereby taking the country towards achieving the long-term goals;

  • Government will continue to improve donor coordination through the development and adherence to the Development Assistance Strategies (DAS);

  • Donors and co-operating partners will align their support and activities to the MGDS II. Government will lead the dialogue with donors on this alignment and seek to ensure that aid flows are predictable. On its part, Government will seek to ensure that resources are disbursed in a timely manner;

  • There is need to develop a strong, motivated and committed civil service that will ensure that Government remains committed to its policies, targets and obligations; and

  • There is need to put in place mechanisms and modalities for implementing activities that require heavy financial investments. These include development of PPPs; and build, operate and transfer initiatives.

6.2 Roles of Key Stakeholders in the Implementation of the MGDS II

Government: The main responsibility of Government shall be to provide public goods and services as well as regulatory framework. These include roads, railways, airports, education, health services, and social services among others. It shall also provide the necessary environment and incentives to promote private sector activities. Government shall safeguard the interests of all Malawians by correcting market failures through policy, legal and regulatory framework reviews.

Parliament: The Parliament will continue to enhance Parliamentary oversight, transparency and accountability in the implementation of the MGDS II. This will be done through members of parliament involvement in the scrutinisation, consideration and approval of Government budgets, reviewing and making laws. It shall ensure that the budget is being used to provide resources for the prioritised activities in the MGDS II. In this regard, the interests and priorities of Malawians shall be protected.

Private Sector: The role of the private sector is to invest in both economic and social sectors to generate economic growth and create wealth. In this context, the private sector is expected to take up opportunities outlined in the MGDS II during its implementation. The scope of the private sector participation will be widened to involve them in the provision of other public goods and services through PPPs.

Civil Society: The role of the civil society in the implementation of the MGDS II is to implement some specific activities in various sectors and to complement government’s oversight and accountability functions to safeguard the interests of Malawians.

Donors, Development and Co-operating Partners: The role of donors, development and co-operating partners shall be to assist across the board with financial and technical resources to implement the activities outline in the MGDS II. In doing so, they will be expected to support and align their activities with the MGDS II priorities.

Community: The role of the community will be to ensure smooth implementation of development activities through participatory planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. In addition, the community will contribute in kind towards some development activities.

6.3 Monitoring and Evaluation

Effective monitoring and evaluation of the activities of the MGDS II are critical for realization of set goals and outcomes. First, the process provides essential data and insights for drawing lessons, priority setting and informed review of the MGDS II implementation processes. Second, the process offers the assurance that resources, including donor funds, are used for agreed purposes. Financial monitoring, through PETS, will track the financial information that relate to the strategy’s resources with a view to maintaining an account of how and where these are applied. Good quality financial monitoring is critical to the effective implementation of the MGDS II and to accountability in the use of resources. Equally noteworthy, the integrity of the Government’s financial monitoring and reporting has a bearing on the degree to which stakeholders may have faith in the system before they can consider providing increased support.

During the implementation of MGDS, the M & E system was strengthened through the district and community level monitoring mechanism. This development strategy incorporates a system to monitor inputs, outcomes and impacts so that resources can be strategically managed and progress tracked. This process helps to distinguish the MGDS II monitoring from traditional project monitoring. The monitoring system will feed information back into the processes of governing and decision-making, making it a vital public management tool. To enable regular and quality reporting, key performance indicators have been identified for each sector. These indicators will help to focus efforts and resources for evaluating sector performance. To strengthen this, outcome and output indicators have clearly been separated to track every level of progress in the implementation process.

The monitoring of MGDS II will be in accordance with Monitoring and Evaluation Master Plan developed by the Ministry of Development Planning and Cooperation, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development and the NSO. The stakeholders will align indicators in accordance with the MGDS II themes and key priority areas. A set of impact level monitoring indicators has been developed and is presented in Annexes.

The summary operational matrix provides a summary of objectives that can also be monitored by line ministries. This will be used in the budget discussion processes and reviews of the MGDS II to track progress toward the impact indicators during implementation.

6.4 National M&E Framework

The implementation framework for MGDS II has taken into account all players who participate in the decision making for the development of the country (Figure 2).

Figure 2:Implementation Framework for MGDS II

At the Cabinet level the MGDS II will be chaired by the President. The Cabinet will review the annual progress in the implementation of the MGDS II. It is expected that various ministries will brief the Cabinet based on reports on the actual outputs and outcomes of the implementation of the strategy. Meanwhile the Minister of Development Planning and Cooperation will have a detailed report on the progress of the implementation that will act as a back up to sectoral presentations.

Prior to the budget session of Parliament, all parliamentarians will comment on the progress of the implementation of the strategy. The Parliament will base their debates from the midyear development reports as well as annual development reports produced by Ministry of Development Planning and Cooperation. The development report will articulate all issues outlined in the budget that are in line with the MGDS II.

The Secretary for Development Planning and Cooperation will present the progress report of the implementation to the entire meeting of the Principal Secretaries chaired by Chief Secretary. The Principal Secretaries as Controlling Officers are supposed to take necessary measures regarding issues raised in the mid-year and annual development reports.

There will be a technical committee in place and it will consist of development partners, senior civil servants, civil society and private sector. The committee will be chaired by Director of Monitoring and Evaluation in the Ministry of Development Planning and Cooperation. The Chair will prepare documentation for the Principal Secretaries’ meetings.

In order to improve monitoring of the implementation of the MGDS II, Government will develop a vibrant monitoring and evaluation system with a view to producing brief quarterly monitoring and evaluation reports. The Government will continue to develop capacity at both sector and district levels to monitor the implementation process. The Government will also strengthen monitoring and evaluation capacity at the local authority levels. All monitoring and evaluation activities of the MGDS II will be coordinated by Ministry of Development Planning and Cooperation.

The monitoring reports will be circulated widely for information sharing and advocacy. Ministry of Information and Civic Education will disseminate some of the information using different methods including the government website.

6.5 Financing and Budgetary Allocations

The MGDS II will largely be financed through three sources, namely, domestic revenues; external grants; and borrowing (both internally and externally). Additionally, PPPs for infrastructure programmes shall be encouraged. Other likely sources of financing are regional and international financing initiatives.

A summary of the estimated budgetary allocation to the key priorities and thematic areas for are presented in table 6.1 below.

Table 6.1:Estimated Budgetary Allocations to Themes and Key Priority Areas (Percentage of Planned Fiscal Expenditures)
Themes2010/112011/122012/132013/142014/152015/16
1Sustainable

Economic Growth
18.922.622.420.219.018.5
2Social Support and

Disaster Risk

Management
0.20.21.01.01.02.0
3Social Development37.137.437.838.138.639.1
4Infrastructure

Development
19.516.017.818.519.219.3
5Improving

Governance
24.123.521.022.022.021.0
6Gender and

Capacity

Development
0.20.20.30.20.20.1
Total100100100100100100
Note: Out of the total for the Themes, an allocation of an average of 77 percent will be directed towards the KPAs over the Strategy period.
Key Priority Areas

(KPAs)
2010/112011/122012/132013/142014/152015/16
1Agriculture and

Food Security
13.814.514.313.011.610.9
2Energy, Industrial

Development,

Mining and Tourism
1.72.84.04.34.84.4
3Transport

Infrastructure and

Nsanje World

Inland Port
16.812.012.613.013.213.8
4Education, Science

and Technology
19.121.121.221.321.821.9
5Public Health,

Sanitation, Malaria

and HIV/AIDS

Management
17.916.116.316.516.316.5
6Integrated Rural

Development
1.84.83.94.04.14.6
7Green Belt

Irrigation and Water

Development
2.02.83.62.72.82.4
8Child Development,

Youth Development

and Empowerment
0.81.21.11.11.41.6
9Climate Change,

Natural Resources

and Environmental

Management
1.81.11.01.21.31.1
Total75.776.378.277.177.277.2
Note:

  • Expenditure proportion towards Agriculture will be not less than 10% as stipulated in the CAADP Agenda and shall gradually stabilize around the same as the country attains its self sufficiency levels and resources will be diverted to other KPAs

  • Energy has been isolated as a major constraint in development in the country. As such, expenditure towards the sector is expected to rise (for instance starting from 2011/12 budget where the 2.8% proportion includes the major investment of MK7bn meant for Kapichira Hydro Station - Turbines, Lower Fufu Station etc). Thereafter, the allocation includes investment in industrialization, mining and tourism (promoting a conducive environment). Increased investment in the liquid fuels through strategic fuel storage facilities in the country

  • Increased infrastructure development with more resources going towards road networks in country. New road constructions are expected throughout the Strategy period. Similarly major investment will be in rail transport. From 2011/12 to 2012/13, resources towards Nsanje World In-Land port will be for the EIA (funded by AfDB through SADC regional program)

  • Education expenditure proportion shall be about 20% of the national budget based on the UNESCO Education for All (EFA) Dakar Declaration Framework for Action, 2000

  • Expenditure allocation in Public Health shall be around 15% as stipulated in the Paris Declaration and Accra Agenda of Action (AAA)

  • Integrated Rural Development will be enhanced with expenditure levels around 4% throughout the strategy period to achieve rural centres development

  • Increased investment in GBI as a national priority. This involves development of new areas for irrigation and rehabilitation of existing schemes in the country

  • Social expenditure shall continue on the same trend as Government’s policy objective of balancing economic development with reasonable spending in social services to the population

  • Issues of climate change are mainly addressed in key sectors like agriculture, energy, mining, industrial development as well as tourism hence focus is on policy related matters in this KPA

  • Theme: Cross-cutting Issues also includes gender related matters and capacity development which are spread across and included in all the KPAs and themes

Annex 1: Operational Matrix by Theme

THEME ONE: SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH

Sub-Theme 2: Natural Resources and Environmental Management

2.1 Forestry

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to enhance sustainable management of forest resources and their contribution to national economyIncreased forest coverDeveloping, conserving and protecting forest plantations, customary estates and natural woodlands- Inadequate human resource, equipment and infrastructure

- Inadequate investment in human resources and technologies
- Replant and rehabilitate forest plantations

- Rehabilitate bare and degraded areas on customary estate

- Undertake natural woodland regeneration activities on customary estate

- Undertake fire management activities in plantations and forest reserves

- Undertake forest patrols

- Implement forestry legislation

- Undertake various silvicultural operations in plantations and forest reserves

- Develop appropriate plans to conserve biodiversity

- Conserve and protect all riverine vegetation
Strengthening institutional capacity of the sector- Inadequate technical and professional staff

- Delays in issuing letters of authority to recruit

- Inadequate resources

- Weak management systems
- Recruit human resource

- Procure infrastructural development services

- Undertake various trainings

- Operationalise the Natural Resources Sector and Technical Working groups

- Undertake strategic planning

- Produce, implement, monitor and evaluate forestry operational plans

- Undertake human resource activities

- Undertake administrative activities

- Undertake financial management activities
Improving forestry extension services, research, and information management- Inadequate resources

- Inadequate specialised human resource, equipment and infrastructure
- Undertake tree planting campaigns

- Undertake fire control campaigns

- Undertake silviculture operation campaigns

- Train communities in tree management and silviculture operations and

- Produce brochures and leaflets on forestry management

- Conduct forestry research

- Collect and store tree germplasm

- Establish a forestry database

- Establish forestry information channels
Enforcing and ensuring compliance with agreed national, regional, and international obligations and legislation- Delays in funding approved annual work plan

- Weak enforcement capacity
- Review policies for the forestry sub sector

- Produce forestry products standards

- Review Forestry legislation

- Develop forestry regulation strategy

- Disseminate forestry policy guidelines to stakeholders

- Sensitize stakeholders on forestry plans, policies and regulations

- Monitor compliance to forestry plans, policies and regulations

- Facilitate legal action for non compliance to the set standards and Act

- Participate in appeals tribunal
Increased incomes from forestry products and servicesPromoting large, medium and small scale forest enterprises- Delays in approving and enforcing royalties and fees- Review forest royalties and fees

- Gazette and implement revised royalties and fees

- Undertake co-management in forest reserves

- Facilitate formation of cooperatives and associations

- Monitor implementation of concessions

- Provide technical support to entrepreneurs

Sub-Theme 4: Private Sector Development, Industry and Trade

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to develop and promote a conducive environment that will enhance inclusive private sector growth and competitivenessAn enabling environment for domestic and foreign investments createdFostering pro-business legal and regulatory reforms-Poor regulatory environment for businesses

-Cumbersome and overlapping business licensing regimes

-Weak contract enforcement and limited access to commercial justice
-Review and formulation of business friendly laws and regulations

-Develop new competition policies and legislation

-Promote public private dialogue

-Facilitate the negotiations of Investment Promotion and Protection Agreements and Double Taxation Agreements

-Strengthen law enforcement and dispute resolution mechanisms
Providing supportive infrastructure and services for both start-ups and expanding enterprises-Weak policy analysis, formulation and implementation-Automation and interconnection of business and administrative processes

-Training of staff and knowledge management

-Attachment of staff to similar institutions in other countries

-Study tours

-Provision of enabling finances, resources and equipment
Increased investments by both local and foreign entrepreneursPromoting growth of local Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs)-Limited access to finance for MSMEs

-Lack of information on MSMEs

-Lack of appropriate technologies for MSMEs

-Poor access to markets
-Providing entrepreneurial development skills, and human resource development

-Promotion of small enterprise and entrepreneurship in schools

-Promotion of private sector investment in the SME sector

-Promotion and development of co-operatives

-Development of an information base and network on trade and industry that includes the MSME sector
Promoting private sector investment in rural areas-Lack of entry of private financial institutions into the low income, rural and agricultural markets in Malawi resulting in limited access to financial services-Sub-contract the rural financial market lending function to private sector institutions

-Develop market structures in both rural and urban areas
-High level of government intervention in the mobilization of rural savings with a market distorting lending practice-Introduce modernized payment systems in rural areas

-Develop a bond market

-Develop market structures
Strengthening the capacity of private sector supporting institutions and Public Private Partnerships-Weak policy analysis, formulation and implementation-Automation and interconnection of business and administrative processes

-Training of staff and knowledge management

-Attachment of staff to similar institutions in other countries

-Study tours

-Provision of enabling finances, resources and equipment
Improved productivity and market access of enterprisesEnhancing dissemination of business information-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Poor coordination
-Provide information centres
Promoting adoption of modern and appropriate technologies-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Low literacy levels

-Limited access to appropriate technologies
-Identify appropriate technologies

-Promote access to appropriate technologies and microfinance schemes
Establish a national investment company
Promoting and strengthening the development of cooperatives-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Low literacy levels

-cumbersome procedures
-Encourage women entrepreneurship and involvement in cooperative

Sub-Theme 5: Rural Development

5.1 Decentralisation

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to enhance decision-making and participation of local communities in development planning and implementation.Empowered local government structuresEnhancing implementation of the decentralization process-Lack of capacity at local level

-Inadequate funding

-Lack of coordination among stakeholders
-Build institutional capacity at the district level

-Harmonize decentralization policy and national policy frameworks

-Increase financial allocation to local authorities

--Enhance stakeholder coordination at local levels
Enhanced participation and ownership of the development programmes by local communitiesStrengthening community participation in development-Low literacy levels

-Inadequate local level institutional structures
-Train communities for active participation in development activities at the district level.

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Define clear roles of all groups of stakeholders at the district level.
Improved coordination at district levelStrengthening coordination of local government systems-Lack of coordination among stakeholders-Enhance stakeholder coordination at local levels
Strengthening capacity of local government structures and stakeholders-Inadequate resources

-High staff turnover
-Conduct needs assessment

-Train stakeholders,

-Procure equipment

-Improve infrastructure

-Promote women participation in decision-making positions in local government structures
Strengthening the M&E system-High staff turnover

-Lack of career path

-Inadequate financial resources
-Create career path

-Recruit and train personnel

-Strengthen community monitoring and evaluation

5.2 Rural Industrialization

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to improve living standards of rural communities through enhanced rural industrialization.Enhanced product diversificationBuilding capacity in product diversification, business management, and production processes.-Limited technical capacity in product diversification and management

-Limited technology use

-Low literacy levels
-Identify alternative products

-Undertake research in appropriate technologies

-Develop technical capacity in product diversification and management

-Conduct market research
Strengthening and expanding OVOP initiatives in rural areas-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate expertise and equipment

-Donor dependence
-Procure and install equipment

-Facilitate access to both local and international markets

-Build capacity for cooperatives and SMEs

-Conduct awareness campaigns on OVOP initiatives
Reduced rural-urban migrationPromoting development of supportive infrastructure-Inadequate financial resources,

-Inadequate capacity of service providers
-Develop infrastructure in rural areas

-Encourage public private partnerships

-Develop secondary development centres

-Establish rural skill development centres

-Provide social amenities
Reduced poverty among rural communitiesPromoting equal access to credit; Promoting industrial projects in rural areas-Limited coverage of financial institutions

-High interest rates

-Low literacy level
-Establish links between cooperatives and rural financiers

-Conduct business development training

-Encourage financial institutions to open service centres in rural areas

-Improve macroeconomic environment

Sub-Theme 6: Tourism, Wildlife and Culture

6.2 Wildlife

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To conserve and manage wildlife in both protected areas and natural habitatsImproved wildlife managementReducing human animal conflicts-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate research and monitoring capacity

-Low population of animals in protected areas

-Inadequate publicity on the value of wildlife
-Scale up capacity of the Department and stakeholders to deal with problematic animals

-Construct and maintain game proof solar powered electric fences

-Conduct public awareness campaigns
Promoting alternative livelihood sources for communities living around protected areas-Inadequate human and financial resources-Develop standards and guidelines for wildlife farming, ranching and utilisation

-Promote IGAs and implement benefit sharing in the other PAs
Promoting community wildlife conservation and monitoring-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Low literacy levels
-Support wildlife community conservation efforts

-Develop and implement a collaborative tsetse fly and trypanosomiasis control and monitoring programme in the affected areas

-Facilitate formation of legally constituted CBOs & build capacity in existing CBOs

-Review co-management agreements

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Developing a database to monitor wildlife population trends-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate equipment
-Develop a monitoring and evaluation system

-Conduct wildlife survey to feed into the database

-Operationalise a data archival system

-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure equipment
Improving law enforcement and effectiveness-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Inadequate infrastructure

-Lack of awareness
-Build capacity in law enforcement

-Construct and maintain solar powered electric fences

-Construct and rehabilitate infrastructure

-Procure equipment

-Recruit and train personnel

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Promoting and regulating wildlife farming, utilization and trade-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate awareness
-Promote IGAs and implement benefit sharing in PAs

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Construct and rehabilitate lodges in protected areas

-Identify new eco-lodge sites and procure new concessionaires

-Translocate and introduce new animals to increase sightings

-Monitor wildlife population trends

-Conduct economic analysis including product prices for wildlife

-Promote community eco-lodges and joint ventures

-Identify inventories

-Map out eco-tourism attractions inside and outside PAs

-Recruit and train personnel
Enhancing wildlife IEC programmes-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Low literacy levels
-Carry out mass awareness campaigns

-Develop a PA marketing and communication plan
Improved institutional and regulatory frameworkStrengthening institutional capacity to manage protected areas and ecosystems-Inadequate funding

-Inadequate human resources
-Plan and implement human resource development programmes

-Recruit and train personnel

-Finalize and implement DNPW training plan and guidelines

-Accredit MCFW

6.3 Culture

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to uphold and promote national heritage for identity, posterity and developmentImproved preservation of Malawi’s cultural heritage and values-Preserving historical artifacts and upgrading retrieval system;

-Preserving and constructing national monuments;

-Promoting establishment of cultural centres

-Promoting and preserving local cultural diversity
-Inadequate financial and human resources;

-Inadequate trained personnel

-Lack of purpose built museum storage

-Unavailability/inadequate information
-Conduct trainings in indigenous skills;

-Develop and submit project proposals;

-Carry out conservation and preservation programmes

-Install smoke detectors and fire extinguishers, dehumidifiers and hygrometers

-Construct and rehabilitate monuments

-Develop Electronic data base and website

-Revive the Monument Advisory Council and declare monuments as protected national treasure

-Carry out research in archaeology, anthropology, ethnography, geo-archaeology, paleontology, history and rock art

-Carry out exhibitions

-Rehabilitate museum buildings
Increased promotion and development of Malawi’s culture-Creating public awareness on national heritage programs;

-Promoting research and documentation of Malawi’s cultural and natural heritage and

-Enhancing the sub-sector’s institutional capacity
Inadequate financial and human resources and equipment and appropriate vehicles

-Unwillingness and lack of commitment from stakeholders

-Poor record management practices and absence of proper updated schedules

-Lack of purpose-built infrastructure
Formulate management and marketing plans



Revive the Arts and Crafts Advisory Council

-Carry out research on the indigenous musical instruments, fine arts, performing arts and crafts

-Children Traditional Games, Songs and Dance

-Train artists and arts managers

-Procure costumes, props and protective clothes

-Develop a directory of artists and works.

Sub-Theme 7: Labour and Employment

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to stimulate and ensure productive and decent employment for better standards of livingImproved labour productivityPromoting occupational safety and health(OSH)-Lack of knowledge on OSH

-Non compliance

-Limited human and financial resources

-Weak institutional policy and legislation

-Inadequate equipment for OSH
-Develop National OSH Policy, Programmes and guidelines

-Review OSH Act and its supporting regulations

-Build technical and institutional capacity

-Enforce OSH standards

-Conduct OSH awareness campaigns

-Enhance information documentation and dissemination

-Mainstream OSH in workplaces

-Construct OSH laboratory
Promoting skills development, testing and certification-Limited technical expertise

-Inadequate training institutions

-Limited financial resources

-Lack of trade testing policy and law
-Review curricula in line with the current labour market demand

-Construct and rehabilitate training and testing institutions

-Acquire modern training and testing equipment

-Raise awareness on trade testing

-Recruit and train technical specialists in trade testing

-Develop and adopt Trade Testing Policy and Law
Increased gainful and decent employment for allEstablishing an effective and efficient labour market information (LMI) system-Limited technical capacity

-Inadequate equipment
-Train key stakeholders in data collection, storage and analysis

-Build capacity of officers on LMI system

-Strengthen institutional capacity

-Procure equipment

-Conduct labour market research
Reducing all forms of discrimination in the labour market-Culture of silence-Conduct awareness campaigns on labour laws

-Introduce anonymous reporting system
Promoting labour administration systems-Lack of clear policy

-Weak institutional and regulatory framework

-Inadequate financial resources
-Establish Labour Inspections Service Central Unit

-Recruit and train Labour Inspectors

-Build technical and institutional capacity

-Develop Labour Inspection Guidelines

-Review Labour policy and laws

-Establish an independent mediation and conciliation system

-Enhance coordination
-Eliminated worst forms of child labour

-Strengthened legal, regulatory and institutional reforms
Reviewing, harmonizing and enforcing existing legislation on child labour-Inadequate human and financial resources-Review and harmonize the existing legislation

-Enforce legislation

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Integrate child labour issues into development initiatives and interventions





Integrating gender specific issues in all labour initiatives and interventions
-Inadequate financial resources

-Poor coordination

-Weak institutional capacity
-Develop and disseminate child labour policy and national action plan

-Mainstream child labour issues in sectoral plans

-Strengthen institutional capacity including enforcement of agencies and social partners

-Develop and implement child labour monitoring system

-Develop prevention and rehabilitation programmes and facilities

-Conduct a national child labour survey

-Conduct a survey and develop a periodic report on the share of women in wage employment in the non agriculture sector;

-Conduct gender audit in the labour market

-Train officers in the Ministry of Labour in Gender analysis and mainstreaming

-Engender Labour laws

Sub-theme 8: Land

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to ensure equitable access to land and tenure security; efficient management and administration system; and ecologically balanced use of land and land-based resources.Improved equitable access to land and tenure securityRaising public awareness on land related laws, policies, and procedures-Lack of communication strategy

-Poor stakeholder coordination
-Develop a communication strategy

-Develop IEC materials

-Conduct public awareness campaigns

-Conduct research and studies on land issues
Improved provision of geospatial informationDeveloping mechanism for widespread dissemination of geographic information and digital mapping services-Inadequate dissemination channels

-Inadequate financial and human resources
-Develop a communication strategy

-Develop IEC materials

-Create website

-Establish customer service centre
Improved land planning, ecologically balanced land use and managementPromoting land ownership and title registration-Weak institutional capacity

-Land speculation

-Encroachment and squatting
-Acquire land for redistribution

-Register acquired land

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Establish computerized land registration systems

-Train personnel
Providing physical development planning standards, management guidelines and legal framework-Inadequate human and financial capacity

-High rural-urban migration
-Review physical development standards and management guidelines

-Review and harmonize land legislation and policies

-Allocate serviced plots in urban and semi-urban areas
Decentralizing land administration and management functions-Lack of transparency and accountability in land administration

