I. Review of the Vision for Development, National Priorities, Main Objectives, and Strategic Pillars
1.1 Review of the vision for Burkina Faso’s long-term development
Poverty reduction is a long-term strategic objective and therefore requires a future-oriented stance. In 1995, the government of Burkina Faso outlined its long-term development vision in the Letter of Intent on a Sustainable Human Development Policy, the purpose of which is to focus the country’s development strategy on the concept of human security.1 The poverty reduction strategy formulated in 2000 and revised in 2003 is based not only on that letter, but also on the interim results of the national, forward-looking study entitled “Burkina 2025,” which confirm the urgency of addressing poverty from a structural perspective. In order to achieve this goal, the dynamics of regional integration must be considered an action variable that will enable Burkina Faso to participate more fully in the globalization process. Moreover, the country should (i) pursue highly effective macroeconomic policies in order to achieve strong, sustainable, and better distributed growth; (ii) increase and enhance the quality of government expenditure to expedite the development of human capital; (iii) strengthen the decentralization process and measures aimed at modernizing public administration.
1.2 Review of quantitative medium-term development objectives
Within the framework of PRSP implementation, the major quantitative objectives are: (i) to reduce the incidence of poverty from 46.4 percent in 2003 to less than 35 percent by 2015; (ii) increase GDP per capita by at least 4 percent per year from 2004 onward; (iii) increase life expectancy to at least 60 years by 2015. These objectives are consistent with attainment of the Millennium Development Goals and those being pursued under the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD).
1.3 Review of national priorities
The following have been designated priority sectors: education and basic health, safe water and rural development (including food security and improved access to remote areas), HIV/AIDS prevention, environment and quality of life (desertification, sanitation, rural electrification), public safety, small and medium-sized enterprises and industries and small-scale mining, capacity building (including the promotion of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The synergy of actions in all these sectors is expected to aid significantly in anti-poverty efforts.
1.4 Review of the main objectives and strategic pillars of the 2005-07 Priority Action Program (PAP)
The 2005-07 Priority Action Program is expected to help remove obstacles to economic and social progress. By 2007, the aim is to reduce the overall poverty rate to 43.3 percent, with rural and urban poverty rates amounting to 48.1 percent and 16.6 percent, respectively. The targets for 2005 were 43.7 percent, 48.1 percent, and 17.9 percent, respectively. The intermediate objectives of the 2005-07 PAP are the following:
- Improve the fundamentals and competitiveness of the economy, and particularly the business climate to facilitate private sector development;
- Enhance the efficiency of social expenditure to expand access to basic social services and welfare;
- Help create jobs and income for the poor to reduce rural poverty;
- Accelerate the decentralization process and increase the efficiency and transparency of fiscal management to promote strong growth with equity.
The main thrust of the 2005-07 PAP is to ensure sustained and more robust economic growth to substantially reduce poverty. Achieving this goal means pursuing effective macroeconomic policies, as well as adopting appropriate sectoral policies and measures involving investment components and capacity-building to implement the four pillars of the PRSP. In addition, the principles of good governance must become a part of the daily activities of the country’s institutions.
The above-mentioned objectives will be achieved through programs organized around the four strategic pillars, namely:
- Pillar 1: Acceleration of equity-based growth by implementing programs to promote (i) macroeconomic consolidation and stability, (ii) improved economic competitiveness, and (iii) support for the productive sectors.
- Pillar 2: Improved access for the poor to basic social services and welfare by implementing programs to facilitate access for the poor to education, healthcare and nutrition (including HIV/AIDS prevention), safe water and sanitation (including pollution control), housing and welfare services.
- Pillar 3: Broadening, under equitable conditions, of job and other income-generating opportunities for the poor through programs to reduce the vulnerability of agricultural activity; improve and protect access to land; intensify and diversify plant, animal, forest, wildlife, and fish products; increase and diversify rural incomes; support producer organizations; improve the living and working conditions of rural women; promote employment and vocational training; and improve access to rural areas.
- Pillar 4: Promotion of good governance through programs to promote political, administrative, economic, and local governance.
II. Status of implementation of the pap for 2005
2.1 Financing of the PAP for 2005
For 2005, the Priority Action Program for the implementation of the PRSP called for a Public Investment Program in the total amount of CFAF 410.3 billion, well above the amount of the PIP adopted by the 2005 budget law, which was CFAF 292.7 billion. Some 70.4 percent of the PAP financing was theoretically acquired (CFAF 289 billion in appropriations), with 29.6 percent yet to be mobilized (CFAF 121.3 billion). The mobilization rate (70.4 percent) is virtually equal to that of 2004, which was 70.3 percent.
