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Mali

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
August 2010
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I. MACROECONOMIC AND BUDGETARY FRAMEWORK AND POVERTY ANALYSIS

1.1. Results of implementation of policies and strategies

1.1.1 International economic environment marked by crises

11. The year 2008 was marked by a series of world crises, which had a strong impact on the Malian economy and hampered GPRSF implementation. These external crises forced the authorities to take budgetary and tax measures to reduce losses in the purchasing power of the population.

12. The food crisis led to an upsurge in the prices of many food products imported by Mali. Consequently, inflation was high in 2008 in Mali, and stood at 9.2% as against 1.4% in 2007. In the WAEMU zone, inflation reached 7.4% at the end of December 2008, as against 2.4% during the same period in 2007, representing the highest level since 1995. However, stagnation of real activity and decline of commodity prices are expected to reduce inflationary tensions over the coming years. According to BCEAO estimates in March 2009, inflation could stand at 2.1% in December 2009 in the WAEMU zone.

13. The upsurge in oil prices in 2008 (USD 147/barrel of oil in July) forced the Government to significantly subsidize oil prices, with an enormous cost for the budget. Some scheduled expenditures had to be carried forward, or even cancelled.

14. Lastly, while the financial crisis triggered in September 2008 had no strong direct effect on Mali in 2008, it led to a decline in commodity prices, and particularly to the collapse of demand from developed and emerging countries, as well as a drop in remittances from Malians abroad. The world economy slowed down in 2008, with only 3.4% growth as against 5.2% in 2007. Sub-Saharan Africa recorded 5.4% growth in 2008 as against 6.3% in 2007. In view of the delayed impacts of the crisis, Africa could be more affected by the world economic crisis in 2009, with an expected growth rate of only 4.6%. In WAEMU countries, growth stood at 3.4% in 2008 as against 3.2% in 2007, mainly as a result of the primary sector and increased public investments in the implementation of poverty reduction strategies. The provisional results of forecasts made by BCEAO indicate a growth rate of 3.7% for 2009 in the WAEMU zone.

1.1.2 Macroeconomic results

1.1.2.1 Production and Growth

15. In 2008, with the various crises (oil, cereal and financial), macroeconomic management in Mali was marked by volatility of commodity prices. In addition, the decline in cotton production had negative impacts on the performance of the secondary sector through the ginning industries and, to a lesser extent, the industrial oil plants.

16. Despite the difficult economic situation, economic growth in Mali in 2008 improved in comparison to 2007. The real economic growth rate in 2008 stood at 5.2% as against 4.3% in 2007. This performance is very positive. However, despite efforts made in recent years, economic growth remains below the GPRSF targets of an average of 7% GDP growth over the 2007-2011 period and 6.4% for 2008.

17. This performance of the economy is mainly due to the primary and tertiary sectors. Indeed, these two sectors recorded growth rates of 13.2% and 4.9% respectively. The secondary sector recorded a negative growth rate of 4.6%. The GDP of this sector depends heavily on gold production, which declined in 2008 (-6.4%).

18. The performance of the primary sector is partly due to the consolidated rice sector, industrial agriculture excluding cotton, and other cereals excluding rice. In 2008, production in these various sectors increased by 48.5% (Rice Initiative), 22.5% and 14.4% respectively. According to the final results of the 2008/2009 crop season, cereal production stood at 4 814 871 tonnes, which represents a 24% increase in 2008 in comparison to 2007. The implementation of the Rice Initiative helped to significantly improve rice production, which rose to 1 607 647 tonnes in 2008, representing about 49% increase in comparison to 2007 (Table 2).

Table 1:Comparison between the annual growth targets and achievements in 2008
Indicators/YearsAchievements

2007
Achievements

2008
GPRSF Targets for 2008
GDP at market prices (CFAF billion at current prices)3 424.543 912.83 645.0
Real GDP growth rate at market prices4.3%5.2%6.4%
- GDP primary sector2.5%13.2%5.6%
- GDP secondary sector-4.6%-4.6%6.0%
- GDP tertiary sector10.4%4.9%6.8%
Source: DNSI/DNPD
Source: DNSI/DNPD
Table 2:Comparison between annual production targets and achievements in 2008
Achievements

2007
GPRSF Targets for

2008
Achievements

2008
Achievement Rate

of 2008 Targets
Cotton production (in tonnes)247 000255 168201 00078.7%
Gold production (in tonnes)56.86052.888%
Cereal production (in tonnes)3 885 4774 456 5604 814 871108.0%
Including rice1 082 3841 273 0261 607 647126.3%
Source: DNSI/DNPD/CPS-SDR/CSP-Mines Energy
Source: DNSI/DNPD/CPS-SDR/CSP-Mines Energy

19. Cotton production (201 000 tonnes in 2008) declined by 16.8% in comparison to 2007. This decline, successively over the past three crop seasons, is due to loss of interest by producers mainly because of the high prices of inputs and their late delivery, the problem of internal management of Farmer Organizations with the application of joint surety by banks to recover agricultural loans, and late cotton payments.

20. The CMDT is in an extremely difficult financial situation, with very high debt. It is necessary to urgently addressing the financial situation and operational problems of CMDT so as to maintain cotton production in the country and pursue the privatization of the company.

21. The negative growth of the secondary sector is mainly due to the 6.5% negative rates of extraction products and 20% for the agrofood-drinks-tobacco branch. Gold production declined by 7% between 2007 and 2008, from 56.7 to 52.8 tonnes. The forecast of 60 tonnes in 2008 could not be attained for the following reasons: the late entry into production of the Tabakoto, Kodièran (Wassoul’Or) and Syama mines and the decline in production in the Sadiola and Morila mines due to the drop in the content and change in type of ores processed from oxide to sour. Gold production is estimated at 55.2 tonnes in 2009. The total contribution of the mining sector to the Public Treasury stood at CFAF 132.1 billion in 2008 as against CFAF 130.1 billion in 2007. The good performance of revenue, despite the decline in production, is due to the good level of average price per ounce, which rose to US$ 816.1 in 2008 as against US$ 803.2 in 2007.

22. The growth rate of the tertiary sector stood at nearly 5% in 2008, but this is well below the GPRSF target and the 2007 results. This sector, which accounts for 38.3% of GDP, recorded 4.9% growth in 2008 as against 10.4% in 2007. The sharp fall is due to the slowdown in the Transport and Telecommunications branch (9.2% in 2008 as against 20.9% in 2007), as well as the Trade branch (4.4% as against 12% in 2007); these results are mainly due to the impacts of the external shocks that affected Mali in 2008.

23. Uncertainties regarding recovery of the world economy are enormous. Similarly, uncertainties in the cotton sector and vulnerability of agricultural growth to unstable climatic conditions make it difficult to achieve the GPRSF targets in 2009. The GDP growth rate is expected to stand at 4.3% in 2009, with a price level well below that of 2008 which could fall within the limits of the community standard.

1.1.2.2 Public Finance

24. As regards public finance, the objectives focused on activities in the Government Action Programme for the Improvement and Modernization of Public Finance Management (PAGAM/GFP) to enhance efforts towards stabilization of public finance (control of expenditures and greater mobilization of domestic revenue). All in all, progress was noted in Budget preparation, the linking of expenditure chain, reform of the public procurement system, deconcentration of budget credits, and internal control. However, there are still shortcomings in lands and surveys, judicial review and parliamentary control. The implementation of PAGAM/GFP in 2008 was deemed satisfactory by the Technical Committee comprising the technical structures and technical and financial partners.

25. At the end of 2008, despite the difficult economic situation, several financial objectives were satisfactory (Table 3). Revenue and grants amounted to CFAF 741.5 billion, representing an achievement rate of 84.1%. Tax revenue amounted to CFAF 519.4 billion, with an achievement rate of 83.6%. The tax ratio stood at 14.7%, an increase in comparison to 2007, but still well below the target set by the GPRSF (17%).

Table 3:Comparison between annual GFFT targets and achievements in 2008
GFFT (CFAF billion at current prices)Achievement

s

2007
Target

s

2008
Achievement

s

2008
Achievement Rate of 2008

Targets
Total revenue and grants732.1881.6741.584.1%
Total revenue569.9718.8607.384.5%
Budget revenue509.4663.7540.681.5%
Tax revenue487.2621.2519.483.6%
Net expenditure and loans845.6984.5828.284.1%
Current expenditure437.1484.7459.194.7%
Capital expenditure395.6448.8294.965.7%
Deficit (commitments, excl. grants) in % GDP-8.0%-7.3%-6.2%
Tax ratio (Tax revenue/GDP)14.2%17.0%14.7%
Source: DNTCP/DNPD
Source: DNTCP/DNPD

26. In 2008, the General Budget Support (GBS) estimates stood at CFAF 55.7 billion, as against CFAF 52.4 billion in 2007. This increase is due to the resumption of GBS by the ADB and a rise in Sweden’s GBS. The GBS estimates for 2008 were almost entirely disbursed in the amount of CFAF 54.1 billion, which represents a disbursement rate of 97.12%.

27. Sector Budget Support (SBS) amounted to CFAF 64.4 billion, and was disbursed to the tune of CFAF 54.6 billion, representing a disbursement rate of 84.78%. The initial SBS estimates stood at CFAF 45.5 billion; this amount was revised in the Finance Law following an increase in Canada’s contribution.

28. In 2009, GBS estimates stand at CFAF 92.4 billion and SBS at CFAF 46.1 billion.

29. Total expenditures and net loans amounted to CFAF 828.2 billion. The authorization base deficit, excluding grants, stood at 6.2%, which is above the target set by the GPRSF and a significant improvement in comparison to 2007. However, capital expenditures remained well below the set targets, with only CFAF 294.9 billion. The deficit was therefore reduced to the detriment of public investments required to support and promote strong and shared growth in Mali.

30. Poverty expenditures in the State Budget increased from CFAF 641.8 billion in 2007 to CFAF 676.7 billion (group amount) in 2008, representing an increase of about CFAF 34.9 billion. The proportion of health expenditures in the total poverty reduction expenditures increased slightly from 10.4% in 2007 to 11.54% in 2008. The proportion of education expenditures stagnated, while those of the other social sectors declined. As regards infrastructures and productive sectors, their proportion fell from 47.97% in 2007 to 46.5%, which is 1.4% drop (Table 4).

Table 4:Share of social sectors and infrastructures and productive sectors in poverty reduction expenditures in 2007 and 2008 (in %)
Finance Law 2007 and 200820072008
National Education25.6%25.95%
Health (excl. the other social sectors)10.4%11.54%
Other social sectors5.8%4.7%
Infrastructures and productive sectors47.97%46.5%
Source: DGB
Source: DGB

1.1.2.3. External trade and monetary situation

31. The high gold prices and promotion of new export products (mango, shea butter) were factors that increased the country’s exports and partly slowed down the decline in real production, as well as mitigated the impacts of the fall in cotton prices. Similarly, the slow recovery of the dollar against the Euro helped to improve the balance of payments of Mali in 2008.

32. With the favourable trend of gold prices, the results in exports were satisfactory with a value growth rate of 16.5% against a target of 5.5%. However, imports increased by 19.9% in value in 2008, against 4.9% growth targeted in the GPRSF framework, which accounts for the worsening of the trade deficit.

33. The balance of current transactions excluding official transfers stood at -9.1% of GDP in 2008, as against -7% proposed in the GPRSF framework. External economic and financial transactions for 2008 were affected by the difficult economic situation, as well as by the decline in gold (-7%) and cotton (-23%) production.

Table 5:Comparison between annual BOP targets and achievements in 2008
Achievements

2007
GPRSF Targets for

2008
Achievements

2008
Achievement Rate of

2008 Targets
Exports (fob)745.9823.5868.7105.6%
Cotton lint111.8161.366.241.0%
Gold515.2563.1642.6114.1%
Imports (fob)884.7864.51060.9122.7%
Current account (excl. grants)/GDP-9.8%-7%-9.1%-2.1 points
Source: DNPD, MME-DNPD Model
Source: DNPD, MME-DNPD Model

1.1.2.4. Mali’s position with respect to the convergence criteria

34. In 2008, Mali complied with three (3) convergence criteria out of eight, including two primary criteria. The key criterion concerning the basic fiscal balance/nominal GDP ratio and inflation were not satisfied in 2008.

Table 6:Status of convergence criteria in 2007 and 2008 and forecasts for 2009
WAEMU Standard200720082009*Convergence Status in 2008
Primary Criteria
Basic fiscal balance (excl. HIPC)/nominal GDP≥ 0%-1.4%-1.4%-2.3%Not satisfied
Corrected basic fiscal balance/GDP (%)≥0%-0.8%-0.1%0.1%Not satisfied
Average annual inflation rate≤3%1.4%9.2%3%Not satisfied
Outstanding public debt/nominal GDP (%)≤ 70%20.4%22.6%25.3%Satisfied
Variation in domestic and external payment arrears (in CFAF billion)0000Satisfied
Secondary Criteria
Payroll as percentage of tax revenue (%)≤ 35%28.7%35.8%36.0%Not satisfied
Investment as percentage of domestic resources/tax revenue in %≥ 20%21.4%26.7%26.3%Satisfied
Current external position excluding grants as percentage of nominal GDP≤ -5%-9.8%-9.1%-7.3%Not satisfied
Tax ratio≥17%14.2%14.7%14.7%Not satisfied

Forecasts

Source: DNSI/ DNPD/CNPE/BCEAO/WAEMU

Forecasts

Source: DNSI/ DNPD/CNPE/BCEAO/WAEMU

35. The community standard of 0% minimum, for the basic fiscal balance (excluding HIPC) as percentage of nominal GDP, was not satisfied in 2008 (-2.1%) and in 2007 when it stood at -1.4%. The outstanding public debt/nominal GDP ratio stood at 22.6% in 2008.

36. The payroll as percentage of tax revenue stood at 35.8% in 2008, as against the standard of 35%. Non compliance with this standard is mainly due to 5% increase in salaries, whereas revenue declined by CFAF 72 billion in comparison to forecasts because of subsidies granted by the Government to support the purchasing power consumers following the upsurge in food and oil prices. The current external deficit excluding grants as percentage of GDP stood at 9.1% in 2008, as against the standard of 5%. The tax ratio remains below the standard of 17% minimum.

1.1.3 Poverty Analysis

1.1.3.1 Socio-economic Context and Poverty

37. Mali made significant progress in PRSF implementation in areas relating to strengthening of macroeconomic stability. Over the 2002-2006 period, despite the Ivorian conflict, economic growth was substantial and even above the WAEMU zone average, but the PRSF objectives in terms of real GDP growth rate were not achieved mainly because of many exogenous shocks that affected the economy (about 5% annual average 1, against a target of 6.7% of the PRSF). Inflation (very sensitive to cereal price fluctuations) was under control during the period at 1.7%. The year 2007 was marked by a slowdown in economic growth following the major exogenous shocks. The real GDP growth was 4.3% after 5.3% in 2006 2, in view of the bad rainy season, which contributed to the decline in agricultural and cotton production, in particular. While inflation was limited to an average of 2.5% for the year, it reached 6% in February 2008 as a result of increase in cereal prices caused by the food crisis. This situation mainly affects the living conditions of the already underprivileged households.

38. Mali’s recent economic performance has had a limited impact on poverty reduction. Recent data on the incidence of poverty (ELIMII 2006 survey) show a decline in poverty in Mali, but the decline is below the GPRSF targets. The increase in income was not accompanied by a reduction in inequalities, which remained unchanged 3. Monetary poverty, estimated on the basis of commodity prices, declined by 8 points from 55.6% in 2001 to 47.4% in 2006. The incidence of poverty in rural areas also fell sharply, all things being equal, according to this method. Furthermore, there are significant regional disparities, with some increase in poverty in urban areas due mainly to rural exodus and the problem of urban employment. Poverty mainly affects farmers (nearly 59.2% of the poor) and the unemployed.

Table 7:Poverty Index(The Poor as percentage of total population)
20012006
% of

population
Method 1Method 2% of

Population
Method 1Method 2
Countrywide10068.355.610064.447.4
By Area Type
Urban Areas26.237.424.131.731.825.5
Rural Areas73.879.266.868.379.557.6
By Region
Kayes-Koulikoro30.276.265.129.461.544.7
Sikasso18.481.880.118.081.780.8
Mopti-Ségou31.971.451.933.975.248.7
Tombouctou-Gao-8.851.330.88.557.929.0
Bamako10.727.517.610.211.07.9
Source: EMEP 2001/02 and ELIM 2006 Household SurveysMethod 1: GPRSF Methodology; Method 2: Cost of essential needs
Source: EMEP 2001/02 and ELIM 2006 Household SurveysMethod 1: GPRSF Methodology; Method 2: Cost of essential needs

1.1.3.2 Millennium Development Goals

39. The prospects for achieving the Millennium Development Goals 2015 by Mali are low for most of the goals. Concerning the eradication of extreme poverty, the downward trend of poverty could facilitate achievement of this goal, with an incidence of monetary poverty around 30% in 2015 based on assumption of an average growth rate of 4% per person per year. According to the most recent estimates, the goals which could be achieved are those relating to drinking water and HIV/AIDS, and with some concerted efforts, those relating to extreme poverty and primary education. As regards health, despite encouraging results from the implementation of the current policies and strategies, the chances of achieving the goals appear to be limited (particularly as regards child and maternal mortality and nutrition). The spirit of MDG 8 relating to global partnership for development raises a lot of hope because of the mobilization of the International Community around the Paris Declaration.

1.2. Problems and Constraints

40. Recent economic trends amply show that achievement of the GPRSF objectives depends on several external and domestic factors. The country has real potential to boost sustainable economic growth. While the potential is enormous, the problems/constraints are varied and often unforeseeable. The main problems/constraints that limit macroeconomic performance include:

  • - non diversification of production: Production is dominated by primary sector products. This sector accounted for about 34% of GDP and contributed 0.8% to growth in 2007. Since virtually no taxes are paid in the sector, there is no close link between economic performance and State revenue, hence problems with respect to broadening of the tax base to cover State expenditures, particularly poverty reduction expenditures;

  • - financing of the economy: About 80% of the cost of development projects is covered by external partners, with disbursement procedures that vary from one donor to another. This often leads to problems with respect to achieving results. The pegging of CFAF to the Euro makes the CFAF a strong currency as a result of the weakness of the dollar in recent years. This led to problems of exchange losses for major development programmes/projects whose financing agreements were expressed in dollar at a time when this currency was strong; the loss of the value of the dollar can hamper implementation of many scheduled activities. A high proportion of deposits is short term, and bank loans are granted mainly for the financing of trade, making the system unfavourable for investment, particularly in industry;

  • - fluctuation of prices of major exports and imports: The prices of cotton, gold and oil can fluctuate sharply during the same year, thereby having a significant impact on export earnings and production costs;

  • - landlocked position of the country: Mali shares boundaries with seven (7) countries, and its main supply ports are Abidjan, Dakar and Lomé, which are more than 1000 km away by road or rail, resulting in very high transport costs which consumers are bound to bear. The socio-political crises and conflicts in the sub-region also hamper activity in our country. As result of a problem in a country through which Malian products have to transit, the transport costs can increase by 20% to 30% because of change of itinerary;

  • - inadequate human resources: inadequate skilled labour, particularly skilled technicians and workers, is one of the major constraints on efficiency of production and Public Administration.

1.3 Solutions and Prospects

1.3.1 Production and Growth

41. The economic and financial crisis, which has shaken the world economy since 2007, could still continue and increase the impact of the food crisis that hit mainly developing countries, including Mali.

42. However, with the implementation of the accelerated growth strategy action plan, the Malian economy could react better and the priority objectives of the GPRSF could be achieved. To that end, rural development has been considered as the engine of economic growth, with the private sector as the vector. The objective is to ensure food security for the population, improve the efficiency and competitiveness of the economy, and increase the processing of local raw materials so as to scale up the contribution of the manufacturing sector to GDP.

43. Short-terms forecasts are based on previously formulated economic situation factors and specific assumptions. They mainly concern branches of activities which recently influenced GDP trends, assuming that these areas and all the others will react favourably to measures implemented by the authorities to address the various external shocks.

44. Activities will concern the macroeconomic and budgetary policy framework, the development of basic economic infrastructures, the development of productive sectors, private sector development, structural reforms, governance and fight against corruption, the reinforcement of human resources, and support to social sectors.

45. The growth rate is expected to stand at 4.3% in 2009. These forecasts are based on a number of assumptions, in particular continued good performance in the primary and tertiary sectors, as well as resumption of growth in the secondary sector.

46. As regards the primary sector, the growth assumptions are based on rice and cotton production. Pursuance of efforts in the rice initiative and implementation of reforms of the cotton sector will be favourable to the sector. The growth rate is expected to be 5.7% for the entire sector, with 6.1% for food production excluding rice, 6.6% for the consolidated rice branch, and 2.5% for cotton.

47. Growth in the secondary sector will stand at about 2.2% in 2009, as against 4.6% decline in 2008. This performance will be due to slight recovery of the extraction branch. This branch, which mainly pulls the secondary sector, went through two difficult years (-8.4% in 2007 and -6.5% in 2008). In 2009, the growth rate is expected to be 1.2%. Furthermore, the good performance of the Building and Public Works (BPW) branch will be maintained. The start up of major projects, such as the construction of the 3rd Bridge of Bamako and an interchange at the new Administrative District, will uphold the level of growth in this branch. The textile branch (-10.5%) will continue to suffer from the poor performance of cotton production.

48. In 2009, the growth rate is expected to be 4.2% in the primary sector as a result of trends in the Transport and telecommunication and Trade branches. Following strong growth in 2007, with a growth rate of 20.9%, and a decline in 2008 (9.2%), the transport and telecommunications sector will progress by about 7.3%. This situation will be due to production reaching its maximum as a result of saturation of the market.

1.3.2 Public Finance

49. The objectives in 2009 are outlined in the poverty reduction strategy which is consistent with the millennium development goals ; they are :

  • - maintain GDP around 6% in the medium term so as to ensure GPRSF implementation;

  • - increase the relative proportion of tax revenue in the State Budget;

  • - ensure debt sustainability; and

  • - improve financial governance.

50. Total tax revenue is expected to increase from CFAF 607.3 billion in 2008 to CFAF 901.3 billion in 2009, which represents an increase of 32.62 %. This trend comes as a result of an increase in tax revenue, which will stand at CFAF 603.5 billion in 2009, representing a 13.94% increase. Non tax revenue will also increase by 18.46 % to CFAF 26.0 billion.

51. Grants in 2009 are expected to amount to CFAF 200.3 billion. Total expenditure and net loans in 2009 would stand at CFAF 1 099.1 billion. This increase in expenditure would be mainly due to an increase in capital expenditure.

52. The cash base balance, including grants, is expected to stand at–CFAF 197.8 billion. The total contribution from external sources of finance in 2009 would stand at + CFAF 155.3 billion. With respect to domestic sources of finance, the total contribution in 2009 is estimated at CFAF 42.5 billion, and an effective amount of CFAF 4.2 billion one year earlier.

1.3.3 External Trade and Monetary Situation

53. By the end of 2009, the external accounts are expected to improve in comparison to 2008. The overall balance of payments is projected to stand at CFAF 8.0 billion, as against an estimate of CFAF -30.2 billion in 2008. If gold continues to be a safe investment, Malian exports of the product would increase in value to CFAF 649.0 billion in 2009, as against CFAF 642.6 billion in 2008. However, the slowdown in world growth and decline in commodity prices will lead to a fall in demand, which could then result in a drop in cotton exports. Cotton prices have already dropped, along with all commodity prices. Exports are expected to stand at CFAF 831.8 billion, after CFAF 868.7 billion in 2008. Similarly, food and oil expenses could drop as a result of the expected fall in prices.

54. Current transactions deficit is expected to improve to CFAF 205.2 billion in 2009, as against CFAF 293 billion in 2008, representing 7.3% of GDP in 2009 as against 9.1% in 2008. In the coming years, the deficit is expected to stand at 6.5% of GDP in 2010 and 7.2% in 2011.

55. Furthermore, exports are expected to stand at CFAF 831.8 billion in 2009, as against CFAF 868.7 billion in 2008, a 4.2% decline. This decline mainly stems from uncertainties about the international and national economic situation (low cotton and gold production). In the coming years, the increase could continue in 2010 and 2011, with growth rates of 11.6% and 1.3% respectively. Imports are estimated at CFAF 1 028.7 billion in 2009 as against CFAF 1 060.9 billion in 2008, showing a 3.0% drop. The drop is due to the good results of the 2008/2009 crop season, which would significantly reduce imports of food products, in particular cereals. Imports are expected to fall by 3.3% in 2010, before increasing by 7.2% in 2011.

56. The capital and financial operations account traces the financing requirements of the country’s economy that would be covered by financial assistance from economic operators from the rest of the world. The account would be affected only moderately by the impacts of the financial crisis if donors meet their commitments. It is estimated at CFAF 258.2 billion in 2009, as against CFAF 262.8 billion in 2008, representing a decline of CFAF 4.6 billion. However, credit flows of direct foreign investments are expected to drop in view of difficulties encountered by potential investors in obtaining financing. However, this trend could be reversed if the privatization of SOTELMA is completed in 2009.