-Weak institutional structures
-Strengthen institutional capacity at local authority levels

-Transfer land related documents to local authorities

-Devolve land administration and management functions

-Undertake fiscal decentralization

THEME TWO: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Sub-Theme 1: Population

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomesStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To manage population growth for sustainable socio-economic developmentReduced fertility rate-Enhancing the provision, access, delivery and utilization of sexual and reproductive health services to all including the vulnerable and disadvantaged groups-Inadequate human and financial resource

-Low literacy levels

-Inadequate youth friendly RHS

-Insufficient institutions and outreach services
-Increase community- based distribution programmes of contraceptives;

-Conduct advocacy forums with various stakeholders

-Train more family planning service providers

-Expand coverage of youth friendly RHS institutions

-Conduct awareness campaigns
-Advocating girls’ education and delayed marriage-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Prohibitive cultural and traditional practices

-Girl-child unfriendly infrastructure

-High poverty levels
-Advocate for girl retention in schools at all levels

-Provide bursaries for needy girls

-Advocate for delayed marriage

-Train more women in professional skills

-Advocate for affirmative action in recruiting women in senior positions

-Establish income generating activities in rural areas

-Provide girl-child friendly infrastructure
Promoting the small family concept-Inadequate human resource to undertake advocacy

-Individual perception

-Low literacy levels

-High poverty levels

-Lack of community awareness
-Train community workers on small family concept

-Support IEC and advocacy campaigns on the importance of having small family size

-Advocate for male participation in family planning

-Encourage use of modern family planning methods

-Provide modern family planning services
Providing sexual and reproductive health education for both in-and out-of-school sexually active population-Low human capacity

-Lack of coordination among stakeholders

Individual perception
-Provide more reproductive health commodities

-Recruit and train advocacy personnel

-Encourage youth friendly SRH services

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Addressing the vulnerabilities caused by population ageing, migration and rapid urbanization, and the interdependence of population and the environment.-Inadequate human and financial capacities

-Lack of opportunities in rural areas

-Weak migration control systems,

-Uncontrolled rural-urban migration
-Provide adequate socio-economic services

-Produce advocacy materials on rights of elderly persons

-Provide social security for the elderly

-Strengthen boarder control systems

-Provide social support programmes

-Increase economic opportunities in rural areas

-Promote environmental friendly technologies
Well managed migrationStrengthening migration and national vital registration systems-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate awareness

-Inadequate equipment
-Provide support infrastructure for vital registration system

-Procure equipment

-Support the strengthening of the capacity of national statistical system

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Review progress on vital registration system

Sub-Theme 6: Nutrition

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Functions and Activities
A well nourished population that effectively contributes to development of the countryReduced prevalence of nutrition disordersPromoting exclusive breast-feeding practices for children aged 0-6 months;-Inadequate funding

-Low uptake of messages on optimal breast feeding practices

-Low literacy levels
-Conduct assessment of health facilities for Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) status and re-assessment of baby friendly hospitals

-Conduct sensitization and awareness campaigns

-Conduct orientation meetings for key stakeholders on the need for maternity protection and support to lactating mothers

-Disseminate the revised Infant and Young Child Nutrition Policy, guidelines and job aides

-Review and update infant and young child feeding counselling programs

-Integrate counselling services on the feeding and management of a sick child, in PMTCT
Promoting optimal feeding practices for children aged 6-24 months and beyond-Inadequate human and financial resources

-High poverty levels
- Develop and disseminate job aides for the integration of ENAs in the nutrition interventions

- Conduct training and orientation for the service providers and other stakeholders

- Develop and implement a comprehensive nutrition education and communication strategy on infant and young child feeding

- Provide technical support to health facilities to maintain or attain the BFHI status

-Promote dietary diversification
Promoting optimal feeding of a sick child during and after illness-Inadequate resources at household and community level

-Limited knowledge

-Inadequate uptake of micronutrient supplementation
-Train service providers and caregivers

-Integrate counselling services on the feeding and management of a sick child

-Promote dietary diversification

-Conduct sensitization and awareness campaigns

-Provide micro nutrient supplementation according to guidelines
Promoting the prevention, control and treatment of micronutrient deficiency disorders particularly those caused by vitamin A, Iodine and Iron, including food fortification-Inadequate human resource capacity

-Inadequate resources at household and community levels

-Inadequate awareness
-Scale up the provision of micro nutrient supplementation

-Review and update infant and young child feeding counselling

-Conduct advocacy and awareness campaigns

-Conduct school campaigns for micronutrient supplementation, deworming and other public health interventions;

- Disseminate guidelines for management of malnutrition,

- Align food standards for centrally processed food items with regional guidelines and international best practices

-Intensify food monitoring activities
Improving access to nutrition supplements for malnourished children, expectant and lactating mothers, the elderly and physically challenged-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate equipment
-Train district and community based service providers and support groups

-Provide food supplements

-Procure equipment

-Conduct sensitization and awareness campaigns

-Orient stakeholders on prevention and management of moderate, severe and acute malnutrition

-Review guidelines and accompanying materials for Nutrition Care, Support and Treatment (NCST) of PLWHIV, TB and chronically ill

-Strengthen and scale up CTC services, NRU and supplementary sites
Promoting access to at least one nutritious meal and related health and nutrition services for the school-going children-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate resources at household and community levels to facilitate sustainable adoption;

Slow adoption of healthy eating habits and life styles;
-Integrate nutrition education, communication and growth monitoring to the school feeding programme

-Conduct trainings for service providers on food processing, preparation, storage and participatory recipe development

-Review code of marketing infant and young child foods

-Promote dietary diversification

-Conduct sensitization and awareness campaigns

-Build capacity of schools to manage nutrition issues

-Provide appropriate water and sanitation facilities in public schools for prevention of infectious diseases

-Scale up innovative ways of providing school meals
Strengthening capacities for households and communities to attain adequate nutrition-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate resources at household and community levels to facilitate sustainable adoption
-Develop and disseminate nutrition information

-Train child-bearing age women on food diversification

-Recruit and train personnel

-Engage community based service providers and support groups in regular follow-up and support to pregnant and lactating mothers at all levels

-Facilitate the formation of economic empowerment groups

-Provide credit and business management support to the households and communities
Preventing and controlling nutrition related non-communicable and other diseases-Inadequate human and financial capacity;

-Inadequate resources at household and community levels

-Limited knowledge
-Review guidelines, protocols and counseling tools for IMCI, PMTCT and growth monitoring

-Update and disseminate messages on child feeding, management of NCDs and adequate nutrition

-Create positions and recruit Nutrition, HIV and AIDS Officers in key Government Ministries and Departments

-Conduct training of trainers in CTC services, NRU sites and supplementary site
Scaling up innovative interventions in management of malnutrition among the various population groups-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate resources at household and community levels

-Poor coordination in managing malnutrition in under-five children
-Develop a comprehensive nutrition education and communication strategy

-Conduct community awareness campaigns

-Review and document nutrition training materials

-Conduct training of trainers in prevention and management of malnutrition
Strengthening institutional and human capacities for the effective delivery of nutrition services-Inadequate financial resources

-Poor coordination amongst nutrition service providers and implementers
-Review and disseminate standards for fortification in line with regional standards

Train service providers, counselors and extension workers

-Develop and advocate legislation for fortification

-Train extension workers in post-harvest food management and nutrition support programmes

-Integrate nutrition education, communication and growth monitoring to the school feeding programme

-Conduct training of trainers in CTC services, NRU sites and supplementary site

-Recruit, train and deploy Nutrition, and HIV and AIDS Officers

-Build capacity of schools to conduct regular nutrition assessment, health and nutrition education in schools and surrounding communities

-Strengthen nutrition information systems

-Harmonize nutrition sectoral policies

-Strengthen coordination at all levels

-Strengthen the National Fortification Alliance

–Build capacity of frontline workers on dietary diversification
Promoting healthy life styles-Inadequate financial and human resources

-High poverty levels

-Low literacy levels
-Develop and disseminate a set of recipes and guidelines

-Develop information education and communication (IEC) materials

-Review Curricula in all learning and training institutions to include nutrition issues

-Train service providers on food processing, preparation, storage and participatory recipe development

-Monitor food processing technologies and standards
Promoting production and access of high nutritive value foods for diversified and nutritious diets-Inadequate financial and human resources

-High poverty levels

-Low literacy levels
-Scale up sustainable economic and social protection interventions

-Conduct advocacy and awareness campaigns

-Build capacity of households and communities to increase agricultural production and diversification

-Scale up interventions that promote production and access to high nutritive value foods-Mobilize households affected by nutrition disorders to demand food and nutrition security programs

THEME THREE: SOCIAL SUPPORT AND DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT

Sub-Theme 1: Supporting the Vulnerable

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomesStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To improve resilience and quality of life for the poor to move out of poverty and vulnerabilityImproved social security interventionsEnhancing and promoting predictable transfers to the most vulnerable and the ultra poor households-Weak coordination of social support programs and projects

-Uncoordinated targeting

-Insufficient scientific information

-Inadequate resources

-Growing number of the vulnerable

-Limited integration of Public Works Program
-Provide supplementary feeding to malnourished pregnant, lactating mothers and under five children

-Sustain and scale-up the targeted School Feeding Program

-Implement HIV and AIDS impact mitigation programmes

-Scale up the school bursary system

-Implement public works program with components of national employment guarantee scheme

-Continue implementation of the Farm Input Subsidy Program
Establishing coherent and progressive social support synergies-Weak coordination of social support programs and projects-Review the National Social Support Program

-Undertake a comprehensive targeting study to analyze existing and potential targeting mechanisms

-Develop a comprehensive social support database

-Strengthen synergies and complementarities among social support programmes
Improved asset base and productive capacity of the poorPromoting existing livelihood activities for the poor-Weak coordination among programs

-Inadequate resources

-Entrenched dependence culture

-Weak targeting mechanism
-Scale up small stock and grain mills programs for the most vulnerable

-Facilitate establishment and training of social support committees

-Facilitate implementation of village savings and loans programme

-Facilitate involvement of women and other vulnerable groups in livelihood enhancing activities
Promoting village savings and loans programmes-Lack of saving culture among the rural poor

-Limited coverage of financial institutions to support the programmes
-Scale-up existing village savings and loan programs

-Link village savings and loan program with other social support programmes

-Train stakeholders on village savings and loans

-Link village groups to financial institutions
Promoting longer term, skills oriented and asset enhancing interventions-Inadequate resources

-Lack of sustainability mechanisms

-High illiteracy levels
-Create dedicated fund for microcredit to provide more affordable capital to MFIs

-Develop microfinance policy

-Facilitate provision of loans to vulnerable groups

-Train vulnerable groups on business management and asset enhancing skills
Improving and scaling up the Social Cash Transfer (SCT) Programme-Inadequate human and financial resources-Conduct sensitization meetings with key development structures at district level

-Identify additional beneficiary districts and households

-Introduce the e-payment mechanism

-Conduct training of trainers

-Establish SCT district secretariats

-Procure office equipment and supplies

-Provide cash transfers to both existing and new beneficiary households

Sub-Theme 2: Disaster Risk Management

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomesStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To reduce the social, economic and environmental impact of disastersStrengthened capacity for effective preparedness, response and recoveryDeveloping and strengthening DRM policy and institutional frameworks-Weak institutional capacity

-Low awareness of disaster risk reduction among stakeholders at all levels
-Develop DRM policy

-Review Disaster Preparedness and Relief Act, 1991

-Develop and implement DRM communication strategy

-Invest in knowledge and education for DRM
Mainstreaming DRM into policies, strategies and programmes-Insufficient institutional capacity and planning process for DRM-Develop guidelines for DRM mainstreaming

-Train and sensitize stakeholders on mainstreaming DRM

-Build DRM and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) capacity
Strengthening DRM coordination mechanisms among stakeholders-Inadequate human resources

-Non existence of a multi stakeholder forum for coordination
-Establish and operationalize multi stakeholder forum for coordination of DRM activities
Enhancing capacity on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) and other remote sensing technologies-Inadequate capacity in using space based technology

-Inadequate resources can impede the development of maps
-Train officers in use of space based information and technology

-Develop risk assessment guidelines

-Conduct DRR and CCA risk assessment in disaster prone districts

-Procure GIS equipment and software
Developing an integrated national Early Warning System (EWS)-Inadequate and outdated equipment

-Inadequate personnel in relevant institutions

-Lack of linkages among existing EWS and stakeholders
-Establish an integrated early warning system

-Develop hazard maps

-Conduct survey to identify potential national and cross border risks

-Develop risk monitoring system and database of potential risks

-Upgrade EWS to international standards

-Conduct capacity building for EWS
Implementing mitigation measures in disaster prone areas-Inadequate funding mechanism for contingency planning and response

-Inadequate expertise in disaster recovery
-Develop contingency plans in all districts

-Network disaster prone districts (internet website/communication)

-Sensitize local authorities on contingency plans

-Incorporate risk reduction approaches in the design implementation of DRM programs

-Build capacity of stakeholders in risk and disaster preparedness, response and recovery

-Conduct DRR and CCA risk assessment in disaster prone districts

-Conduct a comprehensive analysis of the documented best practices

-Construct DoDMA Warehouses in strategic places
Incorporating DRM in all school curricula-Limited research and skills in DRM

-Limited resources
-Engage learning institutions on incorporation of DRM into the existing education and training curriculum

-Develop short and long-term DRM courses

-Conduct research on locally appropriate DRM technologies and approaches
Promoting awareness, access, distribution and utilization of reliable and relevant DRM information-Insufficient DRM knowledge by the media-Develop DRM website and information centre

-Sensitize the media on DRM issues

-Disseminate operational guidelines, policy, DRM Handbook and DRR framework to all stakeholders

THEME FOUR: INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT

Sub Theme 2: Transport - Air Transport

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomesStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to ensure a safe, efficient and competitive aviation industryImproved safety and management in accordance with international standardsPromoting and facilitating a competitive, and efficient air transport industryLimited financial and human resources-Construct and upgrade airports

-Automate airport administration systems

-Formulate/adopt policies that promote competition

-Review aviation policies
Providing safe, efficient, and reliable aviation infrastructure and services-Inadequate financial resources-Acquire fire-fighting and airport navigation equipment

-Upgrade geodetic and Air Transport Management (ATM) systems
Improved regulatory and institutional frameworkEstablishing and maintaining legislative and regulatory framework-Inadequate human capacity

-Non existence of an independent aviation regulator Outdated aviation agreements
-Develop civil aviation master plan

-Establish civil aviation regulator

-Review bilateral air services agreements
Improved security in airportsPromoting effective safety and security oversight systems-Lack of modern security equipment

-Lack of secure airport perimeter fence

-Lack of paved runways
-Adopt regional and international cooperative arrangements to enhance safety and efficiency

-Procure modern security equipment

-Construct and rehabilitate airport infrastructures
Improved reliability and competitivenessUndertaking reforms in the aviation sectorInadequate financial and human capacity-Review of legislation regulations, rules and procedures

-Encourage technical and commercial joint venture

-Encourage local participation in equity and technical partnerships of airlines
Strengthening institutional capacity-Inadequate financial resources

-Lack of motivation
-Develop capacity of the sector

-Rehabilitate the School of Aviation

-Improve conditions of service in the aviation sector
Implementing environmental protection measures-Lack of required knowledge-Implement environmentally friendly technologies in the aviation sector
Promoting Public Private Partnerships to facilitate private investment-Lack of investment capital

-High cost of borrowing
-Create conducive environment for investment

-Encourage private sector participation in the provision and maintenance of aviation infrastructure

Sub Theme 4: Information and Communication

4.1 Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomesStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to increase utilization of ICT, ensure universal access to ICT products and services to improve service delivery in both public and private sectorsImproved ICT broadband infrastructureDeveloping a reliable, fast, adaptive and robust national ICT infrastructure that feeds into international networks-Inadequate human resource capacity

-Poor and underdeveloped infrastructure
-Establish broadband networks for tertiary education and research institutions

-Connect Malawi to the undersea fiber optic cable through Tanzania

-Expand and enhance GWAN

-Establish local assembly networks

-Establish fiber links connecting local assemblies

-Rollout infrastructure for the public postal operator.
Increased usage and access to information and communication servicesMainstreaming ICT into sector policies and strategies and operations-Inadequate financial resources-Review DISTMS strategic plans Advocate for review of sectoral policies
Improving rural and underserved communities’ access to ICT services-Low literacy levels; and unavailability of electricity-Establish tele-centres and rural libraries

-Provide ICT services to rural and underserved communities

-Implement universal access initiatives

-Provide internet connectivity to public institutions
Promoting the participation of private ICT service providers-Inadequate incentives-Provide incentives to private ICT service providers
Promoting information, education and communication on ICT-Low literacy levels

-Brain drain
-Conduct ICT awareness campaigns
Improved postal and broadcasting services;Improving efficiency in delivering postal services-Inadequate capacity in postal service delivery-Implement hybrid mail

-Establish postal physical addressing system

-Train personnel

-Automate postal services

-Rehabilitate postal infrastructure

-Establish rural banking services; and

-Establish multipurpose information centres
Migrating from analogue to digital television broadcasting-Limited period for transition-Replace analogue transmitters

-Provide subsidies

-Conduct poverty and social impact analysis study

-Establish signal distributor
Improved ICT governanceImproving the regulatory framework for the sector-Review Communication Act 1998

-Conduct MACRA institutional review

-Develop ICT regulations, standards and guidelines

-Enforce ICT regulations, standards and guidelines

-Develop information society bill

-Enforce information society regulations
Enhanced ICT capacity for the general publicDeveloping public online services-Absence of legal framework;

-Lack of awareness
-Train application developers

-Develop interactive ICT applications

-Conduct user training

-Implement electronic records management system

-Establish and operationalise Government data centre

-Manage and coordinate existing government wide systems

4.2 Media and Communication

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomesStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to ensure that the population has access to timely and relevant information, and increase popular participation of the citizens in development, governance and democratic processesIncreased access to informationPromoting distribution of publications-High printing and distribution costs;

-Inadequate human and financial resources
-Fill existing vacancies through recruitment

-Strengthen capacity of government printing services
Promoting screening of developmental video documentaries to communities-Inadequate mobile vans, equipment and skilled personnel-Equip the section with modern video facilities at district level

-Train personnel
Abridging, translating and distributing policies and other important documents into major vernacular languages-Lack of transcription equipment;

-Insufficient professional personnel conversant with vernacular languages
-Recruit and train personnel in translation, transcription and abridging

-Collect, package and disseminate information

-Acquire transcription equipment

-Develop, update and manage websites
Enhancing skills capacity of media personnel-In adequate financial resources

-Lack of well trained personnel

-Inadequate modern equipment
-Train media personnel

-Procure modern equipment
Strengthening regulatory framework to facilitate free flow of information-Lack of appropriate policies

-Lack of trained personnel
-Develop and review relevant policies

-Enact relevant information bills
Strengthening information, education and communication on topical issues-Personnel and financial resources

-Lack of IEC equipment and materials
-Conduct film and drama shows

-Develop and distribute IEC materials

-Conduct media campaign on topical issues using television and radio
Promoting discussion forums on topical issuesPersonnel and financial resources-Conduct public meetings, debate and focus group discussions

SUB THEME 5: HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT

5.1 Housing

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomesStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to increase access to decent housing with particular attention to low income householdsIncreased availability of affordable and decent housesStrengthening institutional, legal and regulatory framework-Inadequate capacity, i.e. both human and financial;



-Delays in Government procedures and inefficient processes
-Adopt the revised National Housing Policy

-Formulate and adopt a Housing Act

-Review the MHC Act

-Formulate and adopt Building Regulations and Standards

-Formulate and adopt a National Construction Policy

-Decentralise property management services

-Create additional posts at District level

-Develop and manage Government owned properties

-Manage Government properties in foreign missions

-Develop a legal framework for management of properties

-Value properties

-Produce valuation rolls
Strengthening capacity for decentralized housing delivery-Inappropriate decentralising structures

-High vacancy rates

-Inadequate and inappropriate capacity at all levels

-Lengthy Government procedures in filling vacant posts
-Conduct functional review to include decentralised functions

-Fill vacant positions

-Develop capacity at all levels
Scaling up the provision of basic infrastructure and services particularly in informal settlements-High costs of infrastructure

-High rates of vandalism

-Limited number of players in infrastructure provision
-Encourage community participation in infrastructure development

-Advocate incremental infrastructure (Slum) upgrading

-Strengthen informal settlements focal points in Local Authorities

-Encourage private sector participation
Promoting national housing financing mechanisms-Limited number of financing institutions;

-High cost of borrowing;

-Prohibitive conditions of borrowing;

-Lack of housing finance for the poor and low income groups
-Lobby for the establishment of National Housing Fund;

-Encourage a savings culture;

-Encourage financial institutions to support housing development

-Recapitalize the Public Home Ownership Scheme

-Encourage private sector to establish home ownership schemes for their employees

-Lobby micro-finance institutions to support housing development

-Promote housing financing mechanisms that are easily accessible to low income households

-Promote housing financing mechanisms that are easily accessible to women
Promoting Public and Private Partnerships in housing delivery-Inadequate incentives

-Limited collaboration between public and private sectors

-High incidences of poverty
-Develop PPP policy

-Develop and establish more housing development programmes/projects

-Lobby financial institutions to support SME in housing industry

-Lobby private sector to collaborate with public in housing delivery
Promoting planning to improve quality of rural and urban housing and settlement patterns-Limited access to land

-Land tenure insecurity

-Cumbersome procedures in approving development plans

-high cost of building materials
-Adhere to land-use plan

-Create awareness on proper land use

-Enhance decentralisation of rural housing delivery

-Recapitalize the rural housing credit fund

-Develop information kits on good housing

-Sensitize rural households on Safer Construction Guidelines
Developing and promoting the use of local building materials-Absence of beneficial technologies

-Lack of research in the building industry
Encourage research in the use of local building materials

-Promote use of local building materials
Providing safe and adequate space to public institutions and officers-Inadequate financial resources

-High rental charges

-Lack of capacity of contractors
-Construct additional Government offices and houses

-Rationalize office space in existing Government offices

5.2 Urban Development

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to create a sustainable, economically and socially integrated urbanizing systemImproved and sustainable urbanization system with a view to reduce slumsPromoting public private partnerships in the development of urban infrastructure-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Resistance to Urban Development Paradigm

-Lack of capacity to effectively develop urban infrastructure

-Lack of coordination between key urban development players

-Lack of pro-poor approaches to slum upgrading

-Lack of market information
-Prepare Urbanizing Systems’ Development Strategies

-Fill existing vacancies

-Develop project profiles

-Facilitate City Twinning Agreements

-Promote housing and property development

-Improve the generation of market information
Enforcing rules and regulations on land use and physical plans-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Incidence of corruption

-Weak regulatory framework
-Conduct inspections on compliance to standard land use and physical plans
Improving infrastructure facilities in slum areas and restrict the formation of new slums-Rapid population growth Poor urban planning

-Inadequate capacity of utility service providers
-Create a full establishment of Urban Development

-Enforce city bye-laws and regulations

-Develop new plots

-Prepare and complete the National Urban Policy

-Improve urban development planning

-Prepare the Strategic Plan

-Conduct Malawi Urban Forum and World Urban Forum

-Recruit and train in all urbanizing systems

-Procurement of equipment
Providing support to processes of urban renewal and slum upgrading-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Lack of scientific information

-Delays in construction progress

-Poor coordination among stakeholders
-Conduct socio-economic assessments in all slum areas

-Review quality of properties in run-down zones of existing urbanizing systems

-Develop densification and redevelopment programs Mobilise resources for slum upgrading
Supporting the development of utilities, mechanisms and structures in local authorities and urbanizing systems for the provision of critical urban infrastructure-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Conflicting land tenure systems

-Population pressure
-Facilitate development of Urban Road and Transport Authorities

-Facilitate development of Power and Water Authorities

-Facilitate development of Industrial Development Authorities

-Facilitate development of Export Development Corporations/Authorities

-Facilitate development of job information, job skills and vendor development centres

THEME FIVE: GOVERNANCE

Sub-Theme 1: Economic Governance

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To sustain and accelerate the positive economic growth within a stable macroeconomic environmentStrengthened evidence-based planning and macroeconomic policy formulationPursuing sound macroeconomic policies-High level of government domestic debt and cost of debt servicing

-Unpredictable donor financing

-Low foreign reserves

-Low domestic revenue

-Lack of fiscal discipline

-Mismatch between issues and maturities of OMO instruments results in expansionary monetary stance
-Develop and implement improved systems and models for national, sectoral and district planning and macro-fiscal projections.