The overall assessment of the 2005 PAP included some projects contained in the budget law that were not taken into account. At the same time, the record of PIP results transmitted by the ministries is prepared by project, but the breakdown of project components does not always line up with the PAP estimates. Adjustments were necessary to avoid duplicate entries. The overall results, based on the information provided by the sectoral ministries, are shown in the table below:
The amounts mobilized were broken down into four separate pillars, as follows:
- Pillar 1: Of the CFAF 128.2 billion programmed, some CFAF 89.2 billion were mobilized, yielding a mobilization rate of 69.6 percent;
- Pillar 2: Of the CFAF 128.8 billion programmed, CFAF 100.2 billion were mobilized, yielding a mobilization rate of 77.8 percent;
- Pillar 3: Of the CFAF 118.2 billion programmed, CFAF 86.71 billion were mobilized, yielding a mobilization rate of 73.4 percent;
- Pillar 4: Of the CFAF 35.2 billion programmed, CFAF 12.9 billion were mobilized, yielding a mobilization rate of 36.7 percent.
Of the total CFAF 289.0 billion, the amount of resources mobilized for activities to promote the social and growth sectors was the largest, at 65.5 percent. The resources mobilized for activities to promote employment and generate revenue, and to foster good governance, accounted for only 34.5 percent of total financing. Pillar 4 recorded the lowest mobilization rate (36.7 percent). These financial allocations clearly indicate that the main pillar of the Priority Action program is to ensure strong economic growth and, in particular, to develop human capital in the hope of reducing the incidence of poverty.
In terms of execution, CFAF 191.3 billion were disbursed, yielding a financial execution rate of 66.2 percent. The results shown in Table 1 above also show that funding was concentrated on Pillar 2 and Pillar 1 (66.8 percent of total execution), in an effort to create conditions for sustainable growth and improve human development indicators. The results for each pillar are as follows:
|Pillar||Initial 2005 programming (CFAF million)||Amount acquired or mobilized||Mobilization rate (%)||Execution 2005 (CFAF million)||Rate of execution (%)|
Pillar 1: Accelerate equity-based growth
Of a total projected amount of CFAF 128.2 billion, CFAF 89.2 billion were mobilized and CFAF 59.63 billion disbursed, for a financial execution rate of 66.8 percent, which exceeded that of 2004 (65.8 percent). The result for this pillar is mainly due to the strong performance recorded in the attainment of the following objectives, which account for more than 93 percent of the amounts disbursed for this pillar:
- Boost competitiveness and reduce the cost of production factors: the financial execution rate for the CFAF 1.6 billion spent is 94.3 percent.
In terms of this objective, performance is linked to the efforts made to promote rural metal construction enterprises and the Enterprise Development and Competitiveness Support Project (PACDE), for both of which the financial execution rates are 100 percent.
- Increase agricultural production: of the programmed amount of CFAF 97.12 billion, some CFAF 86.4 billion were mobilized and CFAF 56.2 billion spent, for an execution rate of 61.5 percent.
Support for rural advancement is a springboard for growth in agricultural production. To that end, more than 100 percent, or 28.2 billion, of resources were mobilized, for a financial execution rate of 63 percent. Of the projected 15.8 billion earmarked for activities aimed at increasing agricultural production and supporting the marketing of agricultural products, 18.2 billion were mobilized and 15.2 billion disbursed, for a financial execution rate of 83.4 percent.
Increase pluviometry activities: 1.4 billion of a projected 1.6 billion were mobilized and fully spent (100 percent).
The promotion of Burkinabè culture: 884.8 million were spent, for an execution rate of 95.1 percent. The construction of cultural infrastructure, particularly the headquarters of the Burkina Copyright Office (BBDA) and the National Museum, the acquisition of means of transportation, and capacity-building for artistic groups account for close to 99 percent of this component.
Overall execution for this pillar is lacking, which calls for greater efforts to mobilize resources. In fact, of the 128.2 billion in financing needs to attain the objectives, only 46.5 percent was executed. The execution rates for the various amounts programmed range from 41.6 percent (promotion of Burkinabè culture) to 55.8 percent (consolidating macroeconomic stability).