57. As regards money, credits are expected to increase at a sustained rate, especially with the arrival of a new private banking operator and a new private telephone operator. Money supply is projected to stand at CFAF 1 007.8 billion at the end of December 2009, representing a 1.5% decline in comparison to 2008. The growth rate of money supply is expected to be 5.8% in 2010 and in 2011.

1.3.4 Convergence Criteria

58. Pursuant to the agreement on statutory advance consolidation, CFAF -2.4 billion would be repaid to the Issuing Institute as scheduled.

59. As regards the convergence criteria, the scheduled levels are as follows:

Primary Criteria

  • - In 2009, the community standard of 0% or more would be achieved for the corrected criterion.

  • - Inflation rate: The exceptional situation in 2008 is not expected to continue in 2009 because of the increasing calm on the world market and the hope for good harvest raised by the 2008-2009 crop season.

  • - Outstanding external arrears: No arrears will be accumulated. The criterion of clearance of existing stock and non accumulation of new arrears will thus be fulfilled.

  • - Outstanding domestic arrears: The Government does not intend to accumulate such arrears over the period.

  • - Outstanding debt/nominal GDP: The outstanding debt will reduce gradually during the period under review to 23.4% in 2009.

Secondary Criteria

  • - Payroll as percentage of tax revenue: The community standard of 35% maximum will be exceeded by one percentage point in 2009 because of coverage of the second tranche of increases granted, while revenue will still be affected by the measures taken to address the difficult situation in 2008 with significant impacts in 2009.

  • - Public investments financed with domestic resources as percentage of tax revenue: This criterion will be satisfied, as it will stand at 26.3% in 2009.

  • - The current external deficit excluding grants as percentage of GDP: This ratio is projected to stand at 8.1% in 2009, which is an improvement in comparison to 2008. However, it will remain above the community standard of 5%.

  • - The tax ratio is expected to be 14.7% in 2009.

II. DEVELOPMENT OF BASIC INFRASTRUCTURES AND PRODUCTIVE SECTORS

2.1 Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries, Irrigation Schemes and Food Security

2.1.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies

60. The 2008/2009 crop season was marked by satisfactory rainfall and significant contribution by the artificial rain programme where pockets of shortage were noted.

61. Cereal production during the 2008/2009 crop season increased by 23.9% in comparison to the 2007-2008 season. Cereal production was estimated at 4 814 871 tonnes, as against forecasts of 4 685 095 tonnes. Rice production attained 99.34% of forecasts as a result of the Rice Initiative, while the achievement rates for millet and sorghum production were 115.31% and 104.8% respectively. The Rice Initiative will continue for the second consecutive year during the 2009/2010 crop season. During this second phase, special emphasis will be laid on: (i) improvement of the guidance coverage rate through recruitment, training and equipment of new workers; (ii) organization of a consultation framework to agree on a producer price before the start of the season and involvement of all stakeholders in the implementation of the marketing component, and (iii) establishment of an appropriate high quality herbicide supply system.

62. Losses recorded during the crop season are estimated at 2% of lands under cultivation. They are partly due to diseases, attacks by granivorous birds, and flooding.

63. Cotton production in 2008/2009 was marked by reduction in lands under cultivation by 31% and decline in seed cotton and cotton lint production by about 16% in comparison to the 2007/2008 season. However, cotton yields increased on the whole by 21%. The decline in cotton production for three successive seasons is due to loss of interest by the producers. Despite the increase in producer prices from CFAF 160 to CFAF 200 per kilogramme for the highest grade, 956 Farmer Organizations and 33,960 cotton farms did not grow cotton during the 2008/2009 season. Women account for 0.06% of cereal and cotton producers.

64. Irrigation schemes concerned the implementation of the Government Irrigation Programme for 103 000 ha, the third of its kind following those for 30 000 ha for the 1998-2002 period and 50 000 ha for the 2003-2007 period. The irrigation programme for 2008 concerned 19 486 ha, comprising 10 381 ha under total water control and 9 105 ha for other types of irrigation. The works in 2008 concerned 4 931 ha of large irrigation schemes and 2 709 ha of proximity irrigation schemes. Ongoing works concerned 2 854 ha. These works and those underway account for 53% of forecasts for 2008. This difference is due to late start of the works, stoppages and, after the works resumed, to the rainy season and flooding. The reasons for this poor performance lie mainly in delays in procurement procedures and disbursements, as well as in overestimation of forecasts for projects/programmes and authorities.

65. Livestock is reared by 80% of the working population. The agropastoral season was marked by pursuance of capacity building for stakeholders of the sub-sector, State divestiture through privatization, and the transfer of powers and responsibilities. All the targets for 2008 were achieved or exceeded with respect to the cattle population, which increased in 2008 in comparison to 2007 by 3% for cattle and 5% for sheep and goats. Out of a forecast of 8 321 108 head of cattle, 9 779 sheep and 13 943 829 goats, the livestock sector recorded 8 385 700 head of cattle, 10 249 600 sheep, 14 272 700 goats and 33 950 000 chickens in 2008.

66. Meat production in 2008 increased by 6.8%. Controlled slaughter gave a total of 47 963 tonnes of meat (278 609 head of cattle, 828 086 sheep, 374 899 goats, 590 pigs, 2 087 camels and 2 276 761 chickens). By applying available bioeconomic parameters to the Malian herd, milk production estimates for 2008 stand at 1 867 992 098 litres, which represents a 3.9% increase in comparison to 2007. Out of the available 933 million litres of milk, the quantity of milk collected and recorded by DNPIA stood at 1 742 340 litres in 2008, representing 12.3% increase in comparison to 2007. Controlled leather exports concerned 293 089 pieces equivalent to 2 047 tonnes, with 99.8% raw and 0.2% tanned. As for sheep and goat skins, 859 434 pieces weighing about 986 tonnes were exported, with 60% raw and 40% tanned.

67. Employment generated upstream and downstream the fisheries sub-sector are estimated at 500 000 jobs. The total fish production in 2008 is estimated at 132 168 tonnes, which represents 32.2% increase over production during normal hydrology conditions. Controlled exports amounted to 1 322 tonnes in 2008 out of a forecast of 444 tonnes. Furthermore, socioeconomic, rural and piscicultural, ports and goods infrastructures were constructed, and processing and conservation equipment installed. Emphasis was laid on the training of stakeholders of the sub-sector on fish farming, as well as fish production and conservation techniques.

68. The start of the 2008 season was marked by an increase in fish catch in all the water basins following the organization of collective fishing in some areas in Koulikoro and Ségou regions and the lifting of bans in Tombouctou and Mopti regions.

69. The food situation was marked by the downward trend of severity and vulnerability from 2006 to 2008. The infant acute malnutrition rate fell by 8.3 points in 2008 in comparison to the baseline rate in 2006. According to the results of the “Basic Survey on Food Security and Malnutrition for extension of sentinel sites”, acute malnutrition or emaciation in 2008 affected nearly 6.1% of children from 0 to 5 years, as against a forecast of 12%. Kayes region (14 %) and Gao region (16 %) are the most affected by this type of malnutrition, while Mopti region is the least affected in Mali.

70. The Early Warning System (EWS) did not identify any council area experiencing food difficulties that require the distribution of food, even though 34 council areas are classified as experiencing slight economic difficulties. The relatively good spatial distribution of rainfall helped to improve food availability in terms of quality and quantity.

71. Following the Presidential Instruction to build a stock of 100 000 tonnes by 2012, national stocks in 2008 amounted to 76 944 tonnes of cereals, which represents an achievement rate of 110 %. Furthermore, the building of cereal bank stocks in council areas ensured some stability in supply.

Table 8:Follow-up Matrix for rural development and food security indicators
ResultsIndicatorsTypeBaseline Value

(2006)
MDG

Target

2015
GPRSF Targets
Achievements 2008Forecasts 2008Forecasts 2009
Food security: Food security is ensured for each Malian
The number of people experiencing severe food insecurity is decliningProportion of people experiencing food insecurity covered (in %)R1.17-00.790
National cereal stocks

increased
National cereal stocks comprise the National Buffer Stock (SNS) and the State

Intervention Stock (Cereal Banks) in tones
R--76 94469 70099 182
The food situation of children–5 years has improvedInfant acute malnutrition rate (in %)R14.40-6.11211
Primary sector: agriculture, livestock and fisheries
Cereal production increasedTotal cereal production (in thousands of tonnes)R3.693-4 8154 6856 140
Access by population to irrigated agriculture has improvedIrrigated areas under total water control (in ha)R10 16612 0003 4149 18514 252
Cotton production (main export crop) has increasedSeed cotton production (in tonnes)R414 965620 000201 000526 100330 000
Cotton lint production (in tonnes)R175 797266 60085 654220 960138 600
Animal production (cattle population in head) has improvedCattleR7 843 44210 233 9138 385 7008 321 1088 570 741
SheepR8 870 73513 761 42210 249 6009 779 98510268 985
GoatsR12 647 46419 620 36814 272 70013 943 82914 641 021
Milk and meat production has improvedMilk (in tonnes)R1 815 5792 26 4091 187 9921 916 7981 974 301
Meat (in tonnes)R39 64849 51547 96341 85843 114
The competitiveness of skins and leather sub-sectors has improvedSkin exports (in tonnes)R1 4461 8069861 5271 572.41
Leather exports (in tonnes)R8 65510 8081 5799 1379 411.11
The production and marketing of fishery products have improvedFish production (in tonnes)R92 798*-132 61897 631147 000
Quantity of fishery products exported (in tonnes)R435*-1 3224441 586

Baseline value in 2005–The indicators of the fisheries sub-sector are calculated on the basis of baseline values in 2005 to which were applied 5% growth rate for fish and 2% for the quantity of exported fish.

Sources: SAP and OPAM 2009, DNGR 2008, DNPIA 2008, DNP and Results of 2008/2009 crop season and 2009/2010 programmes of the Higher Agriculture Council.

Baseline value in 2005–The indicators of the fisheries sub-sector are calculated on the basis of baseline values in 2005 to which were applied 5% growth rate for fish and 2% for the quantity of exported fish.

Sources: SAP and OPAM 2009, DNGR 2008, DNPIA 2008, DNP and Results of 2008/2009 crop season and 2009/2010 programmes of the Higher Agriculture Council.

2.1.2. Problems and Constraints

72. Despite the achievements, the primary sector still encounters enormous difficulties, in particular :

  • - inadequate quantity and quality of pasturelands and feed for cattle and poultry;

  • - silting and drying up of waterways;

  • - continued land problems and disputes;

  • - low level of mechanization, as well as old and inadequate processing infrastructures, and low level of professionalism and organization of stakeholders;

  • - inadequate financial resources, equipment and human resources in supervisory services; difficulties of access by stakeholders to equipment and loans, as well as the high cost of inputs and fall in producer prices;

  • - difficulties in the collection and communication of production statistics in the field;

  • - duplication of responsibilities between the National Directorate of Rural Engineering (DNGR) and some national directorates;

  • - non implementation of the PIDRN in the Northern regions due to insecurity.

2.1.3 Solutions and Prospects

73. In view of the potential, the various agricultural production systems, and bold production policies aimed at the target of 10 million tonnes of cereals by 2012, the Ministry of Agriculture intends to lay emphasis on the artificial rain programme and agro-weather counseling.

74. In efforts to achieve food sovereignty, special emphasis will be laid on:

  • - intensification of irrigation schemes and cultivation of high production potential cereals, in particular rice, maize and wheat/barley;

  • - dredging of waterways and development of banks;

  • - preparation of a national agricultural sector development policy paper and promotion of a sector programme;

  • - improvement of regular statistical production by INSTAT ;

  • - crop security through the Plant Protection Operation and the National Migratory Locust Control Centre (CNLCP) ;

  • - improvement of productivity, cultivation and fertility of lands in view of population growth, which needs to be controlled, and slow poverty reduction (population estimated at 12.713 million inhabitants with a number of farm workers that increases more slowly than food demand) ;

  • - development of the agro-food processing sector to feed an increasingly higher and more demanding urban population;

  • - delivery of support and advisory services through the private sector and the Government (DNA, OPV, DNGR, APCAM.);

  • - support for the marketing, processing and security of agricultural and animal products by fostering trade between surplus and deficit areas, encouraging farmers to organize themselves, and providing lines of credit for marketing;

  • - provision of adequate human, financial and material resources;

  • - implementation of pasture lands development plans through the five year pasture lands development programme;

  • - preparation and launching of a local raw milk processing strategy;

  • - effective start up of the “Improvement of traditional fishing” sub-component of the OMVS Integrated Water Management Project, which will equip fishermen and construct facilities;

  • - implementation of programmes relating to aquaculture and fish stocking of ponds;

  • - formulation of an aquaculture potential development support project in Sikasso Region and a sustainable development project for the Central Niger Delta area as part of the aquaculture development programme;

  • - gradual increase in national cereal stocks, reinforcement of proximity stocks through training of cereal bank managers, construction of storage facilities and greater involvement of local authorities, as well as improvement of the legal environment of cereal banks; and

  • - enhanced intervention capacities of the CSA, particularly through the creation of six regional delegations.

2. 2 Environment

2.2.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies

75. Mali still has enormous potential in natural resources, whose optimal management could contribute to reducing problems relating to food insecurity, hunger, malnutrition and poverty. Sustainable management is one of the major challenges to the country’s development because of its vital role in improving food security, increasing the incomes of poor families, and ensuring the economic development of the country.

76. However, it is sad to note that the environment and natural resources are being degraded and reduced as a result of high population, climate variations, unsustainable management practices, and poverty of the population.

77. In 2008, the results as regards the environment were generally satisfactory. The largest areas of focus concern agro-forestry plantations (2 636.23 ha) for which the population worked on an individual basis, followed by groves (1 764.45 ha) and orchards (1 170.30 ha).

Table 9:Trend of indicators in the 2008 GPRSF Evaluation Matrix
Activities2007Achievements

2008
Targets

2008
Achievement Rate of Targets in 2008
Areas reforested (ha)9079.3710 39011 11793.46%
Number of simplified development management plans prepared and implemented5022025088%
Plant production4 692 6367 994 8626 383 603125.24%
Percentage of population with access to adequate sanitation system (%)21%23%
Source: MEA
Source: MEA

78. As regards sanitation and pollution and nuisance control, the year 2008 witnessed the preparation of a National Sanitation Policy. Concurrently, the construction of structures (culverts and drains, wastewater facilities and improved latrines) improved access to adequate sanitation for the population.

79. The low rate of construction of wastewater facilities and improved latrines is due to inadequate financial resources. Drains are constructed and rehabilitated mainly with the State Budget through the SIB, while small wastewater facilities, latrines and culverts are cleaned by partners and local authorities.

2.2.2 Problems and Constraints

80. The problems and constraints of the environment sector are mainly:

  • - fraudulent exploitation of protected natural forests as a result of population pressure;

  • - non functioning of the STP/CIGQE Inter-Ministerial Committee;

  • - non clarification of the duties of all the structures responsible for sanitation;

  • - failure to effectively transfer powers and resources to local authorities in natural resource management, which poses the problem of implementing texts for Law No. 96-050 on the principle of creating and managing community lands.

2.2.3 Solutions and Prospects

81. The proposed solutions and prospects include:

  • - implement the National Protected Areas Strategy through participatory management of environmental resources, the National Pollution and Nuisance Control Policy, as well as the Sanitation Strategy Plan;

  • - finalize and implement the “Lands Investment Strategy/Sustainable Management Framework” (CSI/GDT) ;

  • - create a national reforestation fund;

  • - train and inform the population on the various international conventions (biodiversity, climate change, deforestation, etc.);

  • - follow up the review of texts creating, organizing and defining the operation of DNCN so as to set up a National Forestry Directorate;

  • - clarify the responsibilities of all sanitation structures to make them complementary and not competing;

  • - enhance the technical, financial and material capacities of the environment sector through : (i) continuous and military training for workers, (ii) forest control at all levels so as to replenish Government funds, (iii) budgetary autonomy for the STP and special attention to financing of programme budget and CDMT (BPOO/CDMT 2009-2012)

  • - pursue implementation of the transfer of powers and resources for the management of environmental resources under decentralization ;

  • - prepare memoranda of understanding clarifying the roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders (NGOs, the civil society and the private sector) and improve exchanges and transparency in information and knowledge so as to ensure better monitoring-evaluation of GPRSF indicators;

  • - ensure the inclusion of aspects relating to adaptation to climate change in programmes and strategies under preparation; and

  • - adopt Environmental Strategies Assessments (ESA) as a “greening” tool for all national programmes and strategies as an indicator.

2. 3 Equipment, Transport and Communication

2.3.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies

• Road Transport

82. During the period, efforts towards internal and external accessibility of the country were pursued through implementation of the Second Transport Project (PST2), the First Road Programme (PRI) WAEMU (Mali, Burkina Faso)/Ghana and the Second Road Programme (FR2) WAEMU/Mali/Senegal, the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), as well as preparation of the EDF Tenth Road Programme.

83. The state of paved and modern earth roads has improved. This is the outcome of reforms carried out in the sector, the monitoring system put in place by the delegated project owner agencies and supervision by Unit Managers, and consultation between all stakeholders of the sector.

84. In 2008, road construction works concerned a total of about 292 km, comprising 216 km of tarred roads and 76 km of earth roads. The works were as follows : (i) completion of tarring of the Bougouni- Yanfolila road (37 km), Kati-Kita road (60 km), Bamako-Naréna road (17 km) and link roads from the secondary towns of Yorosso, Djeli, Tominian and Sofara (56 km) to the main tarred roads network; (ii) continuation of construction works on tarred Kita-Sékokoto road (34 km), Sékokoto-Bafing road (8 km) and the Garantiguibougou road (4 km) in Bamako District, as well as the Kita-Toukoto-Bafoulabé (50 km) and Dioro-Farakoumassa (26 km) earth roads; (iii) studies on the Bafoulabé bridge and the 3rd Bamako bridge.

85. As regards road maintenance, efforts were made to establish a sustainable financing mechanism based on the collection of road use charges through: (i) the construction of thirteen toll gates in Bla (Ségou-Bla), Hèrèmakono, Zégoua, Sienso, Kourémalé, Kasséla, Koury, Tlomadio and Ty ; (ii) effective collection of road toll at 17 toll gates and systematic control of axle load on the new highways; (iii) routine maintenance works on 12 510 km of priority network roads in 2008, comprising 3 569 km tarred roads, 6941 km earth roads, and 2 200 km farm-to-market roads in CMDT and OHVN zones.

Table 10:Trend of road infrastructure indicators
IndicatorsUnit200620072008
ForecastAchieved
Number of km of tarred roads maintainedkm3 6673 7733 5003 569
Number of km of tarred roads in good statekm2 7132 7932 8002 880
Number of km of earth roads maintainedkm8 3658 7008 8008 941
Number of km of earth roads in good statekm5 0195 2203 5003 595
Number of km of feeder roads constructedKm131.42634576
Source: CPS/MET- DNR-SDR
Source: CPS/MET- DNR-SDR

86. Transport costs still account for a significant proportion of the cost of goods. Consequently, road maintenance was done to such level that transport costs did not increase the cost of products. Transport costs on the tarred roads (CFAF 32/t/km against a forecast of CFAF 32.7) and earth roads (CFAF 49.5 /t/km) have remained stable since 2006 despite the high cost of oil. The indicator (proportion of transport costs in the cost of goods) needs to be evaluated following the upsurge in oil prices. A study will be conducted in 2011.

87. Overall, the traffic recorded a 3.54% decline in comparison to 2007. The tonnage of goods exports fell sharply by about 55.17%, while imports recorded an increase of about 3.66% between 2007 and 2008.

88. As regards road safety, despite the actions taken, the number of road accidents increased from one year to another. Accidents increased from 612 in 2006 to 659 in 2007 and 670 in 2008.

• Air Transport

89. In 2008, air transport indicators improved in comparison to 2007, even though the number of airports remained the same. Air transport infrastructure in Mali comprises 13 main airports, 12 secondary airports and 5 private airfields. Aircraft movements increased from 11 845 in 2007 to 12 486 in 2008, which represents 5.41% increase. The number of passengers increased from 581 446 in 2007 to 628 290 in 2008, representing 8.05% increase. Freight in kg reduced by 17.76%, and the post in kg increased by 30.57%.

• Railway Transport

90. The length of the railway network (729 km) has not changed for the past several decades. In 2008, the kilometric tonnage reduced by 10.94% (from 416 445 194 in 2007 to 370 883 950 in 2008) while the number of passengers increased by 3.6 %, following the operation of 6 new engines and 10 coaches (from 106 272 passengers in 2007 to 110 065 passengers in 2008). Railway transport accounts for 10% of national freight. One of the difficulties is competition between the railway and roads, since fewer passengers now travel by road.

• River Transport

91. The length of the river network has remained the same with 2 334 km. The navigability period has increased slightly because of rainfall above the average annual rate from 1994 to 2005. The navigable channel is seriously threatened by silting and low rainfall, forcing COMANAV to adapt to the new conditions of operation on the network. The 2008/2009 crop season was marked by a sharp decline in the number of passengers by almost half in comparison to 2007/2008 and threefold increase in the quantity of goods transported. Development works are underway on 4 wharfs in Dioro, Diafarabé, Ténenkou and Kona.

• Weather

92. The following results were obtained in 2008 as regards the weather: (i) contribution of weather reports to early warning on the prevention food crisis situations; (ii) regular supply of accurate weather reports on risks of flooding to the Inter-Ministerial Committee and flood prevention and management structures; (iii) better control of rainfall observations.

93. The number of cloud seeding operations increased by more than 60% in 2008 in comparison to 2007. About 300 flight hours were made for 205 operations, which helped to improve rainfall by 18% as against 15% in 2007. These artificial rain operations have positive impacts on energy production by filling the basins of the hydro-electricity dams in Manantali and Sélingué. The number of pluviometric stations (200) did not change between 2007 and 2008.

• Marine Warehouses

94. As a country without any coastline, Mali uses the different ports in the sub-region to open up to the rest of the world. Mali has diversified its transit warehouses: Dakar, Conakry, Nouakchott, Tema, Lomé and Cotonou. The Dakar Port was the leading transit port for Mali in 2008 (more than 49% of the traffic, including 36.2% by road and 11.1% by railway). The warehouse storage capacity was increased in Senegal (20 500m2), Togo (9 600m2) and Ghana (5 700m2). Feasibility studies for dry ports in Kayes and Sikasso were conducted in 2007, but the works have not yet started.

• Building and Public Works

95. The sector remains dynamic with a growth rate of 7.6%. The dynamism is the direct outcome of rehabilitation works on buildings and construction of the Administrative District, low-cost housing, and road construction. One of the difficulties in the sector is the old age of the equipment pool of companies and its wide diversity of trade marks, as well as the low financial capacity of national companies.

• Telecommunications

96. In 2008, the telecommunications sector continued to develop as in the past. Significant progress was made as regards the fixed and mobile telephone networks. As regards ongoing activities, the capital of SOTELMA has been opened up, and a study in being conducted on access to telecommunication services in rural areas and hinterlands of Mali.

97. The number of subscribers to the fixed and mobile telephones increased by nearly 22% in 2008 (82 800 and 3 267 195 respectively as against 78 820 and 2 540 297 respectively in 2007). Teledensity stood at 26.4 lines for 100 inhabitants in 2008, as against 20.8 in 2007. The percentage of council areas covered by telephone (fixed and mobile) increased from 45% in 2007 to 53% in 2008. This is the outcome of enormous efforts made by operators in building more modern infrastructures in the fixed networks.

98. The fixed network recorded a pool growth rate of 3% in 2008 (as against–3% in 2007). Although fixed telephone coverage increased in comparison to 2007, it is still below that of mobile telephone. The number of council areas connected to the fixed telephone network was 285, with a coverage rate of 40%. The number of council areas connected to a mobile telephone network was 468, with a coverage rate of 67%. However, the pool growth rate of 7% in 2008 is far from the performance of previous years.

Table 11:Trend of telecommunication indicators
Indicators200620072008
Percentage of council areas covered by fixed telephone-35%38%
Percentage of council areas covered by mobile telephone-55%67%
Percentage of council areas covered by telephones (fixed and mobile)NA45%73%
Sources: CRT-CPS/MET
Sources: CRT-CPS/MET

99. Furthermore, telephone rates fell in 2008 on all the networks, particularly the mobile networks. This is as a result of competition on the mobile telephone market, with special offers and very aggressive reduced rates by the two operators - Malitel and Orange.

100. In 2008, all the Ministries were connected to Internet; the bandwidth remained the same as in 2006 and 2007 (179 Mb), as well as the number of council areas connected (39). The number of government services connected increased from 69 to 73, and 650 workers were trained in 2008 as against 640 in 2007.