-Develop new export products with high potential for domestic value addition

-Improve import management

-Review and harmonize macroeconomic policies

-Improve evidence and science-based planning and policy making

-Harmonize public investment program with national budget

-Adhere to fiscal discipline measures

-Improve budget systems

-Reduce public sector borrowing
Enhancing evidence based public policy formulation-Lack of technical and financial capacity

-Poor data quality

-Inadequate data
-Encourage evidence-based policy formulation and analysis

-Develop capacity

-Develop and maintain database

-Harmonize databases

-Improve coordination of stakeholders
Improved resource mobilization, allocation, and use of public resourcesHarmonizing the national budget and priorities in the national development strategy-Poor coordination-Align Medium Term Expenditure Framework to MGDS

-Strengthen coordination with development partners

-Ensure timely donor disbursements

-Ensure alignment of donor support to MGDS
Diversifying sources of Government revenue-Large informal sector

-Weak enforcement
-Review taxation system

-Widen the range of debt instruments

-Enhance sources of domestic non-tax revenue

-Identify new lenders and new borrowing modalities

-Improve the export base

-Explore the user pay principle
Improving revenue collection and administration system-Inadequate human resources

-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate supportive infrastructure

-Tax evasion

-Corruption

-Weak enforcement

-Outdated revenue policies
-Train personnel

-Review revenue policies

-Improve revenue generation systems and processes

-Procure appropriate equipment

-Develop and rehabilitate supportive infrastructure

-Improve enforcement mechanism
Ensuring that sectoral plans are aligned to the national development strategy-Lack of coordination

-Lack of human and financial capacity

-Lack of institutional capacity
-Strengthen coordination of sector working groups

-Harmonize the budget with the national development strategy

-Ensure alignment of donor support to the national development strategy

-Train personnel
Strengthening monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of national development strategies and programmes-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Poor coordination among local level, central level and other key stakeholders

-Inadequate technical capacity

-Inadequate baseline data
-Recruit and train staff in relevant ministries and departments

-Provide equipment and support infrastructure

-Conduct national survey to fill data gaps

-Strengthen M&E systems in all ministries, departments and local authorities

-Complete devolution of M&E functions
Improving national procurement, audit and reporting systems-Corruption and fraud

-Inadequate capacity

-Bureaucracy
-Provide and enhance professionalism

-Conduct capacity building

-Intensify the fight against corruption

-Improve Auditor General’s reporting system

-Link all public institutions to the Integrated Financial Management Information System (IFMIS)
Enhancing international cooperation and development diplomacy-Limited human and financial resources

-Limited technical capacity

-Conflicting policies and interests
-Review of foreign policy

-Train personnel

-Harmonise domestic policies with regional and international agreements

-Establish diplomatic relations with strategic countries
Strengthened aid management systemsEnsuring that external support is aligned to the national development strategy-Weak dialogue

-Uncoordinated donor initiatives

-Lack of mutual accountability
-Encourage establishment of Sector Wide Approaches (SWAPs)

-Implement debt and aid policy

-Strengthen policy dialogue with development partners

-Strengthen capacity in aid management
Developing capacity for negotiating bilateral and multilateral agreements-Lack of human and financial capacity

-Lack of collaboration at national level

-Misplacement of skills
-Identify capacity gaps

-Strengthen capacity of stakeholders in international negotiations

-Improve the participation of private sector in international negotiations

-Strengthen sector collaboration
Improved access to financial servicesImproving management of financial and non financial assets-High interest rate

-Fraud and corruption

-Weak management system

-Cumbersome procedures
-Review management systems

-Periodically update stock of government assets

-Strengthen Integrated Financial Management System
Expanding and improving financial services to micro, small and medium enterprises-High interest rate

-Lack of supporting infrastructure

-Inadequate security

-Lack of collateral

-Low literacy rates

-Inadequate capacity of MFIs
-Create apex fund for MFIs

-Train communities in financial services

-Attract investment in MFIs

-Increase capacity of MFIs

-Expand rural outreach of MFIs and banking services

-Establish Public Private Partnerships in MFIs

-Encourage group lending

-Improve security in rural areas

-Develop supportive infrastructure
Improving legal and regulatory framework of the financial sector-Inadequate human and financial capacity

-Poor coordination
-Improve coordination of stakeholders in the financial sector

-Review the legal and regulatory framework

-Conduct awareness to key stakeholders

-Conduct capacity building

Sub-Theme 2: Corporate Governance

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To ensure well regulated, transparent, accountable and efficient business systemsAn effective regulatory framework for the corporate worldImproving and strengthening business regulatory framework and developing a clear regulatory regime for parastatals-Inadequate human and financial capacity

-Poor coordination;

-Lack of independent regulator;

-Lack of code of conduct
-Establish an independent regulator

-Review the legal and regulatory framework

-Train personnel



-Develop a code of conduct

-Evaluate performance of public enterprises and implement appropriate recommendations
Improved investors’ perception of the countryStrengthening the Institute of Directors-Inadequate human and financial capacity

-Low membership base
-Recruit and train personnel

-Develop sector guidelines for multinational organizations

-Develop guidelines for SMEs, cooperatives, associations and other member based organizations
Improved efficiency in service deliveryPromoting the adoption of good corporate governance code of conduct-Lack of awareness

-Weak enforcement
-Review good corporate governance code of conduct

-Strengthen enforcement mechanism

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Reduced corruption and fraudPromoting zero tolerance to corruption-Lack of financial capacity

-Inadequate personnel including investigators and prosecutors

-Weak enforcement of existing rules and regulations

-Bureaucracy
-Review integrity and anti-corruption strategies and plans

-Employ a multi-pronged strategy of criminalization, corruption prevention, public education and operationalization of Internal Integrity Committee (IIC) to deter corrupt practices

-Develop policies that enable a free and robust media and promote public access to information

-Recruit and train more specialists in anti-corruption

-Reduce political interference in prosecution of corruption cases

-Strengthen media capacity in reporting corruption
Increased corporate social responsibility-Enhancing private sector participation in social service provision-Lack of a social responsibility culture

-Lack of awareness
-Conduct awareness

-Encourage private sector to participate in social responsibility

Sub-Theme 3: Democratic Governance

5.3.1 Justice and Rule of Law

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To ensure access to justice and entrenched rule of lawImproved and effective judicial systemFostering independence and credibility of the judicial system-High vacancy rates

-Outdated laws

-Slow and costly dispute resolution
-Maintain an oversight role to guard the constitution and judicial system against any form of interference by executive, legislative or judicial action.

-Conduct law reforms

-Interpret and apply laws impartially to all persons in criminal and civil litigation
Promoting a people-centred, accessible, affordable, and expeditious justice system-Inadequate personnel

-Unfriendly legal jargons

-Lack of support infrastructure
-Provide legal aid and paralegal services to the people

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure

-Conduct appropriate reforms to facilitate access to justice

-Strengthen capacity of traditional courts

-Recruit and train more staff

-Promote user friendly legal language
Enhancing consistency of domestic laws with international standards-Inadequate financial and human resources-Review and reform laws and procedures
Enhanced transparency, accountability and efficiency of legal institutionsPromoting justice and legal system that is responsive to marginalized groups-Low literacy rates

-Inadequate legal experts

-Expensive legal services
-Fast track prosecution of cases involving marginalized groups

-Build capacity of prosecutors

-Increase awareness

-Review the legal education act

-Strengthen the capacity of Legal Aid

-Increase intake of legal and paralegal students
Increasing citizen awareness of the country’s laws, procedures and institutions-Low literacy levels

-Inadequate human and financial resources
-Encourage the media to disseminate information on the country’s laws

-Conduct civic education
Promoting supremacy and respect for the constitution-Low literacy levels

-Political interference
-Sensitize people on the supremacy of the constitution
Strengthening capacity of sector institutions-Bureaucratic rigidities

-Lack of coordination

-Inadequate human and financial resources
-Review and harmonize laws

-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure equipment

5.3.2 Human Rights

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To promote and protect rights and freedoms as enshrined in the constitution of MalawiEnhanced awareness and practice of human rights and responsibilitiesEnhancing human rights awareness-Inadequate experts in human rights

-Low literacy levels

-Conservative cultural practices
-Strengthen human rights education

-Disseminate human rights issues to the general public

-Improve Government reporting on various human rights conventions and treaties

-Review the status of human rights in Malawi to establish the extent of violation and recommend appropriate action and redress

-Conduct public hearings on human rights issues
Strengthening human rights institutions-Inadequate human and financial resources-Recruit and train personnel

-Improve the legal and regulatory framework

-Provide supportive infrastructure

-Provide litigation services on human rights issues
Improved respect for human dignity and choiceEnsuring respect for prisoners rights-Low literacy levels

-Inadequate resources

-Lack of awareness
-Investigate all injustices and provide remedial action

-Improve conditions in prisons

-Expand prison infrastructure

-Expand provision of reformatory centres

-Increase human resource to fast track prosecution of cases

-Conduct prison reforms

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Enhanced equitable access to opportunitiesPromoting equitable access to economic, political and social opportunities-Poor coordination of governance institutions

-Traditional and religious believes

-Inadequate funds

-Corruption

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate infrastructure
-Review criteria to encourage equal access

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Promote zero tolerance on corruption

-Expand infrastructure
Strengthening legal protection and equitable treatment for marginalized populations, women and children-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Low literacy levels

-Lack of public awareness

-Corruption

-Lack of enforcement
-Review and harmonize legal and regulatory framework to ensure compliance to international conventions and treaties on women’s and children’s rights that are culturally acceptable to Malawi

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Advocate children and women rights

-Provide mediation, conciliation and alternative dispute resolution

-Promote zero tolerance on corruption

-Strengthen institutional enforcement mechanisms

5.3.3 Elections

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To promote free and fair electionsTransparent and democratic electoral processEnhancing credibility, management and accountability of electoral process-Inadequate human and financial capacity

-Low literacy rate

-Inadequate equipment

-Lack of intraparty democracy

-Political interference
-Maintain an up-to-date electoral register

-Conduct elections at designated periods and times

-Develop and disseminate appropriate voter education content

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Recruit and train personnel

-Strengthen the independence of the electoral body
Enhancing independence of elections governing bodies-Corruption and fraud

-Political interference

-Inadequate financial capacity
-Increase transparency and accountability

-Reduce government interference in the elections governing body

-Strengthen the legal and regulatory framework

-Strengthen reporting of the electoral body
Enhancing implementation of law reforms to facilitate free and fair elections-Inadequate human and financial capacity.

-Political interference

-Conflicting interests
-Conduct periodic reviews of laws

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Recruit and train personnel

-Advocate for intra and interparty dialogue
Fostering informed and active participation in local governance-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Low literacy levels
-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Conduct public hearings

-Enhance public capacity to demand accountability
Political parties with clear ideologies and functioning internal democracyImproving governance in political parties-Conflicting interests

-Lack of intraparty democracy

-Corruption and fraud
-Review legal framework for political parties

-Conduct capacity building initiatives

-Implement zero tolerance on corruption

-Encourage 50:50 representation in political parties

5.3.4 Peace and Security

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To make Malawi a secure and peaceful nationImproved methods of promoting national security and public orderImproving the responsiveness of all security sectors to communities’ security needs-Corruption and fraud

-Inadequate and outdated equipment

-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate support infrastructure

-Limited coverage

-Inadequate skills and innovations
-Conduct reforms to enhance operational efficiency

-Strengthen crime investigation, detection and intelligence

-Recruit and train personnel

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure

-Procure equipment



-Implement zero tolerance on corruption

-Conduct civic education

-Strengthen community policing
Ensuring safe and secure borders-Corruption

-Porous borders

-Lack of national identities

-Poor coordination between communities and police

-Inadequate human and financial resources
-Introduce national identity cards

-Strengthen community policing

-Conduct civic education

-Implement zero tolerance on corruption

-Recruit and train security personnel

-Provide support infrastructure
Rehabilitating and expanding security establishments-Lack of human and financial resources-Improve DG sector institution’s presence in conflict affected areas
Improving infrastructure for development and expansion of security establishmentsLack of human and financial resources-Construct and rehabilitate security related institutions

-Recruit and train personnel

-Provide support infrastructure

-Expand security establishments
Enhancing community integration and participation in promoting a secure, peaceful and crime free environment-Poor coordination

-Low literacy levels

-Inadequate equipment and skills
-Conduct awareness campaigns against crimes

-Strengthen partnerships between Police and communities

-Procure equipment

-Recruit and train personnel
Improved partnership and participation of all members of the public on issues of peace and securityStrengthening partnership for risk management between the Public and Private Security Sectors-Weak regulatory framework for private security firms

-Poor coordination
-Expand and strengthen community policing

-Review standards for private security institutions

-Recruit and train personnel

-Strengthen regulatory mechanisms for private security services

5.3.5 Corruption

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To curb corruption and fraud at all levelsReduced levels of corruption and fraudMainstreaming anti-corruption strategies in all institutions-Bureaucratic rigidities

-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Limited knowledge
-Review integrity and anti-corruption strategies and plans

-Conduct compliance reviews to international obligations

-Train institutions on anti corruption mainstreaming

-Streamline procedures
Promoting prevention of corruption-Inadequate human and financial capacity

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate equipment
-Implement corruption prevention strategy

-Strengthen IIC

-Conduct public awareness campaigns

-Procure equipment

-Recruit and train personnel

-Develop and enforce specific codes of conduct and service charters
Enhancing investigation of all suspected corrupt practices-Conflicting interests

-Inadequate equipment

-Inadequate human and financial capacity
-Recruit and train personnel

-Conduct corruption audit

-Procure equipment

-Strengthen investigative journalism

-Encourage anonymous reporting of suspected corruption cases
Promoting prosecution of all offenders-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Bureaucratic procedures
-Recruit and train personnel

-Conduct public awareness to encourage reporting of malpractices

-Provide protection and incentives to encourage communities to report corruption

-Prosecute all suspected corruption cases

-Clear backlog of corruption cases

-Increase the number of specialised lawyers for corruption cases

-Streamline procedures
Fostering public support in the fight against corruption-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Lack of awareness
-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Encourage public to report suspected corruption

-Encourage anonymous reporting of suspected corruption cases

-Recruit and train personnel

-Promote the establishment of anti-corruption clubs
Promoting information, education and communication on corruption-Low literacy levels

-Inadequate financial and human resources
-Develop policies that enable a free and robust media

-Promote public access to information

-Conduct public awareness campaigns

-Provide IEC materials to community information centres

-Establish an effective e-government information system
Strengthening capacity for all institutions dealing with corruption-Inadequate human and financial resources-Recruit and train personnel

-Implement the National Anticorruption strategy

-Procure support infrastructure and equipment

-Improve the ACB’s and Auditor General’s reporting and accountability

-Encourage transparent appointment and promotion of personnel based on merit and performance
Promoting independence of all institutions dealing with corruption-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Bureaucracy

-Weak regulatory framework
-Improve the legal and regulatory environment for institutions dealing with corruption

-Stream line procedures

-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure equipment

Sub-Theme 5.4: Public Sector Management

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
Deliver services to the public in an efficient, demand driven and effective mannerEnhanced public service leadershipDeveloping and strengthening leadership capacities for effective management of the public service-Inadequate financial resources

-Rigid and bureaucratic system

-Poor management
-Implement leadership development programmes

-Review Code of Ethics and Conduct

-Conduct regular training in leadership

-Build technical and managerial skills
Improved performance and service delivery in the public serviceEnsuring an effective and functional public service-Recruitment and retention problems

-Distorted incentive structures for civil service

-Poor service conditions

-Rigid and bureaucratic system
-Set up a performance based system (salary, merit promotion, incentives and benefits)

-Adopt and implement reforms related to e-services and e-administration

-Simplify procedures for administrative functions

-Conduct performance reviews/assessments of the public service

-Develop Service Charters for all public sector institutions

-Integrate Result-Based Management in all programmes of work in public sector

-Review and strengthen the recruitment and selection process

-Review and strengthen HRM policies, Systems and Functional structures in public service.
Strengthening equal participation of women and men in leadership and management positions-Inadequate financial resources

-Low literacy levels
-Implement capacity building of female officers in leadership and management skills
Strengthening mechanisms for coordination and utilization of resource-Inadequate human and financial capacity

-Conflicting administrative guidelines
-Disseminate/communicate the resource mobilisation strategy to donors and government ministries

-Conduct public expenditure tracking

-Strengthen public finance management systems

-Recruit and train personnel

-Roll out IFMIS to remaining government institutions

-Build capacity in relevant institutions including Accountant and Auditor Generals, and ODPP
Harmonized and evidence based policies developedEnhancing evidence-based policy making-Lack of technical and financial capacity

-Poor data quality

-Inadequate data

-Poor coordination
-Develop capacity for evidence based policy making and reviews

-Review and strengthen HRM policies, Systems and Functional structures in public service.

-Encourage evidence-based policy formulation and analysis

-Develop, harmonize and maintain databases

-Improve coordination of stakeholders

-Encourage development of independent policy analysis and research institutions
Promoting participatory public policy formulation-Lack of awareness

-Low literacy levels

-Inadequate infrastructure
-Establish an effective e-government information system

-Establish community multimedia information centres

-Develop mechanisms to ensure the public has access to information on public policy, plans and implementation
Enhanced implementation of Public Sector Reform programmesImproving conditions of service for public service employees-Distorted incentive structures for public service employees

-Inadequate financial resources

-Uncoordinated reforms
-Review medium term pay policy and harmonise pay for public sector institutions

-Improve payroll management and control size of public sector establishment

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure

-Review public sector regulations
Developing capacity to implement Public Sector Reforms-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate capacity of trainers

-Poor coordination
-Develop and implement a comprehensive Public Sector Reform programme

-Recruit and train trainers of trainers

-Build capacity for management and coordination of public sector reforms

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure

-Create an enabling environment for public-private partnerships (PPPs)

THEME SIX: GENDER AND CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT

Sub-Theme 1: Gender

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomesStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To reduce gender inequalities and enhance participation of all gender groups in socio-economic developmentIncreased meaningful participation of all gender groups in decision making, wealth creation and poverty reductionPromoting women entrepreneurship and involvement in cooperatives-Shortage of human and financial resources

-Low literacy levels
-Train women in basic business skills

-Formulate cooperatives

-Provide micro-finance loans
Advocating for affirmative action to increase representation of women in politics and decision making positions-Inadequate resources

-Aggression and intimidation perpetuated by men

-Slow legal reform process

-Low literacy levels among women

-Discriminatory cultural values and laws

-Inadequate technical expertise support
-Lobby political parties, public and private institutions for appointment of 50 percent women into decision making positions.

-Conduct media campaigns to advance women empowerment agenda

-Conduct targeted sensitization meetings
Reduced gender based (GBV) violence at all levelsEnhancing awareness on GBV-Lack of empowerment of women

-Low literacy levels among women

-Oppressive cultural values
-Conduct targeted sensitization meetings on GBV

-Conduct media campaigns on GBV and violence against women

-Train victims of GBV in Income Generation Activities (IGAs) for their economic empowerment

-Provide psychosocial support/counseling program for victims/survivors of GBV

-Develop and provide psychosocial support/counseling programmes for GBV perpetrators

-Conduct targeted trainings on Gender, GBV, Human Trafficking, Gender related legal instruments and other emerging GBV related issues
Strengthening GBV service delivery systems-Lack of understanding of GBV.-Support one stop service centres in hospitals for comprehensive support to victims of abuse/ GBV

-Establish new and revamp existing GBV counseling centres for alternative dispute resolution

-Provide support to all Victim Support Units (VSUs) in police and community

-Conduct review and lesson learning meetings of GBV

-Strengthen referral systems among the police, hospitals and courts
Strengthening legal and regulatory framework-Limited human resources

-Lengthy legal processes

-Limited infrastructure for justice delivery

-Entrenched cultural attitudes

-Low legal literacy among communities
-Undertake the analysis of legal frameworks with gender lens

-Review the legal frameworks based on the recommendations

-Enact gender related laws

-Establish community based paralegal programmes

-Translate, simplify and disseminate gender related laws

-Establish family courts

-Conduct legal literacy education

-Ensure compliance with international conventions and treaties on women’s rights
Enhanced gender mainstreaming across all sectorsMainstreaming gender at all levels-Lack of specialized training in gender

-Lack of coordination in gender mainstreaming

-Limited commitment to mainstream gender issues
-Develop, roll out and implement a training plan

-Develop mechanisms to strategically position the gender machinery

-Develop guidelines for gender coordination

-Conduct joint gender planning and review meetings

-Establish sectoral gender working groups

-Undertake monitoring and evaluation of gender mainstreaming in all sectors

-Train public and private sectors on gender analysis and mainstreaming strategies

-Develop sector specific gender analysis and mainstreaming tools

-Develop guidelines for gender responsive policy formulation and review
Strengthening gender disaggregated research and documentationLimited capacity to generate and disseminate gender disaggregated information-Conduct research/survey in GBV

-Document and disseminate lessons learnt including best practices and fact sheets on GBV

-Disseminate the mapping report of services providers in GBV

-Develop a national GBV data base

Sub-Theme 2: Capacity Development

Long Term GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomesStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions And Activities
To develop a productive and efficient workforce with necessary supporting equipment and infrastructureEnhanced workforce capacities and supportive systemsDeveloping and strengthening human and institutional capacities-High staff turnover

-Bureaucratic rigidities

-Recruitment problems

-Poor public service conditions
Provide appropriate training for effective service delivery
Mainstreaming capacity development in all sectors-Inadequate funds

-Inadequate capacity to handle capacity development
-Raise awareness on capacity development

-Standardize training across all sectors
Promoting capacity development at all levels-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Low literacy levels

-High staff turn over

-Poor coordination
-Develop and implement a capacity development program for national, district and local levels

-Train stakeholders at district and local levels

-Strengthen stakeholder coordination
Improved functioning of local training institutionsStrengthening academic institutions to respond to the needs of the economy-Inadequate funds

-Inadequate trained personnel

-Inadequate infrastructure
-Develop capacity of trainers in training institutions

-Provide supporting infrastructure in training institutions
Improved administration, management and performance across all sectorsPromoting effective performance management systems-Poor conditions which are not conducive for performance

-poor management
-Inculcate positive performance culture among employees

-Conduct annual performance appraisals

-Integrate result based management in all programmes of work in all sectors

-Develop and promote the use of RBM guidelines in all sectors

-Harmonize pay in public sectors
Enhancing coordination in resource mobilization and utilization-Lack of capacity to mobilize and use resources-Capacity building in resource mobilization
Promoting and establishing professional and skills development centres-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate skills
-Develop and rehabilitate professional and skills development centres

-Review curriculum

-Procure equipment

-Develop human resource capacity in those centres
Enhancing investments in infrastructure and equipment-Inadequate funds

-Stringent procurement procedures

-Lack of skills
-Develop skills in various trades

-Streamline procurement procedures

-Review and enforce standards
Promoting public private partnerships-Underdeveloped private sector

-Lack of policy

-Lack of skills

-Information asymmetry
-Develop PPP policy

-Amend the privatization act to incorporate PPPs

-Promote a conducive environment for private sector investment

-Train personnel

-Promote PPP dialogue
Annex 2: Operational Matrix by Key Priority Areas

1.0 AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY

1.1 Agricultural Productivity and Diversification

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To increase agricultural productivity and diversificationIncreased smallholder farmers’ output per unit areaImproving access to inputs-Inadequate financial resources

-Unavailability of a contract farming policy
-Implement the input subsidy program (seed and fertilizer)

-Implement contract farming arrangements

-Improve access to credit
-Underdeveloped private sector

-Underdeveloped infrastructure and distribution systems
-Enhance PPPs in the input market
Promoting irrigation farming-Inadequate technology

-Land tenure system,

-Inadequate technical capacity

-Inadequate water management capacity

-Inadequate irrigation research

-Poor protection of water catchment areas

-Inadequate integration of irrigation initiatives
-Develop and rehabilitate irrigation schemes

-Strengthen technical capacity for irrigation management

-Promote establishment of water users associations

-Improve the technical & management capacities of WUA

-Conduct irrigation research

-Establish rainwater harvesting systems

-Promote effective management of water catchment areas

-Promote integration of irrigation initiatives with other livelihood activities
Promoting contract farming arrangements-Lack of policy framework

-Side-selling

-Exploitative behaviour

-Low levels of literacy

-Lack of understanding and awareness
-Finalize contract farming strategy and policy

-Implement the contract farming strategy and policy

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Encourage contracts with flexible pricing arrangements
Strengthening farmer institutions-Low literacy levels

-Inadequate infrastructure

-Poor coordination

-Inadequate extension services
-Develop appropriate infrastructure

-Enhance management and group dynamics capacity of farmer institutions

-Strengthen extension services on formation and management of farmer institutions
Increased agricultural diversificationPromoting production of non traditional crops-Inadequate registered varieties

-Lack of innovations

-Inadequate breeders and basic seeds

-Low adoption of modern technologies

-Migratory pests

-Insufficient extension personnel

-Insufficient farmer knowledge

-Lack of policy, legislation and regulations governing the horticultural industry

-Inadequate support services

-High cost of input

-Inadequate support infrastructure
-Develop an agriculture diversification policy

-Undertake research on priority crops

-Increase production of pulses

-Develop and register new improved varieties

-Identify priority crops for diversification

-Increase the number of breeders

-Expand seed multiplication programmes

-Promote transfer and adoption of improved technologies

-Increase the number of extension workers

-Strengthen migratory pest monitoring and control

-Conduct staff and farmer training on diversification and productivity enhancing technologies

-Increase production of horticultural crops

-Improve input distribution systems

-Develop policies and regulations governing non-traditional crops

-Increase production of roots and tubers

-Improve provision of vaccines/vaccination services for poultry diseases
-Promote increased production of high quality feed including development of local feed formulations

-Increase investment in livestock production

-Intensify training for livestock personnel

-Improve access to land
Increased production of high value agricultural commodities for exportsPromoting agricultural production for both domestic and export markets-Poor coordination and organization

-Inadequate improved seed

-Lack of market information



-High costs of certification

-Inability to meet international standards Inadequate technical support

-Inadequate equipment
-Promote out-grower schemes, farmer associations and cooperatives for specific commodities

-Strengthen managerial and technical capacity of producer organizations

-Promote partnerships, dialogue and cooperation between value chain stakeholders

-Promote production, distribution and utilization of improved seed, chemicals and fertilizers.