Pillar 2: Guarantee access for the poor to basic social services and welfare
The total projected amount for executing this pillar under the 2005 PAP is CFAF 128.8 billion. Of this amount, around 100.2 billion were mobilized and CFAF 68.1 billion were spent, yielding a financial execution rate of 68 percent.
The execution rate increased by 2 percentage points over that of the 2004 PAP. A detailed analysis of the programs making up this pillar shows that great effort was made to make access for the poor to basic social services and welfare a reality. In this regard, the subprograms with the highest execution rates are: (i) promoting access for the poor to healthcare services and nutrition programs (88.9 percent execution rate), (ii) promoting access for the poor to safe water and sanitation (87 percent), and (iii) improving access for the poor to welfare services (80.1 percent). However, the execution rate for the subprogram to improve access for the poor to basic education is relatively low, around 47.2 percent, with investment expenditures of CFAF 22.5 billion. The execution rate for the pooled resources of the Ten-Year Plan for Basic Education Development (PDDEB) is negligible (5.7 percent), and the program and the PDDEB management tools should be strengthened. The poor performance in this subsector is likely due to on-site execution difficulties and burdensome government procurement procedures.
The subprogram to improve the income and working conditions of women has a low execution rate of 39.6 percent, equivalent to expenditures of CFAF 345 million.
Significant results were recorded in healthcare, with rising indicators in particular for Health and Social Promotion Centers (CSPS) operating according to staffing norms. The rate of assisted births and vaccination coverage has improved. In education, the main indicators have also risen, with net increases in the gross enrollment ratio and the primary school completion rate. In terms of safe water, 1,890 boreholes were dug (objective: 1,000), enabling more populations to have access to safe water. Numerous challenges remain, however. In fact, improving the efficiency of education expenditure must be the main priority over the next few years. More efficient social spending will require, among other things, better monitoring of expenditures and increased capacity for the ministries responsible, as well as deconcentrated administration, more accountable communities, and straightforward supervisory mechanisms.
Pillar 3: Broaden job and other income-generating opportunities
Of the CFAF 86.7 billion mobilized, some CFAF 54 billion were disbursed, yielding an execution rate of 62.2 percent. The breakdown by subprogram is as follows:
- Improved access to rural areas (road infrastructures): 83.7 billion mobilized and a financial execution rate of 61.7 percent;
- Development of cattle raising: 2.12 billion mobilized and a financial execution rate of 71.6 percent;
- Development of rural roads: CFAF 705 million spent and a financial execution rate of 19.4 percent;
- Expansion of the size of managed natural forests: 142 million mobilized and fully spent (financial execution rate of 100 percent).
This pillar, the purpose of which is to support production, recorded the highest financial mobilization rate (73.4 percent) after Pillar 2 (77.8 percent). Nevertheless, efforts should continue in the areas of rural electrification, job creation and youth promotion, the management of wildlife areas, and the organization of village-level hunting, anti-desertification, improved access to financing for the owners of small and medium-sized enterprises. In particular, the recent economic growth should lead to an improved sense of well-being for the rural poor. Granting rural communities better access to economic and social centers will be essential for ensuring their increased participation in growth. Increased investment is needed for the market infrastructure, telecommunications, and alternative energy. Particular emphasis should be placed on ensuring that rural women have access to land and to appropriate technologies for producing and processing agricultural products. Illiteracy in rural areas continues to be an imposing obstacle to the economic participation of men and women. These challenges should be addressed in an effort to increase employment and income-generating activities for the poor.
Pillar 4: Promote good governance
Of the total CFAF 35.2 billion programmed for this pillar, CFAF 12.9 billion were mobilized and 9.5 billion disbursed, yielding an execution rate of 74.0 percent. Apart from the subprogram to improve the effectiveness of judicial institutions and increase access to the judicial system, which recorded a zero execution rate, the following subprograms did have satisfactory execution rates:
- National communication for development policy (political governance): 1.3 billion mobilized and a financial execution rate of 81.5 percent;
- Improvement of the operational capacities of security services (political governance): 411.5 million spent and a financial execution rate of 91.4 percent;
- Local governance (construction of governorships and further decentralization): CFAF 3.9 billion mobilized and a financial execution rate of 71.1 percent;
- Economic governance: 4 billion mobilized and a financial execution rate of 73.3 percent.