101. As regards the Audiovisual, the percentage of population covered by the radio in 2008 was about 98%. The coverage by the television remained stable between 2004 and 2008 at 85%. Two million seven hundred thousand (2 700 000) radio receivers were owned in 2008. This is due to the positive impact of local radios, which use national languages as means of communication and serve the population with programmes on everyday concerns. As for the television, its coverage still needs to be improved. The high cost of digital equipment and the low resources allocated to the development of the sector accounts for the situation.

102. As regards Postal Services, the National Postal Service Authority (ONP) had a network of 84 post offices in 2008, as against 80 in 2007. The national postal service density was one (1) contact point for 105 333 inhabitants in 2008. However, the number postal boxes increased by 12.30%, from 26 520 in 2007 to 29 780 in 2008.

2.3.2 Problems and Constraints

103. The achievement of objectives defined in action plan of the sector development strategy encounters problems and constraints that could be summarized as follows:

  • - low rate of accessibility in Mali, which remains a landlocked country. The accessibility rate by land is low (41%), with 38% by road and 3% by river. The situation is even more serious in rural areas, with an accessibility rate of 26%, along with 21% by road and 5% by rail-river;

  • - constraints on reducing transport costs, which remain very prohibitive (30-40% of the cost of goods);

  • - inadequate incorporation of climate factor in many development sectors ;

  • - difficulties encountered in adapting river transport to new operating conditions due to lack of water in the navigable channel;

  • - constraints on restructuring public enterprises in the transport sector and difficulties encountered in implementing the concession granted to TRANSRAIL;

  • - difficulties encountered in transforming the Bamako-Sénou airport into a hub for air transport in West Africa, as well as in privatizing ADMs ;

  • - difficulties in financing road maintenance by the Road Authority (second generation road fund) with own resources and mobilization of domestic and external resources (search for financing for projects from Round Tables organized by the Ministry often encounters difficulties in mobilizing funds promised by the TFPs) ; and

  • - lack of transport and BPW experts in private companies responsible for routine road maintenance.

2.3.3 Solutions and Prospects

104. The solutions and prospects for the next three (3) years (2009-2011) include:

  • - promotion of means of transport and services, rehabilitation and modernization of the public vehicle fleet;

  • - opening up rural areas by constructing a large network of feeder roads under TSP2 ;

  • - capacity building for stakeholders in the transport sector ;

  • - strict enforcement of the transport and safety laws in force, and follow up of the recommendations made in consultation meetings between the various stakeholders of the sector;

  • - finalization of the privatization of SOTELMA, validation of the study report and implementation of draft studies on universal access;

  • - total coverage of the country in terms of weather stations, and rehabilitation of the stations ;

  • - preparation of sector MTEF with an annual update will help to determine the financing gap to be sought; capacity building for CPS of MET responsible for the equipment, transport and communication sector to enable it to fully play its role, and establishment of sector base of the socioeconomic base of Mali “Malikunnafoni” are some of the activities that will facilitate achievement of the objectives of the sector policies and strategies; and

  • - creation of a road data bank for 7 684 km of the priority road network.

2. 4 Energy and Mines

2.4.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies

2. 4.1.1 Energy

105. The action plan of the National New and Renewable Energies Development Strategy (ENR) was estimated at CFAF 30.100 billion. It did not receive any financing. The results consisted in the preparation of texts on the creation, organization and functioning of the National Biofuel Development Agency (ANADEB).

106. The action plan of the National Energy Policy was estimated at CFAF 715 billion; it was estimated using the Energy Costing Model at CFAF 1 400 billion to take into account achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The plan did not receive appropriate financing except for two IDB projects on the electrification of seven (7) localities and strengthening of the capacity of EDM electric networks.

107. Despite the situation, the efforts made by the Ministry concerned the following achievements:

  • - Despite the situation, the efforts made by the Ministry concerned the following achievements: - increase : in the number of subscribers to electricity of EDM SA company from 188 363 in 2007 to 201 539 in 2008; in the number of subscribers to electricity in rural areas from 24 500 in 2007 to 30 283 in 2008; in the consumption of butane gas (from 6 423 tonnes in 2007 to 8 030.3 tonnes in 2008) which helped to preserve more than 27 000 hectares of savannah woodland according to the SIE-Mali team;

  • - continuation of distribution of low consumption bulbs : 17 404 in 2008 as against 12 995 in 2007, and the installation of solar thermal equipment (330 solar kits and 25 solar refrigerators installed in 2008);

  • - subsidies to the price of improved fireplace and butane gas (131 386 improved fireplace in 2008) ;

  • - adoption of the biofuel promotion strategy and texts establishing the National Biofuels Development Agency.

Table 12:Trend of energy indicators
Variables200620072008
Electricity access rate (%)19.3922.5325.41
Electricity access rate in urban areas (%)56.2355.5858.19
Electricity access rate in rural areas (%)4.758.2311.23
Low cost electricity first tranche EDM, excl. VAT (in CFAF)595959
EDM electricity production (GWh)870893.61 001
Consumption of petroleum products per year (TEP)616 881627 120680 315
Consumption of butane gas (in tonnes)5 19364238 030.3
Number of new villages with public lighting494596
Source: Compendium of Energy Sector Indicators of CPS/Mines-Energy Sector.
Source: Compendium of Energy Sector Indicators of CPS/Mines-Energy Sector.

108. The increase in national electricity access rate (25.4% in 2008 as against 22.5% in 2007) could be due to the impact of the AMADER Public Lighting Programme in rural areas, as the number of light points increased from 3 400 in 2007 to 5 090 in 2008. According AMADER, each light point serves 125 inhabitants in rural areas.

109. Despite the difficult situation, the electricity access rate in urban areas increased significantly (58.2% in 2008 as against 55.6% in 2007). The same applies to the access rate in rural areas, which increased from 8.2% in 2007 to 11.2% in 2008. Furthermore, the achievements in 2008 for rural areas increased in comparison to the forecast of 8%, exceeded since 2007. On the other hand, the rate in urban areas in 2008 was one percentage point below the forecast of 59%.

2.4.1.2 Mines

110. The implementation of the mining policy produced satisfactory results in 2008 in terms of contribution to the national economy (6.1% of GDP in 2008, or CFAF 236.4 billion, as against CFAF 229.1 billion in 2007), impact on the trade balance (exports represent CFAF 582 billion in 2008 as against CFAF 545.9 billion in 2007, or 6% increase) and job creation. According to a recent study on BNETD/SAFI, the direct jobs created are estimated at 4 565 for four mining companies (Morila, Somika, Somilo and Tamico), and could reach 10 000 taking into account the six companies in operation.

111. Furthermore, the achievements in 2008 include:

  • - the training of 150 women in poultry farming, beekeeping, dyeing, dress making and soap manufacturing under the Technical Assistance Project for Gold Washing and Promotion of Rural Women (ATOPFER), as well as the sinking of three boreholes and construction of a watershed dam;

  • - the allotment of 2 blocks in 2008 bringing the total to 20 blocks out of 29.

Table 13:Trend of mining sector indicators
Variables200620072008
Number of gold exploitation companies666
Gold exports in tonnes62.056.752.8
Gold exports in CFAF billion587.5545.9582
Total contribution of mining sector to Public Treasury in CFAF billion85.7130.06132.061
Source: Compendium of 2008 Mines and Geology Sector Indicators of CPS/Mines-Energy Sector.
Source: Compendium of 2008 Mines and Geology Sector Indicators of CPS/Mines-Energy Sector.

112. The total contribution of the mining sector to the Public Treasury was CFAF 132.061 billion in 2008, as against CFAF 130.06 billion in 2007. This virtual stagnation, despite the decline in production, is mainly due to the remunerating level of the average price per ounce, which was US$ 816.09 in 2008 as against US$ 803.20 in 2007.

2.4.2 Problems and Constraints

113. The problems and constraints encountered in the energy and mines sub-sectors are mainly:

  • - the contractual arrangement of the electricity public utility is not adapted to the institutional dispersal of public management of the energy sector;

  • - inadequate electricity supply and national power production, operation and transmission standards and cumbersome hydroelectricity development investment procedures;

  • - the high costs of modern energy services and ENR equipment for consumers and low level of financing, particularly subsidies for replacement energies (butane gas, kerosene, etc.)

  • - inadequate human resources;

  • - the current Mining Code does not contain incentives;

  • - inadequate : (i) basic geological data, which exposes the sector to the risk of gold production alone, (ii) financial resources for mining inventory and geological mapping, (iii) resources for the control, monitoring and evaluation of activities of mining companies, (iv) infrastructures (energy and communication) in mining areas, and (v) technical staff, who lack a further training and incentives programme;

  • - lack of a financing mechanism for activities of the sector and lack of a viable domestic or regional market for mining products;

  • - delays by oil operators in implementing contractual programmes.

2.4.3 Solutions and Prospects

114. The proposed solutions and prospects for the energy sub-sector include:

  • - prepare an adequate contractual framework for the electricity service, provide the service with all the required regulatory and standardization texts, define coherent national standards in the electricity sector and develop an effective strategy to involve development partners in the sector;

  • - further encourage the production and dissemination of renewable energies, adopt highly incentive measures for the procurement of ENR equipment and massively disseminate energy saving equipment;

  • - build a national buffer stock of hydrocarbons;

  • - implement measures to strengthen production capacities by launching the construction of hydroelectric power stations in Taoussa, Kénié, Félou, Gouina, Sotuba 2, Markala and micro power stations, and development of the interconnected network (IR) by interconnecting the electricity networks of Mali and Côte d’Ivoire (Ségou-Sikasso-Ferké), as well as those of Mali and Guinea;

  • - increase budgetary allocations in the SIB for the energy sector so as to accelerate achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) ;

  • - develop rural electrification undertaken by AMADER through its Domestic Energy Development and Access to Basic Social Services Programme (PEDASB) ;

  • - provide structures responsible for management of energy issues with adequate staff;

  • - a study on electricity rates is under way; the study will make relevant proposals on electricity rates.

115. Prospects for the mining sub-sector include:

  • - opening of a gold mine in Syama and the second chain in Kodiéran (Wassoul’Or) in April and June 2009 respectively, and start of production in Tabakoto and Ségala;

  • - implementation of the Mining Sector Development Programme, the mines component of the Growth Support Project and programmes for increasing indices for bauxite, manganese and phosphate granted in permits to companies;

  • - establishment of a financing mechanism for mining sector activities, particularly the establishment of an asset management company responsible for managing Government shares;

  • - continuation of pre-mining research, intensification of oil exploration, and diversification of mining products;

  • - amendment of Section 12 of the Petroleum Law on the duration of the initial research period, which increases from 10 to 12 years;

  • - control and evaluation of small-scale production of gold and precious substances, as well as boosting and rehabilitation of the mining sector and environmental protection; and

  • - construction of a cement factory in Kayes with a production capacity of at least 600 000 tonnes per year, which could increase to 1 000 000 tonnes.

2.5 Industry, Trade, Handicraft, Tourism, Promotion of Private Investment, and Microfinance

2.5.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies

2.5.1.1 Industry

116. The industrial sector in Mali contributed only 14% to GDP in 2008 (estimates). However, there were major achievements in the sector, namely:

  • - the number of industrial enterprises and jobs created (there were 436 industrial enterprises, with 344 in operation, 48 have stopped operating, 42 closed and 2 liquidated in 2007);

  • - formulation of the support project for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises ; the overall goal of the project is to strengthen the manufacturing industrial sector by providing financial support to SMEs from 2009 to 2013 for a total cost of CFAF 2.695 billion;

  • - operationalization of the Investments Promotion Agency of Mali (API) ;

2.5.1.2 Trade

117. Exports increased by 6.2% in 2008, while imports rose by 11.5%. The proportion of trade in the national economy increased to 15.1% in 2008 up from 14.3% in 2007 and 13.1% in 2006 (Table 14).

Table 14:Indicators for Industry and Trade Sectors, Handicraft and Tourism, and Private sector
Key Indicators200620072008
Industry & Trade
Number of enterprises identified406436ND
Number of permanent industrial jobs identified17 59319 320ND
Export growth rate (%)32.23.66.19
Import growth rate (%)10.56.5211.46
Contribution of trade sector to GDP (%)13.1414.3215.06
Handicraft & Tourism
Value of handicraft exports (in CFAF million)506. 9701 168. 352860.315
Number of hotels358439514
Number of hotel rooms6 0116 8427 846
Number of hotel beds7 2598 5189 768
Number of arrivals in hotels200 003221 328234 490
Number of nights in hotels433 215507 810552 734
Average duration of stay (in number of days)2.172.352.35
Amount of tourism receipts (in CFAF thousand)91 000 000110 000 000115 500 000
Entry of international visitors through Bamako Sénou Airport (number)132 373135 902
Amount of new investments (in CFAF thousand)16 715 2738 000 0007 800 000
Contribution by tourism sector in %12.00%6.35%≈ 5%
Direct jobs (number)4 8045 7006 555
Indirect jobs (number)9 60811 40013 110
Total jobs (number)14 41217 10019 655
Private Sector
Starting a business (Doing Business)
Duration (days)422626
Procedures (number)131111
Notes: 1. The indicators “number of enterprises identified” and “number of permanent industrial jobs identified” are based on a census or update. The last census was conducted in 2006 and the last update in 2007, which explains why there are no data for 2008. 2. Data on imports and exports are expressed in current value.Sources: CPS / MEIC–DNSI–CNPA–OMATHO–PAC - DNSI
Notes: 1. The indicators “number of enterprises identified” and “number of permanent industrial jobs identified” are based on a census or update. The last census was conducted in 2006 and the last update in 2007, which explains why there are no data for 2008. 2. Data on imports and exports are expressed in current value.Sources: CPS / MEIC–DNSI–CNPA–OMATHO–PAC - DNSI

118. These results stem mainly from:

  • - capacity building for stakeholders of the fruits and vegetables sub-sector, particularly through the production of 12 677 tonnes of mangoes, the farming of 5 000 ha of orchards with high potential variety of exportable mangoes, Global GAP certification of exporters and codification of 420 orchards under the Mango Marketing Support Project of the Integrated Framework Implementation Unit (UMOCI) ;

  • - continuation of the Retail Traders Support Project: 1 315 traders trained and 301 financed for an amount of CFAF 261 050 000 FCFA in 2008 ;

  • - monitoring of activities to combat fraud and unfair competition through : (i) conduct of operations in 2008 to seize various products, in particular cigarettes, electric batteries and pharmaceutical products, (ii) verification, by the Weights and Measures/Quality Section, of instruments for measuring the quantity and quality of products.

2. 5.1.3 Handicraft

119. As regards handicraft, in 2008, in addition to the preparation of the Handicraft and Tourism Master Plan, 567 crafts men and women participated in fairs, exhibitions and national and international festivals, where they generated a turnover of about CFAF 993 891 232. Furthermore, Malian crafts men and women won several international prizes and distinctions.

120. The efforts and synergies developed by FNAM and APCMM resulted in the establishment of a dual training system in the sector (80% of the learners’ time is spent in the workshops of skilled craftsmen and 20% in the training centres). Apprentice training also includes qualifying training, literacy, Validation of Acquired Experience (VAE), the training of endogenous trainers, equipment of handicraft enterprises and training centres.

121. The National Handicraft Federation of Mali prepared a micro-enterprises support strategy for the sector which it intends to share with all development partners in 2009.

2.5.1.4 Tourism

122. The number of hotels recorded a sharp increase in 2008, from 439 hotels in 2007 to 514 (47 classified from 1 to 5 stars in accordance with ECOWAS standards), representing an 18% increase. The number of hotel rooms rose from 6 842 in 2007 to 7 846 in 2008. The number of beds increased from 8 518 in 2007 to 9 768 in 2008, a 14.7% increase. As regards accommodation structures in general, they increased by 6% in 2008 in comparison to 2007. Tourist arrivals increased by 5.95%, while the number of nights in hotels increased by 8.8%. International visitor arrivals through Bamako Sénou Airport increased by 2.7% in comparison to 2007. The number of approved travel agencies increased from 108 in 2007 to 154 in 2008, representing an annual increase rate of 42.6%.

123. While in 2007 the tourism sector recorded new investments of about CFAF 8 billion, in 2008 new investments amounted to CFAF 7.8 billion. Tourism receipts increased by 5% between 2007 and 2008. Direct employment in the tourism sector increased by 14.7% between 2007 and 2008. The tourism development strategy was prepared in 2008.

2. 5.1.5 Private Sector

124. Mali is ranked 166th out of 181 economies as regards ease of doing business (2009 Doing Business Report). Mali’s rating reflects inadequacies in the three sectors of activity in the business environment, namely the public sector, the users and the professionals. Despite the efforts made by the Government to implement the CPI recommendations, Mali lost 5 places in the Doing Business ranking in 2008. A proposed short and medium-term action plan to improve the business practice with ten objectives was sent to the Doing Business Project team of the World Bank, which provided technical assistance to support its implementation.

125. The analysis in Table 15 shows that Mali progressed in the ranking as regards doing business, starting a business 4, employing workers, registering property and enforcing contracts. Reforms undertaken have reduced the number of procedures required for officially starting a business from 13 to 11 with an ultimate target of 6 procedures. The time taken to start a business has reduced from 42 to 26 days with an ultimate target of 8 days, while the average cost of the procedure has reduced from 557 dollars to 121.5 dollars with an ultimate target of 100 dollars. On the other hand, the situation is not as bright as regards getting credit, paying taxes, cross-border trade and closing a business.

Table 15:Mali’s ranking based on comparative Doing Business indicators for 178 countries
Ease of doing businessDoing Business 2008

Rank
Doing Business 2007

Rank
Variation in Ranking
Doing Business158162+4
Starting a business149168+19
Dealing with licences1011010
Employing workers8890+2
Registering property9094+4
Getting credit135132-3
Protecting investors1471470
Paying taxes151150-1
Cross-border trade162157-5
Enforcing contracts157159+2
Closing a business107101-6

2.5.1.6 Microfinance

126. The adoption of the National Microfinance Development Strategy and its 2008-2012 Action Plan seeks to improve access to diversified financial services for the majority of the poor or low-income population and SMEs in an equitable manner throughout the country.

127. The signing of the Common Financing Arrangement (CFA), under the Common Financing Mechanism (CFM), will help to finance the action plan through a harmonized framework. Some TFPs intervene through the CFM or directly in the Decentralized Financial Systems.

128. The microfinance sector continued to make progress despite a national and international environment marked by crises. This positive trend concerned the key activity indicators, particularly membership, the penetration rate, the outstanding deposits and credits. The number of service points increased, and the country’s coverage rate with microfinance structures improved. The directory of Decentralized Financial Services had 473 authorized structures as at 31 December 2008, as against 464 in 2007; with 402 mutual associations, 39 credit unions, 21 CVECAs, 11 “Other systems”.

Table 16:Penetration Rate of DFS Services(2007–2008)
Indicators









Years v
Number of Members/CustomersTotal PopulationNumber of FamiliesPenetration Rate
With respect

to total

population
With respect

to number of

families
2007934 93212 121 7382 020 2197.71%46.27%
2008975 26812 388 4162 064 7367,87%47.23%
Variation 2007/2008Number40 336266 67844 517//
%4.31%2.20%2.20%0.16%0.96%
Source: CCS/SFD: Quarterly Statistics in 2008 on trend of the Microfinance Sector in Mali. DNSI: Population data.
Source: CCS/SFD: Quarterly Statistics in 2008 on trend of the Microfinance Sector in Mali. DNSI: Population data.

129. Mobilized domestic (savings) and external (borrowings) resources recorded a sharp increase:

  • - deposits amounted to CFAF 48 780 million in 2008, as against CFAF 43 089 million in 2007, which represents an increase rate of 13%, as against 12.38% in 2007.

  • - bank borrowings amounted to CFAF 23 298 million, as against CFAF 29 231 million in 2007, which represents a decline of 20.29%, as against an increase of 31.11% in 2007.

130. These trends helped to improve accessibility to local financial services for larger groups of the population.

131. The outstanding credit amounted to CFAF 71 984 million, as against CFAF 65 920 million in 2007, which represents an increase rate of 9%, as against 3.58% in 2007. The dominant position of mutual benefit structures in the sector grew stronger, in terms of authorized structures (85% of all authorized structures), membership and volume of financial transactions, despite the progress made by other systems. The prudential ratios defined by ECOWAS were satisfied by most of the structures.

132. Microfinance is perceived as one of the activities that contribute to poverty reduction and help to ensure MDG achievement. According to the Sustainable Human Development Report 5, the impacts of microfinance on the environment of the members are: (i) the creation of more than 130 000 permanent jobs and nearly 920 000 non-permanent jobs; (ii) mobilization of 7.8% of the total resources of the national financial system and capillary granting of loans corresponding to 9.5% of application of funds in the national financial system in 2006; (iii) an increase in the national value added as a result of economic activities carried out by the members.

133. The impacts on members and their households are: (i) improved performance of members in economic activities, especially among the rural population, women as well as less educated and illiterate people, and (ii) improvement of the living conditions of members’ households as regards access to property, housing comforts and equipment, individual equipment for members of the household, access to education for children of the member’s household (improvement of school attendance rate by 10 percentage points).

134. These impacts affected the poverty status of members. Living conditions poverty reduced and monetary poverty of members declined significantly as a result of the amount of loans obtained. According to the same report, based on an ad hoc evaluation, the incidence of living conditions poverty of members reduced by 10 to 30 percentage points depending on the social status. Monetary poverty also reduced significantly by about 13 to 27 points depending on the evaluation model. When the amount of loans increases, the decline in incidence of poverty analyzed in terms of the member’s social status can be up to 30 points.

2.5.2 Problems and Constraints

135. The development of industry, trade and the private sector, despite the efforts made, still faces some domestic and external constraints, which could be summarized as follows:

  • - difficulties in commodity supply in terms of quality and quantity, and the high costs, as well as the low quality and non-reliability of factors of production (electricity, water, transport, telecommunication, etc.);

  • - lack of viable industrial lands and inadequate financing and market equipment, and limited access for SMEs to financial and non-financial services;

  • - poor knowledge of the markets of developed countries and opportunities offered by agreements (sub-regional, multilateral and bilateral) ;

  • - low qualification of labourforce, and inadequate training and information of traders and supervisors

  • - inadequate diversification of exports ;

  • - increasing fraud, unfair competition and smuggling;

  • - framework conditions not conducive private sector development (taxation, administrative and regulatory constraints, etc.);

  • - inadequate organization of trade, and significance and preponderance of the informal sector.

136. The major constraints on the handicraft sector are: (i) difficulties of access to investment credit and problems of commercial outlets and access to markets; (ii) inadequate vocational training, apprenticeship and financing difficulties; (iii) delays in adoption of the handicraft master plan to serve as reference framework for development of the sector; (iv) TFP lack of knowledge of the sector and its job-creation potential for the integration of youths, and the limited number of TFPs supporting initiatives of self-organized craftsmen organizations throughout the country.

137. The major problems in the tourism sector mainly concern: (i) reinforcement of tourism facilities; (ii) development of tourism sites; (iii) improved organization and rehabilitation of the sector; (iv) establishment of a dynamic partnership between the public sector and the private sector; (v) involvement of local authorities and population in the management of tourism products; (vi) diversification of tourism products, and (vii) difficulties in implementing texts that grant special benefits for investments in tourism.

138. As regards microfinance, the constraints are:

  • - non-decentralization of national promotion and control services to cover the entire national territory;

  • - poor functioning of the National Microfinance Advisory Group, which is the main consultation framework for the stakeholders;

  • - lack of a deposits guarantee mechanism and non-compliance with statutory texts by some isolated entities;

  • - lack of financial resources and restricting legal provisions for situations of trusteeship and closure of DFS;

  • - existence of : (i) maximum rates for the financing of some crops, and (ii) deferred contributions with constraints of rates that are not compatible with DFS search for profitability;

  • - inadequate supply of medium and long-term refinancing from national banks, despite openings and non-availability of financing for 2008 ;

  • - products not adapted to the needs of the target public; and

  • - low capacity of stakeholders.

2.5.3. Solutions and prospects

139. The solutions and prospects in the Industry, Trade and Promotion of Private Investment sectors include:

  • - provision of viable industrial lands and development of new industrial zones;

  • - operationalization of the single window, and initiation and support for growth-oriented projects;

  • - pursuance of the industrial enterprises restructuring and upgrading programme and the WAEMU quality programme phase 2 ;

  • - development of information and communication technologies, and updating of the import and export intentions management software;

  • - preparation and implementation of the industrial development policy, preparation of the Private Sector Orientation Law, and preparation of a trade development policy;

  • - construction of the Integrated Cement Factory of Mali (WACEM) and the Fruits and Vegetable Processing Plant in Yanfolila ;

  • - organization of 50 investigation missions against fraud and unfair competition;

  • - appraisal and preparation of the Retail Traders Support Project (Phase 2) ;

  • - preparation of texts to adapt the Integrated Framework Programme;

  • - implementation of the APEX (feasibility study, action plan and related texts were validated during a workshop on 23 and 24 March 2009 at the CICB) ;

140. In the handicraft sub-sector, the solutions and prospects are:

  • - expedite the adoption of the handicraft master plan, which will serve as reference framework for development of the sector;

  • - introduce a coherent development strategy for micro-enterprises in line with the potential of each region by formulating a bold and ambitious policy that would make the handicraft and micro-enterprise sector the Malian Government’s priority economic development area of focus ;

  • - foster and support local handicraft unions to ensure development of grassroots handicraft enterprises; share and support implementation of the FNAM strategy for support to micro-enterprises of the sector, and define the development strategy for the sector for the short, medium and long term;

  • - organize a meeting between handicraft organizations, ministries and TFPs on the potential of the sector to create employment, and explore avenues for solving the major economic development problems of Mali.