-Conduct market research

-Participate in international agricultural fairs

-Promote buyer/trader negotiations forum

-Improve compliance to market standards, sanitary and phytosanitary issues

-Provide quality assurance and regulatory services

-Procure production enhancing laboratory equipment
Strengthening linkages of farmers to input and output markets-Inadequate market infrastructure

-Ineffective farmer organisation

-Inadequate generation and distribution of market information
-Rehabilitate and expand market infrastructure

-Strengthen capacity of farmer organisations

-Improve generation and distribution of market information

-Provide support infrastructure
Improved agricultural research, technology generation and disseminationPromoting appropriate technology development, transfer and absorption-Mismatch between technology generation and farmer needs

-Lack of incentives

-Inadequate sensitisation

-Inadequate financial resources

-Low literacy levels
-Develop tailor made technologies

-Conduct sensitisation campaigns

-Increase investment in technology development,

-Develop drought resistant crop and animal varieties
Increased livestock and fish productionEnhancing livestock and fisheries productivity-Inadequate human and financial resources Inadequate skills

-Disease prevalence

-Inadequate support infrastructure

-High cost exotic breeds

-Inadequate support services

-Lack of awareness

-Lack of fingerlings and feed

-Overreliance on shallow water fishing

-Lack of awareness in using modern technologies

-Unsustainable fishing technologies
-Promote livestock restocking and farmer-to-farmer transfer systems

-Intensify farmer and staff training programs

-Intensify vaccination campaigns

-Develop support infrastructure

-Introduce improved, approved and registered exotic breeds with superior characteristics

-Recruit and train personnel

-Promote village level fish farming schemes

-Provide fish fingerlings

-Facilitate local fish feed and fingerlings production

-Increase use of modern technology by local communities and private sector for deep water fishing

-Provide fish landing facilities

-Train communities in modern fish processing

-Train local communities to practice sustainable fishing
Providing effective extension services-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Low levels of literacy

-Inadequate equipment and machinery

-Conflicting policies

-Inadequate skills
-Disseminate technologies on Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) to increase agricultural productivity

-Procure equipment and machinery

-Train personnel

-Harmonize policies

-Intensify provision of technical services required by farmers
Reduced land degradationPromoting soil and water conservation techniques-Lack of community awareness and participation

-Inadequate labour saving tillage technologies

-Utilisation of fragile lands

-High input cost
-Promote conservation farming

-Promote labour saving technologies

-Promote land and water management systems and technologies that protect fragile land

-Promote community participation in soil and water management

-Subsidize inputs to raise forestry and fruit tree seedlings

1.2 Food Security

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To ensure sustained availability of food to all Malawians at all times at affordable pricesFood self-sufficiency at household and national levelsImplementing policies to sustain food availability and accessibility-Poor management of grain reserves

-Limited access to markets

-Unreliable and unpredictable markets
-Improve capacity and management of strategic grain reserves

-Provide post-harvest handling technologies

-Promote village grain bank schemes including improved granaries and mini silos

-Enhance food market information systems

-Improve distribution system
Ensuring an effective early warning system-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Limited information

-Inadequate equipment

-Lack of support infrastructure
-Improve collection, analysis and dissemination of agricultural statistics

-Procure equipment

-Develop support infrastructure
Strengthening farmer-led extension and training services-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Low literacy Levels
-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure equipment

-Conduct sensitization Campaigns
Reducing post harvest losses-Poor storage technologies

-Limited information

-Poor management practices/ systems
-Promote improved on-farm storage technologies and facilities

-Promote research development

-Expand post harvest related extension services

-Develop harvest and post harvest management practices/systems
Increased and sustained food availability and accessibilityPromoting income generating activities-Low literacy levels

-Limited opportunities

-Hostile business environment
-Conduct entrepreneurship training

-Improve income generating opportunities in both rural and urban areas

-Create a conducive entrepreneurship environment

-Improve access to affordable credit
Improving agricultural market systems-Limited market information

-Poor distribution systems

-Inadequate support infrastructure

-Inadequate human and financial resources
-Improve distribution systems

-Enhance food market information systems

-Provide support infrastructure

-Recruit and train personnel
Promoting dietary diversification-Conflicting messages



-Insufficient knowledge on food budgeting, processing, utilization, and storage

-Limited skills

-Lack of emphasis on local recipes

-Inadequate dietary monitoring and assessment

-Low consumption of enriched and fortified foods

-Inadequate human resources
-Develop standardized messages covering production to utilization

-Develop local recipes with emphasis on the multi-mix approach

-Conduct regular dietary monitoring and assessments

-Promote consumption of enriched and fortified foods especially for vulnerable groups

-Intensify IEC on budgeting, consumption, processing and preparation of enriched and fortified foods

-Recruit and train extension workers on prevention of micronutrient deficiencies

-Conduct staff and farmer training in food budgeting, processing, preservation, storage and utilization.
Improving coordination and management of food aid and imports-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate infrastructure

-Weak legislation enforcement mechanism
-Strengthen food distribution systems

-Improve targeting mechanisms

-Develop support infrastructure

-Promote a coordinated approach to planning and management of food aid and imports

-Ensure that food aid conforms to the bio-safety and other related legislations

-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure appropriate equipment
Improved agricultural market systemsImproving the functioning of agricultural markets-Inadequate infrastructure

-Inadequate information generation and dissemination

-Inadequate financial and human resources
-Develop support infrastructure

-Intensify information generation, dissemination, and utilisation

-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure equipment
Enhanced agricultural risk managementStrengthening and scaling-up market based risk management initiatives-Inadequate infrastructure

-Weak institutional and regulatory framework

-Inadequate awareness
-Establish a warehouse receipt system

-Strengthen institutional and regulatory framework

-Employ supply/price hedging strategy

-Strengthen the framework and capacity for call options import contracts

-Establish a commodity market insurance system

-Develop a weather related insurance product

-Strengthen weather forecasting capability for agriculture
Providing technical and regulatory services-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate infrastructure and equipment

-Weak policy framework

-Lack of coordination
-Recruit and train personnel

-Provide support infrastructure

-Procure equipment

-Review and harmonize policies

-Improve coordination mechanisms

2.0 ENERGY, INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, MINING AND TOURISM

2.1 Energy

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
Generate sufficient amount of energy to meet the economic and social demandsImproved capacity and efficiency in energy generation, transmission and distributionDeveloping additional power stations-Huge capital investment

-Inadequate expertise
-Construct additional power stations

-Train personnel

-Promote private sector involvement

-Mobilise resources

-Develop coal fired power plants Implement the Kapichira II power station project

-Develop other hydro power projects such as Mpatamanga on Shire, Kayerekera station, Chisombo on Bua River, Lower Fufu, Songwe river basin, Chizuma and Chimgonda
Promoting public-private partnerships in energy generation and distribution-Cumbersome procedures

-Inadequate resources
-Facilitate implementation of independent power production

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Streamline procedures

-Mobilise resources
Improving management of energy generation, transmission, distribution and supply-Obsolete machines

-Inadequate equipment

-Corruption

-Vandalism and theft

-Siltation and proliferation of weeds

-Poor coordination among stakeholders
-Engage in regional Interconnection;

-Rehabilitate Nkula A and B hydropower stations

-Conduct management reforms in the energy sector

-Facilitate implementation of Public Private Partnerships in power distribution

-Review the Electricity Master Plan

-Develop an Energy Development Master Plan

-Install smart meters on distribution feeders
-Inadequate resources



-Lack of an energy master plan

-Lack of diversification in the energy subsector

-Resistance to adopt new technologies
-Install programmable Maximum Demand (MD) meters

-Promote and facilitate the use of compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs)

-Improve coordination in the energy sector and other key stakeholders

-Expand the use of efficient energy technologies

-Protect the catchment area of Shire river and other rivers

-Enforce regulations

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Promoting the use of renewable sources of energy-Huge initial capital requirement

-Inadequate financial sources

-Low adoption rate
-Develop renewable power plants

-Introduce off grid co-generation projects in agricultural processing industries

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Improving regulatory environment-Weak and unharmonized policies

-Weak institutional framework

-Inadequate human and financial resources
-Review energy policy;

-Undertake environmental impact assessment in various energy projects

-Adhere to environmental management plans

-Recruit and train personnel

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Increased availability and access to energyEnhancing urban and rural electrification-Widespread vandalism of equipment

-Inadequate human and financial resources



-Low demand in rural area
-Rehabilitate and expand the transmission and distribution systems to rural and peri urban areas

-Construct transmission lines

-Accelerate rural and urban electrification programme

-Encourage private sector participation

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Enforce regulations
Increasing liquid fuel stock-holding and distribution capacity-Inadequate fuel storage facilities

-Inadequate financial resources

-Dilapidated storage facilities
-Undertake an inventory of fuel suppliers, distributors and users

-Assess national fuel demand and supply

-Review and form petroleum product standards

-Monitor compliance to set standards

-Construct and rehabilitate fuel reserves
Developing long-term systems of tapping and delivering liquid fuel-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate diversification in the production of liquid fuel

-Outdated policy
-Construct oil pipeline

-Develop and implement bio fuel strategy

-Implement ethanol/petrol blending ratio of 20 percent / 80 percent

-Provide investment incentives to private sector

-Operationalise the National Oil Company

2.2 Industrial Development

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to develop and expand industrial sector with emphasis on value addition and employment creationExpanded industrial basePromoting the use of modern environment ally friendly technologies in manufacturing-Low adoption rate of modern technology

-Inadequate supportive infrastructure

-Inadequate skills

-Inadequate financial resources
-Provide supportive infrastructure

-Enhance training in appropriate technology

-Enhance research in modern technology

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Enhancing backward and forward linkages in the industrial sector-Low capacity

-Poor coordination

-Competition from cheap imported raw materials

-Lack of market information

-Poor quality and standards
-Initiate linkages between raw material producers and established manufacturers
Undertaking industrial reforms-Bureaucratic procedures

-Inadequate information

-Inadequate capacity
-Review industrial policy and legislation

-Undertake capacity building

-Streamline procedures
Increased employmentPromoting labour intensive industries-Unskilled labour force-Undertake skills training
Increased industrial outputEncouraging provision of infrastructure and support services for industrial development-Low capacity Uncoordinated planning

-Inadequate financial resources

-Fewer sources of capital
-Strengthen MIRTDC

-Conduct capacity building

-Analyse supply chain for cost reduction

-Promote public private partnerships
Increased value additionFacilitating accreditation of quality assurance institutions and enhance quality standards-Lack of an accredited ISO certified body

-Low capacity

-Weak enforcement of regulation

-Corruption

-Inadequate equipment

-Lack of awareness
-Strengthen the Malawi Bureau of Standards

-Sub-contract external accredited quality assurance institutions

-Build capacity for undertaking compliance programmes within MIRTDC;

-Assist companies establish ISO compliant production systems

-Run Quality Management Systems courses

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Promoting value addition in existing and potential products-Limited technical expertise

-Limited technology use

-Low literacy levels

-Limited information
-Promote use of technology

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Undertake capacity building

-Undertake research on potential products

2.2.1 Trade

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to increase supply of value-added goods and services for domestic and international market while sustaining competitive advantageEnhanced production, diversification and competitiveness of tradable commoditiesPromoting adherence to standards in tradable products-Weak Standards, Quality, Accreditation and Metrology (SQAM) infrastructure

-High cost of certification

-Weak enforcement

-High cost of production
-Build capacity of MBS and other related institutions

-Provide training to exporters to increase compliance with international standards

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Promoting trade in services-Weak telecommunication infrastructure

-Inadequate expertise

-Failure to meet international service standards
-Improve the quality of telecommunication and support infrastructure

-Provide tailor-made training

-Participate in bilateral and regional service trade events
Promoting product and market diversification-Tariffs and Non Tariff barriers to trade

-Lack of product and market promotion

-Poor transport infrastructure

-Inadequate information

-Narrow export base
-Participate in trade negotiations

-Undertake product and market promotion

-Improve support infrastructure

-Undertake research to explore potential export commodities and markets
Enhanced access to both traditional and emerging export marketsPromoting trade integration-Inadequate transport infrastructure

-Lack of adherence to standards

-Failure to effectively implement trade agreements

-Lack of analytical capacity
Promoting efficient and modernized boarder infrastructure to facilitate trade-High infrastructure cost

-Un-harmonised border operation systems

-Inadequate equipment

-Inadequate skills
-Enhance the development of one stop border posts

-Procure appropriate equipment

-Implement a simplified payment mechanism for all fees and charges
Promoting exports-Inadequate capacity to market Malawi products

-Poor coordination

-Weak trade facilitation institutions

-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate support infrastructure (roads, rail, airports, ports, utilities, and telecommunication)

-Weak certification mechanisms Unfavourable export policies

-Unfavourable macroeconomic environment
-Train existing and potential exporters

-Review policies and guidelines

-Participate in international trade fairs and investments promotion

-Strengthen the capacity of trade facilitation institutions

-Develop support infrastructure

-Facilitate accreditation of MBS

-Promote adherence to international standards

-Establish an export credit guarantee scheme
Simplifying and streamlining trade and custom procedures-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate skills

-Poor coordination
-Enhance coordination among stakeholders

-Provide supportive infrastructure

-Train personnel
Improved legal, regulatory and institutional frameworkImproving fair trading and intellectual property rights-Lack of human and financial capacity

-Lack of institutions

-Lack of enforcement of regulations
-Establish appropriate institutions

-Recruit and train personnel

-Conduct awareness campaigns and training

-Enhance enforcement of regulations
Strengthening investment and export promoting institutions
Improving coordination amongst private sector trade institutions
Increased domestic and international market sharePromoting consumer loyalty to domestically produced goods;-Low quality products

-Poor information packaging and dissemination

-Unfavourable trade policy obligations
-Build capacity of investment and trade facilitation institutions

-Encourage value addition, certification and quality assurance

-Enhance awareness campaigns

-Review and harmonise trade policies
Improving trade network and information for exports-Poor stakeholder coordination

-Weak trade facilitation

-Weak support infrastructure

-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Lack of an information hub

-Low literacy levels
-Build capacity of exporters

-Strengthen trade facilitation institutions

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure

-Develop information hub

2.2.2 Agro-Processing

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomesStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to move up the value chain in key crops, and increase agro-processed products for both domestic and export marketsIncreased value addition to agricultural productsImproving supporting infrastructure for agro-processing of key industries-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate equipment
-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure (roads, rail, airports, utilities and telecommunication)



-Procure appropriate equipment

-Train personnel
Promoting investment in agro-processing with special focus on private sector participation-Lack of incentives

-Inadequate capacity

-Inadequate raw materials

-Lack of awareness

-High cost of capital

-Weak support institutions
-Build capacity for agro processing support institutions

-Provide investment incentives

-Develop and rehabilitate storage infrastructure

-Encourage research, transfer and adoption of modern technologies

-Promote public private partnerships

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Promoting OVOP on agricultural products-Poor coordination

-Low literacy levels
-Procure and install agro-processing equipment

-Increase number of agro-processed products

-Identify potential markets for agro-processing

-Build capacity in supply chain management of agro-processed products
Diversified agro-processed productsImproving policy and regulatory frameworks impacting on agro-processing-Poor coordination

-Conflicting policies

-Lack of awareness
-Review and disseminate policy and legislation

-Develop institutional capacity
Strengthening capacity for small and medium scale agro-processing enterprises-Limited technical expertise

-Limited access to credit facilities

-Lack of efficient and effective productivity centres
-Train stakeholders

-Promote linkages between cooperatives and rural financers-Promote access to credit

-Build capacity for agro processing support institutions

-Build capacity within MIRTDC to conduct productivity improvement training

-Enhance coordination among stakeholders in agro processing

-Expand production of key agricultural commodities

-Link SMEs to markets

-Establish SMEs associations and cooperatives

2.3 Mining

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomesStrategiesConstraintsFocus Action and Activities
The goal is to increase production and value addition of mineral resourcesIncreased exploration and miningProducing detailed geological map of Malawi-Inadequate human and financial resources



-Lack of modern equipment
-Conduct literature review

-Undertake sampling and sample analysis

-Recruit and train personnel

-Conduct geological, geochemical and geophysical mapping

-Disseminate updated geological maps

-Intensify drilling for mineral identification

-Conduct sample analysis for mineral identification

-Procure modern equipment

-Produce mineral resources and occurrence map

-Disseminate updated mineral resources and occurrence maps
Improved legal and institutional frameworkStrengthening institutional capacity of the sector-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Cumbersome procedures

-Inadequate support infrastructure

-Weak regulatory framework in environmental management
-Recruit and train personnel

-Review Mines and Minerals Act

-Facilitate formation of mining cooperatives and associations

-Streamline procedures

-Conduct stakeholder training in mineral production and value addition

-Establish a mining investment and development company

-Construct and equip a modern laboratory

-Promote public private partnerships

-Develop mining regulations
Enforcing legislations on sustainable use and management of mineral resources-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate support equipment

-Lack of awareness
-Recruit and train personnel

-Conduct sensitisation campaigns

-Conduct field inspections on compliance
Enforcing environment al, occupational health and safety in the mining sector-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate support equipment

-Corruption
-Conduct sensitization campaigns on occupational health and safety

-Conduct mining occupational health and safety (OHS) inspections

-Undertake mining accident investigation

-Enforce explosives regulations
Increased participation by small and medium scale minersPromoting both local and foreign investment-Limited expertise

-Lack of information

-Inadequate support infrastructure

-Inadequate resources

-Weak coordination

-Inadequate incentives
-Realign mining policies to regional and international protocols

-Develop standard mining agreements

-Establish a transparent framework for managing mineral rights

-Review mining royalties

-Promote mineral research and development

-Develop and rehabilitate infrastructure

-Improve coordination among stakeholders

-Train personnel

-Provide incentives to small scale miners

-Conduct sensitisation campaigns
Updated geological information system;Strengthening seismic monitoring-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Outdated seismic maps

-Inadequate equipment
-Procure equipment

-Train personnel

-Review existing seismic activities

-Identify active seismic points

-Update seismic maps

-Monitor seismic activities
Developing an integrated data management system-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Outdated geological maps

-Information gaps

-Inadequate equipment
-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure equipment

-Intensify data collection, storage and utilization

-Computerise all the existing geological data

-Create an integrated management information system

-Operationalize and maintain the integrated management information system

2.4 Tourism

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomesStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to develop and promote a vibrant tourism industryIncreased contribution of the tourism industry to GDPEnforcing tourism industry standards and planning controls-Limited number of skilled personnel

-Corruption

-Inadequate equipment
-Conduct inspections, classifications and licensing of tourism enterprises

-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure relevant equipment

-Implement zero tolerance on corruption
Strengthening institutional capacity at all levels-Bureaucratic procedures and inefficiencies

-Limited number of skilled personnel.

-Lack of modern training facilities;

-Inadequate support infrastructure

-Limited financial capacity
-Establish an autonomous Marketing and Quality Assurance body;

-Review and implement training programmes

-Harmonize tourism and hospitality standards;

-Construct hospitality training facilities;

-Conduct Hospitality Enterprise Star Grading exercise in the country;

-Conduct awareness campaigns on tourism regulations;

-Introduce recognition awards of excellence;

-Promote stakeholders’ liaison and public relations;

-Undertake a comprehensive review of tourism laws;

-Harmonize industry standards with relevant authorities
-Enhancing marketing of Malawi’s tourism products-Prohibitive rates (prices) for locals

-Limited financial resources

-Uncoordinated approach to tourism promotion
-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Produce newsletters and electronic programmes

-Facilitate establishment of tourism clubs in schools

-Conduct stakeholder liaison meetings

-Develop a tourism database

-Participate at travel, trade and investment forums;

-Improve tourism packaging and distribution

-Provide incentives to local tourists
Improved environment for doing business in tourismProviding infrastructure that is supportive to tourism development-Limited financial resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Poor coordination
-Up-grade access roads and airstrips to areas of tourist attractions;

-Provide reliable utilities to tourist areas;

-Maintain and improve tourism website;

-Develop tourism database and e-library

-Procure equipment

-Improve coordination among stakeholders
Increased number of tourists-Promoting the development of high-quality tourism facilities in designated areas including Lake Malawi-Inadequate support infrastructure

-Inadequate human and financial resources
-Construct up-market resorts;

-Develop international conference and shopping facility;

-Construct Cultural villages;

-Develop tourism facilities on mountains and other areas of natural outstanding beauty

-Improve tourism packaging and distribution;

-Develop and implement a master-plan for the improvement of Lake Malawi and other designated areas

-Create tourist circuit (routes) and networking

-Strengthen tourism information systems
Promoting eco-tourism-Limited financial resources

-Inadequate skilled human resources

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate incentives

-Inadequate support infrastructure
-Conduct sensitization meetings and workshops

-Conduct tourism promotion events

-Provide eco-tourism investment incentives

-Recruit and train personnel

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure

-Promote environmentally friendly technologies

-Protect and rehabilitate natural resources
Increased local participation in the tourism industryPromoting participation of local investors in the tourism industry-Limited financial resources

-Lack of incentives

-Lack of awareness

-Limited stakeholder support

-Inadequate support infrastructure
-Conduct awareness campaigns;

-Provide investment incentives

-Promote public private partnerships

-Encourage participation of communities in managing and conserving tourism resource base

-Provide support infrastructure

3.0 TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE AND NSANJE WORLD INLAND PORT

3.1 Road Infrastructure

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomesStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to ensure provision of safe, affordable, accessible and high quality road transport systemReduced lead times and cost on exports and importsEnsuring comprehensive and coordinated planning of road and other modes of transport-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources

-Lack of sector investment plan
-Review the National Transport policy

-Finalise and implement the Transport Sector Investment Programme (TSIP)

-Strengthen sector coordination

-Harmonise transport subsector strategies

-Improve the National Transport Database

-Improve on transport data collection, processing and utilisation

-Mainstreaming cross cutting issues
Enhancing Public Private Partnerships in the transport system-Lack of PPP policy

-Inadequate skills

-Lack of information

-High costs of capital

-Inadequate financial resources

-Costly investments

-Underdeveloped private sector
-Promote private sector participation in service provision

-Train personnel

-Disseminate information on transport sector investment opportunities

-Provide investment incentives

-Advocate for a PPP Act and policy

-Enforce concessional agreements
Enhancing axle load control-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources

-Inadequate infrastructure and equipment

-Corruption

-Weak enforcement
-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure additional weighbridge equipment and software including cctv

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure

-Strengthen anti-corruption drive

-Strengthen enforcement of axle load control
Improved domestic and cross border mobility and connectivityProviding adequate network of roads based on appropriate standards-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Weak enforcement of standards

-Low capacity of contractors
-Build capacity of contractors

-Train personnel in various trades

-Procure construction equipment

-Strengthen anti-corruption drive

-Improve on revenue collection

-Procure, monitor and supervise civil works

-Replace timber deck bridges with concrete decks

-Improve rural road network

-Replace single-lane bridges with double lane

-Rehabilitate and upgrade roads to meet regional agreed standards
Enhancing routine road maintenance and upgrading-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Low capacity of contractors