Pillar 4 has the highest execution rate with 74.0 percent, an increase of 1.6 percentage points over 2004. Given that good governance was identified as a core component of poverty reduction, the promotion efforts from which it benefits could, in fact, act as a key catalyst for more vigorous socioeconomic growth. The deplorably poor mobilization rate of 36.7 percent, however, could adversely affect efforts to build on and reinforce the achievements made to date. In particular, there is a clear need to pursue efforts to promote a more accessible and effective judicial system, the improved management of public resources in the context of decentralization, and increased grassroots and civil society participation in decision making.
After two years’ experience in the preparation of the Priority Action Program for PRSP implementation, the rate of absorption of financial resources remains relatively low. This situation needs to be corrected through initiatives to improve the monitoring of project and program implementation; better project planning and selection; regular oversight of project management; adherence to project start-up schedules; improvement of government procurement procedures; and strengthening the technical capacities of certain project managers. The next general meeting of project heads will provide an opportunity to extract the required lessons from this experience and formulate appropriate recommendations so that the projects can contribute more substantially to poverty reduction.
2.2 Status of implementation of Pillar 1: Acceleration of equity-based growth
2.2.1 Macroeconomic results
The implementation of the 2005-07 Priority Action Program (PAP) was expected to help improve the economic fundamentals and remove obstacles to economic and social progress. The objective was to lower the global poverty rate to 43.7 percent in 2005.
The assessment of macroeconomic performance shows that the government continued its sound management of the economy despite a persistently poor climate for exporting commodities (16.8 percent deterioration in the terms of trade) and strong inflationary pressures in the second and third quarters caused by decreased production in the 2004-05 crop year and increased prices for petroleum products. In fact, real GDP growth, which reached 4.6 percent in 2004, climbed to 7.1 percent in 2005 (objective: 4.7 percent) thanks to the strong growth in cereal production (24.7 percent) and cotton (16.9 percent). As a result, real GDP per capita grew by 2.4 percentage points, moving from 2.2 percent in 2004 to 4.6 percent in 2005.
Over the 2000-05 period, in comparison with other WAEMU countries, Burkina Faso, with an average GDP growth rate of 6.2 percent at constant prices, recorded a macroeconomic performance exceeding the average for the Union as a whole (2.8 percent). The figure below clearly depicts the macroeconomic efforts made by Burkina Faso from 2000 to 2005.
Figure 1:Evolution of the GDP Growth Rate at Constant Prices From 1998 to 2005 for Burkina Faso and WAEMU as a Whole
Table 2 below shows that sectoral contributions to growth in 2005 were 3.9 percent for the primary sector, 1.1 percent for the secondary sector, and 1.8 percent for the tertiary sector. The relative share of GDP of the various sectors was 41.9 percent for the tertiary sector, 39.4 percent for the primary sector, and 18.7 percent for the secondary sector. In 2005, thanks to abundant rainfall and a stable phytosanitary situation, the primary sector recorded positive growth (15.3 percent) in comparison with 2004 (−2.9 percent). Cereal production grew by 24.7 percent, for a total production of 3,649,533 metric tons in 2005. Output of off-season crops more than doubled, with a production of 57,438 metric tons in 2005 in comparison with 27,000 metric tons in 2004. These results could be linked to the assimilation of production techniques by the population, multiple sources of support (equipment, fertilizers and seeds) and the increased number of production sites. The cereals balance sheet shows a net surplus of 704,527 metric tons. Thus, of the 45 provinces, only 5 have a coverage rate of less than 90 percent, in comparison with 15 provinces in 2004.
|Fisheries, hunting, and forestry||−0.41%||−0.05%||0.68%||0.2%||0.3%|
|Electricity, gas, and water||−0.01%||0.25%||0.11%||0.1%||0.1%|
|Modern public works||−0.02%||0.36%||0.24%||0.3%||0.5%|
|Transportation and telecommunications||0.17%||0.32%||0.50%||1.1%||0.2%|
|Banking and insurance||0.12%||0.19%||0.12%||0.2%||0.3%|
|Other market services||0.06%||0.41%||0.82%||0.5%||0.3%|
|Private non-profits/External administration||0.1%||0.0%||0.4%||−0.3%||0.0%|
|DTI and domestic VAT||0.37%||0.22%||0.04%||1.1%||0.5%|
|GDP (market price)||6.8%||4.6%||8.0%||4.6%||7.1%|
Cottonseed production is estimated at 750,985 metric tons for 2005, an increase of 16.9 percent over the previous crop year, compared with an initial forecast of 665,000 metric tons. Most of this increase is likely due to the expanded growing area, as well as the creation of two new cotton-producing zones and the efforts made to maintain producer prices, despite the very low cotton prices on the international market.