141. As regards tourism, the solutions and prospects are:

  • - increasing resources for tourism promotion, creation and support for Tourism Initiative Trade Unions in several councils in the country, development of tourist sites, diversification of tourism products, and improved organization and rehabilitation of the sector, publication of the tourism statistical yearbook;

  • - establishment of a statistical information system and further training of government tourism workers and private operators (hotel operators, travel agencies, etc.). ;

  • - implementation of the tourism development strategy;

142. In the microfinance sector, the actions to be undertaken concern:

  • - capacity building for control and promotion authorities to allow for optimal supervision of the sub-sector;

  • - rehabilitation, restructuring and security for the sub-sector;

  • - support for DFS in the quest for optimal organization, particularly by preparing business plans, supporting their implementation and adopting efficient Information and Management Systems (IMS);

  • - support for APIM-Mali activities so as to enable it to fully play its role and become autonomous;

  • - reinforcement of links with the banking sector, and development of suitable and innovative products for target and specific zones and for diversification of financial services offered by DFS;

  • - preparation of diagnostic studies and implementation of a monitoring-evaluation system with targeted indicators to measure the sector’s contribution to poverty reduction, elimination of inequalities between the various regions, between the urban and rural population, and between men and women.

2.6. Culture

2.6.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies

143. Several activities were undertaken in 2008 in the cultural heritage, cultural activities, books and reading, cinematography, copyright and training sub-sectors.

144. As at 31 July 2008, the PSIC had financed 59 projects from the private sector for an amount of CFAF 743 844 012. About twenty cultural operators and structures of the Regions and Bamako District received training in project preparation and accounting management; the second session was organized to build the capacities of eighteen (18) cultural broadcasters of selected FM radios throughout the country by the PSIC.

145. The sector does not have sector indicators. A workshop will be organized in 2009 for all stakeholders in the sector to define relevant indicators that would be used in assessing the progress made in culture in Mali.

2.6.2. Problems and Constraints

146. The culture sector faces several problems and constraints including:

  • - inadequate financial and human resources, and serious difficulties in access to bank credits and other forms of financing;

  • - lack of : (i) accurate statistics and information in terms of quantity or quality on cultural activities, (ii) an overall development strategy for culture-related sectors, and (iii) a general cultural policy paper;

  • - unfavavourable regulatory environment for the development of economic activities;

  • - piracy, low level of domestic demand and limited export capacities.

2.6.3. Solutions and Prospects

147. The proposed solutions and prospects include:

  • - significantly increase the budget allocated to culture, because it is relatively low for its direct economic contribution and not commensurate with the importance of culture in the country’s social and human development;

  • - prepare a cultural policy paper and the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) of the Ministry of Culture, and establish a consultation framework for activities of development partners operating in the culture sector; and

  • - provide the Planning and Statistics Unit (CPS) with adequate human, financial and material resources.

148. Lastly, the general cultural heritage inventory for a total cost of CFAF 2 billion will contribute to ownership of cultural identity so as to foster economic, social and cultural development.

2. 7 Youth

2.7.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies

149. The National Directorate of Youth implements the National Youth Promotion Programme adopted by the Government on 11 January 2006. The overall amount of its financing over three years is estimated at CFAF 1 443 545 000, broken down between the Government (55%), the Development Partners (40%) and Local Authorities and beneficiaries (5%). The Malian Youth Support Programme (PAJM) was developed in 2008 with the support of the French Cooperation for an amount of 2 million Euros. The social reintegration of 75 former sportsmen in 2008 is in itself an innovative poverty reduction project.

150. The sector does not have sector indicators. A workshop will be organized in 2009 with all stakeholders in the sector to define relevant indicators for assessing the progress made in youth and sports activities in Mali.

2.7.2. Problems and Constraints

The Ministry of Youth and Sports, in its efforts to achieve the objectives assigned to it, faces some constraints, in particular:

  • - lack of a sport policy paper and synergy of technical and financial efforts by all stakeholders in the youth sector to promote youth;

  • - inadequate high-level officers and human resources to promote mass, school and university sports, local sport infrastructures, resources to promote and strengthen sports movement, research equipment and structures, equipment to promote pedagogic innovations in training structures based on New Communication and Information Technologies (NICT);

  • - deficit in financing of the National Youth Promotion Programme (PNPJ) and inadequate scholarships for the training of trainers.

2.7.3 Solutions and Prospects

151. The impact of the above-mentioned constraints could be mitigated by taking some opportunities offered to the Ministry of Youth and Sports, mainly: (i) making the infrastructures of the Ministry profitable; (ii) securing lands allotted to the Ministry ; (iii) implementation of international commitments (African Youth Charter, anti-doping convention in sports, etc.) ; (iv) consistency of activities between the National Directorates and decentralized services; and (v) preparation of the law on sports and the law on national voluntary service.

III. INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT, GOVERNANCE AND PARTICIPATION

3.1. Improvement of public sector performance

3.1.1. Results of implementation of policies and strategies

152. The status of activities carried out in 2008 in reorganization of central Government, is as follows:

  • - finalization of organizational audit (preparation of legal and regulatory texts) of central and decentralized services of fourteen (14) ministries initiated in 2006 ;

  • - endorsement of all draft texts presented to the CDI and their introduction into the Government’s approval system; and

  • - audit of five (5) ministries launched in 2007.

159. The first phase of 2006-2009 PO/PDI covered only the central and decentralized services of ministries. The next PO/PDI will cover the other public services.

160. As regards improvement of public affairs management methods and procedures, the following activities were carried out:

  • - assessment of central and decentralized government services/preparation and adoption of two procedures manuals for six (6) ministries;

  • - linking of institutions responsible for Control; and

  • - computerization of the administration by AGETIC.

161. In order to improve the intervention framework of decentralized services, the PO/PDI in 2008 carried out specific measures including: (1) preparation of a decentralization guide, and (2) provision of decentralized services with appropriate resources, in particular the construction of houses and offices for Government representatives in ten (10) localities: Massantola, Sokolo, Aourou, Kibila, Gao, Dioila, Kidal, Korérakoré, Boni, Koro, Soufroulaye and Nioro.

162. The Government will not achieve high degree of performance without capacity building for government employees at the central, deconcentrated and decentralized levels. The 2008 annual PO/PDI programme organized activities concerning:

  • - preparation of a training plan for the ministries;

  • - implementation of validated training plans for five ministries;

  • - special capacity building programme for senior government officials.

163. In order to meet the numerous communication challenges, the PO/PDI in 2008 carried out the following activities:

  • - the design, preparation and dissemination of: (i) sketches, informercials, radio and television programmes, radio debates involving stakeholders of State reforms, Decentralization and Civil Society, (ii) the PDI half-yearly review, and (iii) brochures for disseminating the law governing relations between the administration and users of public services and its implementing decree;

  • - the organization of regional sensitization workshops for regional technical services on the theme of Strategy for Access to Information within the Administration (SAISA) in Kidal, Gao, and Tombouctou regions and Bamako District;

  • - monitoring of the application of four software programmes (mail management software, archives management software, land management software, and image processing software) for structures piloted by CEFIB ;

  • - running and hosting of the CDI website.

3.1.2. Problems and Constraints

164. In 2008, the difficulties were mainly delays in procurement (delays which led to slippage on activities scheduled for 2008 to 2009), irregular monitoring committee meetings (since 2006) and “failures” sometimes due to errors made in the preparation of files by consulting firms.

3.1.3. Solutions and Prospects

165. The solutions proposed include: (i) build the capacities of employees of the Administrative and Financial Department of MTFPRE ; (ii) intensify monitoring of bidding documents; (iii) combine the appropriations of the various budget support operations and allocate them directly to the CF and UF of AGETIC, a structure with administrative and financial autonomy; (iv) extend the period for approving procurements and open credits early so as to allow for commitment of procurements; (v) operationalize and deepen reforms initiated in the 2006-2009 PO; (vi) review the decree setting up the reform monitoring committee to extend it to the PAGAM, PRODEJ and Decentralization ; and (vii) adopt a supervision reinforcement plan.

3.2 Strengthening of national planning and development management capacities

3.2.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies

166. The diagnosis of human resources in Regional Directorates of Planning, Statistics and information Technology, Regional Development and Population (DRPSIAP) underscored the crucial need for capacity building. Training sessions were organized for officers newly recruited by the Public Service. Thirty-two (32) employees, including ten (10) officers, in 2008 received short-term training.

167. In order to improve the regional planning and development capacities, the National Directorate of Regional Development (DNAT), IDNPD and National Directorate of Local Authorities (DNCT) with the technical support of ADERE-NORD, supported the preparation and validation of Regional Development Strategic Plans (PSDR) for all the regions and Bamako District under the Support Programme for Decentralization and Regional Development. The DNAT validated the study on the legal and regulatory framework of Regional Development and Town Planning Master Plan (SDU) and Sector Town Planning Plan (PUS).

168. As regards strengthening of the public investment monitoring system, reflection was pursued for the deconcentration of sectors, and the “Management of Investment Projects of Mali” software known as GEPRIMA was installed in DNPD in 2005.

3.2.2 Prospects

169. The activities scheduled for 2009 by DNPD to build capacities in economic planning and management are as follows:

  • - preparation and implementation of the training programme for members of the Secretariat of the Macroeconomic Modelling and Forecasts Committee (CPM) and officers of DNPD and DRPSIAPs to ensure better ownership of the tools and pursue reflection for its deconcentration to GEPRIMA sectors;

  • - security for ongoing applications at DNPD, supply and decentralized operation of databases of GEPRIMA, MME of DNPD and other systems and GEPRIMA connection, DGB database, DCI (CREN) MME-DNPD ;

  • - capacity building for human resources in Prospective and Strategic Planning and maintaining a computer pool with stable connections;

  • - updating of the National Prospective study (ENP) Mali 2025.

3.3 Land Use Planning

3.3.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies

170. Out of twelve (12) activities scheduled, comprising eight (8) in training and four (4) in communication, only two (2) were carried out in training and two (2) in communication, which corresponds to an achievement rate of 33.33%. The activities carried out are: the training of fifteen (15) employees and the preparation of three (3) Town Planning Master Plans and two (2) Sector Town Planning Master Plans.

3.3.2 Problems and Constraints

171. The main problems and constraints are inadequate qualified staff and funds for financing land use planning.

3.3.3 Solutions and Prospects

172. A number of activities were scheduled, in particular:

  • Capacity Building: Training and retraining in: (i) regional and rural development; (ii) decentralization and local development; (iii) Monitoring/evaluation, maintenance, programming and administrative writing techniques; (iv) Geographic Information System, database management and digital archiving; (v) information collection, processing and dissemination techniques, and (vi) HIV/AIDS

  • Communication: Prepare and implement communication plans, organize programmes on DNAT in national languages in rural and local radios, lecture forums, workshop seminars and prepare television sketches on land use planning.

3.4. Improvement of public finance and debt management

3.4.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies

173. The implementation of 165 of the 225 activities scheduled by the technical services of the PAGAM/GFP produced tangible results in public finance management.

174. Pillar 1 : improve the quality of budget preparation and execution

  • - Improvement of the quality of production and presentation of budget documents: amended 2008 finance bill and 2009 finance bill were prepared by the Ministry of Finance within the prescribed time frames and adopted by the Government and National Assembly, the draft 2007 audited budget was also prepared and submitted to Parliament for consideration.

  • - Interconnection of the expenditure chain at the central and decentralized levels: the interconnection rate of services (budget of interconnected departments in comparison to the total State Budget) stood at 48.1% in 2008 as against 23.6% in 2007. These results helped to reduce the re-entry of data between interconnected services, make information more reliable and shared, reduce the time for processing files and improve the quality of production and presentation of budget documents.

  • - Deconcentration of budgetary resources: The deconcentration rate of budgetary appropriations (share of State Budget allocated to regional services) stood at 14% in the 2009 Finance Law, as against 13.9% in 2008 and 2007, and 1.8% in 2006. The overall execution rate of the State Budget in expenditures stood at 79.97% as at 31 December 2008.

175. Pillar 2 : develop the efficiency of tax and financial services

  • - Broadening of the tax base: registration of new taxpayers working in the informal sector stood at 15 233 in 2008.

  • - Intensification of the fight against tax evasion and customs fraud: 100.2% revenue collected by the DGI, 92.4% by the DGD, and 88.3% by DNDC, which represents a total revenue collection rate of 86.73%.

  • - Closer management of public funds: creation of 15 revenue offices for 99 attached councils in Kayes, Koulikoro, Sikasso, Ségou, Mopti and Tombouctou regions by Order No. 08-3235/MF-SG of 18 November 2008 of the Ministry of Finance;

  • - Improvement of access by taxpayers and users to information: regular publication of tax and customs reviews.

176. Pillar 3: Include external financing in national budgetary procedures: Gradual acceptance of the budget support system by the TFPs: 10 donors signed framework or specific agreements with the Government with the arrival of Germany and Spain in 2008.

177. Pillar 4: increase the efficiency and transparency of public procurement procedures: Strengthening of the institutional and regulatory framework of the public procurement system: adoption of the new General Public Procurement Code by the Government, creation of Regional Procurement Directorates with the appointment of Regional Directors in December 2008, and creation of the Public Procurement Regulatory Authority and Public Service Delegations. The percentage of contracts awarded through open competitive bidding stood at 74.4% against an annual forecast of 70%.

178. Pillar 5 : strengthen governance and transparency

  • - Gradual deconcentration of Financial Control by establishing Local Delegations in the districts.

  • - Strengthening the capacities of the Finance Committee of the National Assembly by setting up a State Budget Analysis, Control and Evaluation Unit in August 2008. An Expert was recruited in 2008.

  • - Improvement of control and monitoring of recommendations made after control missions: The General Public Service Control undertook twelve (12) monitoring-evaluation missions for the implementation of recommendations of previous audits as against seven (7) in 2007; the Inspectorate of Finance undertook 36 monitoring-evaluation missions in 2008 as against 6 in 2007.

  • - As concerns the Accounts Section of the Supreme Court, the draft text amending Law No. 96-071 of 16 December 1996 organizing the Supreme Court was submitted for inter-Ministerial technical consultation on 29 December 2008 for transmission to the General Secretariat of the Government and to the Cabinet Meeting during the first quarter of 2009.

  • - Submission of an interim report in December 2008 on the second phase of the organizational audit of the Ministry of Finance.

  • - Upgrading of the skills of employees in public finance management by preparing and implementing an annual training plan for employees of financial and customs services and control structures.

179. Indicator: The average time frame for public procurements was 109.7 days in 2008 as against an annual forecast of 110 days.

180. Debt management: In 2008, Mali did not contract any non concessional debt. The country’s debt was properly serviced for all the creditors. The recovery of loans onlent by the Government to public enterprises (EDM-SA, SOTELMA, BNDA, CMDT, SOGEM, SUKALA) amounted to CFAF 1.916 billion. The outstanding debt/GDP ratio was below the community standard of 70%.

181. The external and domestic public debt stock of Mali at the end of 2008 was estimated at CFAF 988.4 billion, comprising CFAF 946.1 billion as external debt and CFAF 42.3 billion as domestic debt, representing 95. 7% and 4.3% of the total stock respectively. The total debt stock represents 27.1% of GDP and servicing it took 5.1% of budgetary revenue in 2008. Over the same period, the DGDP monitored the preparation of several projects and participated in several loan negotiations with the sector Ministries. In 2008, Mali signed 13 loan agreements with various creditors. The debt service paid to creditors following relief was about CFAF 32.585 billion.

3.4.2. Problems and Constraints

• Implementation of the PAGAM/GFP

182. Lack of an Information Technology Master Plan in the Ministry made it difficult to integrate and coordinate the existing information technology systems in the DNTCP, DGI and DGD.

183. Lack of an effective consultation mechanism between the internal control structures (CGSP, Inspectorates of Ministries) and those of external control (BVG, SC/CS).

184. Consultation is currently limited to efforts towards coordination of ex-post administrative control missions undertaken by the CGSP in the field with Inspectorates of Ministries. The coordination is not enough to ensure effective budgetary control.

185. The current cash flow plan is not used as an effective budget management and regulatory tool, hence the need, in compliance with the recommendations of the Technical Committee, to establish a committee for regulating expenditures in line with resources actually expected.

186. Effectiveness of service delivery is rarely verified. In this regard, a draft decree to regulate stores accounting has been prepared and transmitted to the Office of the Minister of Finance for presentation to the Cabinet Meeting, and consideration and adoption by the Government.

• At the Institutional Level

187. The Accounts Section of the Supreme Court can be upgraded into a Court of Auditors only after a revision of the Constitution of Mali. In light of this constraint, the Government, through the PAGAM/GFP, advocated review of the law organizing the Supreme Court so as to strengthen the operational capacities of the Accounts Section and prepare rules and regulations governing legal officers of the Accounts Section.

• Human Resources

188. The problem of staffing is crucial in most operational structures of the PAGAM/GFP because since the end of the 80s, recruitments have been frozen so as to bring down the payroll/tax revenue ratio to a rate equivalent to or below 35% (WAEMU standard). The services lack experts with profiles sought in the various areas of public finance (treasury, taxation, customs, and public procurements).

• Deconcentration of human resources

189. The deconcentration rate of budgetary appropriations (proportion of State Budget allocated to regional services) stood at 14% in the 2009 Finance Law, as against 13.9% in 2008 and 2007, 1.8% in 2006 and 20% as target value at the end of 2009. Financial deconcentration mainly concerns five (5) Ministries identified under the PARAD. It will certainly be reinforced in light of the government policy of transfer of powers and resources, with the deconcentration of DGMP as a support measure.

• Consultation with stakeholders

190. The difficulties encountered concern CARFIP relations with structures involved in PAGAM/GFP implementation, particularly compliance with time frames for transmitting periodic documents and accuracy of supporting documents, as well as inadequate involvement of some focal points, viewed in terms of their responsibilities.

3.4.3 Solutions and Prospects

191. The major prospects of the PAGAM/GFP action plans could be summarized as follows:

  • - adoption by the Government of draft texts on the accounts section of the Supreme Court;

  • - completion of interconnection of expenditure chain services;

  • - finalization of the audit of the Ministry of Finance (2nd phase) ;

  • - review of the recommendations of diagnostic studies on control structures;

  • - integration of project budget execution into the general balance of the Treasury;

  • - establishment of a computerized system for monitoring payment arrears of State expenditures;

  • - operationalization of structures created following public procurement reform;

  • - establishment of a cash management mechanism adapted to current cash constraints;

  • - external evaluation of the PAGAM/GFP ; and

  • - preparation of PAGAM/GFP II.

3.5. Consolidation of the democratic, participatory and decentralization process

3.5.1. Results of implementation of policies and strategies

192. As regards strengthening the role of the region, the following achievements were recorded:

  • –preparation and validation of eight (8) Regional Development Strategic Plans (PSDR) and Regional Land Use Planning (SRAT) Plans ;

  • –reflection on the feasibility of establishment of a Regional Economic Development Fund (FDER) and on the types of projects to be financed (public and/or private) with the FDER;

  • –establishment of a Regional Economic Development Fund for Koulikoro region (on an experimental basis) with the support of the Belgian Technical Cooperation Agency, and the preparation and validation of its procedures manual are underway.

193. Concerning the trend of technical support functions, the following achievements were recorded:

  • –preparation of the procedures manual for implementing the Technical Support Provision (DAT) created in 2007. However, the DAT could not be implemented in 2008.

  • –operationalization of local Planning and Statistics Services ;

  • –establishment of technical support pools, inter-community trade unions (deliberating bodies of common services), creation of LA services and recourse to private service providers ;

  • –creation and operationalization of the Local Authorities Training Centre (CFCT), recruitment of 721 workers of Local Authorities (LA) through direct competitive examination, support for the preparation of Economic, Social and Cultural Development Plans (PDESC) of Local Authorities, and organization of more regional and local workshops on Inter-Ministerial Instruction No. 143MEF-MATCL of 13 July 2004 relating to budgetary and accounting management of Local Authorities.

194. Concerning the Sustainable Financing Mechanism, the following achievements were recorded:

  • –The 2008 budget of the Ministry of Territorial Administration and Local Authorities (MATCL) amounted to CFAF 8 503 914 4536, of which CFAF 8 368 506 073 were effectively mobilized, which represents an execution rate of 98%.

  • –Establishment of the National Support Fund for Local Authorities (FNACT) which comprises five windows: the Investment Fund for Local Authorities (DIN), the Technical Support Fund (DAT), the Support Fund for the Functioning of Local Authorities (DAF), the Solidarity Fund for Local Authorities (DS) and the Loans Guarantee Fund for Local Authorities (DGE) ;

  • –Currently, only the DIN and DAT are operational. However, due to late adoption of the DAT procedures manual and the lack of three-year development plans for LAs, no technical support was granted under this fund in 2008.

  • –nearly all the LAs prepared rolls for 2009. Consequently, taxes are better controlled in LAs, leading to better assessment of their tax potential ;

  • –preparation of a practical guide for collection of taxes and dues in LAs, so as to improve mobilization of their tax resources ;

  • –the financing of LAs through: (i) total State and TFP subsidy amounting to about CFAF 32 376 120 941; (ii) investment fund for LAs (DIN) which amounts to CFAF 30 106 074 605, of which CFAF 21 464 923 586 were mobilized as at 3 April 2009 ; and (iii) Technical Support Fund (DAT) amounting to CFAF 2 270 066 336 which were not mobilized in 2008 ;

  • –As at 25 March 2009, 912 projects of Local Authorities had been financed by ANICT.

195. Concerning the promotion of local governance and sustainable development, the level of achievement of some indicators is satisfactory, namely:

  • - ordinary sessions held by the Councils: 78% out of a target of 80% ;

  • - reports of sessions prepared and sent to the supervisory authority: 100% out of a target of 100% ;

  • - percentage of administrative accounts prepared: 86.9% out of a target of 85%.

3.5.2 Problems and Constraints

196. Despite the significant results obtained in the implementation of decentralization, there are still some problems and constraints, in particular :

  • - Despite the efforts made to support the LAs, the mobilization of their local tax revenue remains low. Furthermore, State subsidies and contributions to LAs remain inadequate in comparison to their financing requirements. However, without a minimum of financial resources, the authorities cannot undertake their development. The difficulty of covering expenditures for new workers and difficulties encountered in complying with the principle of concurrent transfer of powers and resources required for their exercise are mainly due to the limited financial resources of LAs. The inadequate resources of local authorities make it almost impossible to exercise powers transferred to them, since they lack the required resources. Despite the fact that there are officers for monitoring transfer of powers in the Inter-Ministerial Committee and the Technical Powers Transfer Committee, the difficulties persist.

  • - The exercise of administrative and financial authority over the LAs is still limited. This is because of inadequate competent human resources and tools, as well as lack of control over the exercise. Support and advisory services to local authorities, since the end of the Council Meeting Centres, remains a major cause for concern.

  • - The lack of an appropriate mechanism to enable the local authorities, districts and regions to play their lead role in economic, social and cultural development.

  • - The non-operationality of 3 of the windows of the National Support Fund for Local Authorities, namely the Support Fund for the Functioning of Local Authorities (DAF), the Solidarity Fund for Local Authorities (DS) and the Loan Guarantee Fund for Local Authorities (DGE).

3.5.3 Solutions and Prospects

197. A number of activities will be carried out to address the above-mentioned constraints:

  • - The upgrading of the National Directorate for Local Authorities into a General Directorate to enable it to fully play its role as lead stakeholder in deepening decentralization. This change of status will help to also address the problem of DNCT representation at the regional and district level. The inexhaustive cost estimate of this change in status is CFAF 130 200 000/year.

  • - The appraisal of NACT II and formulation of PNACT III ;

  • - Preparation of the new Support Programme for Administrative Reform, Decentralization and Regional Development (PARADDER), European Commission in Mali under the 10th EDF.

  • - The adoption of new texts to improve the legal, institutional and financial framework of decentralization (Bill on the review of Law No. 00-044 of 7 July 2000 to determine the tax revenue of councils, districts and regions in Mali), so as to improve local taxation. Efforts are being made to continue establishing revenue offices and reinforcing them. Pursuance of implementation of SAFIC in councils and its extension to regions under the PADDER.