-Weak enforcement of contracts
-Build capacity of contractors

-Train personnel in various trades

-Procure construction equipment

-Improve on road levy collection

-Procure, monitor and supervise civil works

-Prepare and implement annual roads maintenance programs
Building technical and institutional capacity at all levels-Inadequate financial and human resources-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure office and construction equipment

-Improve on management systems and networks

-Improve on revenue collection

-Develop one stop border posts
Promoting competition in the construction industry-Low capacity of contractors

-Inadequate skilled human resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Weak enforcement of regulations and standards
-Build capacity of local contractors

-Train personnel in various trades

-Procure construction equipment

-Prepare annual roads programme

-Open up the sector to contractors and consultants from the region and beyond
Improving management of road network throughout the country-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Low capacity of contractors and consultants
-Build capacity of contractors and consultants

-Promote private sector participation

-Train personnel in various trades

-Procure construction equipment

-Prepare annual roads program

-Prepare and offer routine and periodic maintenance contracts

-Monitor and supervise civil works
Promoting high road safety standards and traffic management-Inadequate skilled human resources

-Inadequate equipment and support infrastructure

-Corruption

-Vandalism

-Lack of awareness

-Weak enforcement of regulations and standards
-Enforce road safety standards and traffic regulations

-Improve on road signage and markings

-Conduct safety audits

-Treat black spots

-Implement non-motorised vehicle protection measures

-Implement speed reduction measures

-Conduct safety education

3.2 Rail Transport

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to develop an efficient and effective rail networkImproved regional and international connectivityRehabilitating and expanding the railway line and related infrastructure-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources

-Low capacity of contractors

-Inadequate equipment

-Vandalism
-Carry out emergency track spot repairs

-Carry out emergency bridge and culverts repairs

-Carry out rail track and bridge maintenance
Creating linkages to ports, industrial sites and regional and international markets-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources

-Low capacity of contractors

-Inadequate equipment

-Low traffic volumes

-Poor coordination
-Build capacity of the sector

-Train personnel

-Procure equipment

-Improve on marketing of rail services

-Implement the multi-modal approach to transportation

-Rehabilitate infrastructure

-Strengthen stakeholder coordination
Improved regulatory and institutional frameworkPromoting railway safety and environmental protection-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Obsolete locomotives

-Vandalism
-Build capacity of contractors and consultants

-Train personnel

-Procure new locomotives and rail safety equipment

-Enforce rail safety standards and traffic regulations

-Improve on rail signage and markings

-Explore the possibility of migrating from diesel powered to electric locomotives

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Improved rail infrastructure and reliabilityImproving operational efficiency and commercial viability of the existing railway infrastructure and levels of service-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources

-Inadequate rail coverage within the country

-Poor asset management and maintenance by the concessionaire

-Weak regulatory environment

-Low traffic volumes

-Poor marketing strategies

-Lack of support from the private sector.
-Expand rail coverage within the country

-Improve on asset management and maintenance

-Enforce adherence to concession agreements

-Strengthen the regulatory framework

-Encourage competition in the sub-sector

-Conduct advocacy campaigns

-Improve on marketing of rail services

-Train personnel

3.3. Inland Water Transport Infrastructure

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to promote inland water transport system and improve access to the seaImproved inland water transportation system-Developing an efficient and productive maritime transport system-Lack of competition

-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Weak regulatory framework

-Weak enforcement of regulations and standards
-Procure and install navigation aids and other appropriate equipment

-Procure, rehabilitate and maintain vessels

-Construct Marine Training College

-Recruit and train personnel

-Strengthen the regulatory framework including review of the Inland Shipping Act

-Strengthen enforcement of standards and regulations
-Promoting Public Private Partnerships in the industry-Lack of PPP policy

-Inadequate skilled human resources

-Lack of information on water transport sector investment opportunities

-Inadequate incentives
-Advocate for a PPP Act and policy

-Recruit and train personnel

-Disseminate information on investment opportunities

-Provide appropriate incentives
Improved interface with rail and road transport-Improving port infrastructure-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources

-Weak regulatory framework

-Inadequate equipment

-Inadequate capacity of local construction firms
-Construct access roads and rail links to major ports

-Develop and rehabilitate ports and jetties on Lake Malawi

-Construct breakwaters at designated places on the lake

-Procure port handling and security equipment

-Develop truck parking areas at ports

-Strengthen the regulatory framework

-Create the National Ports Authority

-Train personnel
-Opening up navigable rivers-Inadequate financial and skilled human resource

-Inadequate equipment

-Conflicting interests
-Conduct feasibility studies and Environmental Impact Assessments

-Develop navigable rivers into waterways

-Procure equipment for Nsanje World Inland Port and other ports

-Procure dredgers and dredge the Shire-Zambezi rivers and other navigable rivers

-Procure barges

-Develop truck parking areas

-Conduct sensitization campaigns

-Promote private sector participation and PPPs

-Provide information to the private sector on economic opportunities

-Recruit and train personnel
Reduced transport costs-Promoting affordable and safe water transport system-Weak regulatory framework

-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources

-Inadequate infrastructure and equipment

-Lack of competition

-Vandalism
-Promote private sector participation and PPPs

-Strengthen the regulatory framework

-Procure navigation aids, vessels and other related equipment

-Recruit and train personnel

-Construct and rehabilitate infrastructure

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Provide investment incentives

4.0 EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

4.1. Education

4.1.1 Basic Education

GoalMedium Term Expected OutcomesStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To improve access to quality and relevant educationExpanded equitable access to educationAccelerating rehabilitation of existing learning institutions and construction of additional infrastructure at all levels;-Lack of capacity of contractors

-Poor coordination

-Untimely disbursement of funds

-Rigorous procurement processes

-Inadequate project monitoring and supervision

-Inadequate financial resources.
-Construct and rehabilitate classrooms, resource centres, libraries, laboratories, teachers’ houses, Early Childhood Development (ECD) and Complementary Basic Education (CBE) centres;

-Construct and rehabilitate school sanitary facilities

-Improve coordination of community participation

-Conduct M & E.
Scaling up school feeding programmes-Limited financial resources

-Laborious management of school feeding programme

-Inadequate community participation

-Lack of support infrastructure
-Provide school meals to all primary schools

-Procure and distribute seeds (Maize and Soya) to districts piloting Home-Grown School Meals programme

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Provide kitchen facilities
Scaling up School Health and Nutrition, and HIV and AIDS programmes-Prohibitive cultural attitude

-Poor sanitary facilities

-Poor diet diversification of food preparation skills

-Stigma and discrimination

-Poor community participation

-Shortage of health personnel
-Provide life skills education, counselling, care and support to teachers and OVCs in schools

-Provide micro-nutrient supplements

-Support and expand deworming programme in schools

-Scale up safe, healthy and productive school environments

-Provide girl friendly sanitary facilities

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Scaling up of child friendly schools programmes-Harmful cultural practices

-Lack of awareness

-Lack of clear guidelines on school discipline

-Inadequate financial resources
-Provide life skills education, counselling, care and support to teachers and OVCs in schools

-Develop mechanisms for reporting forms of child abuse

-Disseminate and enforce policy against all forms of corporal punishment

-Implement measures to reduce violence against children in schools

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Providing a conducive environment for girls education including boarding facilities-Prohibitive cultural practices to girls’ education;

-Lack of girl-friendly sanitation facilities

-Inadequate financial resources
-Provide supportive infrastructure/facilities for girls

-Review policies related to girls

-Provide grants to schools to address equity issues

-Roll out ‘mother groups’ in all schools

-Provide girl friendly sanitary facilities

-Recruit more female teachers
Providing a conducive environment for students with special education needs-Inadequate SNE teachers, teaching and learning materials and assistive devices

-Lack of appropriate SNE infrastructure

-Highly skewed distribution of special needs students
-Provide supportive infrastructure/ facilities for special needs students

-Review policies related to special needs students.

-Establish more and rehabilitate resource centres for children with special needs.

-Provide special needs teaching and learning materials such as Braille materials, assistive devices and training on use.
Strengthening coordination and provision of ECD and CBE-Lack of awareness

-Limited community participation

-Poor coordination of stakeholders

-Lack of appropriate infrastructure

-Inadequate financial and human resources
-Build appropriate capacity

-Conduct sensitization campaigns

-Establish and rehabilitate preschool’s sanitary and kitchen facilities

-Develop, maintain and utilize database of programmes for out of school children and youth.

-Scale up adult literacy and post literacy programmes.

-Integrate technical and vocational training in CBE
Promoting the role of private sector and private financing in education system-Poor coordination

-Lack of public private partnership policy

-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate incentives

-Weak enforcement of standards
-Mobilize private sector investment in Basic Education

-Provide incentives to private investors

-Strengthen coordination

-Strengthen adherence to standards
Promoting Public Private Partnerships in the provision of education infrastructure and services-Lack of public private partnership policy

-Lack of incentives

-Inadequate financial resources
-Develop public-private partnership policy

-Provide incentives to private investors

-Strengthen coordination
Increasing number of girls opting for mathematics and science subjects at all levels-Lack of awareness

-High girl drop-out rate
-Conduct sensitization campaigns

-Encourage career guidance in mathematics and science subjects
Improved quality and relevance of educationTraining and recruiting additional teaching staff-Inadequate capacity of training colleges

-Ineffective deployment of teachers (more teachers in urban areas than in rural areas)

-Inadequate incentives

-Lack of support infrastructure
-Construct new TTCs

-Expand the Open Distance Learning teacher training programme

-Train and recruit additional primary school teachers

-Train ECD caregivers and CBE instructors



-Provide attractive terms / conditions to teachers

-Develop guidelines and train head teachers for double shifting and overlapping classrooms

-Provide incentives to teachers under double shifting schools



-Provide adequate supply of teaching and learning materials.

-Provide Continuing Professional Development (CPD) for teachers

-Revise policies on teacher education and development

-Develop proper guidelines of incentive schemes

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure.

-Introduce and implement teacher assistant system in primary classrooms.
Providing adequate and relevant teaching and learning materials-Lengthy procurement procedures

-Inadequate financial resources

-Low capacity of suppliers

-Corruption and fraud

-Lack of support infrastructure

-Mismanagement of school resources
-Procure adequate and relevant teaching and learning materials

-Build capacity of procurement personnel

-Provide support infrastructure

-Implement zero tolerance on corruption

-Improve procurement procedures

-Improve distribution channels and management capacity
Introducing standardized testing to measure and monitor quality of learning and teaching-Inadequate resources and capacity-Standardize testing in primary education to measure and monitor quality of learning and teaching at different levels
Reviewing and reforming school and training college curricula to address national needs at all levels-Limited financial and human resources

-Lack of guidelines
-Identify national needs

-Review the primary school curriculum

-Incorporate national needs in the curriculum

-Develop curricula for adult literacy

-Introduce standardized testing to measure and monitor quality of learning and teaching

-Develop and review guidelines

-Recruit and train personnel
Promoting systematic and regular inspection of all learning institutions-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate skills of PEAs/Inspectors

-Inadequate equipment

-Lack of motivation

-Lack of support infrastructure

-Corruption
-Recruit and train inspectors

-Provide frequent inspection and advisory visits to schools

-Conduct sensitization campaigns

-Define career path for PEAs/Inspectors

-Provide support infrastructure and equipment

-Enhance accountability and transparency
Improved management and governance of educationDecentralizing management and financing of the education system-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Lack of appropriate information

-Poor coordination
-Devolve sector functions to local authorities

-Review devolution guidelines

-Build institutional capacity at local levels

-Enhance community participation and empowerment

-Enhance school-based improvement planning and management

-Enhance stakeholder coordination
Strengthening education management and information systems-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Unreliable data
-Conduct annual school census

-Conduct school mapping

-Train and recruit personnel

-Procure equipment

-Enhance teacher management information systems

-Conduct sensitization campaigns on data management

-Update database

4.1.2 Secondary Education

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions/Activities
To improve access to quality and relevant educationExpanded equitable access to educationAccelerating rehabilitation of existing learning institutions and construction of additional infrastructure at all levels-Lack of capacity of contractors

-Poor coordination

-Rigorous procurement processes

-Inadequate project monitoring and supervision

-Inadequate financial resources
-Identify and rehabilitate all existing dilapidated secondary school facilities

-Construct new secondary schools and hostels

-Construct and rehabilitate teachers’ houses.

-Promote monitoring and supervision of construction works

-Construct and rehabilitate school sanitary facilities

-Improve community participation

-Recruit and train procurement personnel

-Enhance stakeholder coordination

-Strengthen capacity of contractors
Scaling up School Health and Nutrition, and HIV and AIDS programs-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Prohibitive cultural attitude

-Poor sanitary facilities

-Poor diet diversification of food preparation skills

-Stigma and discrimination

-Poor community participation

-Shortage of skills
-Provide First Aid support mechanisms to secondary schools

-Strengthen AIDS Clubs

-Promote nutritious diets in secondary schools

-Promotion of home economics education

-Provide life skills education, counseling, care and support to teachers and OVCs in schools.

-Provide micro-nutrient supplements.

-Scale up safe, healthy and productive school environments

-Provide girl friendly sanitary facilities

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Scaling up of child friendly schools programmes-Harmful cultural practices

-Lack of awareness

-Lack of guidelines on school discipline
-Provide life skills education, counseling, care and support to teachers and OVCs in schools

-Develop mechanisms for reporting forms of student abuse

-Disseminate and enforce policy against all forms of corporal punishment

-Implement measures to reduce violence against students

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Providing a conducive environment for girls education including boarding facilities-Prohibitive cultural practices to girls’ education;

-Highly skewed distribution of special needs students

-Lack of girl-friendly sanitation facilities

Inadequate financial resources
-Provide supportive infrastructure/ facilities for girls

-Review policies related to girl students

-Provide grants to schools to address equity issues

-Provide girl friendly sanitary facilities

-Conduct sensitization campaigns

-Construct girls’ hostels
Providing a conducive environment for students with special education needs-Inadequate SNE teachers, teaching and learning materials and assistive devices

-Lack of appropriate SNE infrastructure

-Inadequate financial resources
-Provide supportive infrastructure/ facilities for special needs students

-Review policies related to special needs students

-Conduct sensitization campaigns

-Train and recruit SNE teachers
Promoting the role of private sector and private financing in education system-Poor coordination

-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate incentives

-Weak enforcement of standards
-Mobilize private sector investment in secondary education

-Establish private sector fora on education

-Provide incentives to private investors

-Strengthen coordination

-Strengthen adherence to standards
Promoting Public Private Partnerships in the provision of education infrastructure and services-Lack of public private partnership policy

-Inadequate financial resources
-Develop and review public-private partnership policy

-Provide incentives to private investors
Increasing number of girls opting for mathematics and science subjects at all levels-Lack of awareness

-High girl drop-out rate
-Conduct sensitization campaigns

-Encourage career guidance in mathematics and science subjects
Improved quality and relevance of educationTraining and recruiting additional teaching staff-Inadequate capacity of training colleges

-Ineffective deployment of teachers (more teachers in urban areas than in rural areas).

-Inadequate incentives

-Lack of support infrastructure
-Train and recruit secondary school teachers

-Enhance capacity of training colleges

-Provide adequate supply of teaching and learning materials

-Improve terms and conditions of service for teachers

-Develop guidelines and instructions to sensitise school personnel and communities

-Continually revise policies on teacher education and development

-Develop proper guidelines of incentive schemes

-Develop guidelines and train head teachers for double shifting and overlapping classrooms

-Provide incentives to teachers under double shifting schools
Reviewing and reforming secondary school curricula to address national needs-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Lack of guidelines
-Conduct needs assessment

-Review the secondary school curriculum

-Incorporate national needs in the curriculum

-Develop and review guidelines

-Recruit and train personnel
Providing adequate and relevant teaching and learning materials-Lengthy procurement procedures

-Inadequate financial resources

-Low capacity of suppliers

-Corruption and fraud

-Lack of support infrastructure Mismanagement of school resources
-Procure adequate and relevant teaching and learning materials

-Build capacity of procurement personnel

-Provide support infrastructure

-Develop relevant teaching and learning materials

-Implement zero tolerance on corruption –Conduct sensitization campaigns

-Develop and review textbook policy

-Improve procurement procedures

-Improve distribution channels and management capacity
Promoting systematic and regular inspection of all learning institutions-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Corruption
-Train and recruit inspectors

-Provide frequent advisory and inspection visits

-Conduct sensitization campaigns

-Procure equipment
Improved management and governance of educationDecentralizing management and financing of the education system-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Lack of appropriate information

-Poor coordination

-Conflicting policies
-Complete devolution of sector functions to local authorities

-Build institutional capacity at local levels

-Enhance community participation and empowerment

-Enhance school-based improvement planning and management

-Enhance stakeholder coordination
Strengthening education management and information systems-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Unreliable data
-Conduct annual school census

-Conduct school mapping

-Train and recruit personnel

-Procure equipment

-Enhance teacher management information systems

-Conduct sensitization campaigns on data management

-Update database

4.1.3 Tertiary and Vocational Education

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To improve access to quality and relevant educationExpanded equitable access to educationAccelerating rehabilitation of existing learning institutions and construction of additional infrastructure at all levels-Lack of capacity of contractors

-Poor coordination

-Rigorous procurement processes

-Inadequate project monitoring and supervision

-Inadequate financial and human resources.
-Construct new infrastructure

-Establish a college for special needs teacher education

-Identify and rehabilitate all existing dilapidated tertiary and vocational facilities,

-Strengthen and promote monitoring and supervision of construction works

-Recruit and train procurement personnel

-Enhance stakeholder coordination

-Strengthen capacity of contractors
Establishing new universities and colleges-Lack of capacity of contractors

-Rigorous procurement processes

-Inadequate project monitoring and supervision

-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Corruption
-Construct new Universities and colleges

-Strengthen and promote monitoring and supervision of construction works

-Recruit and train personnel

-Strengthen capacity of contractors

-Provide support infrastructure
Scaling up School Health and Nutrition, and HIV and AIDS programs-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Poor sanitary facilities

-Poor diet

-Stigma and discrimination
-Provide health support facilities

-Establish and support resource centres

-Promote nutritious diets

-Provide life skills education, counseling, care and support

-Enhance safe and healthy environments

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Providing a conducive environment for girls including boarding facilities-Inadequate girl-friendly sanitation facilities-Advocate for girl education

-Provide guidance, counseling, care and support to girl students

-Provide supportive infrastructure/ facilities for girls

-Expand provision of grants to college and university students
Providing a conducive environment for students with special education needs-Inadequate SNE teaching and learning materials and devices

-Inadequate appropriate SNE infrastructure
-Provide supportive infrastructure/ facilities for special needs students

-Review policies related to special needs students

-Conduct sensitization campaigns

-Train and recruit SNE lecturers

-Establish and rehabilitate resource centres for children with special needs

-Provide special needs teaching and learning materials such as Braille materials, assistive devices
Promoting Public Private Partnerships in the provision of education infrastructure and services-Lack of public private partnership policy

-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate incentives
-Develop and review public-private partnership policy

-Provide incentives to private investors

-Strengthen coordination amongst stakeholders

-Strengthen adherence to standards
Increasing number of girls opting for mathematics and science subjects at all levels-Lack of awareness

-High drop-out rate
-Conduct sensitization campaigns

-Encourage career guidance in mathematics and science subjects

-Increase enrolment of girls in science programmes
Improved quality and relevance of educationTraining and recruiting additional teaching staff-Inadequate incentives

-Lack of support infrastructure

-Poor coordination

-Inadequate financial resources
-Train and recruit personnel

-Improve terms and conditions of service for lecturers

-Provide supportive infrastructure
Providing adequate and relevant teaching and learning materials-Lengthy procurement procedures

-Inadequate financial resources

-Low capacity of suppliers

-Corruption and fraud

-Lack of support infrastructure
-Procure adequate and relevant teaching and learning materials

-Build capacity of procurement personnel

-Provide support infrastructure

-Implement zero tolerance on corruption
Reviewing and reforming college curricula to address national needs-Inadequate financial and human resources-Conduct needs assessment

-Review tertiary curriculum to incorporate national needs

-Develop and review guidelines

-Recruit and train personnel
Promoting systematic and regular inspection of all learning institutions-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Corruption

-Poor coordination
-Establish National Council for Higher Education

-Provide adequate financial and material resources for inspectors to ensure adherence to standards

-Train and recruit inspectors

-Provide frequent advisory and inspection visits

-Enhance coordination

-Conduct sensitization campaigns

-Procure equipment
Improved governance and management of education systemStrengthening education management and information systems-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Unreliable data
-Conduct annual college census

-Train and recruit personnel

-Procure equipment

-Enhance teacher management information systems

-Conduct sensitization campaigns on data management

-Update database
Decentralizing the management and financing of the education system-Inadequate financial and human resources-Provide administration and office support

-Develop a framework for implementation of decentralization in tertiary subsector

-Provide adequate resources and training

4.2. Science and Technology

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
Enhance the contribution of research, science and technology to national productivity and competivenessWell-coordinated science and technology generation and disseminationPromoting prioritized, focused and multi-disciplinary research and development-Inadequate expertise

-Inadequate support infrastructure

-Inadequate equipment

-Technophobia

-Inadequate private sector participation

-Lack of awareness

-Weak institutional capacity

-Lack of incentives
-Strengthen institutional capacity

-Provide support infrastructure

-Strengthen public/private partnership

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Provide incentives

-Develop and implement research grant schemes

-Enhance stakeholder coordination
Enhancing linkages between research, science and technology institutions and users-Poor coordination among institutions

-Lack of awareness amongst users

-Inadequate support infrastructure

-Inadequate equipment

-Low literacy levels
-Establish networks with other vibrant Science, Technology and Innovation institutions locally and internationally

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Provide support infrastructure

-Procure equipment

-Enhance coordination
Promoting information, education and communication on research, science and technology development-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Lack of skills

-Lack of support infrastructure
-Provide equipment

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure

-Enhance science and technology information dissemination

-Procure equipment

-Mainstream science and technology across sectors

-Recruit and train personnel
Promoting public-private partnerships in generating and disseminating beneficial technologies-Underdeveloped private sector

-Lack of incentives

-Lack of public-private partnerships policy

-Poor coordination

-Poor linkages between researchers, technologists, industry, Government and private sector
-Establish collaborative research programmes between the public and private sector

-Enhance coordination

-Develop public-private partnerships policy

-Provide incentives

-Promote innovative schemes and science culture at all levels
Improved operation of Research and Development institutionsMainstreaming research, science and technology development across all sectors-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Lack of support infrastructure

-Inadequate equipment
-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Train and recruit personnel

-Procure equipment

-Provide support infrastructure

-Advocate for research, science and technology mainstreaming

-Establish research grants
Strengthening institutional and regulatory framework including protection of intellectual property rights-Unavailability of regulations

-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Weak institution capacity

-Inadequate equipment
-Develop R&D regulations and guidelines

-Review policy and regulatory frameworks

-Procure equipment

-Strengthen institution capacity

-Undertake R&D and Innovation Surveys

-Recruit and train personnel

-Review the education Act
Strengthening capacity for research, science and technology institutions-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Lack of support infrastructure

-Lack of incentives

-Absence of mentorship for young scientists

-Lack of career path for researchers
-Develop and implement capacity building programmes

-Procure equipment

-Provide incentives

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure

-Train and recruit personnel

-Review education curricula at all levels of education to strengthen the teaching and learning of science and technology
Improving scientific and technological infrastructure for research and development, and innovation-Inadequate financial resources

-High cost of scientific and technological infrastructure

-Lack of support infrastructure
-Construct office buildings and other facilities

-Establish a Science and Technology Park

-Establish Incubation Centre for Science, Technology and Innovation development

-Establish a cyber-infrastructure, S&T Radio and TV broadcasting studio

-Identify and promote centre of excellence in Science and Technology

-Establish Malawi Academy of Sciences
Increased adoption of beneficial technologiesPromoting adoption, transfer and utilization of beneficial technologies-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Lack of support infrastructure

-Lack of incentives

-High cost of scientific and technological infrastructure

-Low literacy levels
-Recruit and train personnel

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure

-Provide incentives

-Procure equipment

-Disseminate new technologies

-Conduct demonstrations on new technologies

-Develop intellectual property guidelines

5.0 Public Health, Sanitation, Malaria and HIV and AIDS Management

5.1 Public Health

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to control and prevent occurrence and spread of diseasesReduced incidence and prevalence of diseasesStrengthening health support system-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate infrastructure and equipment

-Inadequate skills

-Inadequate drugs and medical supplies
-Develop support infrastructure

-Procure equipment

-Recruit and train personnel

-Ensure an efficient drugs and medical supplies procurement and distribution system

-Implement integrated vector control management
Strengthening community health service delivery system-Inadequate incentives

-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources

-Inadequate infrastructure and equipment

-Inadequate drugs and medical supplies
-Develop support infrastructure

-Procure equipment

-Recruit and train community health workers

-Ensure an efficient drugs and medical supplies procurement and distribution system

-Provide incentives

-Enhance community participation and ownership
Providing high quality diagnostic and laboratory services-Lack of skilled human resources

-Inadequate technology capacity

-Inadequate support infrastructure

-Inadequate financial resources
-Procure laboratory equipment, supplies and other diagnostic materials

-Recruit and train personnel

-Provide support infrastructure

-Develop laboratory information system
Improving diagnosis, prevention and treatment of problems that mostly affect children such as malaria, malnutrition, diarrhoea and pneumonia-Lack of skilled human resources

-Inadequate technology capacity

-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate infrastructure

-Inadequate drugs and medical supplies
-Strengthen laboratory, screening and other diagnostic services

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure

-Procure equipment

-Recruit and train personnel

-Ensure an efficient drugs and medical supplies procurement and distribution system

-Implement integrated vector control management

-Review protocols and guidelines
Strengthening and promoting initiatives to improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment of emerging diseases such as cancer, and high blood pressure-Lack of skilled human resources,

-Inadequate technology capacity

-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate infrastructure

-Inadequate drugs and medical supplies

-Lack of awareness
-Provide screening services

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure

-Procure equipment

-Recruit and train personnel

-Ensure an efficient drugs and medical supplies procurement and distribution system
Strengthening immunization programmes-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate skilled personnel

-Inadequate infrastructure

-Inadequate drugs and medical supplies

-Lack of awareness

-Low literacy levels
-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure

-Procure equipment

-Recruit and train personnel

-Ensure an efficient drugs and medical supplies procurement and distribution system
Building and strengthening human resource capacityInadequate capacity in training institutionsIncrease collaboration and partnerships in provision of on job training
Improved maternal and child healthStrengthening availability and utilization of quality family planning services-Lack of skilled human resources

-Inadequate financial resources

-Low literacy levels

-Inadequate infrastructure

-Lack of awareness

-Youth-unfriendly reproductive health services
-Advocate male involvement in family planning

-Recruit and train personnel

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Ensure provision of youth-friendly reproductive health services

-Provide contraceptives through social marketing and community outreach

-Promote use of modern family planning methods
Improving availability and access to quality integrated maternal and child care services-Lack of skilled human resources

-Inadequate financial resources

-Low literacy levels

-Inadequate infrastructure

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate geographical coverage of health care facilities
-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Promote use of modern family planning methods

-Provide skilled attendance at antenatal care, during birth, postnatal care, and under five services

-Provide PMTCT services

-Provide treatment of moderate and severe malnutrition

-Provide micronutrient supplementation

-Scale up extended program of immunization

-Promote infant and young child feeding

-Scale up and sustain facility baby friendly initiative (BFHI)

-Deworming U5 children
Improved behavioural changePromoting health enhancing behaviour and life styles-Inadequate financial resources

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate equipment

-Beliefs and perceptions
-Develop and implement standards and guidelines on health enhancing behaviour and life styles promotion
-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Train community based workers in health enhancing behaviour and life styles promotion

-Procure equipment

-Provide support infrastructure

5.2 Sanitation

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To ensure improved sanitation facilities and adoption of safe hygiene practicesImproved hygiene practicesPromoting utilization of improved sanitation facilities-Inadequate skilled human resources

-Social and religious beliefs

-Inadequate financial resources

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate equipment
-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Procure equipment

-Train personnel

-Provide support infrastructure

-Promote construction of sanitation facilities
Enhancing information, education and communication on sanitation and hygiene-Inadequate human resources

-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Low literacy levels
-Foster partnerships in IEC among stakeholders

-Procure equipment

-Recruit and train personnel

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Promoting adoption of safe hygiene practices-Low literacy levels

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate equipment
-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure equipment

-Introduce ventilated improved pit latrines

-Promote appropriate rural water sanitation technologies
Increased access and usage of improved sanitation facilitiesProviding improved sanitation facilities in schools, health care centres, community based child care centres, markets and all other public places-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate human resources

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate equipment
-Mainstream sanitation in public institutions

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Procure and install equipment

-Recruit and train personnel
Improved management and disposal of wastePromoting private sector participation in the provision of sanitation and hygiene services-Poor coordination

-Inadequate financial resources

-Lack of incentives
-Provide incentives for private sector participation

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Strengthen coordination
Promoting research in waste management-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources

-Inadequate infrastructure

-Inadequate equipment
-Conduct operations research

-Provide support infrastructure

-Procure equipment

-Recruit and train personnel

-Provide incentives
Improving management and disposal of both liquid and solid waste-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources

-Lack of awareness

-Low literacy levels

-Inadequate infrastructure

-Inadequate equipment

-Limited technology
-Conduct awareness

-Improve refuse collection

-Provide support infrastructure

-Procure equipment

-Recruit and train personnel

-Improve community health surveillance system
Enhancing institutional capacity-Inadequate skilled human resources

-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate support infrastructure and equipment
-Review the Public Health Act and related policies

-Recruit and train community health surveillance assistants

-Strengthen coordination between local councils and central government

-Provide support infrastructure

-Procure equipment
Strengthening regulatory framework-Poor coordination

-Outdated legislation

-Lengthy procedures

-Inadequate financial and human resources
-Review the Public Health Act and related policies

-Streamline procedures

-Recruit and train personnel

-Conduct awareness campaigns

5.3 Malaria

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To reduce malaria related morbidity and mortalityIncreased coverage of malaria preventionScaling up the delivery of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) services to other high malaria transmission districts-Inadequate human resources

-Inadequate financial resources

-Low literacy levels

-Inadequate equipment
-Conduct IRS services

-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure equipment

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Promoting draining of mosquito breeding sites and larviciding-Inadequate skilled human resources

-Inadequate financial resources

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate supplies
-Conduct larviciding and drainage in breeding sites

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Provide larvicides

-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure equipment
Scaling up distribution of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs)-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate supplies

-Low literacy levels
-Procure and distribute LLINs

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Recruit and train personnel

-Promote local production of LLINs
Increased access to appropriate malaria treatmentPromoting directly observed treatment-Inadequate drug supply

-Poor health seeking behaviour

-Low literacy levels
-Procure and distribute drugs

-Strengthen community health system

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Developing capacity of community health workers in malaria case management-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate equipment
-Train health workers in basic care management

-Procure equipment
Increasing the number of health facilities providing parasitological diagnosis of malaria-Inadequate skilled human resources

-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate medical supplies
-Procure and distribute medical supplies

-Recruit laboratory technicians and specialists

-Construct more health facilities

5.4 HIV and AIDS Management

Long-Term GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To prevent spread of HIV infection and mitigate the health, socio economic and psychosocial impact of HIV and AIDSReduced HIV infection and transmission ratePromoting interventions that reduce HIV transmission-Inadequate skilled human resources

-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate equipment and support infrastructure
  • -Develop programs to reduce transmission among stable couples and high risk sexual practices

  • -Conduct IEC on promotion of preventive measures including male circumcision, condom use

  • -Develop programs addressing the cultural, human rights, social and economic environment, and gender inequalities

  • -Facilitate linkages between services and interventions on legal and human rights issues

  • -Advocate and lobby for interventions that promote male circumcision services

  • -Develop male circumcision policy, interventions and communication guidelines

  • -Disseminate the National Condom Strategy and safe blood donations

  • -Scale up the promotion of both free and socially marketed condoms at the workplace to high risk and vulnerable populations

  • -Provide adequate safe blood supplies and promote their rational use

  • -Strengthen infection prevention and waste management in the health facilities

  • -Provide Post Exposure Prophylaxis in the health care services to improve access and use

  • -Train health workers on national screening and quality assurance standards

  • -Identify best practices for integrating HIV prevention with other services and scale-up nationally

  • -Scale up quality STI management in health facilities

  • -Link community-based groups with health services to support both facility and community-based prevention activities

  • -Provide HTC to TB patients

  • -Establish and scale up life skills training programmes for school and out of school youths

  • -Strengthen the development of role model initiatives for the youth

  • -Provide youth friendly HIV and AIDS prevention and reproductive health services

  • -Scale up sex and sexuality education in and out school youths

  • -Promoting HIV Testing and Counselling (HTC)

  • -Lack of willingness of people to go for testing

  • -Unavailability of funds to establish enough testing centres

  • -Inadequate availability of testing kits

  • -Scale up the provision of quality HTC services

  • -Expand the coverage of door to door HTC.

  • -Provide adequate testing kits and other testing requirements

  • -Conduct annual HTC testing weeks

  • -Conduct IEC, advocacy and social mobilization on HTC

  • -Train HTC service providers

  • -Strengthen linkage between HTC services and other care and support services.

Promoting Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT)-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources,

-Lack of awareness

-Low literacy levels

-Inadequate support infrastructure

-Cultural beliefs

-Poor supply chain management

-Limited male involvement in PMTCT
  • -Strengthen capacity to deliver PMTCT

  • -Strengthen provision and access to integrated quality PMTCT services

  • -Conduct advocacy and community mobilization for increased PMTCT demand, male involvement and community support

  • -Follow up on all HIV exposed infants and their parents or caregivers at facility and community levels

  • -Increase access to ART and other HIV related services to positive mothers and their partners

  • -Strengthen follow up and referral of infants born to HIV positive mothers for care and support services

  • -Promote education and support safe infant feeding according to PMTCT guidelines

Promoting HIV and AIDS advocacy and awareness campaigns
  • -Unavailability of IEC materials

  • -Unavailability of user friendly IEC materials

  • -Low literacy levels

  • -Low capacity to use IEC by various stakeholders

  • -Conduct research on the major factors facilitating HIV spread among various groups

  • -Train various stakeholders in the development and effective dissemination of HIV prevention messages

  • -Produce and disseminate IEC materials on HIV prevention and linkages between vulnerability groups HIV, stigma and discrimination and AIDS

  • -Develop specific communication interventions to increase advocacy activities targeting particularly women and girls

Improved quality of lives of People Living with HIV (PLHIVs), OVCs and affected individuals and householdsEnhancing capacity of health care delivery system to manage HIV and related illnesses
  • -Inadequate skilled human resources,

  • -Inadequate financial resources

  • -Inadequate infrastructure and equipment

  • -Inadequate drugs and medical supplies

  • -Weak coordination

  • -Train and retain health workers

  • -Strengthen quality assurance, infrastructure and referral systems

  • -Strengthen drug and other medical supplies procurement and logistics management

  • -Strengthen laboratory support services for HIV diagnosis and management

Promoting access to continuum of HIV treatment and care services
  • -Inadequate human and financial resources

  • -Poor supply chain management

  • -Compliance and drug resistance

  • -Low literacy rates

  • -Develop the capacity for pre-ART management for people with HIV

  • -Strengthen capacity for access, and use of quality of ART, quality management of HIV related diseases and OI management

  • -Build capacity in quality Early Infant Diagnosis and pediatric HIV and AIDS services, care, follow-up and support for HIV exposed children

  • -Provide integrated TB, HIV and AIDS prevention, care and support services

  • -Scale up palliative care for HIV patients

  • -Conduct advocacy campaigns to address obstacles to equitable access to ART

  • -Provide a framework for planning, organizing, implementing, monitoring and evaluating delivery of TB, HIV and AIDS intervention

Promoting access to quality Community Home Based Care (CHBC), palliative care and other support services
  • -Weak coordination among service providers

  • -Limited human and financial resources

  • -Limited capacity at community level

  • -Strengthen community home based care models including palliative care and psychosocial support

  • -Scale up coverage of home based care for people in need

  • -Build the capacity of volunteers, CBOs, FBOs and NGOs involved in CHBC

  • -Provide support to referral mechanisms between CHBC providers and facility-based care

  • -Conduct advocacy for greater involvement of PLHIVs and OVC in planning and implementation of CHBC

  • -Develop CHBC guidelines that spell out the roles of families, communities and service providers

  • -Develop and strengthen coordination mechanisms of implementers of CHBC programmes

  • -Support community mobilisation in the provision of CHBC, palliative care and psychosocial support

  • -Advocate and lobby for support towards the integration of palliative care in the national health system and training curricula for pre-service and in-service training

  • -Provide support to programmes targeting boys and men to become involved in providing CHBC

Promoting support to PLHIVs, OVCs and affected individuals and households
  • -Inadequate financial and human resources

  • -Limited capacity for vocational and technical training

  • -Capacity to learn for the targeted groups PLHIV, OVC and affected households

  • -Establish income generating activities and micro credit programmes targeting PLHIVs, OVC and affected households

  • -Provide training to PLHIVs, OVCs and affected households in business development services, food and nutrition security interventions, technical and vocational skills

  • -Link PLHIV, OVC and affected households particularly female- and child-headed households to the Social Cash Transfer and Input Subsidy Programmes

  • -Provide educational and material support to OVCs and affected households

  • -Build capacity of professional, health education, social welfare service providers and lay counselors in public sector and civil society

  • -Strengthen capacity of families and communities to care for OVC

  • -Improve the involvement of faith leaders in the provision of psychosocial and spiritual support

  • -Advocate for enforcement of national and sectoral HIV and AIDS legislation

  • -Establish programmes on legal literacy and awareness among PLHIV, OVC and affected communities

  • -Facilitate systems for reporting cases of violations and for the provision of legal assistance and legal remedies to PLHIV and vulnerable populations

  • -Produce IEC programmes on rights of PLHIVs, OVCs and affected targeting the general population

Promoting mainstreaming of HIV and AIDS
  • -Limited human and financial resources

  • -Limited capacity for resource mobilization, management and tracking at all levels

  • -Limited human resource capacity

  • -Ineffective coordination and implementation structures especially at district and community levels

  • -Limited use of technology

  • -Scale up and expand workplace interventions in public, private and NGO sectors

  • -Disseminate the mainstream guidelines to all stakeholders

  • -Provide both technical and financial support for the implementation of workplace programmes

  • -Conduct advocacy and lobbying on development of workplace programmes in the private sector and among civil society organizations

  • -Strengthen the capacity of Local Councils to develop and implement workplace programmes

  • -Monitor the utilization of the least 2 percent ORT in the public sector

  • -Facilitate review of public policies and strategies to mainstream HIV and AIDS

  • -Develop capacity of public, private and civil society organizations to mainstream HIV and AIDS

Promoting effective coordination and management of the national HIV and AIDS response
  • -Limited human and financial resources

  • -Limited capacity for resource mobilization, management and tracking at all levels

  • -Limited human resource capacity

  • -Ineffective coordination and implementation structures especially at district and community levels

  • -Limited use of technology

  • -Advocate for increased resource allocation for HIV and AIDS in the budget at national and district levels

  • -Strengthen financial resource mobilisation

  • -Develop capacity for resource mobilization for HIV and AIDS activities in the private and non-profit sectors

  • -Develop and implement a comprehensive resource mobilization strategy

  • -Develop mechanisms for gender sensitive resource allocation and tracking, and monitoring of the response

  • -Develop capacity of grant recipient organizations for proposal processing for HIV and AIDS funding

  • -Develop capacity and timely implementation of activities

  • -Develop systems for monitoring impact of the grants facility

  • -Develop transparent and simple measures for timely accountability on resource use

  • -Strengthen capacity of institutions to collect and report HIV and AIDS data using the National M&E Plan

  • -Implement quality HIV and AIDS related research

  • -Strengthen the capacity of institutions to undertake HIV and AIDS research

  • -Support collection of routine and periodic gender sensitive programmatic data

  • -Support implementation of national HIV surveillance strategy

  • -Review the monitoring and evaluation tools

  • -Strengthen mechanisms for analysis and packaging of surveillance and research findings

  • -Disseminate strategic information to policy makers and programme planners

  • -Advocate for enactment of HIV and AIDS Bill

  • -Align sectoral policies and strategies to the National HIV and AIDS Act

  • -Provide support to the various structures for the national response

  • -Strengthen policy coordination, implementation and monitoring of nutrition, HIV and AIDS programmes

  • -Commemorate international HIV and AIDS days

  • -Build capacity and provide institutional and operational support for effective coordination and management of the national HIV and AIDS response at council and national levels.

  • -Strengthen the capacity of local authorities and other stakeholders to plan, monitor and evaluate the response

  • -Strengthen mechanisms for coordination and partnerships at national, regional and district levels

Promoting reintegration of eligible PLHIV into economic activities-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Stigma and discrimination

-Weak legislation
-Establish income generating activities and micro credit programmes targeting PLHIVs, OVC and affected households

-Provide training to PLHIVs, OVCs and affected households in business development services, food and nutrition security interventions and technical and vocational skills

-Link PLHIV, OVC and affected households particularly female- and child-headed households to the GoM Social Cash Transfer Programme

-Facilitate access to the Input Subsidy Programme by PLHIVs, OVCs and affected households

-Provide educational support to OVCs and affected households
Improved dietary practices of PLHIVs, OVCs and affected individuals and households.Promoting food and nutrition security among HIV and AIDS affected households-Existence of stigma and discrimination

-Limited capacity at local council level
-Develop programmes on nutrition management of HIV–related illnesses

-Provide infant and young child nutrition interventions for HIV exposed children

-Develop programmes on nutrition for positive living and affected individuals

-Compile and disseminate best approaches to providing nutritional therapy to PLHIVs

-Monitor utilization of the 2 percent ORT budgetary allocation for nutrition, HIV and AIDS programmes

-Support households affected by HIV and AIDS with sustainable economic and social protection interventions

-Mobilize PLHIVs to demand food and nutrition security programmes

-Scale up and increase access to sustainable economic and social protection for households affected by HIV and AIDS

-Strengthen capacity of affected households to increase agricultural production

-Provide nutritional supplements to hard hit households of PLHIV

-Scale up nutrition treatment and supplementation, care and support for PLHIVs

-Recruit and train nutrition, HIV and AIDS service providers in nutrition promotion, assessment, and management

-Build capacity of the PLHIV, caregivers and households on nutrition promotion among PLHIV and nutrition management of HIV related conditions, diseases and drug side effects

-Provide supplies and equipment for nutrition assessment and management for PLHIV

-Review education curricula of learning and training institutions to include nutrition, HIV and AIDS interaction

-Produce and disseminate Nutrition, HIV and AIDS training materials and guidelines for PLHIVs

6.0 INTEGRATED RURAL DEVELOPMENT

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
The goal is to improve rural livelihoods-Improved local governance systems and structures

-Strengthened rural participation in development programmes
-Strengthening local institutional capacity to be more responsive to the service needs of the rural communities including the most vulnerable-Poor coordination

-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Slow rate of decentralization

-Low literacy levels
-Recruit and train personnel

-Speed up the devolution process

-Strengthen stakeholder coordination

-Strengthen community participation in decision making process

-Procure appropriate equipment

-Conduct advocacy campaigns

-Conduct stakeholder training

-Provide support infrastructure

-Scale-up and operationalise service charters
-Well coordinated local development planning-Promoting integrated implementation of district development processes-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Inadequate support infrastructure and services

-Poor coordination

-Conflicting interests
-Strengthen stakeholder coordination

-Procure equipment

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Establish a strong institutionalized sector working group

-Strengthen accountability systems in councils
-Improved investment in rural areas-Promoting the establishment of rural growth centres and satellite model villages-Poor and inadequate rural infrastructure

-Poor coordination

-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Low participation of private sector
-Set up additional demonstration villages

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure

-Provide incentives to service providers to work in rural areas



-Scale up the establishment of Rural Growth Centres

-Develop and rehabilitate rural infrastructure

-Improve provision of services and social amenities

-Encourage formulation and implementation of investment plans in all district councils

-Diversify revenue generation opportunities at district councils
-Provide incentives for private sector participation and Public Private Partnership

-Provide information on existing opportunities in rural areas
Promoting rural electrification programme-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Poor and inadequate infrastructure

-Limited demand

-Vandalism
-Expand rural electrification

-Conduct advocacy campaigns

-Introduce other sources of electricity in selected rural areas

-Develop and rehabilitate infrastructure

-Provide incentives for private sector participation and public private partnerships
-Promoting conducive environment for private sector investment-Inadequate financial resources

-Poor and inadequate support infrastructure and services

-Inadequate incentives

-Limited demand
-Improve the provision of social services

-Provide support infrastructure and services for private sector investment

-Provide investment incentives

-Review land tenure system

-Promote income generating activities
-Increased rural incomes-Promoting local economic development-Low literacy levels

-Limited access to credit

-Inadequate financial resources

-High default rates

-Limited coverage of micro-finance

-Unfavourable loan requirements
-Expand MARDEF, YERDEF, OVOP and other programmes

-Encourage microfinance institutions to invest in rural areas

-Train communities in business management

-Simplify loan requirement procedures

-Provide support infrastructure

-Train communities on income generating activities

-Link households to MFIs
-Reduced rural-urban migrationImproving access to basic amenities;-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate and poor infrastructure
-Expand provision of basic amenities

-Encourage integrated planning and provision of services

-Promote community based management
-Ensuring equal access to socioeconomic opportunities-Low literacy levels

-Lack of awareness

-Corruption

-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate support infrastructure
-Empower communities to exploit socio-economic opportunities

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Promote zero tolerance on corruption

-Develop and rehabilitate infrastructure

-Recruit and train personnel

7.0 GREEN BELT IRRIGATION AND WATER DEVELOPMENT

7.1 Green Belt Irrigation

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To increase agriculture production and productivity through irrigation intensificationIncreased land under irrigationPromote development of areas with irrigation potential-Lack of modern irrigation technologies

-Inadequate support infrastructure

-Lack of reliable markets for irrigated crop produce

-Inadequate irrigation infrastructure

-Inadequate skills in irrigation infrastructure development

-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate private sector participation
-Increase water harvesting technologies

-Construct small, medium and large scale irrigation schemes

-Provide financial services to smallholder irrigation farmers

-Provide credit facilities to commercial irrigation farmers

-Undertake integrated planning in irrigation programmes

-Provide support infrastructure

-Strengthen private sector participation

-Strengthen market infrastructure

-Undertake supply chain analysis
Increased agricultural production and productivityPromote rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure-Inadequate plant and equipment

-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Lack of support infrastructure
-Rehabilitate existing irrigation schemes and small earth dams

-Conduct training programmes

-Procure equipment

-Mobilize resources

-Provide support infrastructure

-Enhance maintenance
Promoting research and use of appropriate technologies in irrigation-Inadequate use of modern irrigation technologies

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Lack of equipment
-Conduct research in irrigation technology

-Enhance technology transfer and absorption.