  • - funding and operationalization of the 3 other windows not yet operational in the FNACT, so that the latter can play its role for the Local Authorities ;

  • - pursuance of implementation of ADERE- NORD and PADDER to boost the role of regional assemblies in the development process and poverty reduction ;

  • - reflection to be conducted on percentage of the State Budget to be transferred to local authorities ;

  • - implementation of Instruction No. 08-003/P-RM of 21 November 2008 on the concurrent transfer of powers and resources to local authorities, accompanied by a three-year plan for transfer of the said powers and resources ;

  • - operationalization of post-CCC support and advisory services for LAs with respect to the various possibilities: recourse to LA services, recourse to deconcentrated government services, recourse to private service providers, and recourse to inter-local authority services;

  • - pursuance of implementation of Instruction No. 00-313/MATCL-SG of 23 January 2008 on covering OISE base expenditures, so that this formidable tool does not fall out of use. Joint DNCT, ANICT and National Directorate of the Interior (DNI) workshops on the new mechanism and DAT procedures manual have already been held in Tombouctou and Mopti regions ;

  • - strengthening of monitoring organs for orientation, coordination and development activities, and their sessions through mobilization of 10% of DAT provided for that purpose ;

  • - determination by the State of its vision and anchoring of regional economic development ;

  • - effective building of endogenous capacities of Regional Assemblies.

198. One of the major problems encountered in consolidating decentralization is the limited financial resources of local authorities. However, implementation of the different proposed activities will contribute to meeting the challenges to decentralization in Mali.

3.6. Fight against corruption and strengthening the capacity and credibility of justice

3.6.1. Results of implementation of policies and strategies

3.6.1.1. Fight against corruption

199. Since 2007 (2.8 118th/180) and 2008 (3.1 96th/180), the Transparency International Corruption Perception Index (CPI) for Mali has improved. This is because in the implementation of anti-corruption instruments, more than CFAF 30 billion were collected. With intensive computerization and modernization, official reports indicate that tax and customs revenue has also increased. While the 2009 CPI confirms Mali’s improvement in the ranking, the impacts of the instruments have been positive.

200. Furthermore, the General Conference on Corruption and Financial Delinquency was held in Bamako from 25 to 28 November 2008. The conference closely examined problems relating to the phenomenon. Relevant recommendations were made for effective and sustainable fight against corruption in all areas of national life.

3.6.1.2. Strengthening the capacities and credibility of justice

201. The number of judges for the population has not changed significantly because it stands at one judge for 25 000 inhabitants, which is below the international standard of one judge for 7 000 inhabitants.

202. In 2008, five (5) court infrastructures were constructed, namely Courts of First Instance of Commune I and Koulikoro, prisons in Bougouni and Niono, and Broad Jurisdiction Justice of the Peace in Dioila. In addition, mention should be made of technical, strategic, material and financial support activities for the central services, the improvement of court services to the population and civil society (disbursement of CFAF 52 million for civil society projects).

203. In addition to these achievements, mention could be made of : (i) the adoption of the values charter of justice and signing of the pact for the renewal of justice ; (ii) preparation and launching on 21 January 2008 of the Gender Policy of the Gender Advisory Committee of the Ministry of Justice; (iii) operationalization of the Joint United Nations Programme for the promotion of Human Rights and Gender; (iv) submission of the preliminary draft of the Family Code to the competent authorities on 22 May 2008; (v) review of the Commercial and Social Civil Procedure Code to improve business climate and practice, and (vi) review of the judicial map, which aims at modernizing the judicial system and bringing justice closer to the population.

3.6.2 Problems and Constraints

  • - The difficulties and problems encountered mainly concern inadequate budgetary allocation to justice, shortcomings in the training of judiciary staff, inadequate implementation of the new anti-corruption instruments, and limited accessibility to justice.

3.6.3 Solutions and Prospects

204. The proposed measures and solutions could be summarized as follows:

  • - design and implementation of a resource mobilization programme by the Ministry of Justice and CC-PRODEJ;

  • - deployment of the Computerized Judicial Files Management System throughout the country ;

  • - publication of a Malian jurisprudence collection (1997-2007);

  • - restoration and modernization of the police record;

  • - installation of reception, information and orientation offices;

  • - operationalization of legal assistance to increase accessibility of poor people to justice;

  • - pursuance of training of staff in information technology;

  • - creation of Legal Services Access Centres;

  • - preparation of a judicial governance operational plan;

  • - preparation and implementation of action plans with a schedule and concrete measures to fight against corruption ;

  • - measures taken by the National Assembly to ensure adoption of the Family Code;

  • - equipment of existing courts; and

  • - institutionalization of required synergy between control structures and judicial structures to fight against corruption.

3.7. External Aid Coordination and Effectiveness

3.7.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies

205. The activities carried out include:

  • - contribution by Mali to the Third High-Level Forum of Accra on aid effectiveness, and participation of a joint Government of Mali–Technical and Financial Partners delegation;

  • - meeting of European development stakeholders on Ownership of Aid and Division of Labour;

  • - signing of the Government of Mali-TFP draft document on the establishment of the Aid Harmonization Secretariat;

  • - co-location of the Aid Harmonization Secretariat, the PRSF Unit and the TFP Technical Pool.

3.7.2 Problems and Constraints

206. The problems and constraints on coordination and effectiveness of external aid mainly concern delays in disbursement procedures by some Partners and difficulties of mobilization of the Government’s counterpart contribution for disbursement of funds.

3.7.3. Solutions and Prospects

207. The envisaged solutions and prospects are simplification of disbursement procedures of partners and reinforcement of collaboration between the three co-located structures (PRSF Unit, Aid Harmonization Secretariat and TFP Technical Pool).

3.8. Civil Society Participation

3.8.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies

208. Each year, the CADB submits an annual report on the activities carried out by NGOs which have signed a Framework Collaboration and Cooperation Agreement with the State and Government of Mali. 413 NGOs out of the 2 146 submitted their activity reports in 2008.6

209. The National Civil Society Council (CNSC) carries out several activities through:

  • - the Civil Society Revitalization Programme

  • - the Citizen Development Policies and Budgets Monitoring Programme (2008-2009).

  • - the Peace and Security Strategic Plan 2007

  • - the Civil Society Organizations Forum following the Accra Conference as part of implementation of the Paris Declaration.

210. For the 2008 financial year, the Municipalities Association of Mali (AMM) carried out a number of activities through its projects/programmes such as the Powers and Resources Transfer Programme (TDC) (September 2008-December 2010), the Pilot Technical Support Project for Local Authorities in Bamako District “Bam Agglo” AMM–SNV (November 2007-June 2008), the “Loire–Niger” Programme, the “HIV/AIDS Alliance Programme”, the Elected Women’s Caucus of Mali “Enhance representation of women in decision-making circles”, the National Councils Week (JNC) and the Decentralized Cooperation Forum.

211. Civil Society Sector Indicators in the GPRSF results matrix: Apart from indicator 40 “Percentage of NGOs that have submitted an annual report”, the indicators in the GPRSF results matrix relating to the civil society do not adequately reflect the activities of the sector.

212. Under the Civil Society Revitalization Programme, fourteen indicators were identified and proposed by the civil society (CS) during implementation of the civil society revitalization programme in 2008. It would be necessary to examine the relevance of these indicators and select some of them for the evaluation of GPRSF implementation. It is therefore recommended to:

  • - conduct a reflection and discussions on strategies for producing and sharing Civil Society Organization (CSO) reports to meet the needs of the various sector reviews and the GPRSF ;

  • - conduct a study and reflection for the definition of new CS indicators that can improve CS participation and consolidate its autonomy, efficiency and credibility;

  • - pursue the process of establishing a CSO financing mechanism already initiated by the TFPs in the CSO Forum.

3.8.2 Problems and Constraints

213. Lack of strategies for the production and sharing of CSO reports to meet the needs of the various sector reviews and the GPRSF. The NGO and civil society component, subject to a memorandum of understanding on Collaboration and Cooperation with the Government of Mali, submits annual reports to the CADB. The other CSOs prepare annual reports, but do not submit them to the CADB or CNSC.

214. As regards the AMM, the constraints are as follows:

  • –difficulties in mobilizing own resources (Association contributions) ;

  • –mobilization of local authorities own resources;

  • –lack of regular budget support from the State;

  • –lack of mobilization of members to meet some needs;

  • –lack of logistics;

  • –difficulties in financing the 2nd phase of the technical support project for local authorities of Bamako;

  • –the association does not have a public utility status.

3.8.3 Solutions and Prospects

215. With the support of TFPs, a study will be conducted on the financing of Civil Society Organizations.

216. The prospects for the AMM are as follows:

  • –search for legal status as public utility association;

  • –pursuance of the powers and resources transfer programme and its extension to cover other local authorities in Mali;

  • –search for financing to sustain the project in the LAs of Bamako District, and its institutional anchoring as Land Use Planning Agency for Bamako urban area;

  • –creation of HIV/AIDS sensitization and information committees in the Local Authorities ;

  • –conduct of advocacy with the State and Partners to assist the Elected Women’s Caucus of Mali in implementing its action plan ;

  • –revitalization of the AMM Resources Centre to address the concerns of LAs as regards information and documentation.

217. Recommendations

  • –conduct reflection and discussions on strategies for producing and sharing CSO reports to meet the needs of the various sector reviews and the GPRSF ;

  • –conduct a study and reflection for the definition of new Civil Society indicators that can improve Civil Society participation and consolidate its autonomy, efficiency and credibility ;

  • –pursue the process of establishing a Civil Society Organizations financing mechanism already initiated by the TFPs in the CSO Forum.

3.9. Peace and Security

3.9.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies

218. The achievements concerned: (i) reinforcement of human resources through the recruitment of 1,149 employees, comprising 849 police officers and 300 civil protection workers; (ii) construction of the General Directorate of National Police, police stations in Bamako and Kita, Gendarmerie Territorial Squads in Kénièba, Kolokani, Bla and Kolondièba, and the Guard Camp in Gao ; (iii) procurement of 17 double cabin pick-up vehicles and 20 cross-country motorcycles and large packages of computer equipment, office furniture and equipment, and identification documents (national identity cards, consular cards and secured passports).

3.9.2 Problems and Constraints

219. The problems and constraints are mainly inadequate equipment for the maintenance of law and order, as well as rolling stock for sensitization of the population on the increase of road accidents involving two-wheel vehicles, particularly in Bamako.

3.9.3. Solutions and prospects

220. Provision of adequate infrastructures and appropriate equipment and materials.

IV. SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

4.1. Education and Literacy

4.1.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies in 2008

4.1.1.1 Results

• Initial Training

221. Out of a forecast of 2,500 teachers from Teacher Training Institutes (IFM), 1 525 were placed on the labour market. The implementation of the Alternative Strategy for the Recruitment of Teaching Staff (SARPE) helped to place 2,000 new teachers on the labour market to cover the needs.

• Continuous Training

222. As regards refresher courses, 3 000 community school teachers received training in 2008, bringing the total number of community school teachers who have undergone refresher courses to 4,050 since the launching of the GPRSF 7.

223. Mainly with national and CIDA financing, 22 national trainers and 306 regional trainers were trained, 457 Apprenticeship Communities (CA) were created, including 198 in CAPs where there was none, 138 educational advisers and 457 head teachers were trained, and a teacher training skills framework comprising 12 modules (of which 6 have been prepared) has been prepared. However, there are still difficulties in providing funds for these courses to the CAs, mainly because of lack of programming. Furthermore, close monitoring during training is inadequate, and the courses are not coordinated with the school timetable.

224. The Training by Radio programme, initiated in 2004 on an experimental basis, helped to develop a distance learning system complementary to apprenticeship communities and presential continuous training developed by the Ministry. 2, 714 teachers participated in organized radio programmes.

• Construction of classrooms for basic education 1 and 2

225. The number of classrooms is far below the forecasts. Out of 1 860 classrooms to be constructed for the 2007-2008 year, only 267 were constructed, which represents 14.35 % 8. The achievement rate of constructions varies from one region to another.

• School Textbooks

226. Two million three hundred and eighty eight thousand four hundred and fifty one (2 388 451) textbooks and 30 608 guides were bought and distributed to schools with CIDA financing in 2008. Since the implementation of PISE II, more than nine (9) million textbooks have been ordered and distributed in the schools for an amount of CFAF 25 billion. The procurement of these textbooks improved the textbooks/pupil ratios.

227. However, these average statistics do not provide adequate information, and new tools need to be identified to determine, in particular, which schools have the most needs. A strategy for improving textbooks supply mechanisms is being implemented, and a procedures manual for decentralized procurement mechanisms is being prepared. A pilot project for repair of textbooks was implemented in Kayes region; the results show the need to gradually extend it to all regions.

4.1.1.2 Analysis of sector performance indicators

228. School enrolment in Mali has developed significantly over the past few years as a result of PRODEC reforms. The number of children enrolled in basic education 1 was 1 823 037 in 2008, or about 9% increase since 2004. This development took place mainly in public schools, which admitted about 61% of the pupils, community schools 17%, and the rest admitted by private schools (9%), koranic schools, CEDs or the Medersas (11%).

229. The Gross Admission Rate (GAR) into the first year of basic education increased from 74.2% to 79.4% between 2006 and 2008. Over the same period, the Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) in basic education 1 rose from 75% to 80%. Mali therefore achieved the target as regards the gross enrolment rate, and appears to be in a good position to attain the target of 80% by 2010 as regards the gross admission rate. The GER for girls is 70.7% as against 89.5% for boys, with a gap of 19 points (girls/boys parity rate of 0.79). This gap has been about 20 percentage points since 2002, and does not seem to make significant progress. There are also significant regional disparities; the rates for the 1st cycle of basic education are higher in the 3 northern regions than in the other regions (they are above 20 points for Gao and Tombouctou).

Table 17:Sector Monitoring Indicators
Indicators200620072008
GER in 1st cycle (in %)75.077.680
GER in 1st cycle for girls (in %)65.668.070.7
Admission rate into 1st cycle (in %)74.275.679.4
Completion rate in 1st cycle (in %)48.553.254
Repeat rate in 1st cycle (in %)17.015.214.2
GER girls/boys parity index0.760.780.79
REM in 1st cycle565555
Source: CPS Education
Source: CPS Education

230. As regards the parity indices (B/G), we note a very slight progress on the whole at all the levels between 2007 and 2008. From 2007 to 2008, the GER parity index increased from 0.78 to 0.79; that of GAR remained stagnant at 0.83. The progress is more significant as regards the completion rate in primary education, which increased from 48.5% in 2006 to 53.3% in 2008. However, this progress was slowed down significantly between 2007 and 2008. With respect to the parity index (B/G) of the completion rate, it rose from 0.65 in 2006 to 0.67 in 2007 and 0.70 in 2008.

231. The repeat rate in basic education 1 fell from 15.2% in 2007 to 14.2% in 2008. This timid but sustained progress is expected to reach the target of 2010 (13.7%). In basic education 2, the repeat rate fell from 23% in 2004-2005 to 16.9% in 2007-2008, exceeding the target of 18.8% for 2010. The progress is mainly due to the concerted policy to fight against repeating, based on the introduction of national languages, the creation of an initiation and placement class, reduction of double part-time teaching, and improvement of canteens.

232. The target of 50 for the teacher/pupil ratio will probably not be attained in 2010 unless more than 7 000 new teachers are employed over the next two years. The ratio remained stable at 55 between 2007 and 2008.

• Non-Formal Education

233. The Non-Formal Education Policy was adopted in January 2007. The concept of support fund for non-formal education was not adopted, and work is under way on the issue of a financing mechanism. The ENF information system is integrated within the Ministry, but statistics are not enough for assessment of progress made by the component.

234. According to CNRENF, the number of Development Education Centres (CED) stood at 1 302 in 2008. The CEDs have 31 747 learners, with 49% girls and 1 363 instructors, with 24% women.

• Literacy

235. In 2008, there were a total of 70 Pedagogic Centres (CAP) and 1 811 Functional Literacy Centres (CAF) with 61 057 registered learners, including 40% women), 3 343 instructors, including 46% women and 24 050 neo-literates including 24% women.

236. In implementation of the literacy programme, 160 literacy centres were opened throughout the country. 251 instructors were trained, including 213 for neighbourhoods in Bamako District and 38 the military camps of Bamako, Kati and Koulikoro. There are four (4) Women’s Apprenticeship Centres (CAFé) throughout the country.

237. The implementation of the literacy programme probably helped to increase the literacy rate, which was 26.2% (M-W), with 18.2% for women in 2006. The results of RGPH 2009 will indicate the current rate, and thereby assess the impact of the programme.

• Higher Education

238. In the higher education and scientific research sub-sector, the main activities concern improvement of the internal efficiency of the system (reform of university services, Licence-Maîtrise-Doctorat pedagogic renovation, private sector development, and distance learning) and diversification and improvement of the quality of higher education and scientific research (training of lecturers, professionalization of training, university-company link, opening of regional universities, improvement of teaching aids and working conditions of students and lecturers, and simultaneous development of autonomy and governance capacities of higher education institutions).

• Quality of the System

239. Concerning the quality of teaching, the results of knowledge tests in 2007 show a low acquisition level for the pupils 9. The indicators show that only 49.6% of pupils acquired the required skills in reading and only 41% in mathematics after 2 years of schooling. These figures rise to 47.8% and 45.2% respectively in the 4th year; they stand at 62.4% and 43% in the 6th year, which is still well below the target of 60% in mathematics and languages (for all classes).

240. The education sector did not conduct its sector review on implementation in 2008. However, the mid-term review of the sector by the World Bank mission made a number of remarks on: (i) the unsuitable content of some school textbooks, (ii) the poor physical state of textbooks, and (iii) the need for a teacher’s guide for use with the new textbooks. It confirmed that the schools construction programme (IDA and FTI Fund) was behind schedule and that the quality of the schools was inadequate. The observations showed: (i) the lack of modern equipment in the CEDs and CAFés, (ii) difficulties of maintenance of existing equipment, (iii) problems of covering accommodation expenses of final year CED students. Financial management is poor, particularly in terms of inadequate production of budgetary monitoring reports and non-submission of audit reports within the prescribed time frames.

241. Despite the efforts made, the number of teachers is still inadequate in Mali. The alternative teacher recruitment strategy will be maintained despite the fact that the teachers have some shortcomings in teaching. The major problems include inadequate number of qualified teachers, particularly in underprivileged regions, inadequate training of teachers in community schools, and non-compliance with the organic framework.

242. All in all, schools encounter many problems that disrupt the normal conduct of courses. This grim situation has a negative impact on the quality of the system, and therefore on human resources. In view of the situation, the Government organized, with all the stakeholders, a National Forum on Education. A group of experts was set up to monitor implementation of the conclusions and recommendations from the Forum, through the following five pillars:

  • - institutional reform, in particular the autonomy of education institutions and the status of teachers;

  • - strengthening of human resources, including the working conditions of teachers;

  • - improvement of higher education and scientific research;

  • - financing of the education sector;

  • - secondary and technical education.

4.1.2. Problems and Constraints

Implementation of policies and strategies

243. The difficulty of implementing the 2008 action plan is due to the high number of outputs, which are not selective on some critical items for achieving sector objectives.

Institutional matters and consultation with stakeholders

244. Only the Expanded Office Council and the Steering Committee of PISE II operated to some extent, but did not adequately meet the needs of the programme management. The restructuring of MEN into two Ministries (MEBALN and MESSRS) and the involvement of MEFP require inter-Ministerial coordination. The PISE II consultation organs at the regional level, where they exist, are not operational. Communication remains the weak link in the implementation of PISE at all levels (central and decentralized).

Level and availability of financial resources (internal and external)

245. The national budget funds, comprising mainly salaries and uncontrollable expenditures, were executed to the tune of 95%. However, the 2008 PISE II action plans were implemented only to the tune of 45% according to partial 2008 RSTF results. This low implementation rate is due to: non-availability of some pledged resources, late provision of resources by the TFPs, and shortage of information on the involvement of LAs in the financing of activities.

Human resources

246. The teacher initial training system does not meet the needs of the country; furthermore, some of those who leave these structures prefer to remain in the big towns rather than accept transfer to areas far away from the urban centres. The system for recruiting them on contractual basis is not effective because of the problem of staff deployment.

Deconcentration of financial and human resources for the sectors concerned

247. There are still instances of late payment of the salaries of contractual teaching staff because of long administrative procedures in the management of financial resources between the Ministry of Education and the local authorities.

4.1.3 Solutions and Prospects

248. The proposed solutions and prospects are as follows:

  • - Study on skills development: The World Bank organized a technical discussion workshop on “Skills development for growth and competitiveness in Mali”. The comments will be presented to the Government of Mali before the dissemination workshop ;

  • - Updating of the RESEN to facilitate PISE III programming and preparation of a new request for financing to the Fast Track Initiative Catalytic Fund;

  • - Development of Early Childhood by strengthening this sub-component in PISE III, and an EPDF financing request procedure to support the identified priority tasks;

  • - Follow up of the conclusions et recommendations of the Education Forum by setting up a group of experts working on five pillars: (i) institutional reform, in particular the autonomy of education institutions and the status of teachers; (ii) strengthening of human resources, including the working conditions of teachers; (iii) improvement of higher education and scientific research; (iv) financing of the education sector; and (v) secondary and technical education ;

  • - Operationalization of consultation organs (CRO and CLO) in accordance with the provisions of Decree No. 08-095/PRM of 21 February 2008 as regards education.

4.2. Health, Population and HIV/AIDS Control

4.2.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies in 2008

4.2.1.1 Health and Population

Analysis of the trend of population and health sector indicators

249. The population of Mali was estimated in 2008 at 12 713 000 inhabitants, comprising 6 295 000 (49.5%) men and 6 417 000 women (50.5%). The most thickly populated region is Sikasso with 2 309 000 inhabitants (18% of the total population of the country) and the least populated region is Kidal with 54 900 inhabitants (0.4% of the total population of the country). Bamako, the capital, with a population of 1 317 000 inhabitants, accounts for 10.3% of the population of Mali. The urbanization rate is 34%.

250. The Malian population is very young, with children below 15 accounting for 48.8% of the total population. Despite the economic and social trends and Government activities in contraception, the average number of children per woman declined only moderately from 6.8 children in 2001 (EDSM-III) to 6.6 children in 2006 according to EDSM-IV.

251. The high level of fertility in Mali in 2006, coupled with the decline in mortality, has naturally led to a fairly high population increase rate, because economic growth has so far not been able to keep pace with population growth.

252. This imbalance between population growth and economic growth should therefore encourage all development stakeholders to participate in the implementation of the National Population Policy updated by the Government in 2004, a policy which establishes close and dialectic relations between population variables and socio-economic development.

253. The zonal analysis adopted concerns poverty zones that comprise regions of the country in terms of the 2001 poverty indices. This classification defines three zones, namely:

  • - Zone I comprising the poorest regions (Mopti, Koulikoro, Sikasso, Ségou);

  • - Zone II comprising fairly poor regions (Kayes, Tombouctou, Gao, Kidal);

  • - Zone III containing Bamako District alone or the least poor region.

• Coverage and accessibility to health centres

254. The number of CSCOMs increases from year to year. The number of functional CSCOMs increased from 826 in 2007 to 858 in 2008. Out of a forecast of 1,070 CSCOMs in the PDESCs (PRODESS II), the achievement rate was 80% in 2008. The increase in 2008 is mainly due to efforts made in Kayes region, which alone recorded about 47% of the new units.

255. Sikasso, Ségou, and Kayes regions each have more than 145 CSCOMs, representing 54% of all the basic health units, followed by Koulikoro and Mopti regions, which have 120 and 118 CSCOMs respectively, representing 28% of the total. The situation has been stagnant in Bamako district since 2005. This is mainly due to saturation of the district with health units of all types, and facilities for the movement of people living within the health unit areas. Units will be created in future in the peripheries.

256. Furthermore, Bamako District has the highest achievement rate for CSCOMs (93%), followed by Mopti (92%), Ségou (89%), Kayes (85%), Sikasso (84%) and Koulikoro (72%) regions.

257. As for the Northern regions, the achievement rates range from 69% (53/77) in Tombouctou, to 52% (48/93) in Gao as against 54% (7/13) in Kidal. This latter region faces problems of persistent insecurity which hampers movements, particularly of health staff, in this nomadic zone, and therefore slows down the implementation of sector development policies and strategies.

258. 32 CSCOMs were constructed in 2008 as against 41 in 2007. This decline is due to the fact that there were no new units in Gao and Kidal regions and Bamako. For Koulikoro region, emphasis was laid on the consolidation of achievements and strengthening of the referral-evacuation system, particularly in Kati, Nara and Fana.

259. 63% of the CSCOMs are in Zone I, 31% in Zone II and 6% in Zone III. This distribution is consistent with the degree of poverty, which takes into account the population variable in calculating the classification. The new units concern Zone I (50%) and Zone II (50%), particularly Kayes region.