-Develop marketing infrastructure

-Procure equipment

-Recruit and train personnel
Reduced dependence on rain-fed agricultureEnhancing information, education and communication on irrigation-Low literacy levels

-Lack of equipment

-Lack of human and financial resources
-Review curriculum in the training institutions

-Undertake awareness campaigns

-Procure equipment

-Recruit and train personnel
Increased agriculture production and productivityEnhancing technical and administrative capacities in irrigated agriculture-Lack of human and financial resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Inadequate skills

-Weak institutional capacity

-Poor coordination
-Enhance capacity in irrigation institutions

-Establish and empower cooperatives and water user associations

-Create an enabling environment for private sector participation

-Promote collaboration among stakeholders

-Develop the irrigation master plan

-Enhance capacity building
Increased household income levelsPromoting the establishment of a well coordinated marketing system for products from irrigation farming-Weak farmer organizations for participatory irrigation development and management

-Poor quality of produce

-Insufficient market information

-Poor coordination

-Lack of appropriate storage facilities

-Inadequate support infrastructure
-Procure and provide agro-processing facilities

-Enhance availability and utilization of market information system

-Promote crop diversification

-Develop support infrastructure

-Enhance stakeholder coordination

-Provide appropriate storage facilities

-Strengthen producer organizations

-Organize and strengthen local produce markets

-Encourage contract marketing

7.2 Water Development

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To improve access to water through an integrated water management systemWell developed and managed water resourcesPromoting development of potential multi-purpose dam sites and ground water resources-Lack of integrated water resource management

-Degradation of water resources

-Land tenure systems

-Lack of awareness on water issues
-Construct new small, medium and large multipurpose dams

-Construct boreholes in areas with low water supply coverage

-Develop springs for multipurpose uses (irrigation, tourism and recreation)

-Identify trans-boundary aquifers

-Facilitate ratification of all appropriate agreements on trans-boundary water courses
Strengthening and institutionalizing monitoring and evaluation system for water services-Poor coordination

-Lack of consolidated database on water resources

-Inadequate human and financial resources
-Enhance stakeholder coordination

-Recruit and train personnel

-Consolidate database on water resources

-Establish water management information system

-Establish drought and flood monitoring and forecasting systems
Promoting equitable distribution of water points to rural areas through GPS mapping-Inadequate human and financial resources-Enhance stakeholder coordination

-Strengthen M&E system
Enhancing information, education and communication-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Low levels of awareness

-Inadequate equipment

-Inadequate skills
-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure equipment

-Enhance coordination of IEC
Enhancing institutional capacity at all levels-Weak legal framework

-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Poor coordination
-Review and strengthen legal framework

-Recruit and train personnel

-Enhance coordination
Promoting user friendly technologies for water resources conservation and utilization-Inadequate construction equipment

-Lack of collaboration amongst key stakeholders

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate financial resources
-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Conduct research on use of simple technologies

-Strengthen stakeholder collaboration

-Promote efficient water use technologies

-Rehabilitate existing water infrastructure such dams and boreholes
Enhancing water resources monitoring, preservation, development and management-Inadequate capacity among stakeholders

-Lack of skills

-Lack of awareness

-Low literacy levels

-Inadequate institutional capacity
Strengthening research in the water resources-Inadequate capacity among stakeholders

-Lack of skills

-Lack of awareness

-Low literacy levels
-Establish and empower water users’ associations

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Enhance stakeholder coordination

-Train key stakeholders
Increased access to safe water points within 500 m distanceImproving existing water infrastructure-Inadequate institutional capacity

-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Insufficient self financing for sustainability
-Rehabilitate existing water infrastructure

-Develop additional water infrastructure

-Train personnel

-Develop water users’ associations

-Strengthen institutional capacity
Promoting the empowerment of local communities in water resources development and management-Inadequate capacity among stakeholders

-Lack of skills

-Lack of awareness

-Low literacy levels
-Establish and empower water users’ associations

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Enhance stakeholder coordination

-Train key stakeholders
Increasing number of people connected to piped water supply systems in both urban and rural areas-Poor coordination among stakeholders

-Inadequate participation of stakeholders in water management

-Limited financial services

-Population pressure

-Unharmonized policies
-Construct new small, medium and large multipurpose dams

-Construct boreholes in areas with low water supply coverage

-Enhance stakeholder coordination

-Review and harmonize policies

-Develop and rehabilitate water supply infrastructure

-Increase water points

-Increase capacity of service provider
Strengthening institutionalization of practical operations and maintenance framework at all levels-Inadequate participation of stakeholders in water management

-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate skills

-Weak institutional arrangement

-Weak law enforcement
-Rehabilitate existing water infrastructure

-Recruit and train personnel

-Enhance stakeholder coordination

-Strengthen institutional arrangement

-Review regulations

-Enhance stakeholder participation in water management
Promoting private sector participation in the provision of water services-Availability, readiness and willingness of the private sector to take up the challenge

-Poor coordination

-Lack of public private partnership policy

-Inadequate human and financial resources
-Promote public and private sector participation in water resources management and development

-Enhance stakeholder coordination

-Recruit and train personnel

8.0 CHILD DEVELOPMENT, YOUTH DEVELOPMENT AND EMPOWERMENT

8.1 Child Development and Protection

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To ensure that children grow into productive and responsible citizens-Reduced number of children living below the poverty line-Protecting children against abuse, exploitation, neglect and violence-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Poverty

-Weak regulatory framework
-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Promote income generating activities

-Recruit and train personnel

-Strengthen regulatory framework

-Promote child protection initiatives with emphasis on female and physically challenged children
-Eliminating harmful cultural practices-Inadequate financial & human resources

-Lack of awareness

-Weak enforcement of legislation
-Formation of parenting groups in all communities

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Strengthen enforcement of legislation
-Reducing the adverse effects of poverty on children-Inadequate financial resources

-Limited economic opportunities

-Low literacy level
-Train caregivers, committees, parents and field workers in nutrition values

-Enhance stakeholder coordination to ensure adequate technical support

-Increase economic opportunities in both rural and urban areas
-Improved equitable access to quality child development services-Promoting access to education, health and counselling services-Inadequate financial and human resources

-High incidences of poverty

-Inadequate support infrastructure

-Inadequate equipment

-Inadequate teaching and learning materials

-Inadequate institutional capacity
-Develop tailor-made teaching and learning aids for children with special needs

-Recruit and train teachers for children with special needs

-Construct and rehabilitate Early Childhood Development Centres (ECD) across the country

-Promote access to health services for the vulnerable children

-Lobby Parliament to enact the ECD legislation

-Provide school health and nutritional services

-Recruit and train counsellors
-Strengthened national child protection systems to reduce children’s vulnerability to violence, abuse, and exploitation-Promoting early childhood development and pre-primary education-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate skills

-Inadequate infrastructure and equipment

-Lack of standardized curriculum

-Lack of awareness
-Train technical staff, caregivers, guardians and parents in ECD and parenting services

-Conduct awareness campaign on ECD and parenting

-Institute in-service training of primary school teachers in ECD

-Cluster ECD centres around primary schools to enhance transition to primary school activities

-Support joint meetings for ECD caregivers, local leaders, PEAs and primary school teachers

-Provide school bursaries to OVCs

-Link OVC to social protection interventions, essential health, education and other psychosocial support interventions

-Upgrade institutional support services

-Strengthen social rehabilitation centres

-Construct and rehabilitate ECD infrastructure
-Establishing a legal and institutional framework to promote early childhood development services-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Poor coordination

-Rigorous bureaucratic procedures
-Provide training and incentives to caregivers

-Conduct national mapping and invest for the distribution of services

-Formulate, enact and review child sensitive laws

-Develop rehabilitation centres
-Promoting the integration of child issues in sectoral policies and strategies-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate skills

-Lack of awareness
-Conduct stakeholder sensitization meetings

-Train technical staff and communities in mainstreaming child issues
-Strengthening inter-sectoral coordination and capacity of all stakeholders-Inadequate human and financial capacity

-Weak institutional framework
-Establish focal points for efficient coordination

-Design and operationalise an IMS for social support

-Mainstream child protection indicators in household surveys

-Build capacity of Local Councils, ADCs & VDCs

-Conduct sensitization of DECs and AECs on importance of child participation in decision making
-Promoting support to children infected and/or affected by HIV and AIDS-Inadequate information

-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Stigma and discrimination

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate support infrastructure
-Design and develop CBCC/ECD play materials with nutrition and HIV and AIDS messages

-Establish linkages between CBCC/ECD and existing nutrition and HIV and AIDS services

-Train care givers, parents and committees on care for children with HIV and AIDS

-Develop and distribute IEC materials and guidelines on care and support of HIV positive children

-Support poor families in providing alternative care
-Promoting advocacy and awareness on child issues-Low literacy levels

-Lack of knowledge on child rights

-Inadequate financial and human resources
--Develop national plan for child protection and standard package of services

-Raise stakeholder awareness

-Train personnel

-Introduce Child Abuse Prevention in School (CAPS) programmes
-Promoting civil

-registration of children
-Weak registration system

-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate equipment and support infrastructure
-Enforce laws and regulations

-Conduct sensitization campaigns

-Provide support infrastructure and equipment
-Protecting children against abuse, exploitation, neglect, and violence-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate enforcement mechanism

-Outdated and lenient laws

-Lack of awareness

-Weak institutional and legal framework

-Poverty
-Review laws

-Recruit and train personnel

-Strengthen institutional and regulatory mechanism

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Develop support infrastructure

-Strengthen enforcement mechanism

8.2 Youth Development and Empowerment

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Action and Activities
Enhance effective youth participation in economic activitiesIncreased absorption of skills, technology and innovations by the youthImproving youth’s technical, vocational, entrepreneurial and life skills-Inadequate youth participation structures

-Narrow scope of youth activities and structures,

-Low incentive for innovation

-Low literacy levels
-Develop former Malawi Young Pioneers (MYP) bases into skills training centres

-Orient facilitators on life skills curriculum for out of school youth

-Mobilize out of school young people to participate in education classes

-Review curriculum of vocational training and complementary basic education

-Conduct career guidance and promote attachment programmes

-Train the youth in technical, vocational, entrepreneurial and life skills

-Promote study of sciences among the youth

-Promote intellectual property rights
Improving youth’s access to credit facilities for entrepreneurs hip-Stringent procedures to access credit

-High cost of borrowing

-Low literacy levels

-Limited access to information on credit

-Inadequate financial services in rural areas
-Form and train youth cooperatives

-Provide start-up capital in form of material to youth that have graduated from skills development centres

-Establish more youth structures (youth clubs, business incubation centres, village polytechnics, youth networks, youth NGOs, youth centres)

-Link youth entrepreneurs to markets

-Conduct training in leadership and management, entrepreneurship and livelihood

-Strengthen YEDEF across the country

-Advocate for the provision of microcredit services to the youth

-Streamline condition and procedures for accessing credit
-Improved coordination of youth programs-Strengthening and establishing youth development centres-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Lack of youth policy
-Rehabilitate and establish youth development centres across the country

-Introduce complementary basic educational classes in development centres

-Train youth workers, youth networks and youth leaders in advocacy and lobbying skills

-Implement Youth Initiative Week

-Provide guidelines to youth structures

-Provide ICT equipment to youth structures
Increased youth participation in decision making processesPromoting youth participation in the decision making processes-Limited skill, experience and knowledge to participate in development activities

-Limited guidance and counselling services among the youth

-Low institutional capacity
-Organize discussion forums for parents and opinion leaders to solicit support for youth initiatives

-Encourage girls participation in youth development activities

-Train the youth in leadership skills

-Train youth workers in information management systems

-Establish a Youth Management Information System to facilitate evaluation of youth programmes

-Train more youth counsellors and peer educators

-Create youth awareness on emerging issues including climate change
Constructing and rehabilitating sports infrastructure-Inadequate financial resources

-Lengthy procurement procedures
-Construct and rehabilitate sports infrastructure

-Involve communities in construction, rehabilitation and management of sport infrastructure

-Promote public private partnerships

-Train youth and sports personnel in facility management
-Eliminating gender based violence, harmful cultural practices, abuse and trafficking-Lack of awareness

-Lack of guidance and counselling services among the youth

-Low literacy levels

-High incidences of poverty
-Conduct awareness campaigns on GBV and harmful cultural practices, abuse and trafficking

-Implement youth empowerment programs

-Strengthen institutions which advocate for the right of the youth

-Encourage girl child education

-Establish more victim support units

-Strengthen law enforcement
Improving access to Youth Friendly Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH), HIV and AIDS services-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Inadequate support infrastructure

-Low literacy levels

-Stigma and discrimination
-Conduct awareness campaigns on Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH), HIV and AIDS services

-Promote youth friendly health services

-Educate youth on their reproductive health rights and other emerging health issues

-Introduce HCT and psychosocial services in youth centres
-Building and strengthening the capacity of institutions that are responsible for coordination and delivery of youth development and sports services-Inadequate human and financial resources-Procure equipment

-Develop and rehabilitate support infrastructure

-Recruit and train personnel

9.0 CLIMATE CHANGE, NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

9.1 Climate Change Management

GoalMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To enhance resilience to climate change risks and impactsImproved climate change mitigation and adaptation measuresImplementing a comprehensive national climate change investment plan including all potential global and national funding opportunities-Bureaucratic procedures

-Inadequate infrastructure and equipment

-Inadequate data and information

-Weak institutional capacity
-Conduct user needs assessment survey on climate change and meteorological services

-Undertake a comprehensive climate change and meteorology institutional inventory

-Disseminate and implement national climate change investment plan

-Recruit and train personnel

-Acquire and install modern equipment

-Provide appropriate support infrastructure

-Streamline procurement procedures

-Strengthen collection of climate change and meteorological data and information
Improving weather and climate monitoring, prediction and information and knowledge management systems-Poor coordination

-Inadequate personnel

-Inadequate financial and skilled human resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Inadequate data

-Inadequate infrastructure
-Produce manuals on table driven codes in weather observations

-Conduct training on the use of the Table Driven Codes Manual

-Produce weather forecasts

-Derive climate seasonal forecasts

-Produce wind atlas, solar maps and flight weather reports

-Introduce new areas of observing weather patterns

-Conduct a survey on indigenous rainfall indicators

-Introduce indigenous indicators for observing weather

-Prepare and communicate information on weather and climate

-Strengthen coordination among stakeholders

-Modernize climate change database

-Establish Global Telecommunication System (GTS) linkages

-Undertake data management activities

-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure equipment

-Provide support infrastructure

-Produce and disseminate high quality climate information and tools
Developing and harmonizing climate change related strategies, policies and legislation-Outdated meteorological data policy

-Inadequate financial resources
-Review, formulate and harmonize strategies, policies and legislation related to climate change
Mainstream climate change issues in sectoral policies and programmes-Bureaucratic procedures

-Inadequate financial and human resources

-Lack of awareness
-Incorporate climate change issues into national and sectoral development plans and policies

-Incorporate climate change and meteorology in school curricula

-Conduct advocacy and awareness campaigns

-Recruit and train personnel
Enhancing implementation of mitigation and adaptation programmes-Weak coordination

-Inadequate personnel

-Inadequate equipment

-Inadequate data and information

-Weak regulatory framework and policies

-Weak institutional arrangement

-Lack of awareness
-Develop and implement projects on mitigation and adaptation to climate change

-Produce crop weather yield forecast using crop weather models

-Conduct awareness campaigns and advocacy on crop weather insurance

-Review agroclimatological requirements on selected main crops, livestock and wildlife

-Develop and disseminate crop weather calendar

-Intensify collection of data and information on climate change
Promoting dissemination of climate change information for early warning, preparedness, response and recovery-Weak regulatory framework

-Inadequate financial and human resources
-Review country green house gases inventory

-Develop and operationalise the regulatory framework

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Establish a climate change and meteorological communication centre

-Recruit and train personnel

-Intensify coordination among stakeholders

-Develop a communication strategy

-Produce high quality climate information and tools for risk management
Enhancing legal and regulatory framework on climate change-Inadequate human capacity

-Absence of a climate change policy

-Outdated meteorological data policy

-Bureaucratic policy formulation processes
-Formulate a Climate Change Policy and Act

-Review meteorological data policy
Enhancing cross sectoral coordination of climate change programmes-Weak institutional capacity

-Inadequate equipment

-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Limited knowledge
-Promote networking with international organizations

-Participate in regional and international meetings

-Produce and submit National Communication to the UNFCCC

-Develop a sectoral strategic plan

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Conduct stakeholder training

-Intensify stakeholder coordination

-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure equipment
Promoting climate change related education, training, awareness and capacity buildingInadequate trained personnel

-Inadequate financial resources

-Lack of necessary infrastructure and equipment
-Establish a meteorological and climate change library

-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure equipment

-Provide support infrastructure

-Conduct awareness campaigns and advocacy

-Conduct stakeholder training

-Incorporate climate change issues into school curricula

-Produce high quality climate information and tools
Developing and implementing appropriate green house gas mitigation programmes and actions-Lack of technical expertise

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate financial resources

-Weak enforcement of standards and regulations

-Inadequate equipment
-Conduct sensitization campaigns

-Recruit and train personnel

-Procure equipment

-Develop a database on the consumption of ozone depleting substances

-Develop capacity and regulations for carbon trading, Polluter Pays Principle and payment for ecosystem services

-Intensify enforcement of regulations on importation of ozone depleting substances

-Promote implementation of green house gas mitigation programmes and actions

9.2 Natural Resources and Environmental Management

GOALMedium-Term Expected OutcomeStrategiesConstraintsFocus Actions and Activities
To ensure sustainable management and utilization of the environment and natural resourcesImproved environmental and natural resource managementImproving coordination of environment and natural resource programmes-Weak institutional capacity

-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Conflicting policies

-Bureaucracy
-Develop Sector Wide Approach for management of Natural Resources and Environment

-Recruit and train personnel

-Integrate environmental and natural resources management issues into national and sectoral development plans and policies

-Streamline procedures

-Harmonize sectoral policies
Developing capacity for Environment and Natural Resource Management (ENRM)-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate infrastructure and equipment

-Weak institutional capacity
-Recruit and train environmental officers

-Operationalise Environmental Management Fund

-Procure equipment

-Provide support infrastructure

-Promote community participation in ENRM
Enhancing mainstreaming of environment and natural resource management issues in sectoral policies and programmes at national and local levels-Lack of appreciation of the importance of ENRM

-Unharmonized policies

-Lack of awareness

-Inadequate human and financial resources
-Sensitisee developers on EIA

-Harmonize sector specific strategies for dealing with problems affecting natural resources

-Develop policies and strategies for coordination of common programmes and activities

-Conduct EIAs and Audits in development projects

-Review EIA reports

-Monitor implementation of Environmental Management Plans (EMP) for approved projects

-Facilitate co-management arrangements in ENRM programs
Strengthening education and public awareness programmes on environment and natural resources management-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate equipment
-Review and develop advocacy materials

-Conduct outreach programs on environment

-Procure equipment

-Intensify environment and natural resources education
Enhancing environment al protection, restoration and rehabilitation-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Inadequate equipment

-Conflicting interests
-Implement Polluter Pays Principle(PPP)

-Promote private sector participation

-Recruit and train personnel

-Build capacity of communities in ENRM

-Phase out use of thin plastic papers

-Conduct inspections on pollution

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Promote stakeholder participation in land use planning

-Promote rehabilitation and protection of catchment ecosystems
Reduced environment al pollution and degradationPromoting biodiversity conservation programs-Weak enforcement of regulations and standards

-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Lack of biodiversity policy
-Develop and implement projects on biodiversity conservation and rehabilitation of the environment

-Strengthen enforcement of regulations

-Conduct outreach programmes on biodiversity conservation

-Phase out use of burnt bricks and thin plastic papers

-Develop biodiversity policy
Promoting development and implementation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), voluntary carbon markets and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation of Forest (REDD) projects-Intense rainfall

-Wide spread drought and floods

-Inadequate financial resources

-Inadequate skills, knowledge and technology on issues of climate change
-Enforce compliance to regulations governing importation of equipment or facilities containing Ozone Depleting Substances

-Develop and implement community adaptation programmes

-Sensitize communities on climate change issues

-Build capacity of personnel to develop and implement CDM and REDD plus programs

-Develop policy and legislation on CDM, voluntary carbon markets / REDD plus

-Develop, implement and monitor carbon voluntary markets/ REDD plus projects or programs

-Promote research, dissemination and utilization of CDM, voluntary carbon markets and REDD plus initiatives
Promoting projects on waste management-Inadequate skilled human and financial resources

-Weak enforcement of regulation and standards

-Low levels of public awareness

-Inadequate equipment
-Update green house gases (GHG) emissions inventories

-Promote research and dissemination in waste management and air pollution

-Train Law enforcers and technicians on ozone depleting substances

-Strengthen coordination in waste management

-Enforce compliance to regulations governing importation of equipment or facilities containing Ozone Depleting Substances

-Develop and implement projects on air pollution management

-Promoting use of environmentally friendly technologies and practices

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Develop public private partnerships on waste management

-Procure equipment
Promoting use of environment al friendly technologies and practices-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Low levels of literacy

-Inadequate equipment

-Limited appropriate technology

-Inadequate research and development
-Conduct research and dissemination on environmental friendly technologies

-Build capacity of stakeholders

-Operationalise environmental information management systems

-Procure equipment

-Recruit and train personnel

-Conduct awareness campaigns

-Promote adoption and adaptation of technologies
Improved regulatory framework for harmonized environmental and natural resource managementEnforcing compliance to environmental and natural resource management legislation-Inadequate human and financial resources

-Poverty

-Conflicting messages

-Inadequate equipment

-Weak regulatory framework
-Provide alternative economic opportunities

-Procure equipment

-Conduct inspections on compliance to ENRM legislation

-Recruit and train personnel

-Strengthen regulatory framework

-Review EIA guidelines

-Conduct awareness campaigns
Harmonizing environment and natural resources management policies and legislation-Inadequate resources

-Poor coordination

-Conflicting sectoral policies
-Review and enact Bio-safety Act

-Review and formulate ENRM policies and legislation

-Strengthen stakeholder coordination

-Establish the National Environmental Protection Agency and Atomic Energy Regulation Agency
Annex 3: MGDS II Costing

Summary of MGDS II Costing

THEMES
2011/122012/132013/142014/152015/165 Year Total
MK (Millions)MK (Millions)MK (Millions)MK (Millions)MK (Millions)MK (Millions)
Sustainable Economic Growth22,34826,40926,21522,87923,096120,947
Social Development4,5925,1805,3685,4525,87126,463
Social Support and Disaster Risk Management33,48438,48641,67745,15545,076203,877
Infrastructure Theme58,132914,46963,79766,74066,4071,169,544
Governance Theme796,254760,8541,009,0661,094,03681,8053,742,014
Gender and Capacity Development2,2832,3072,1982,1982,24411,230
Total Themes918,3191,749,1601,150,0651,238,555227,0075,283,105
KEY PRIORITY AREAS
Agriculture and Food Security64,55368,66175,28579,55885,041373,098
Energy, Industrial Development, Mining and Tourism94,340103,14197,88197,79995,749488,910
Transport Infrastructure and Nsanje World Inland Port45,62445,70845,53247,50247,536231,902
Education Science and Technology111,185122,894145,584186,111144,740710,513
Public Health Sanitation Malaria, and HIV and AIDS Management192,032212,277223,088229,405243,3441,100,146
Integrated Rural Development2,9232,8594,4555,6237,19123,051
Green Belt Irrigation and Water Development72,00796,230117,609121,005158,051564,901
Child Development, Youth Development and Empowerment4,6154,8777,7246,9446,12330,283
Climate Change Natural Resources and Environmental Management3,1923,5803,8844,0464,32619,028
Total Key Priority Areas590,471660,227721,042777,992792,1013,541,833
Grand Total1,508,7902,409,3871,871,1062,016,5471,019,1088,824,938