260. Between 2007 and 2008, the percentage of population living within a radius of 5 km increased from 53% to 58% out of a forecast of 52%. This trend is mainly due to the low concentration of people in the new functional health spaces, especially in Kayes and Tombouctou regions. The percentage of population living within a radius of 15 km increased from 79% to 80%. In general, these percentages have increased from year to year since 2003 when the proportions were 46% within a radius of 5 km and 59% within a radius of 15 km respectively.

Table 18:Population within 5 km with access to health care in %
IndicatorsAchievements
200620072008
Proportion of the population living within a radius of 5 km from a functional CSCOM515358
Proportion of the rural population living within a radius of 15 km from a health unit that offers the PMA with fixed centre and advanced/mobile strategy activities767980
Source: DNS
Source: DNS

261. Even though access improved between 2007 and 2008 in the poorest zone (Zone 1: +7 points) and fairly poor zone (Zone 2 : +5 points), it is still low with barely 1 person out of 2 within a radius of less than 5 km from a health centre. Access within a radius of 15 km improved in Kayes region (+3 points), followed by Tombouctou region (+1 point). The trend of coverage in the other regions has remained stagnant.

• Using health units

262. The use of health services did not increase in 2008, as shown by the figures in Table 19 on the new consultants/inhabitants rate. Barely 1 inhabitant out of 3 used a health centre in Mali in 2008 as in 2007. The highest coverage rates were recorded in Kidal region (nearly 1 inhabitant out of 2, a sharp increase in comparison to 2007), Bamako District (1 out of 3), Kayes region (1 out of 3), Sikasso region (1 out of 3) and Ségou region (a little less than 1 out of 3).

Table 19:Trend of new consultants/inhabitants by region
Regions200320042005200620072008
Kayes0.240.260.280.300.320.34
Koulikoro0.140.160.190.220.240.26
Sikasso0.260.310.290.280.310.32
Segou0.220.260.270.270.300.29
Mopti0.160.160.160.160.160.19
Tombouctou0.210.200.220.250.310.25
Gao0.190.180.190.230.250.25
Kidal0.300.380.410.370.240.45
Bamako0.390.350.370.350.380.38
Countrywide0.230.250.260.260.290.29
Source: DNS/SLIS
Source: DNS/SLIS

263. Since 2003, the use of health services has remained at 1 inhabitant out of 5 in Mopti region. This is due to inadequate and unstable personnel (doctors and nurses) and limited geographic accessibility (46%). However, it would be interesting to conduct a study in this region before completion of PRODESS II in 2011 to analyze the reasons for this low use of health units.

264. The low use of health services is due to the low performance of health districts in Tominian (35%) in Ségou region, and Diré (32%), Goudam (37%) and Gourma Rharous (25%) in Tombouctou region.

• Prenatal Consultations

265. The national average increased by 4 points between 2007 and 2008 to 82%, thereby exceeding the forecast of 72%. There has been a positive trend in all regions, except Bamako (6 points decline) and Gao (2 points decline). The decline and low rate recorded in Kidal could be due to the low performance in Health Districts: Commune VI of Bamako District (54%), all the districts in Gao region (between 42% and 67%) and those of Kidal region (between 17% and 65%).

266. Zone I recorded a decline of 1 point, though with a rate 3 points above the national average and the highest rate in Ségou region. Zone II recorded wide regional disparities in terms of consultation, and Kayes region alone recorded a rate above the average. Kidal region recorded the lowest rate since 2003, but had the highest gain in 2008, which is 22 points. It is followed by Tombouctou (+11 points) and Kayes (+5 points) due to extension of health coverage in these regions and the use of mobile teams in Tombouctou.

267. Zone II recorded a positive trend from 74% to 76%. However, the rate in this region is below the national average by 6 percentage points. The rate is below the national average by 3 points in Zone III with a decline of 18 points in comparison to 2007, a zone that is nonetheless more accessible and with more human resources, in particular.

Table 20:Trend of PNC Coverage in %
Regions200620072008
Mopti647785
Koulikoro737783
Sikasso788189
Segou808390
Zone I738685
Kayes827883
Tombouctou526475
Gao576058
Kidal352648
Zone II587476
Bamako (Zone III)929779
Average Mali757882
Source: DNS

• Assisted Deliveries

268. From 2007 to 2008, the rate of deliveries assisted by qualified staff increased from 57% to 61%, but did not reach the forecast of at least 90%. The rate increased in all regions, except Bamako district (4 points decline) and Gao region (stagnant). These good results are mainly due to extension of health coverage, and the implementation of innovative strategies affecting more children and pregnant women.

269. The decline in rate of assisted deliveries in the health districts of Communes II, III and VI could be due to the lack of a maternity in the CSRéf of Commune III and to the recent opening of maternities and blocks in CSRéfs in Commune II and Commune VI which referred patients to the other functional CSRéfs (Communes I, IV and V) of Bamako or to Point G and Gabriel Touré National Hospitals.

270. Furthermore, a high number of private, semi-public and denominational structures are engaged in this activity and do not produce reports. As regards the completeness of reports, only Commune V attained 100%, while the others ranged from 51% (Commune II) to 81% (Commune I).

271. The other variations are mainly due to difficulties of access in the zones, socio-cultural constraints and inadequate Communication on Change of Behaviour.

272. The rate in Zone I increased by 1 point in 2008, but remains 2 points below the national average. This gap is due to the low rate in Mopti region, which is 19 points below the national average. Zone II recorded the highest increase (5 points) but with a rate below the national average by 15 points. All the regions in this zone have rates below the national average, particularly those in the North with 20, 26 and 39 points gap for Tombouctou, Kidal and Gao respectively.

273. The trend in the capital (Zone III) has declined slightly by 4 points in comparison to 2007. However, the gap is highest in comparison to the average (29 points) because of the specificity of Bamako District, which has the most educated female and least poor population in the country. Furthermore, Bamako has the highest number of qualified staff, particularly midwives and nurses.

Table 21:Trend of Assisted Delivery Rate in %
Regions200620072008
Mopti393742
Koulikoro566164
Sikasso596366
Segou526061
Zone I525859
Kayes365057
Tombouctou263541
Gao182222
Kidal211635
Zone II284146
Bamako (Zone III)959490
Total555761
Source: DNS
Source: DNS

• DTCP3 Vaccinations 10

274. On the whole, from 2007 to 2008, the DTCP3 coverage rate was stable at 94%, which is above the minimum of 90% set in the expanded PRODESS II. In terms of poverty zones, the rate increased by 7 points in Zone I, but declined by 6 points in Zone II, especially in Tombouctou, Gao and Kayes, and by 10 points in Zone III. An analysis of the results in Table 22 shows that apart from Sikasso and Ségou, all regions have coverage below the national average. The low immunization coverage is quite significant in Kidal region, where only 1 child out of 3 is vaccinated.

Table 22:Trend of children below 12 months immunized with DTCP3(Penta 3)
Regions200620072008
Mopti868991
Koulikoro919291
Sikasso9394104
Ségou9394101
Zone I9193100
Kayes969690
Tombouctou707558
Gao949490
Kidal463239
Zone II898882
Bamako (Zone III)999989
Total929494
Source: DNS
Source: DNS

275. The low DTCP3 coverage could be due to low performance in the health districts of Kéniéba (65%), Kita (84%) and Kayes (89%) for Kayes region; Nara (68%), Kolokani (82%) and Fana (85%) for Koulikoro region; Diré (50%), Goundam (31%), Gourma Rharous (63%) and Niafunké (67%) for Tombouctou region; and Commune VI (61%) for Bamako District. The situation is grim for Kidal districts and particularly in Téssalit, which has a coverage rate of only 13%.

276. Gao (-4 points) and Tombouctou (-17 points) regions have recorded downward trends mainly because of insecurity in the zones.

277. The increase in immunization coverage rate in Sikasso (+10 points), Ségou and Kidal (+7 points each) and Mopti (+ 2 points) regions is due not only to the concentration of highly sensitized populations in the South regions, but also to the forced concentration of populations in sedentary zones in Kidal as a result of insecurity. The positive results are also due to the mobile strategies in regions with difficult accessibility. These very encouraging results are likely to support the poverty reduction efforts initiated in the poorest regions in Mali (Zones 1 and 2).

278. As regards the specific case of Kidal region, some indicators have improved considerably despite the security situation in the North. This performance could be due to the lower population in Kidal in comparison to the other regions of the country and the high concentration of population in Kidal town. All referrals/evacuations from the other health districts are to Kidal town which has qualified staff, and this could be the reason for the high rate of curative consultation and family planning. The completeness rate (89%) of reports submitted in 2008 is very high.

279. The doctor/inhabitants ratio is 1/4102 and the Nurse or Medical Assistant/inhabitants ratio is 1/936. These ratios are below the WHO standards of 1/10000 and 1/5000 respectively. Kidal region therefore has more doctors and nurses in comparison to the WHO standard. However, the standard is far from attained as regards the Midwife/inhabitants ratio with 1/17776, as against the standard of 1/5000.

280. Some impact indicators have improved, particularly the infant, child and maternal mortality rates and the malnutrition rate as indicated in Table 23.

Table 23:Trend of collected indicators(EDSM 1987, 1996, 2001 and 2006)
Indicators1987199620012006
Total fertility rate6.76.76.86.6
Knowledge of FP method42.5%65%76%75%

6.2%
Contraception prevalence rate (modern FP methods)1.2%5%5.8%
Infant mortality/1000108122.511396
Child mortality/1000249237.5229191
Maternal mortality/100 000NA577582464
Measles74%51%36%68.4%
Practice of excisionNA93.7%92%85%
Knowledge of AIDSNA76.6% W

95.7% M
90% W

98% M
86.2% W

90.9% M
Prevalence of AIDSNA0.03%1.7%1.3%
Chronic malnutrition rate among children below 5 years24.4%30.1%38.2%38%
Source: CPS/Ministry of Health
Source: CPS/Ministry of Health

281. The proportion of children who have not received any immunization has continued to drop (from 22% to 13%). As regards immunization against measles, the rate has improved significantly (from 36% to 68%). Child mortality has declined relatively in Mali, but it remains too high and compromises achievement of the corresponding MDGs. The infant and child mortality rates fell from 113‰ to 96‰ and from 229‰ to 191‰ respectively between 2001 and 2006.

282. Despite the progress made, the maternal mortality rate declined from 582 to 464 per 100 000 life births between 2001 and 2006, and it will be difficult to reach the MDG target relating to reduction of maternal mortality. There has been a slight drop in the proportion of women reported to have been subjected to excision from 92% to 85%.

283. As regards malnutrition, nearly two children out of every five (38%) suffer from retarded growth (chronic malnutrition), 15% suffer from acute malnutrition and 27% are underweight. These rates are a cause for concern in view of the inadequate appropriate measures taken and the degree of poverty of the population, especially in rural areas.

4.2.1.2. HIV/AIDS Control

• Level of results

284. Mali recorded significant performance towards Universal Access (prevention, treatment, screening, support) and MDG achievement. HIV prevalence declined by 0.4 point and the achievement rate of the“number of orphans who go to school” indicator is 104% in 2006. The reduction of seroprevalence at the national level from 1.7% to 1.3% is the result of reforms and interventions in all the HIV/AIDS control sectors at the national level with the support of all the TFPs.

285. Management of patients improved, particularly the policy of free antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, extension of coverage for patients under ARV: the number of patients introduced to ARV increased from 6 815 in 2005 to 23 754 in 2008, which represents 77.95% of needy patients (EPP estimate of adult and children who need to be put on ARV). This downward trend of seroprevalence at the national level between 2001 and 2006 is not in all the regions, particularly in Mopti where the situation has stabilized at a rate of 1.4% and Gao where there is an upward trend from 0.6% to 1.1% according to EDSM-IV results.

Table 24:Impact Indicators
IndicatorsBase (2004)Targets as at

31/12/2008
Achievement

as at

06/12/2008
Achievement

Rate
HIV and AIDS prevalence among population aged 15-49 years is contained at 1.7%, and it will start declining by 2009



At least 15 000 orphans go to school by the end of 2009
1.70%≤ 1.7%1.30%-0.4
1 5008 0008 296104%
Number of people put on ARV2 60021 10023 754112.57%
Number of screening sites26 (in 2005)34226076%
Number of Prevention of Mother-Child Transmission (PMCT) sites55 (in 2005)145169169%
Source: SE/HCNLS “Performance monitoring report on MAP Project”, June 2008 and MS “EDSM-IV, 2006”
Source: SE/HCNLS “Performance monitoring report on MAP Project”, June 2008 and MS “EDSM-IV, 2006”

286. An analysis of the various data available until end 2006 could provide assumptions on the reasons for the increase in seroprevalence in Mopti region. These data show that in comparison to the other regions, Mopti has the lowest ratios for the number of inhabitants per CSO, the number of people trained, the level of participation in sensitization sessions, the distribution of condoms, the financial commitment, and the percentage of people who have heard about HIV and AIDS.

287. The upward trend of HIV prevalence in Gao region could be due to the fact that the level of knowledge of the disease there is still the lowest in the country, and that the region has become a major crossroad with movements of people in transit to countries of the North. The people come from several horizons, including some Central and West African countries, where the HIV and AIDS prevalence rates are far above that of Mali.

288. The number of OEV infected or affected by HIV and AIDS on treatment sites declined sharply between 2005 and 2007; on the other hand, psychosocial assistance and the total number of adult PLWHIV receiving support have increased. The number of PLWHIV on ARV treatment was estimated at 23 754 as at 31/12/08 as against 16 509 in 2007.

• Results of the 2006-2010 National Strategy Framework

289. The 2006-2010 National Strategy Framework is the instrument that brings together and ensures coherence between all national response interventions. Some projects started before preparation of this framework still represent a major component of the national response: the MAP and the World/Round 4 Fund.

290. On the whole, the results of the MAP Project implementation are encouraging. Weaknesses were noted mainly in the implementation of sub-projects for high risk professional groups and in providing voluntary counseling/screening services in CSCOMs. 1 337 sub-projects were accepted as at 30 June 2008, including 1 307 (98%) which had been analyzed. Only 389 (30%) of them were approved. Nearly 2/3 (65%) of the contracts of these approved projects were signed. Some of the contracts of the approved projects were not signed mainly because of inadequate financial resources.

291. Data on the level of results for the FM project show that the objectives for the end of the second year of implementation have been achieved. The achievement rate of the objectives ranges from 82.9% to 396%. Out of the 20 indicators selected, 15 have an achievement rate equivalent to or above 100%.

4.2.1. Problems and Constraints

• Health

292. Implementation of policies and strategies

  • - Access mainly by patients to basic structures (late decision making and delays in transportation from the village to CSCOM) and access to referral institutions in health districts (late adequate treatment; solidarity not operational, especially with the adoption of free care for cesarean births misunderstood in several village communities) ;

  • - Timely access by users to health care, in particular emergency cases in areas with difficult geographic accessibility, especially during the rainy season;

  • - Continuity and quality of health care affected by inadequate qualified staff at all levels of the health pyramid (to a lesser extent, in Bamako District), illiteracy, low income of the population, particularly people in rural areas, and the low level of maintenance of infrastructures, particularly biomedical equipment;

  • - Under-equipment of several health institutions throughout the country (CsCom, CsRef, EPH) due mainly to limited control of the situation by the appropriate central structure;

  • - low participation or involvement of the rural communities in the implementation of some health programmes due to their low level of education (examples: probably the case of free care for cesarean births and CTA) and beliefs leading to negative behaviours;

  • - delays in effective transfer of powers and resources from the State to the Local Authorities due mainly to limited knowledge of the health sector policy by the said authorities and delays in determining the resources to be transferred to them despite the efforts made towards budget deconcentration and the signing of a mutual assistance agreement with ANICT.

293. At the institutional level

  • - Delays in the transfer of powers and resources to Local Authorities despite the efforts already made (creation of a support unit for deconcentration and decentralization, signing of a delegated management agreement with ANICT for the construction works of CSCOM, CSREF and equipment, etc.) ;

  • - Inadequate integration of health development plans into those of Local Authorities;

  • - Inadequate measures for subsidies, particularly anti-cancer drugs, and CTA for adults ;

  • - Inadequacies in public procurement texts with respect to supplies to health institutions (threshold low for orders from the PPM) ;

  • - Delays in the preparation and implementation of some texts provided for by the hospital law;

  • - Lack of a formal transport system for patients from villages to CSCOMs in the existing referral-evacuation arrangements between the CSCOMs and CSREFs ;

  • - Some texts are not appropriate, particularly those governing the creation and operation of : (i) the DNS, DPM and their services at the regional and district levels; (ii) private health sciences training schools; (iii) the National Ethics Commission for Life Sciences (CNESS) etc. ;

  • - Lack of a central structure to coordinate maintenance and sustainable management of health infrastructures and equipment;

  • - Lack of a law on community health and health research.

294. Availability of expected internal and external financial resources

There was a low disbursement rate of financial resources, particularly as from the second half of 2008. The Treasury is still encountering exceptional cash flow problems.

Availability and management of human resources

The human resources development and management policy of the health sector has not yet been adopted. The DRHs created by Ordinance No. 09-009/P-RM of 4 March 2009 in Ministries to formulate aspects of the national policy on human resources development and management are not yet operational.

295. Consultation with key stakeholders

Improvements are required and are under way to enhance the organization of sessions of the existing and operational consultation organs of the PRODESS.

• HIV/AIDS Control

296.At the institutional/organizational level

  • - Non implementation of Decree No. 05-430/P-RM of 29 September 2005 on the creation of AIDS Control Committee and sector units in the Institutions of the Republic (Prime Minister’s Office, Presidency, Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, Economic, Social and Cultural Council, Local Authorities High Council, Ombudsman of the Republic, Higher Communication and Audiovisual Council) ;

  • - Installation of coordination organs in councils and villages not effective;

  • - Low technical skill of CSOs, particularly HIV and AIDS control associations, mainly in financial management, planning and monitoring-evaluation;

  • - Difficulties in creating PLWHIV associations and extending them to cover the entire country (concentrated in urban and semi-urban areas) ;

  • - Low financial resources of CSOs, which limits their self-financing capacity;

  • - Low level of commitment by some company managers;

  • - Low use of peer education in enterprises.

297. Prevention

  • - Absence of generalized inclusion of HIV and AIDS control in school curricula;

  • - Inadequate geographic coverage;

  • - No systematic inclusion of peer education in the information and sensitization strategy of ministries;

  • - Low geographic accessibility of communities to PMCT structures;

  • - Inadequacies in the dissemination of new treatment plans for pregnant women (tritherapy not conducted at all levels) ;

  • - Potential possibility of errors in notifying HIV positive pregnant women as PLWHIV on ARVs (adoption of tritherapy for PMCT) ;

  • - Inadequate number of pockets of blood collected in the regions and in Bamako ;

  • - Low number of service providers trained in accidental exposure of contaminated blood;

  • - Low geographic accessibility of communities to counseling and screening centres;

  • - Low number of CSCOMs capable of offering HIV screening counseling services.

298. Access to health care and treatment

  • - Treatment structures rather far away for the rural population;

  • - Lack CD4 counter in the regions, except Bamako and Ségou ;

  • - Inadequacies in the management of biological aspects of AIDS cases (lack of a biological tests management system by correspondence between operational and referral levels) ;

  • - Inadequacies in the management of reagents and ARVs at the peripheral level (pockets of rupture of supply of reagents and ARVs at the operational level) ;

  • - Existence of staff not trained in HIV and AIDS treatment.

4.2.2. Solutions and Prospects

• Health

299. With respect to the implementation of the Paris Declaration (PD) and new health initiatives (IHP+), the Ministry of Health on 23 April 2009 signed a contractual document known as “Compact”.

  • - Strengthening of ongoing measures to reduce maternal mortality, as well as neonatal and child mortality;

  • - Strengthening of priority diseases control;

  • - Enhanced implementation of free care for cesarean births;

  • - Pursuance of ongoing efforts to review laws and/or regulations on the policy, coordination and evaluation organs of PRODESS, as well as on the DNS, DPM, and new CPS ;

  • - Validation of the maintenance policy and creation of a maintenance and sustainable management agency for health infrastructures and equipment;

  • - Strengthening of ongoing measures to improve mobilization of financial resources, particularly the SBS, and improvement of measures to pursue deconcentration of resources to the regions;

  • - Strengthening of the technical support centres of health district institutions, hospitals and the capacities of Local Authorities;

  • - Establishment of technical organs to prepare the new Ten Year Health Plan (2012-2021) ;

  • - Adoption and implementation of the human resources development and management policy;

  • - Reinforcement of the ongoing budgetary deconcentration;

  • - Promotion of Government-Local Authorities, Government-NGO/Associations, and Government-Private Sector contractualization for the implementation of sector policies, programmes or strategies.

• HIV/AIDS Control

300. Following various analyses conducted at the national level, the challenges could be summarized as follows:

  • - Extend the scope and coverage of services and products to the entire population, particularly in landlocked areas;

  • - Carry out major activities to assume ownership over risks and vulnerability, as well as against stigmatization and discrimination ;

  • - Include preventive, care, treatment and support activities to promote efficiency and effectiveness of the response;

  • - Make use of deconcentration and decentralization opportunities to implement a sustainable local response;

  • - Create more opportunities for dialogue and collaboration between stakeholders so as to foster relevance and sustainability of the response;

  • - Simplify and harmonize resource management procedures to accelerate response;

  • - Create a national HIV and AIDS control fund to sustain the required resources;

  • - Develop strong policies and strategies to ensure continuous upgrading of institutional, organizational, and operational skills and capacities of all stakeholders;

  • - Develop strategies to position Mali on the international market for medical and non-medical products;

  • - Improve the performance of the monitoring-evaluation system (collection, analysis and dissemination).

Conclusion and Recommendations

301. The ongoing strategies are appropriate and will facilitate effective and efficient achievement of all the set objectives. All stakeholders effectively participate in the fight against the pandemic, with a very encouraging level of involvement.

302. The positive performance in prevention and treatment is due to intensification of sensitization through information/communication for the population, an increase in the number of counseling/screening centres, treatment centres (free ARVs) and PMCT centres. It is necessary to enhance training and epidemiological surveillance through sentinel surveillance and behaviour survey in the risk groups.

303. The decentralization of coordination and strengthening of the ongoing monitoring-evaluation system will help to identify all HIV and AIDS control activities and build on the results, as well as ensure decentralized planning and appropriate decision-making at all levels.

304. However, it is necessary to:

  • - conduct an empirical study to test the assumptions on an increase in AIDS prevalence in Mopti and Gao regions so as to find appropriate solutions;

  • - conduct a study to refocus the sensitization strategy;

  • - conduct studies and/or data analyses to determine pockets of poor performance ;

  • - determine the number of projects in line with the level of financing.

4.3. Gender

4.3.1. Results of implementation of policies and strategies in 2008

305. As a result of strong political will and the dynamism of technical and financial partners, significant progress was made in Mali with respect to gender equality and advancement of women, in particular the preparation and implementation of various policies for the advancement of women and the related action plans (1996-2000 action plan, 2002-2006 action plan). To that end, various programmes and projects were implemented, and helped to improve the status of women by laying emphasis on self-advancement activities.

306. The year 2008 was devoted to the construction and equipment of community infrastructures required for the empowerment of women, strengthening the economic capacities of women’s groups, as well as pursuing sensitization on women’s rights, participation in public and political life, and activities relating to support for women and girls who are victims of violence.

307. As regards the construction and equipment of community infrastructures, many activities have been carried out, in particular:

  • - the construction of women’s self-advancement centres in Kenieba, Youwarou, Tominian, Koro, Bankass, Teninkou, Goundam and Bourem ;

  • - the construction of 3 fruit and vegetables processing plants (Sikasso Dioila and Ségou) and shea processing centres in San, Loulouni, Kemeni and Dancoumana ;

  • - the construction of a leather and skins processing plant in Mopti ;

  • - the construction of 10 women and children’s centres (comprising two in Bamako and one in each region in Mali) started in January 2008 for a total cost of CFAF 6 622 000 000, including the design costs, financed by the People’s Republic of China.

308. With respect to the equipment of villages, organizations and structures with multifunctional platforms and means of production, the Ministry, in partnership with the Luxemburg Cooperation Agency, installed platforms in 20 villages in Bla and Tominian districts. In view of the time and energy saved and the increase in income, in addition to lighting and drinking water supply, these platforms help to improve the socio-economicconditions of women. Furthermore, several handcraft groups were provided with equipment and means of production.

309. As regards capacity building for women in the management of associations, cooperatives and shea butter production, women and women’s groups were trained in improved shea butter production techniques. Furthermore, other training sessions were organized on the following themes: manufacture of byproducts (soap and pomades), revitalizing associations, management of cooperatives, literacy education, use and management of equipment, and preparation of project plans.

310. With respect to the promotion of fundamental rights and fight against violence to women and girls, more efforts were made to disseminate international legal instruments. Information and sensitization sessions were organized on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in the CESC and National Assembly. Under implementation of the MPFEF/UNFPA Programme, the Gender Equity Human Rights Project (PDHEG) organized a training course for the armed forces and security officers of Mali on CEDEF which brought together 80 uniformed participants made up of soldiers, gendarmes, national guard officers, national police officers and civil protection officers.