MGDS II Costing

THEMES
Programme/StrategyPriotization2011/122012/132013/142014/152015/165 Year Total
MK (Millions)MK (Millions)MK (Millions)MK (Millions)MK (Millions)MK (Millions)
Sub Theme 1: Agriculture (Refer to Key Priority areas)
Sub Theme 2: Natural Resources and Environmental Management (Forestry)
Developing, conserving and protecting forest plantations, customary estates and natural woodlandsP16236727237818403,639
Strengthening institutional capacity of the sector;P23203182592672851,449
Improving forestry extension services, research, and information management;P14223954234524842,176
Enforcing and ensuring compliance with agreed national, regional, and international obligations and legislationP26072383639245
Promoting large, medium and small scale forest enterprisesP2160172161173186852
Total Forestry1,5851,6291,6041,7091,8348,361
Sub Theme 3: Mining (Refer to Key Priority area 2)
Sub Theme 4: Private Sector Development, Industry and Trade
Fostering pro-business legal and regulatory reformsP13455162412242721,598
Providing supportive infrastructure and services for both start-ups and expanding enterprisesP23622272062032061,204
Promoting growth of local Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs)P14458678389341
Promoting private sector investment in rural areasP15485193553633762,161
Enhancing dissemination of business informationP25555303030200
Promoting adoption of modern and appropriate technologiesP22202007070150710
Promoting and strengthen the development of cooperativesP1150150100120120640
Total Private Sector Development1,7241,7251,0691,0931,2436,854
Sub Theme 5: Rural Industrialization
A. style="background-color: #E1E1E1" Decentralization
Enhancing implementation of the decentralization processP1892632903193501,311
Strengthening community participation in developmentP1282102302542791,001
Strengthening capacity of local government structures and stakeholdersP1743503854234651,697
Strengthening the M&E systemP2762753033333661,353
Total Decentralization2671,0981,2081,3291,4605,362
B. Rural Industrialization
Strengthening and expanding OVOP initiatives in rural areasP2190205196155145891
Building capacity in product diversification, business management, and production processesP21,6361,6391,1959358806,285
Promoting development of supportive infrastructureP13053373172922841,535
Promoting access to creditP1165137140143140725
Total Rural Industrialization2,2962,3181,8481,5251,4499,436
Total Rural Development
Sub-Theme 6: Tourism, Wildlife and Culture
Wildlife
Strengthening institutional capacity to manage protected areas and ecosystemsP33034394449196
Improving law enforcement and effectivenessP13197907807753983,062
Reducing human – animal conflictsP3160216128125117746
Promoting and regulating wildlife farming, utilization and tradeP21981,0238436357663,465
Enhancing wildlife Information, Education and Communication (IEC) programmesP34347525863263
promoting community wildlife conservation and monitoringP13849555768267
Promoting alternative livelihood sources for communities living around PAsP210975536
Developing a database to monitor wildlife population trendsP26370758592385
Total Wildlife8612,2381,9791,7841,5588,420
Culture
Preserve historical artifacts and upgrade retrieval systemP11619233436128
Preserve and construct national monumentsP14564888793346422,799
Promote and preserve local cultural diversity and valuesP21618232435116
Create public awareness on national heritage programsP177889193102451
Enhance the sub-sector’s institutional capacityP17263,0233,5361,0299319,245
Total Culture1,2913,6364,5521,5141,74612,739
Total Wildlife and Culture2,1525,8746,5313,2983,30421,159
Sub Theme 7: Labour
Promoting occupational safety, health and welfare in workplacesP11,0751,2401,1341,1261,1135,688
Mainstreaming HIV and AIDS issues in workplacesP23754124504905452,272
Promoting effective synergies in human resources planning, development and utilizationP21,9651,3251,2601,2351,1386,923
Promoting skills development, testing and certificationP13,4492,5252,2392,1952,06212,470
Establishing an effective and efficient labour market information (LMI) systemP19251,0831,1071,0801,0655,260
Reducing all forms of discrimination in the labour marketP12002162402632881,207
Promoting Labour administration systemsP12,1872,4462,6562,7642,85512,908
Integrating child labour issues into development initiatives and interventionsP11,7181,7311,9852,1322,2879,853
Total Labour and Employment11,89410,97811,07111,28511,35356,581
Sub Theme 8: Land
Raising public awareness on land law and land related laws, policies, and proceduresP352941548468452
Promoting land ownership, management and title registrationP14224635235916752,674
Decentralizing land administration and management functionsP3768798122180563
Developing mechanisms for widespread geospatial information.P38201,0229099148764,541
Providing physical development planning, management, policies, strategies and legal framework;P21,0601,1211,2009296544,964
Total Land Sub theme2,4302,7872,8842,6402,45313,194
Total style="background-color: #E1E1E1" Sustainable Economic Growth Theme22,34826,40926,21522,87923,096120,947
THEME 2: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Sub Theme 1: Population
Enhancing the provision, access, delivery and utilization of Sexual and reproductive health services to all including the vulnerable and disadvantaged groupsP18197116140168603
Advocating girls’ education and delayed marriageP21551862232683211,153
Promoting the small family conceptP2116124146177208771
Providing sexual and reproductive health education for both in-and out-of-school sexually active populationP37286104124149536
Addressing the vulnerabilities caused by population ageing, migration and rapid urbanization, and the interdependence of population and the environment.P34555466557869433,385
-Strengthening migration and national vital registration systemsP13474165006007202,582
Total Population1,2261,4561,7442,0952,5099,030
Sub Theme 2: Health (Refer to Key priority area 5)
Sub Theme 3: Education (refer to Key Priority area 4)
Sub Theme 4: Child Development and Protection (Refer to Key Priority area 8)
Sub Theme5: Youth Development (Refer to Key Priority area 8)
Sub-Theme 6: Nutrition
Promoting exclusive breast-feeding practices for children aged 0-6 monthsP11521721179481616
Promoting optimal feeding practices for children aged 6-24 months and beyondP14024603822061921,642
Promoting optimal feeding of a sick child during and after illnessP1128146155167185781
Promoting the prevention, control and treatment of micronutrient deficiency disorders, particularly those caused by Vitamin A, Iodine and Iron, including food fortificationP1169177137138133754
Promoting health life stylesP188139122121124594
Improving access to nutrition supplements for malnourished children, expectant and lactating mothers, the elderly and physically challengedP15016467096476753,178
Promoting access to at least one nutritious meal and related health and nutrition services for the school-going childrenP14815365305194762,542
Strengthening capacities for households and communities to attain adequate nutritionP14224344544644982,272
Preventing and controlling nutrition related non-communicable and other diseasesP111593887173440
Scaling up innovative interventions in quality management of malnutrition among the various population groups;P19888897165411
Promoting production and access of high nutritive value foods for diversified and nutritious dietsP11972132342552691,168
Strengthening institutional and human capacities for the effective delivery of nutrition servicesP16136206076045913,035
Total Nutrition3,3663,7243,6243,3573,36217,433
Total Social Development4,5925,1805,3685,4525,87126,463
THEME 3: SOCIAL SUPPORT AND DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT
Sub-Theme 1: Supporting the Vulnerable
Enhancing and promoting predictable transfers to the most vulnerable and the ultra poor householdsP229,57031,52033,21035,27037,425166,995
Establishing coherent and progressive social support synergiesP32725532323151
promoting existing livelihood activities for the poorP1142016162086
promoting Village Savings and Loans/COMSIPP11,3249531,4561,1394695,340
Promoting longer term, skills oriented and asset enhancing interventionsP1502,0542,0762,0901126,381
Improving and Scaling up the Social Cash Transfer programmeP11,9373,2384,4115,7606,22821,574
Total Supporting the Vulnerable32,92337,81041,22244,29744,277200,528
Sub-Theme 2: Disaster Risk Management
Developing and strengthening DRM policy and institutional frameworksP13758141415138
Mainstreaming DRM into policies, strategies and programmes;P17612083342102723
Strengthening DRM coordination mechanisms among stakeholdersP2171516182085
Enhancing capacity on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) and other remote sensing technologiesP24139191912130
Developing an integrated national Early Warning System (EWS)P22324417944167665
Implementing mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery measures in disaster prone areasP167302793404011,188
Incorporating DRM in all school curriculaP13750253733183
Promoting awareness, access, distribution and utilization of reliable and relevant DRM informationP25449404450237
Total Disaster Risk Management5616764568587993,349
0
Total Social Support and Disaster Risk Management33,48438,48641,67745,15545,076203,877
THEME 4: INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
Sub Theme 1: Energy (Refer to Key Priority area 2)
Sub Theme 2: Transport (Air Transport)
Promoting and facilitating a competitive and efficient air transport industryP11551521521515975
Providing safe, efficient, and reliable aviation infrastructure and services.P11,560400420500602,940
Strengthening legislative and regulatory framework.P1250250230140120990
Promoting effective safety and security oversight systemsP25208021010555970
Undertaking reforms in the aviation sectorP24040373530182
Strengthening institutional capacityP23503001301251151,020
Implementing environmental protection measuresP25030202530155
Promoting Public Private Partnerships to facilitate private investmentP2151515151575
Total Air Transport2,8001,6301,2771,1604407,307
Sub Theme 3: Water Development (Refer to Key Priority area 7)
Sub-Theme 4: Information and Communication
A. Information and Communications Technology (ICT)
Developing a reliable, fast, adaptive and robust national ICT infrastructure that feeds into international networksP12,9523,0883,2733,4833,70316,499
mainstreaming ICT into core sector policies and strategies and operationsP2180161172184227923
Improving ICT services access by rural and underserved communitiesP17779077888439024,217
Promoting the participation of private and community ICT service providersP2195455588
Developing public online servicesP13,6512,5133,0112,7562,94314,874
Improving public awareness programs in ICT initiatives and regulationsP314061668066413
Improving efficiency in delivering postal servicesP25955345385275512,744
Migrating from analogue to digital television broadcastingP2503859,375163174187860,402
Improving the regulatory framework of the sectorP3428132132121110923
Developing monitoring and evaluation tools and techniques for the sectorP27001201281371471,233
Developing public online servicesP22203783664034031,770
Improving revenue collection and administration system97108125145156631
Strengthening capacity of sector institutions3,0003,1503,4003,4503,50016,500
Total Information Communication13,262870,58212,16712,30612,900921,216
B. Media and Communication
Promoting distribution of publicationsP3100111114127142594
Promoting screening of developmental video documentaries to communitiesP260768790100413
Abridging, translating and distributing policies and other important documents into major vernacular languagesP38894102163143590
Enhancing skills capacity of the mediaP2557487106121443
Strengthening regulatory framework to facilitate free flow of information4050585157256
Strengthening information, education and communication on topical issuesP12703203604104701,830
Promoting discussion forums on topical issuesP3155165185195210910
Total Media and Communication7688909931,1421,2435,036
Total Information Communication Technology14,030871,47213,16013,44814,143926,252
Sub Theme 5: Housing and Urban Development
5.1 Housing0
Strengthening institutional, legal and regulatory framework for housing deliveryP12001761276863634
Strengthening capacity for decentralized housing deliveryP24576555625666502,890
Scaling up the provision of basic infrastructure and services particularly in informal settlements;P22872051702381931,093
Promoting housing financing mechanisms;P22,2152,7772,5002,6292,74312,864
Promoting Public and Private Partnerships in housing deliveryP23021212020112
Promoting planning to improve quality of rural and urban housing and settlement patterns;P24,8625,8464,8434,8344,83425,219
Developing and promoting the use of local building materialsP16555434540248
Providing safe adequate space to public institutions and officersP15,0554,0533,0423,0314,03819,219
Promoting a people-centred, accessible, affordable, and expeditious justice system2202502803003201,370
Strengthening human rights institutions304048-85203
Ensuring respect for prisoners rights1501852062302591,030
Promoting equitable access to economic, political and social opportunities4056626980307
Improving the responsiveness of all security sectors to communities’ security needs2,1202,4382,1794,4672,42513,629
Ensuring safe and secure borders90104117133149593
Improving infrastructure for development and expansion of security establishments.70811,3601,5341,7214,766
Developing infrastructure to improve effective performance of the Malawi Defence Force (MDF)1,6623974575045543,574
Promoting participatory policy formulation20222427-93
Developing capacity to implement Public Sector Reforms20222427-93
Total Housing17,59317,38316,06518,72218,17487,937
5.2 Urban Development
Promoting Public Private Partnerships in the development of urban infrastructure and social servicesP21,5741,82911,13011,24511,45037,228
Improving infrastructure and services slums and existing urban areasP122,13522,15522,16522,16522,200110,820
Total Urban Development23,70923,98433,29533,41033,650148,048
Total Housing and Urban Development41,30241,36749,36052,13251,824235,985
Total Infrastructure Theme58,132914,46963,79766,74066,4071,169,544
THEME 5: GOVERNANCE
Sub Theme 1: Economic Governance
Pursuing sound macroeconomic policies.P12602782652752931,371
Enhancing evidence based public policy formulationP1100107114123131575
Harmonizing the National budget and priorities in the national development strategyP14245475255241
Diversifying sources of Government revenueP197104112120128561
Improving revenue collection and administration systemP1105113119129137603
Ensuring that sectoral plans are aligned to the national development strategyP14447515458254
Strengthening monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of national development strategies and programmesP12062202362522701,184
Improving national procurement, audit and reporting systemsP2139149160171183802
Enhancing international cooperation and development diplomacyP14,6304,9555,3015,0225,37625,284
Ensuring that external support is aligned to the national development strategyP16973798490395
Developing capacity for negotiating bilateral and multilateral agreementsP22002141952092231,041
Improving management of financial and non financial assetsP14548404346222
Expanding and improving financial services to micro, small and medium enterprisesP21695,1801932072195,968
Improving legal and regulatory framework of the financial sectorP18288747075389
Total Economic Governance6,18811,6216,9866,8117,28438,890
Sub Theme 5.2: Corporate Governance
Improving and strengthening business regulatory framework and developing a clear regulatory regime for ParastatalsP1120129137147158691
Strengthening the Institute of DirectorsP25458626670310
Promoting the adoption of good corporate governance code of conductP26065555963302
Promoting zero tolerance to corruptionP1179191167179192908
-Enhancing private sector participation in social service provisionP2151617182086
Total Corporate Governance4284594384695032,297
Sub Theme 3: Democratic Governance
5.3.1 Justice and Rule of Law
Fostering independence and credibility of the judicial systemP13605035116206732,667
Promoting a people-centred, accessible, affordable, and expeditious justice systemP211,93011,04811,18511,30711,36056,830
Promoting a justice and legal system that is responsive to marginalized groupsP25926797458128463,674
Promoting supremacy and respect for the constitutionP33034384246190
Strengthening capacity of sector institutionsP21851991,1111,1231,1573,775
Enhancing legislation oversight and improve participationP31,4491,5238639081,3526,095
Increasing citizen awareness of the country’s laws, procedures and institutionsP12,0902,09920,10820,11420,12664,537
Enhancing consistency of domestic laws with international standardsP2252729210212503
Total Justice and Rule of Law16,66116,11234,59035,13635,772138,271
5.3.2 Human Rights
Enhancing human rights awarenessP14957459007638973,800
Strengthening human rights institutionsP11,2481,2801,3981,6701,3636,959
Ensuring respect for prisoners rightsP294116142164201717
Promoting equitable access to economic, political and social opportunitiesP14864578099348
Strengthening legal protection and equitable treatment for marginalized populations, women and childrenP1527499125165515
Total Human Rights1,9372,2792,5972,8022,72512,340
5.3.3 Elections
Enhancing credibility, management and accountability of electoral processesP13343718,62040345110,179
Enhancing independence of elections governing bodiesP1108120133143159663
Enhancing implementation of law reforms to facilitate free and fair elections;P2135149164181-629
Improving governance in political partiesP137475657-197
Fostering informed and active participation in the local governanceP11,1851,19411,10211,11311,12535,719
Total Elections1,7991,88120,07511,89711,73547,386
5.3.4 Peace and Security
Improving the responsiveness of all security sectors to communities’ security needsP11,6411,9872,1482,4312,72310,930
Ensuring safe and secure bordersP15856631,3248749384,384
Improving infrastructure for development and expansion of security establishments.P21101301,4161,5981,7905,044
Enhancing community integration and participation in promoting a secure, peaceful and crime free environmentP16767689041,0401,1464,534
Strengthening partnership for risk management between the Public and Private Security Sectors.P1961882262642891,063
Promoting sovereignty, peace and territorial integrityP110,32511,35612,49113,73715,10963,018
Developing infrastructure to improve effective performance of the Malawi Defence Force (MDF)P1-----
Total Peace and Security13,43315,09218,50919,94421,99588,973
Total Democratic Governance33,83035,36475,77169,77972,227286,970
Sub-Theme 5.4: Public Sector Management
Developing and strengthen leadership capacities for effective management of the public serviceP1107118131143156655
Ensuring an effective and functional public serviceP1177186183166181893
Strengthening mechanisms for coordination and utilization of resourceP2754,121711,531923,7711,014,75033,404,176
Enhancing evidence-based policy makingP11052082222452671,047
Promoting participatory policy formulationP34604654825005192,426
Improving conditions of service for public service employeesP13283604985482351,969
Developing capacity to implement Public Sector ReformsP22102322542802781,254
Implementing service charter programmeP25051525354260
Strengthening equal participation of women and men in leadership and management positionsP2250260278292981,178
Total: Public Sector Management755,808713,410925,8711,016,9771,7913,413,857
Total Governance Theme796,254760,8541,009,0661,094,03681,8053,742,014
THEME 6: GENDER AND CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT
Sub-Theme 1: Gender
Promoting women entrepreneurship and involvement in cooperativesP25454545454270
Promoting equal access to appropriate technologies and micro finance schemesP21171138391101505
Advocating for affirmative action to increase representation of women in politics and decision making positionsP1788594103114474
Enhancing awareness on GBVP28794102112124519
Strengthening legal and regulatory frameworkP26469758089377
Strengthening GBV service delivery systemsP1139139139139139695
Mainstreaming gender at all levelsP11491571026972549
Strengthening gender disaggregated research and documentationP26161616161305
Total Gender7497727107097543,694
Sub-Theme 2: Capacity Development
Developing and strengthening human and institutional capacitiesP24204214224234242,110
Mainstreaming capacity development in all sectorsP1121212121260
Strengthening academic institutions to respond to the needs of the economyP26060606060300
Promoting effective performance management systems;P15252525252260
Promoting capacity development at all levelsP23,000
600600600600600
Enhancing coordination in resource mobilization and utilizationP35555525
Promoting and establishing professional and skills development centresP32502502022022021,106
Review and enforce standardsP34040404040200
Enhancing investments in infrastructure and equipmentP32020202020100
Promoting public private partnershipsP27575757575375
Total Capacity Development1,5341,5351,4881,4891,4907,536
Total Gender and Capacity Development2,2832,3072,1982,1982,24411,230
Total Themes918,3191,749,1601,150,0651,238,555227,0075,283,105
KEY PRIORITY AREAS
1.0 Agriculture and Food Security
1.1 Agricultural Productivity and Diversification
Improving access to inputsP122,81622,83924,20224,86225,544120,263
Promoting Irrigation farmingP16277668559189704,136
Promoting contract farming arrangementsP22338388492275
Improving agricultural production and diversificationP115,12217,72720,21121,31322,81297,185
Promoting agricultural production for exportsP13153995025095932,318
Strengthening linkages of farmers to input and output marketsP21,1521,1642,1202,5643,00710,007
Promoting appropriate technology development, transfer, and absorptionP1931572022743621,088
Enhancing livestock and fisheries productivityP17619321,1721,3351,6095,809
Providing effective extension servicesP119,49319,49819,51419,54119,59497,640
Promoting soil and water conservation techniquesP11,0161,0801,6522,1802,6988,626
Total Agriculture Diversification61,41864,60070,46873,58077,281347,347
1.2 Food Security
Implementing policies to sustain food availability and accessibilityP19081,0371,1641,3191,5575,985
Ensuring an effective early warning systemP2556799105121447
Strengthening farmer-led extension and training servicesP11902442583113271,330
Providing technical and regulatory servicesP21561862372613331,173
Reducing post harvest lossesP11,3481,9302,3103,0824,22812,898
Promoting income generating activitiesP362738693101415
Promoting dietary diversificationP2114123128131137633
Improving coordination and management of food aid and importsP24456668091337
Improving the functioning of agricultural marketsP183109135166189682
Strengthening Public Private Partnerships in agricultureP33240485969248
Strengthening and scaling-up market based risk management initiativesP11431962863716071,603
Total Food Security3,1354,0614,8175,9787,76025,751
Total Agriculture and Food Security64,55368,66175,28579,55885,041373,098
2.0 Energy, Industrial Development, Mining and Tourism
2.1 Energy
Developing additional power stationsP132,82037,68635,74338,24540,923185,417
Promoting public- private partnerships in energy generation and distributionP22223252630126
Improving management of energy generation, transmission, distribution and supply,P118,28519,49716,31716,28811,95282,339
Promoting the use of renewable sources of energyP23,2053,4293,6703,9264,20118,431
Improving regulatory environmentP2150160172184198864
Enhancing urban and rural electrification;P14,0658,3778,9659,59010,26441,261
Increasing liquid fuel stock-holding and distribution capacity;P19507065575605983,371
Developing long-term systems of tapping and delivering liquid fuelP113,50511,94210,3739,6279,68555,132
Total Energy73,00281,82075,82278,44677,851386,941
2.2 Industrial Development
Promoting the use of modern technology in manufacturingP22,9702,6402,3901,7401,34011,080
Enhancing backward and forward linkages in the industrial sectorP11,3001,3251,2101,0157355,585
Promoting labour intensive industriesP16046825943174722,669
Facilitating accreditation of quality assurance institutions and enhance quality standardsP21,6161,4581,6051,6101,5067,795
Promoting value addition in existing and potential productsP13804304364465602,252
Total Industrial Development6,8706,5356,2355,1284,61329,381
2.2.1 Trade
Promoting adherence to standards in tradable productsP21,0281,0287285285283,840
Promoting trade in servicesP28708707855853603,470
Promoting market diversificationP11,095
260240195230170
Promoting trade integrationP12,4452,0351,9159906558,040
Promoting efficient and modernized boarder infrastructure to facilitate tradeP1140145145145140715
Promoting ExportsP13,1202,9262,9272,4021,59712,972
Simplifying and streamlining trade and customs proceduresP13542444627194
Improving fair trading and intellectual property rightsP23342455238210
Promoting consumer loyalty to domestically produced goodsP11,1321,0811,0106475284,398
Total Trade9,0638,4097,7945,6254,04334,934
2.2.2 Agro-processing
Promoting OVOP on Agro processingP12942433325172
Improving support infrastructure for agro-processing of key industriesP280901354737389
Promoting investment in agro-processing with special focus on private sector participationP16867736644318
Improving policy and regulatory frameworks impacting on agro-processingP13335503015163
Strengthening capacity for small and medium scale agro-processing enterprisesP1169172141144151777
Total Agro-processing3794064423202721,819
2.3 Mining
Producing detailed geological map of Malawi;P12452611,9412,0552,1986,700
Strengthening institutional capacity of the sectorP11603702302222071,189
Enforcing legislations on sustainable use and management of mineral resources;P33537404346201
Enforcing environmental, occupational health and safety in the mining sector;P24244485255241
Promoting both local and foreign investment;P24494603343183411,902
Strengthening seismic monitoring;P21652242342192331,075
Developing an integrated data management systemP1180192159170182883
Total Mining1,2761,5882,9863,0793,26212,191
2.4 Tourism0
Enforcing tourism industry standards and planning controls;P23755006087298503,062
Strengthening institutional capacity at all levels;P38708855706807903,795
Enhancing marketing of Malawi’s tourism products;P14004524945566182,520
Providing infrastructure that is supportive to tourism development;P14155276457487553,090
Promoting the development of high-quality tourism facilities in designated areasP18551,0251,1701,3001,4305,780
Promoting eco-tourismP22853423804234701,900
Promoting participation of local investors in the tourism industryP24405426256556852,947
Adhere to best practices of sustainable and responsible tourismP3110110110110110550
Total Tourism3,7504,3834,6025,2015,70823,644
Total Energy, Industrial Development, Mining and Tourism94,340103,14197,88197,79995,749488,910
3.0 Transport Infrastructure and Nsanje World Inland Port
3.1 Road Infrastructure
Ensuring comprehensive and coordinated planning of road and other modes of TransportP15752972212164141,723
Enhancing Public Private Partnerships in the transport systemP1215157155192255974
Enhancing axle load controlP1190200160170180900
Providing adequate network of roads based on appropriate standardsP130,39228,36825,93828,36730,217143,282
Enhancing routine road maintenance and upgradingP16787939606375803,648
Building technical and institutional capacity at all levelsP24261511521422771,148
Promoting competition in the construction industryP25508506474455453,037
Improving management of road network throughout the countryP17,6837,94710,16910,3298,97545,103
Promoting high road safety standards and traffic managementP1118139146154161718
Total Road Transport40,82738,90238,54840,65241,604200,533
3.2 Rail Transport
Rehabilitating and expanding the railway line and related infrastructureP18311,0741,2201,1799055,209
Creating linkages to ports, industrial sites and regional and international marketsP13163192902672651,457
Promoting railway safety and environmental protectionP15497565984953902,789
Improving operational efficiency and commercial viability of the existing railway infrastructure and levels of serviceP12944775515755282,425
Total Rail Transport1,9902,6262,6592,5162,08811,880
3.3 Inland Water Transport Infrastructure
Developing an efficient and productive maritime transport systemP18408589068938704,367
Promoting Public Private Partnerships in the industryP23537333130166
Improving port infrastructureP19151,7181,5921,5261,4307,181
Opening up navigable riversP18801,3601,5411,6851,4306,896
Promoting affordable and safe water transport systemP113720725319984880
Total Inland Water transport2,8074,1804,3254,3343,84419,490
Total Transport Infrastructure and Nsanje World Inland Port45,62445,70845,53247,50247,536231,902
4.0 Education Science and Technology
4.1 Education
4.1 Basic Education (Pre-primary and primary education)
Accelerating rehabilitation of existing learning institutions and construction of additional school infrastructure;P132,92742,49556,39881,69431,420244,934
Scaling up school feeding programP23,4444,4185,4526,5317,71727,562
Scaling up school health and nutrition, and HIV /AIDS programmesP21,1341,3751,6341,8652,0728,080
Scaling Up of child friendly schools programmes;P29910111150
Providing a conducive learning and teaching environment for girlsP13173774514845202,149
Providing a conducive learning and teaching environment for students with special education needsP15097037898469073,754
Strengthening coordination and the provision of ECD; CBE and adult literacyP21,3811,4791,5871,7001,8237,970
Promoting the role of private sector and private financing in the education system;P12222252728124
Promote Public Private Partnership in the provision of education infrastructure and servicesP19910111150
Increasing Number of girls opting for mathematics and science subjects at all levelsP35566729
Training, recruiting and retaining teaching staff;P110,6176,0287,63411,8137,43043,522
Providing adequate and relevant teaching and learning materialsP19,5529,86210,21010,56210,87551,061
Introducing standardized testing to measure and monitor quality of learning and teaching;P33,5393,7944,0674,3604,67420,434
Reviewing and reforming school and training college curricula to address national needs at all levels;P38554596368329
Promoting systematic and regular inspection of all learning institutions;P14304624945305682,484
Decentralizing the management and financing of the education system;P11,5891,7031,8271,9592,0999,177
Total Basic Education65,56972,79590,653122,46270,230421,709
4.1.2 Secondary Education (Lower and Upper Secondary education)
Accelerating rehabilitation of existing learning institutions and construction of additional school infrastructure at all levels;P15,2905,3505,7315,8946,18828,453
Scaling up School Health and Nutrition, and HIV/ AIDS programsP2677994128