311. Concerning the fight against excision, the activities organized include:

  • - the training of three drama groups in drama/forum techniques in Kayes, Koulikoro and Sikasso regions (90 participants) with the technical support of the ATB drama group (Burkina Faso) and the Niogolon drama group (Mali) ;

  • - data collection of cases of complications treated, and sensitization on the consequences of excision in Referral Health Centres of the 6 councils of Bamako District;

  • - the treatment of 56 cases of complications in Bamako District;

  • - the organization of a national workshop for the finalization and validation of mapping by actors in the fight against female genital mutilations (FGM) ;

  • - the training of 20 heads of medical stations of Plan Zones Mali (Bandiagara, Bankass, Kadiolo, Kati, and Nioro du Sahel) in identification and treatment of excision victims.

312. As regards HIV and AIDS control, the Sector Unit of the Ministry organized sensitization sessions for MPFEF staff on HIV/AIDS control in Kayes region and Bamako District. Sensitization sessions were organized for women in zones covered by the Shea Project on HIV/AIDS in Moulasso. In efforts to promote children, the project for increasing availability and accessibility to SR/SRAJ services, information on IST/SRAJ and information on STI/HIV/AIDS for young migrants and girl beggars was implemented at the Children’s Centre and in all the councils of Bamako over a period of 2 months. This project was aimed at sensitizing young migrants and girl beggars on the SR, PF, STI/HIV/AIDS and facilitating access by youth migrants and girl beggars to community services of SR/PF/STI/HIV/AIDS.

313. However, analyses of the 2002-2006 action plan showed that while progress was made in taking into account practical needs, the action plan did not adequately integrate the gender approach to achieve its final objective. Other studies also showed that there were still inequalities at several levels. The percentage of women in elective positions was 6.4% in 2008; there are 15 women out of a total of 147 members of parliament, which is a representation rate of 10.2%. Women are also less represented at the level of mayors where they are only 7 out of 703 mayors, or a representation rate of 1%. As regards the other positions, the town councils have 6.7% women, 8% in the Local Authorities High Council (HCCT) and 12.1% in the Economic, Social and Cultural Council (CESC).

Table 25:Situation of men and women in elective positions in 2008
PositionsMenWomenTotal
Number%Number%Number
Members of Parliament13289.81510.2147
Local councillors10 05493.37206.710 774
Mayors6969971703
National councillors (HCCT)69926875
CESC members5187.9712.158
Total11 00293.67556.411757
Source: MPFEF-CNDIFE_ Woman and Child Base
Source: MPFEF-CNDIFE_ Woman and Child Base

4.3.2 Problems and Constraints

314. The main problems and constraints are inadequate human, financial and material resources, data by gender, and training and further training for staff. Mention could also be made of low ownership of the responsibilities of the Ministry by the other Ministries and difficulties in the mobilization of external funds, as well as difficulties in coordination, monitoring and evaluation with the other Ministries.

4.3.3 Solutions and Prospects

315. The proposed solutions and prospects are:

  • - finalization of the Gender Equality Policy and its adoption by the Government;

  • - establishment of an institutional framework for monitoring the gender policy;

  • - implementation and monitoring of the action plan of the Gender Policy, the communication plan on excision and programmes for the rehabilitation and reintegration of EV VAEN ;

  • - conduct of sector, regional and national consultations on the national gender policy, the creation and equipment of agro-food centres, and support for women’s entrepreneurship;

  • - pursuance of the installation of multifunctional platforms;

  • - training in governance, gender and analysis of policies, gender and budget, human rights, information technology, administrative and financial management, decentralization, communication, advocacy/lobbying, and cooperative management; and

  • - training of women in agrofood processing techniques, women candidates and officers from the various elections, organization of IEC activities on STI/HIV/AIDS, reproductive health and malaria, and equipment of the Listening, Animation, and Orientation Centre.

4.4. Employment and Vocational Training

4.4.1. Results of implementation of policies and strategies in 2008

316. The MEFP invested about CFAF 20 billion in activities to promote employment and vocational training throughout the country. These multifaceted investments and activities helped to increase the number of new jobs. One of the pillars of the new MEFP policy is the Employment and Vocational Training Exchange, launched in July 2008. It aims at integrating at least ten thousand (10 000) youths into production through assistance for self-employment in agriculture, handicraft and vocational training services.

Employment

317. In 2008, the employment services recorded 26 224 new jobs (permanent and temporary, public and private).

Table 26:Number of jobs created
Periods200620072008
Private sector jobs13 46413 61817 992
Public sector jobs9 5553 6598 232
Total23 01917 27726 224
Source: DNE
Source: DNE

318. The Permanent Household Survey (EPAM) conducted in 2007 showed that on average eight persons out of ten aged from 15 to 64 years are on the labour market (Table 28). The non-working population accounts for 19.7% of the working age population due to the status of women at home and the duration of studies for 38% and 31% of people at the national level.

Table 27:Gross and net employment rates by gender and area of residence
RateBamakoOther TownsRural AreasNationwide (Mali)
MenWomenEnsemble
Gross61.874.481.282.373.777.7
Net63.376.984.185.875.780.3
Source: ANPE/DOEF
Source: ANPE/DOEF
Table 28:Employment rate according to age, gender and area of residence
Age GroupBamakoOther Urban

Areas
Rural AreasMali
MenWomenTogether
15 - 40 years41.261.77875.366.770.3
41 - 64 years64.473.28286.470.178.9
Total4664.579.178.867.472.7
Source: ANPE/DOEF
Source: ANPE/DOEF

319. The survey shows that 72.7% of the working age population (15–64 years) are working (employment rate) and 7.7% are unemployed. In other words, seven persons out of ten of the working age population effectively participate in economic activities in the country. The employment rate at the national level is about 79% for men and 67% for women. Bamako, the capital, has the lowest employment rate (46%), followed by the other towns (64%), and the rural areas have the highest rate (79%).

320. The unemployment rate in Bamako is extremely high at 27.3% (Table 29). It is also very high in the other urban centres. On the whole, women are more affected by unemployment than men.

Table 29:Expanded unemployment rate according to age, gender and area of residence
Age GroupBamakoOther Urban AreasRural AreasMali
MenWomenTogether
15–40 years32.318.56.79.812.511.3
41–64 years11.18.93.85.05.45.2
Total27.316.05.98.211.09.6
Note: An unemployed person, according to the ILO, is any person of working age who fulfills the following three conditions:- has not had an economic activity during the period in question or has not had a formal link with a job;- is available to take up a job;- is looking for a job, and is taking steps to search for a job.The 2007 EPAM report used the concept of expanded unemployment taking into account persons who satisfy only the first two conditions.Source: ANPE/DOEF
Note: An unemployed person, according to the ILO, is any person of working age who fulfills the following three conditions:- has not had an economic activity during the period in question or has not had a formal link with a job;- is available to take up a job;- is looking for a job, and is taking steps to search for a job.The 2007 EPAM report used the concept of expanded unemployment taking into account persons who satisfy only the first two conditions.Source: ANPE/DOEF

321. Concerning the “job application” component, through the intermediation activities of public and private employment offices, 5183 job applications were recorded during the first half of 2008, including nearly 20% from women. Most of the job seekers are unemployed (54%), while 46% are employed people seeking for jobs11.

322. Bamako District is the major pole of attraction, with 68% of the total applications. On the other hand, Kidal, Mopti and Koulikoro regions are far behind with about 2% each.

323. Job seekers are mostly youths. Indeed, job seekers from 20 to 29 years of age represent more than half (57%), hence the impact of school leavers on the market. Dual training and certification for apprentices have promoted the presence of illiterates and school dropouts on the labour market.

324. In all, 7035 job applications were recorded by the public services in 2008, including 19% women. Bamako district had 50% of the total number of applications because of the existence of a pole of concentration of potential employers, followed by Tombouctou (10%) due to the activities of mining exploration companies in this region. In all, 936 job offers were made for paid jobs by employers (enterprises, NGOs, and individuals) in 2008 for which ANPE provided 89%.

Vocational Training

325. Technical and vocational training in Mali includes technical and vocational training (including by apprenticeship and qualifying training) and continuous training. Despite this situation, it is difficult to meet all the expectations placed on the training. Technical and vocational education does not adequately meet the requirements for skilled labour which the Malian economy needs to develop.

326. All the diagnostic studies on the development of Mali underscore the low qualification of manpower as a major obstacle to private, national and foreign investment. The low qualification is even more significant in the primary sector, where availability of human resources and their level of professionalization make it difficult to offer production that can satisfy domestic demand for consumption, and moreso conquer new portions of the market.

327. In 2007, Mali had 14 public technical and vocational education institutions, and 58 in the private sector. Most of the institutions were in Bamako (62.5%). Furthermore, they operate mainly in the tertiary sector because of its lower cost, hence the weak training-employment link:

  • - 11.2% of the institutions are in industry and BPW;

  • - 49.5% of the institutions are in the tertiary sector;

  • - There are twelve (12) rural sector institutions, including five (5) of the private sector.

328. In 2008, there were 8 public centres and more than 35 approved private centres in vocational training.

329. In the rural areas, there are twelve centres and a network of training structures for farmers.

330. The current performance of the education system does not make it possible to meet the skilled labour requirement. In 2007, the group of youths (7 to 25 years) who were expected to be in schools or universities were estimated at 5 108 994. Out of this number, more than half of those who can go to school were out of the education system. This situation, coupled with the low completion rate at all levels of education, make traditional apprenticeship the main means of vocational training for a vast majority of the population.

331. The preparation and implementation of the Vocational Training Consolidation Project (PCFP) and the creation of a Support Fund for Vocational Training and Apprenticeship (FAFPA) have provided an appropriate response to the problem of financing of vocational training for the working population of the productive sectors. It contributed to the establishment and structuring of the vocational training market. During the early years of its existence, the Fund was replenished mainly by financial partners (World Bank, French Cooperation Agency, and Swiss Cooperation Agency) and the Government, through vocational training tax. However, since 2007, this rate has been increased to the current 2%. The increase is expected to enable it to broaden its financing activities, in particular coverage of training and retraining activities for the working population of the productive sector.

332. It is important to note that FAFPA provides very little support for training activities for the unemployed. Exceptionally, the World Bank financed the vocational training component of the second phase of the Education Sector Investment Programme (PISE II). The DNFP and other vocational training structures cover training courses organized for young school dropouts and final year students of CEDs.

333. The National Employment Agency (ANPE) provides support for training to integrate the unemployed, further training and reconversion of workers.

334. Training linked to apprenticeship organized for youths are mainly covered by the Youth Employment Promotion Agency (APEJ) and the National Vocational Training Directorate (DNFP).

335. The DNFP provides vocational training for dropouts from basic education I and II, and final year students of CEDs. In terms of activities, from 2006 to 2008, the DNFP : (i) trained 6 660 youths in trades through dual apprenticeship for an amount of CFAF 886 800 000 ; (ii) equipped 175 handicraft enterprises that receive learners from the MEFP for an amount of CFAF 175 000 000; (iii) developed 5 training programmes for an amount of CFAF 50 000 000 ; (iv) prepared 5 apprenticeship regulations; (v) trained endogenous trainers throughout the country; (vi) organized two sessions for validation of acquired experience (VAE) for an amount of CFAF 14 000 000 in two trades (electronics and refrigeration, air-conditioning).

336. One (1) public centre and 58 approved private centres, by a MEFP opening decision, were identified.

337. The APEJ placed 184 youths on apprenticeship, including 56% women, 60% in the tertiary sector and 40% in the secondary sector.

338. For the qualifying vocational training component, the objective was amply achieved with 1554 training orders (out of 1,476 proposed) including 43% for the agro-pastoral sub-sector and 30% for the handicraft sub-sector. The implementation cost was CFAF 212 475 312 for a unit cost of CFAF 136 728.

339. A Committee of Experts responsible for preparations for the formulation of a Ten Year Vocational Training Development Programme for Employment (PRODEFPE) was set up by Decision No. 08–0198/MEFP–SG of 7 October 2008. It operates in the Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training under the responsibility of a Coordinator appointed by the Minister.

4.4.2. Problems and Constraints

340. The problems and constraints are mainly:

  • - Inadequate human and material resources, financing for some projects/programmes, participatory process in preparing project/programme documents, monitoring of projects/programmes and coordination in the employment sector;

  • - Inadequate studies on the vocational training sector for structures responsible for monitoring and evaluation (DNFP, FAFPA, Professional Organizations, ANPE, APEJ) ;

  • - Lack of a monitoring-evaluation mechanism for projects/programmes and coordination between the various mechanisms and stakeholders and ministries for vocational training.

4.4.3. Solutions and Prospects

341. The prospects include:

  • - pursuance of support for SME/SMI development ;

  • - development of local financing and private services market to support businessmen;

  • - reinforcement and improvement of the partnership framework (memorandum of understanding, cooperation agreement, etc.) and vocational and technical training;

  • - organization and improvement of the informal sector;

  • - preparation and implementation of the National Action Plan in accordance with the Ouagadougou Declaration and the Ten Year Vocational Training Programme for Employment (PRODEFPE).

342. The immensity of problems facing the vocational training system and the scope and means and resources required to take up the challenge call for long-term programming. Consequently, in its operational phase, the National Vocational Training Policy will have an action plan covering a period of ten years. The action plan will be in the form of Ten Year Employment Training Programme (PRODEFPE) to adapt training to employment. Based on a National Vocational Training Policy paper, efforts will be made to prepare and implement a programme that will take into account requirements relating to training, qualification and capacity building for economic development.

343. The recommendations are as follows:

  • - establish a permanent consultation framework between all the structures of the Ministry by instituting an Annual Exchange Forum;

  • - prepare, in the medium term, plans for common activities of structures at the national and regional levels to ensure synergy;

  • - institute monitoring-evaluation mechanisms in all structures of the Ministry ;

  • - prepare a note establishing the link between vocational training and growth;

  • - make decentralization a reality by transferring adequate human and financial resources to regional structures responsible for implementation;

  • - closely involve regional structures in the implementation of action plans, projects and programmes of the Ministry;

  • - encourage self-employment of youths and women by coupling vocational training with integration;

  • - establish a mechanism for collecting statistical information on the labour market as proposed in the paper on monitoring-evaluation presented to the exchange forum of MEFP structures ;

  • - establish a single and recognized institutional framework to ensure better coordination of vocational training management;

  • - adopt a single vocational training policy that is closely linked to the national employment policy, economic development and decentralization;

  • - adopt a clear and updated legal framework that organizes and regulates the vocational and technical training system (framework law on vocational training) ;

  • - create a formal consultation framework between services under the Ministries responsible for vocational training, private operators, and enterprises, in order to enhance knowledge of human resource requirements in terms of quantity and quality, the integration of trained youths, the adaptation of programmes and refresher courses for trainers; and

  • - operationalize the mechanism for validation of acquired experience and certification of apprenticeship.

4.5. Social Development and Solidarity

344. The Social Development Policy was implemented in 2008 through the “Social Development” component of the second phase of the Health and Social Development Programme (PRODESS II). It has the following major components: enhancement of solidarity and fight against exclusion, the strengthening of social protection and poverty reduction.

4.5.1 Results of Implementation of Policies and Strategies in 2008

4.5.1.1 Strengthening of social protection

345. As regards social security, technical and institutional studies on Compulsory Health Insurance (AMO) and Medical Assistance Plan (RAMED) were conducted and validated during broad-based consultations between partners in labour negotiations. The draft texts on these mechanisms were adopted by the Government.

346. The Compulsory Health Insurance will cover nearly 2,000,000 persons (civil servants, workers, members of parliament and retired persons, as well as their rightful claimants). The Medical Assistance Plan will cover about 500,000 persons (the poor).

347. In order to improve the management of the two social security institutions (INPS and CRM), MDSSPA embarked on major reforms concerning a review of the texts of the two institutions, and the adoption of a parametization plan. For the CRM, the Government has already adopted the Retirement Code in 2008, and is waiting for its adoption by the National Assembly. For the INPS, the reform texts are being adopted by the Government.

348. As regards mutual plans, about 2.6% of the population of Mali are currently covered for various social risks (health, retirement, others). The coverage rate for health alone was 1.9% in 2008.

349. The efforts made resulted in the registration of 23 new approved mutual associations, bringing the total number to 121 at the end of 2008. Coverage for the population increased from 1.8% (215,156 beneficiaries out of a total population of 12,204,090 inhabitants) to 1.9% (244,028 beneficiaries out of a population of 12,712,655 inhabitants). Although the target of 2.1% coverage of the population was not attained, the result is significant because progress was made despite the inadequate material and financial resources.

Table 30:Trend of coverage rate by mutual associations
YearPopulation of MaliNumber of BeneficiariesCoverage Rate in %
All ServicesHealthAll ServicesHealth
200511,785,899169,836154,4151.41.3
200612,051,021253,583166,0212.11.4
200712,204,090310,525215,1562.51.8
2008

12,712,655333,079244,0282.61.9
Source: DNPSES
Source: DNPSES

350. As regards solidarity economy, 3,296 cooperative societies were created between 2007 and 2008, bringing the total to 14,927 in Mali. They have a total of 693,380 members. Out of this number of cooperative societies, about 19% are considered as effectively operational in light of the relevant criteria.

351. Poverty Zone I alone has 81.2% of the cooperative societies, thereby indicating the efforts made by solidarity enterprises in priority in this zone to reduce poverty. It covers the poorest regions according to the 2001 classification (Mopti, Koulikoro, Sikasso, Ségou). It should be noted that the operational cooperative societies created 1,972 jobs and generated CFAF 11,847,158,770 turnover in 2008.

4.5.1.2. Enhancement of solidarity and fight against exclusion

In 2008, the achievements were as follows:

Table 31 :Indicators for strengthening solidarity and fight against exclusion
IndicatorsForecastsAchievementsAchievement Rate
Number of handicapped children enrolled in schools400450113%
Number of poor single women family heads assisted and monitored6473470673%
Number of children in difficulty enrolled in schools4850453193%
Number of persons affected and infected by HIV/AIDS provided with psychosocial services4281368286%
Number of old persons whose medical expenses are covered8907868998%
Number of handicapped persons with equipment12191492122%
Number of persons whose medical expenses are covered48048237171%
Source: DNDS
Source: DNDS

4.5.1.3. Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Human Development

In 2008, the achievements were as follows:

Table 32:Indicators for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Human Development
IndicatorsForecastsAchievementsAchievement Rate
Number of income-generating activities financed9611601663%
Number of basic infrastructures constructed1115852%
Number of projects financed48125353%
Number of associations supported1429135995%
Source: DNDS
Source: DNDS

4.5.2 Problems and Constraints

352. On the whole, the problems encountered in 2008 in the implementation of the Social Development component of PRODESS II are:

  • - inadequate financing for the sector,

  • - low capacity of some Social Development stakeholders; and

  • - inadequate working material resources (offices, logistics, etc.)

4.5.3. Solutions and Prospects

As regards strengthening of social protection, the solutions and prospects include:

  • - operationalization of the Compulsory Health Insurance (AMO) and the Medical Assistance Plan (RAMED) in 2010 ;

  • - effective implementation of reform of the Pension Fund of Mali ;

  • - intensification of social protection for children through : (i) the preparation of the 2010-2014 action plan to extend social protection, (ii) the launching of pilot programmes based on clear criteria (locality, poverty, age, etc.), (iii) the introduction of tax incentive to finance enhancement of the social protection policy, (iv) the establishment of social transfer systems (allowances for poor families and poor households headed by women) ;

  • - preparation of new mutual plans development strategies so as to significantly increase the population coverage rate by the mutual associations, and particularly for mutual health associations.

353. With respect to strengthening solidarity and the fight against exclusion, efforts will focus on closer supervision of social groups such as old people, disabled persons, single women who are heads of families, beggars, fistula patients, poor people, and children out of touch with the society, etc.

4.6. Drinking Water

4.6.1. Results of implementation of policies and strategies in 2008

354. It is necessary to have an operational perspective of how to boost the PROSEA Steering Committee so as to operationalize the programme. The establishment of the Water and Environment CPS constitutes progress in PROSEA implementation, and particularly in coordination between water and sanitation programmes.

355. As regards access to drinking water, the activities for 2008 were scheduled in line with MDG projections for the construction of 2,200 EPEMs per year to achieve a drinking water access rate of 82% in 2015. In rural and semi-urban areas, achievements in 2008 in terms of drinking water supply structures are modest (793 new structures and 289 rehabilitation works). Achievements were therefore below requirements for MDG achievement.

356. At the budgetary level, the total financing requirements for the next three years are estimated at CFAF 120 billion outside the EDM area, of which CFAF 46 billion have so far been acquired. The funds utilization rate is low, about 53% in 2008.

357. The drinking water access rate at the national level increased from 63.4% in 2007 to 64.7% in 2008, according to the detailed method for calculating the access rate. This increase in access rate comes as a result of efforts made to improve services in urban areas by providing 25 drinking water supply systems comprising 471 public fountains and 743 EPEM in rural areas, including 322 through DNH programmes and 421 by the other stakeholders (mainly NGOs). The number of modern water points increased sharply from 28 597 in 2007 to 29 811 in 2008.

Table 33:GPRSF Indicators for Drinking Water Sector (in %)
GPRSF Sector IndicatorsAchievement

2007
Achievement

2008
Forecasts

2008
Target

Achievement

Rate
Proportion of population with sustainable access to better source of water at the following levels
National
Detailed method63.464.769.593
Semi urban and urban75.976.370.3109
Rural

Detailed method5860.169.187
Source: Base SIGMA2/DNH
Source: Base SIGMA2/DNH

4.6.2. Problems and Constraints

358. Implementation of policies and strategies:

  • - inadequacies in the resource mobilization strategy;

  • - delays in public procurement procedures (approval and signing of files) ;

  • - unrealistic programming due to frequent lack of information on the annual targets of projects and programmes ;

  • - lack of regular monitoring of financial implementation;

  • - shortcomings in the monitoring system of physical and financial results ;

  • - problem of technical configuration and regular updating of SIGMA base;

  • - inadequate link between indicators in monitoring procedures; and

  • - lack of standardized periodic reports on the BPO and key indicators;

359. At the institutional level

  • - inadequate clarifications in the institutional framework, in particular the lack of a single framework for the national programme and financing mechanisms, and in particular reform of the status of EDM-SA ;

  • - non-operation of PROSEA steering committee;

  • - current organizational framework of DNH not adapted to its new missions ;

  • - delays in the validation and approval of proposed new organizational framework of DNH formulated under the PDI.

360. Financial resources

  • - disparity between the financing requirements and the level of financing acquired;

  • - delays in the disbursement procedures;

  • - low absorptive capacity of external financing acquired (53% utilization rate) ;

  • - low investments made in EDM-SA area.

361. Human resources:

  • - low filling rate of the organizational framework;

  • - acute lack of some profiles indispensable to the new sector context.

362. Deconcentration of financial and human resources:

  • - limited involvement of local authorities in annual programming;

  • - low capacity of local authorities in terms of programming, implementation and monitoring;

  • - often limited capacity of the private sector;

  • - non-deconcentration of allocations to sector investments.

363. Exogenous problems:

  • - cross-border nature of the country’s water resources;

  • - rapid urbanization which reduces the access rate in urban areas.

4.6.3 Solutions and Prospects

  • - promote PROSEA as programming and coordination framework;

  • - improve the programming and monitoring mechanisms and tools;

  • - improve the absorptive and utilization capacity;

  • - clarify the institutional framework of urban water supply in EDM area;

  • - improve the framework for annual review by resorting to SBS.

4.7 Housing

4.7.1 Results of implementation of policies and strategies in 2008

364. Launched in May 2003, the programme for the construction of 3,500 housing units reflects the will of the highest authorities of the country to create favourable conditions of access for the highest number of Malians to decent housing at least cost.

365. The first tranche of this programme, consisting of 1 008 low-cost housing units, was inaugurated in June 2004. The inauguration of the second programme, comprising 525 housing units in Bamako, Ségou, Gao and Kidal, took place in April 2005. The project for the construction of 879 housing units is the third tranche of construction in Bamako and the regional capitals.

366. A project for the construction of 12 000 housing units over the 2008-2012 period was formulated to meet the numerous requests from low and middle income groups. The Government intends to build 5,400 housing units, and the rest will be built in a public-private partnership.

367. Under this programme for the construction of 3 500 housing units, 4 066 units have been built to date, which means that the forecasts were exceeded. These low and middle income households now have decent and least-cost housing and a sound living environment with drinking water and electricity. Consequently, the shortage of low-cost housing units has been reduced.

368. The programmes are implemented each year within the set time frames. The houses are delivered to the beneficiaries within the same time limits.

369. The main difficulties concern inadequate funds for the construction of low-cost houses, the high cost of building materials which are all imported, and the foreign exchange losses incurred.

370. For the programme of 3,500 low-cost houses, the total financing acquired from the national budget is CFAF 40 875 804 926, which represents a mobilization rate of 93%. The contributions come from the national budget (67%), OMH (27%), and ACI (6%).

4.7.2 Problems and Constraints

371. The main problems and constraints are inadequate financing for the construction of low-cost housing, the high cost of building materials (all imported) and foreign exchange losses.

4.7.3 Solutions and Prospects

372. The proposed solutions and prospects could be summarized as follows:

  • - the construction of a cement factory in Kayes region to contribute to reducing the cost of cement used as construction input;

  • - the construction of low-cost houses with locally produced materials and reduction of costs for low-cost houses;

  • - replication of programmes for the construction of low-cost housing based on rents paid in 2015.

CONCLUSION

373. The Malian economy recorded a growth of 5.2% in 2008. The objective (6.4%) was not achieved mainly because of the decline in cotton and gold production. The upsurge in the prices of oil products, fertilizers and rice resulted in much higher general prices than expected, with an inflation rate of 9.2% as against 1.4% in 2007.

374. The year 2008 was marked by a series of crises. The Malian economy is vulnerable to exogenous shocks, and faced a rise in food and oil prices. One-quarter of households in Mali are in a situation of chronic food insecurity, and 15% of households are still very vulnerable to food insecurity. Cereals account for one-third of the food basket, and makes up nearly 50% of the consumption expenditure of most households. The rise in food prices thus had a significant impact on the poor and vulnerable groups, such as children. World Bank estimates indicate an increase in the incidence of poverty from 3.5% to 5%.

375. In view of the combined impacts of the shocks on the prices of hydrocarbons and the food crisis, the Government adopted a combination of measures that could be classified in three categories:

  • a. Reduce tax on rice imports and internal production by: (i) exempting a limited quantity of rice, powder milk and cooking oil from import duties and taxes until September 2008 ; (ii) temporarily reducing tax on oil products, particularly gasoil; and (iii) temporarily prohibiting exports of rice, maize, millet and sorghum (measure not fully applied and abolished in December 2008).

  • b. Reinforce targeted programmes to protect the most vulnerable groups by using the cereals of village cereal banks and adopting a new school canteen programme in the poorest zones.

  • c. Boost domestic production of rice by providing financial and technical support through subsidies on inputs and agricultural machinery and strengthening of agricultural advisory services.

376. The response helped to contain social unrest, but the reduced indirect taxes on rice had limited impact on prices, production and poverty. The tax cuts led to high budget costs, and were not properly targeted to reduce poverty. Rice consumption for 40% of the poorest population stands at 11% in Mali. Consequently, for each CFA franc reduction in taxes, the poorest people would gain only 11 centimes. Furthermore, tax reductions cannot be fully passed on to the consumers if the markets are dominated by a few traders. Lastly, reduction in import duties could be harmful to national producers if the locally produced foodstuffs (particularly rice) have to adapt to world prices.

377. The development of social protection programmes appears to be more promising, but geographical targeting is crucial for reaching the most vulnerable. Food aid and labour-intensive works are of more benefit to the poor when they are well targeted. Food aid is more effective when the cereal stocks in the country are significant and when it is used for remuneration for a job, which helps to automatically target the poorest. School canteen programmes could have a significant impact in Mali with a high percentage of non-scholarized and malnourished children.

378. The increase in rice productivity could have a major impact and result in poverty reduction in the medium term, mainly because an increase in rice production reduces not only the prices of local rice, but also generates higher income for rice producers and has a positive ripple effect on the rest of the economy thanks to an increase in local production and reduction in imports. The increase in rice production is also more favourable to the poor than reduction of taxes on rice imports.

379. As for the financial crisis, the world recession and fall in commodity prices (gold and cotton in particular) will affect Mali’s economic performance, but the terms of trade could be maintained as a result of fall in oil prices. The projects for the privatization of cotton, the BHM and SOTELMA could be affected by a decline in direct foreign investment. Mali’s limited integration into the capital markets protects the economy from the world credit crisis. However, the financing of cotton trade could be more difficult to obtain and more expensive. The high exposure of some banks to the cotton sector is a major risk. The national banking system has sufficient liquidity, but increased aversion for risks in the WAEMU zone could reduce Mali’s capacity to obtain financing at the regional level. Reduced foreign assistance could have a significant budgetary impact if promises of aid are not kept. The gross aid inflows amount to 10% of GDP and finance more than one-third of Government expenditure. Remittances were officially estimated at 3.5% of GDP in 2007. A significant drop in these remittances following a deterioration of the labour market of the European Union would have negative impacts on well-being in Mali.

380. The good 2008-2009 crop season, as a result of favourable climatic conditions, helped to contain the negative impact of the food, oil and financial crises in Mali. The Government’s response consisted in increased surveillance and partial transmission of the fall in oil prices to domestic prices, which restored the tax levels of oil prices. However, the situation remains fragile and subject to change. The decline in world oil and food prices slowed down inflation. However, projections indicate an increase in overall budget deficit by about 0.6% of GDP in 2009, and this remains a cause for concern.

381. Nevertheless, with the firm determination of the authorities to ensure food sovereignty through a support strategy for national production and the implementation of the action plan of the Accelerated Growth Strategy (to diversify sources of growth in Mali), the Malian economy is expected to maintain growth at 4.7% in 2009.

382. Proactive macroeconomic and structural measures will be implemented to reduce vulnerability of the economy to exogenous shocks, control endogenous shocks which hamper achievement of the objectives of our economic policies, and improve the GPRSF monitoring-evaluation indicators.

383. The following recommendations are made to correct the weaknesses and shortcomings in the GPRSF implementation:

  • - ensure regular monitoring-evaluation of poverty reduction activities through operationalization of the GPRSF action plan;

  • - effectively mobilize the fund pledges made by partners during the donor round table in 2008 so as to obtain the financing required for implementing GPRSF activities and carry out additional required activities as defined in the Ten Year MDG Achievement Plan in 2015;

  • - implement the accelerated growth strategy;

  • - better target interventions for the poor in crisis situations;

  • - assess the Rice Initiative, laying emphasis on the key factors of competitiveness of the rice sub-sector (structure of cost price of kg of rice) of Mali and draw lessons so as to enhance availability of food in the long term;

  • - reinforce the food security mechanism;

  • - strengthen the national civil society council and other umbrella organizations;

  • - accelerate the implementation of the Statistics Master Plan (SDS) ;

  • - strengthen the mining and petroleum exploration mechanism so as to diversify mining resources and prepare for the “post-gold period” ; and

  • - strengthen adult literacy strategies so as to increase the literacy rate.

ANNEXES
ANNEX I. 2008 RESULTS MATRIX
ResultsIndicators
IndicatorsTypeMDG Target 2015Baseline

Value
AchievementsGPRSF TargetSources of VerificationMethod of

Data Collection
FrequencyResponsible
200620072008Forecasts 2008Achievement Rate 2008CollectionAnalysis
Poverty and Food Security
Promote strong and sustained growth, and reduce poverty significantly
Poverty
The poverty level declined1. Incidence of povertyI34.40%56.00%53.60%ODHD/DNSISurveysFive yearsODHD/DNSIODHD/DNSI
Food Security
Food security is ensured for each Malian
Number of people in situation of serious food insecurity declines2. Proportion of people with food difficulties assisted.R-1.17%0%0%0.79%AchievedSAP Report on the food and nutrition situationReportingAnnualSAPSAP
National cereal

stocks

increased
3. Level of national cereal stocks made up of the National Buffer Stock (SNS) and the State Intervention Stock (cereal banks) in tonnesA--59 60076 94469 700110.39%OPAM/SAPReportingAnnualCSACSA
The food situation of children below 5 years is improved4. Acute infant malnutrition rate (%)I-14.40%10%6.10%12%196.72%Result of vulnerability survey on sentinel sites conducted by SAP in collaboration with UNICEF, WFP, DNSl, INRSP, FEWS Net, CPS of the Ministries of Health and AgricultureSurvey methodAnnualSAPSAP
Macroeconomic and Budgetary Framework
Sustained accelerated growth
Growth, financial stability, public finance management
GDP growth rate reached an average of 7%5. Real GDP growth rate (%)R5.85.14.35.26.678.79%DNSI/DNPDReporting (Administrative method of data collection)AnnualDNSI/DNPDDNSI/DNPD
6. Outstanding debt/GDP ratioR-2120.4%22.6%25.3%89.33%DNPD/DGDPReporting (Administrative method of data collection)AnnualDGDPDGDP/CPM
Promote strong and sustained growth and significantly reduce poverty7. Total real expenditure/initially approved budgetRAABADGBPEFA MethodEvery 3 yearsDGBDGB
Community standards for

public finance are achieved
8. Tax ratio (%)I17.214.714.214.71786.47%DNSI / DNPDReporting (Administrative method of data collection)AnnualDNSI / DNPDDNSI / DNPD
9. Average annual inflation rate (%)I0.21.51.59.21.314%DNSI / DNPDReporting (Administrative method of data collection)AnnualDNSI / DNPDDNSI / DNPD
10. Percentage of investment expenditure financed with internal resources (%)R22.525.822.522.5DGB/DNTCPGFFTAnnualDGB/DNTCPDGB/DNTCP
Development of basic infrastructures and productive sectors
Rural Development
Cereal

production

increased
11. Total cereal production (in thousands of tonnes)R-3.6933 88548154 685102.77%CPS Agriculture/DNAOverall

Agricultural

Surveys
AnnualCPS Agriculture/DNACPS Agriculture/DNA
Access by the population to irrigated

agriculture is improved
12. Additional lands developed with total water control (in ha)R12 00010 1663 31434149 18537.17%CPS Agriculture/DNGRPGA data and inventory of

developed sites
QuarterlyDRGR, Coordination PGADRGR, Coordination PGA
Cotton production (main export crop) is increased13. Seed cotton production (in tonnes)R620 000414 965242 233201 000526 10038.21%CPS Agriculture / CMDTIdentification of land areas and production estimatesAnnualCMDT (DPA)DPA/CMDT
14. Cotton lint production (in tonnes)R266 600175 797100 94185654220 96038.76%CPS Agriculture / CMDTEstimates based on agricultural productionAnnualCMDT (DPI)DPI / CMDT
15. Cattle population (head)
Animal production is improvedCattleR10 233 9137 843 4428 141 00083857008321108100.78%DNPIA/Annual reportsData of 1991 National Census to which were applied the annual growth ratesAnnualDRPIADSEI
Sheep (head)R13 761 4228 870 7359 761 00010 249 6009 779 985104.80%"""""
Goats (head)R19 620 36812 647 46413 593 00014 272 70013943829102.36%
Milk and meat production is developedMilk (T)R2 267 4091 815 5791 798 5021 187 992191679861.98%DNPIA/2006 Annual ReportProduction estimates based on bioeconomic parametersAnnualDRPIADSEI
Meat (T)R49 51539 64844 9214796341858114.59%DNPIA/2006 Annual ReportStatistics of

controlled

slaughter
AnnualDRPIADSEI
The competitiveness of skins and leather sub-sectors has improvedSkin exports (T)R1 8061 446.001 421.009861 526.6164.59%DNPIA/Monthly

and annual reports
Controlled skin exportsWeekly, monthly and annualDRPIADSEI
Leather exports (T)R10 8088 654.512 047.001579913717.28%DNPIA/Monthly and annual reportsControlled leather exportsWeekly, monthly and annualDRPIADSEI
Implementation of the national environmental protection policy helped to increase the number of lands reforested16. Land areas reforested (ha)R-7 5309 079.37103901111793.46%Periodic and annual reports of the DNCN and

DRCNs
Documentary analytical grid, interview guide, questionnaire, interview guide based on target environmentQuarterly and annualCPS SEEUD/DNCNCPS SEEUD/DNCN
17. Number of simplified development and management plans prepared and implementedR-1505022025088.00%Studies and files available, periodic and annual reports of the

DNCN and DRCNs
Documentary analytical grid, interview guide, questionnaire, interview guide based on target environmentQuarterly and annualCPS SEEUD/DNCNCPS SEEUD/DNCN
Purification stations for liquid, solid and gaseous waste from industrial and handicraft plants were constructed in major towns18. Percentage of population with access to an adequate sanitation system (%)R5019-232495.83%DNAPNC,

Municipalities, Projects
CensusAnnualCPS SEEUD/DNAPNCCPS SEEUD/DNAPNC
19. Reduction of waterways infestation with invasive aquatic plants (%)R100--10Documents ABFN, IER, ON, ProjectsReportingAnnualRegional stationsABFN
Transport Infrastructures
Extension and quality of road network management helped to improve road transport20.a. Number of km of tarred roads maintainedA7 3013 7733 7733 5693 500101.97%CPS/MET-DNR-SDRReporting (Administrative method of data collection)AnnualCPS/MET-DNR-SDRCPS/MET-DNR-SDR
20.b. Number of km of earth roads maintainedA9 4205 8258 7008 9418 800101.60%CPS/MET-DNR-SDRReporting (Administrative method of data collection)AnnualCPS/MET-DNR-SDRCPS/MET-DNR-SDR
21.a. Number of km of tarred roads in good stateA4 4131 6752 7932 8802 800102.86%CPS/METReporting (Administrative method of data collection)AnnualCPS/MET-DNR-SDRCPS/MET-DNR-SDR
21.b. Number of km of earth roads in good stateA3 7691 6755 22035953500102.71%CPS/METReporting (Administrative method of data collection)AnnualCPS/MET-DNR-SDRCPS/MET-DNR-SDR
22. Number of km of feeder roads constructedA1 800-263,387645168.89%CPS/MET-DNR-SDRReporting (Administrative method of data collection)AnnualCPS/MET-DNR-SDRCPS/MET-DNR-SDR
Communication infrastructure
The population has better access to telephone23. Percentage of council areas covered by telephones (fixed and mobile)R70505335151.43%CPS-MET/CRT,

SOTELMA,

ORANGE
Reporting (Administrative method of data collection)AnnualCPS-MET/CRT, SOTELMA, ORANGECPS-MET/CRT, SOTELMA, ORANGE
Energy and Mines
The population has better access to electricity24. Electricity access rate in:RNational:

64.6%

Urban: 86.90%

Rural: 55.00%
National :

16.9%

Urban: 52.90% Rural: 1.30%
National:

18.98%

Urban: 55.58% Rural

3.15%
National:

25.41%

Urban: 58.19%

Rural: 11.23%
National:

23.40%

Urban: 59.00% Rural: 8.00%
National:

108.59%

Urban: 98.62% Rural: 140.37%
Statistics Compendium by

CPS/ME
Reporting (Administrative method of data collection)AnnualCPS/MECPS/ME
The mining sector has improved and helped to maintain gold production at a satisfactory level25. Industrial gold exports in tonnesR4762,02456.752.860,05687.92%Statistics Compendium by

CPS/ME
Reporting (Administrative method of data collection)AnnualCPS/MECPS/ME
Industry, Trade
The business environment has improved26. Number of procedures required for starting a business.R-13111111100.00%Doing

Business report
Surveys and opinion poolsAnnualDoing Business Team (World Bank Group)Doing Business Team (World Bank Group)
27. Number of days taken to start a businessR-42262626100.00%Doing Business reportSurveys and opinion poolsAnnualDoing Business Team (World Bank Group)Doing Business Team (World Bank Group)
Culture, Handicraft, Tourism
Develop SMEs-SMIs in Culture, Handicraft and Tourism sectors28. Number of guests in hotelsR-200 003221 32823449023500099.78%OMATHOStatistical monitoring of accommodation cardsMonthOMATHOOMATHO
29. Value of handicraft exports (in CFAF thousand)R-506, 9701 168, 352860,315527,452163.11%CNPAStatistical monitoring of certificates of origin/

Evaluation of participation cards for fairs, exhibitions and festivals
MonthCNPACNPA
Institutional Development, Governance and Participation
Commitment of Central

Government to decentralization
30. Percentage of national budget effectively transferred to local authorities in comparison to amount recorded in

the budget (%)
A--100100100100.00%DGB/DNCT/CADBReportingAnnualCDI/UECDI/UE
Local

governance
31. Percentage of reports on ordinary sessions held and submitted to supervisory authority (%)A-6099.1589.0880111.35%Base OISE/DNCT/CDI/HCCTReportingAnnualDNCTDNCT
Mobilization of LA own resources32. Amount of LA own resources per inhabitant (in CFAF)A-892765.581012984102.85%Base OISE/DNCT/HCCTReportingAnnualDNCTP/DNP/DNCT/CDIDNCTP/DNP/DNCT/CDI
Technical support to LAs33. Percentage of LAs that received assistance (%)A-100100 (59.11

base

OISE)
100100100.00%Base OISE/DNCT/HCCTReportingAnnualDNCT/CDI/ANICT/CNNDNCT/CDI/ANICT
Improvement of functioning of central and decentralized services34. New Revenue Offices put in serviceA-111199100.00%CDI/DNCTPReportingAnnualDNCTPCDI/DNCTP
35. Number of functional units computerized and connected to the IntranetA-24303636100.00%AGETIC/CDIReportingAnnualAGETIC/CDIAGETIC/CDI
36. Trend of average time for procurements DGMP (days)R-129119109.6811099.71%DGMPReportingAnnualDGMP/CDIDGMP/CDI
Strengthen the capacities of civil society37. The number of alternative monitoring and evaluation reports

of GPRSF

produced by the civil society
A-2451500.00%Report of alternative products by civil society: CNSC CONACIPAL,

FOSCAO, GSB

and AMDH
Surveys,

documentary

reviews
AnnualCNSCCNSC
38. Number of civil society development programmes implemented and receiving technical and financial support from the

State
A-4431300.00%CNSC and other umbrella CSOsSurveys with umbrella CSOs, ministries and

TFPs
AnnualCNSCCNSC
39. Number of civil society proposals and/or opinions taken into account by the Government in policies or problems of national interestA-2231300.00%CNSC and other umbrella CSOsSurveys with umbrella CSOs and ministriesAnnualCNSCCNSC
40. Percentage of associations and NGOs signatories of framework agreement with the State that have submitted an annual reportA-19%39.37%19.00%21%90.48%CADB/MATCLReportingAnnualCADBCADB/MATCL
Justice41. Number of judges per inhabitantR-1/30 000 inhbt1/25 0001/272031/2535393.20%National Directorate of Judicial AdministrationReportingAnnualNational Directorate of Judicial AdministrationNational Directorate of Judicial Administration
42. Number of justice

infrastructures constructed or rehabilitated
A251255100.00%DAF of the Ministry of JusticeReportingAnnualDAF of the Ministry of JusticeDAF of the Ministry of Justice
43. Rating of Mali in the Corruption Perception Index report by Transparency InternationalR-2,82,73,13,588.57%TI/ODHDTransparency

International

report
AnnualTI/ODHDTI/ODHD
Strengthening of the social sector
Education
Girls/boys disparity in primary education is eliminated44 Gross Enrolment Rate in 1st cycle of basic education (all schools)RStatistical Yearbook CPS/EducationReportingAnnualCPS EducationCPS Education
a. Overall GER91%75.0 %

(G=65.1%) (B=85.1%)
77.6%

(G=68%) (B=87.8%,)
80% (G=70.7%) (B=89.5%)80%100.00%
b. GER parity index G/B0.760.770.79%b.

reduction of gaps
45. Gross Admission Rate in 1st cycle (all schools)RStatistical Yearbook CPS/EducationReportingAnnualCPS EducationCPS Education
a. GAR90%74.20%

(F=67.0%) (G=81.5%)
75.8%

(F=68%) (G=82%,)
79.4% (F=68%) (G=82%,)82.20%96.59%
b. GAR parity index G/B0.820.830.83b.

reduction of gaps
The quality of primary education is improved46. Completion Rate in 1st cycle basic education (all schools)RStatistical Yearbook CPS/EducationReportingAnnualCPS EducationCPS Education
a. CR82.50%48.50%

(F=38.4%) (G=58. %)
53.2%

(F=42.9%) (G=63. %)
53.3% (F= %) (G= %)56.40%94.50%
b. CR parity index G/B0.650,670.70b.

reduction of gaps
47. Pupil/teacher ratio in 1st cycle basic education (public and community schools)R505655555993.22%Statistical Yearbook CPS/EducationReportingAnnualCPS EducationCPS Education
HIV/AIDS Control
Access by population to health services is improved48. Percentage of population within a radius of 5 km from a functional health centreR58%51%58 %58%54%107.78%Statistical Yearbook

CPS/Health
ReportingAnnualCPS / HealthCPS / Health
Children below 1 year are immunized49.a. Immunization coverage rate for DTCP3 (Penta 3) for children below 1 yearR94%92%94%94%92%102.17%Statistical Yearbook

CPS/Health
ReportingAnnualCPS / HealthCPS / Health
49.b. Immunization coverage rate against measles for children below 1 yearR-82%89%91%Statistical Yearbook (SLIS) CPS/HealthReportingAnnualCPS / HealthCPS / Health
Delivery assisted by qualified staff for women50. Assisted delivery rate (including ATR)R65%55%58%61%56%108.93%Statistical Yearbook

CPS/Health
ReportingAnnualCPS / HealthCPS / Health
Level of prenatal consultation has increased51. PNC rateR80%75%78%85%79%107.59%Statistical Yearbook

CPS/Health
ReportingAnnualCPS / HealthCPS / Health
Level of use of health services is improved52. Utilization rate of curative consultation (new consultants/inhbt/yr)R-0.260.270.290.3193.55%Statistical Yearbook (SLIS and SIH)

CPS/Health
ReportingAnnualCPS/HealthCPS/Health
HIV/AIDS

control is intensified
53. HIV/AIDS prevalence rate for pregnant womenI1.75%3.50%-1.80%Sentinel

Surveillance

Report

CPS/Health
ReportingAnnualCPS / HealthCPS / Health
Social development and solidarity
Health

coverage of the population by joint health insurance systems has increased
54a. Percentage of population covered by mutual associationsR-1.70%2.4%2.60%4.50%57.78%SISo ReportReportingAnnualCDS/DNPSESCDS/DNPSES
54b. Percentage of population covered by health mutual associationsR-1.50%1.71.90%2.10%90.48%SISo ReportReportingAnnualCDS/DNPSESCDS/DNPSES
Coverage of poor people is improved55. Percentage of poor people given medical careR-35%-37%SISo ReportReportingAnnualCDS/DNDSCDS/DNDS
Housing
Access to housing by low income population is facilitated56. Number of low-cost houses built for the low-income populationR12 0004 0811 65 7-875Report of DAF/MLAFUReportingAnnualDAF/MLAFUDAF/MLAFU
Employment
Sustainable jobs are created and promoted57. Number of new jobs createdR-23 01917 27726 22410 000262.24%Annual ReportData collection through administrative cardsAnnualDNE/ANPE/DOEFDNE/ANPE/DOEF
Gender and Equity
Gender equality and equity is promoted in the population.58. Percentage of seats occupied by women in elective officesR306,46,46.41542.67%Collection report/Database Women and children CNDIFECollection cardsAnnualCNDIFE/MATCL/consular chambersCNDIFE/MATCL/Consular chambers
59. Percentage of women farmersR303,1-10CPS Rural Development/CNDIFECensus3 yearsCPS Rural Development/CNDIFECPS Rural Development/CNDIFE
Drinking Water
The population has better access to drinking water60. Proportion of population with sustainable access to a water source at the following levels:RNational: 80.40% Semiurban and urban: 90.70% Rural: 75.90%National: 67.40% Semiurban and urban: 76.6% Rural: 63.70%National: 70.10% Semiurban and urban: 75.90% Rural: 67.6%National: 71.70% Semiurban and urban: 76.30% Rural: 69.90%National: 70.3% Semiurban and urban: 74.10% Rural: 69.7%National: 102% Semi-urban and urban: 103% Rural: 100%Statistics Compendium by CPS/SEEUDReporting (Administrative method of data collection)AnnualCPS/SEEUDCPS/SEEUD

General Report of the PRSF 2002-2006 Annual Review (MEF, 2007).

World Economic Outlook database of the IMF, October 2008.

According to ELIMII data (essential costs method), the Gini Index on inequalities shows little change between 2001 (0.38) and (0.36). The fall is significant in rural areas and negligible in urban areas.

The Doing Business indicator “Starting a business” considers the conditions for staring a business: number of stages, duration and costs required for a limited liability company to legally start its activity.

ODHD-UNDP: National Sustainable Human Development Report _ Microfinance and Poverty Reduction in Mali (October 2008)

The NGO and civil society component, subject to a memorandum of understanding on Collaboration and Cooperation with the Government of Mali, submits annual reports to the CADB. The other NGOs prepare annual reports, but do not submit them to the CADB or CNSC.

2 000 with IDA financing, 1 000 with FTI financing, and 1 050 with CIDA financing.

IDA Financing only.

The next test results are expected at the end of 2009.

As from 2008, DTCP3 was replaced by Pentavalent 3 (Pentavalent = DTC + hepatitis B + Hemophlius Influenza).

Complete data are not yet available, particularly those of private employment offices.

Other Resources Citing This Publication