The value added of the livestock subsector increased by 2.5 percent in 2005. The livestock sector contributes substantially to reducing poverty thanks to the revenues it generates for livestock breeders. Its contribution to growth has increased from 0.2 percent in 2004 to 0.3 percent in 2005.
The primary sector accounted for 3.9 percent of GDP growth in 2005, in comparison with 1.1 percent in 2004, as indicated in Table 2 below. The agriculture subsector is the main vehicle for this growth, with a contribution of +3.3 percent. The value added of the primary sector was CFAF 696 billion, versus CFAF 628.8 billion in 2004.
Economic activity in the secondary sector declined in 2005 in comparison with the previous year. Value added increased 6 percent in 2005, versus 9.8 percent in 2004. This slowdown in growth is attributable to manufacturing industries (3.5 percent in 2005 versus 9.9 percent in 2004), which account for 64.6 percent of the value added of the secondary sector. The poor performance of the manufacturing subsector is essentially due to the sluggishness of some local industrial sectors and the rising prices of petroleum products. The “construction and public works” subsector, for its part, continued to grow, recording an increase of 11.5 percent, over the 2004 figure of 8.8 percent. This dynamic is explained by the establishment of numerous work areas, particularly those of Ouaga 2000, as well as the construction of the Kaya-Dori and Bobo-Dédougou roads and the building of dams under the water development program (bienniale eau), among other achievements.
The value added of extractive industries devoted solely to non-monetary gold grew by 28.9 percent. This increase is also the result of both increased gold production and the 3.8 percent rise in prices in 2005.
The value added of the tertiary sector dropped from 7.6 percent in 2004 to 4.4 percent in 2005, as a result of the poor performance of the market services subsector, which fell from 9.7 percent in 2004 to 3.1 percent in 2005. In fact, in that subsector, growth in the value added of “transportation and telecommunications” faltered, decreasing from 16.6 percent in 2004 to 3.1 percent in 2005.
The tourism subsector, however, is experiencing vigorous growth, thanks to the increased hotel occupancy rates during the numerous international meetings held in the country.
From the standpoint of the application of GDP, 2005 was characterized by a slowdown in the growth of total final consumption from 9.5 percent in 2004 to 7.7 percent in 2005. Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) moved from 19.8 percent of GDP in 2005 to 19.9 percent of GDP in 2004, more as a result of the public component (12.2 percent of GDP) than the private component (6.5 percent of GDP).
Economic growth in 2005 was accompanied by a surge in prices, the annual average of which was 6.4 percent, in comparison with -0.4 percent in 2004, well above the maximum allowable rate of 3 percent set by the WAEMU. An analysis of the consumer price structure based on the Harmonized Consumer Price Index (HCPI) of the WAEMU shows that the three largest components of the index (food products, accommodations, and transportation) have varied significantly throughout the year. It should be emphasized that the 7.8 percent rise in the price of “Transportation” (undoubtedly due to the higher price of hydrocarbons) and the increase in the prices of “Food and nonalcoholic beverages,” despite the falling prices of cereals during the last three months of the year, helped to pull up the general price level in 2005.
It is worth noting that the increase in the price of hydrocarbons does not appear to have had any significant impact on the overall consumption of hydrocarbons. In fact, total sales of hydrocarbons experienced only a slight decrease of 0.5 percent, from 450,147 million liters in 2004 to 448,120 liters in 2005.
The overall objective was to improve the efficiency of government spending to create the conditions required for the population to access basic social services.
Burkina Faso has continued to implement a prudent fiscal policy. The 2005 budget was properly executed, despite persistent exogenous shocks. Current government revenues rose 3.9 percent between 2004 and 2005, and tax revenues grew by 3.7 percent. The tax ratio, which reached 11.3 percent of GDP in 2005 (objective: 12.3 percent), continues to be weak. The government was concerned with pursuing equity in tax operations. In fact, efforts were made to improve the collection of progressive income tax. Emphasis was placed on taxpayers in the formal and informal sectors in urban areas, in light of the high incidence of poverty in rural areas.
Government expenditures were kept under control at 22.4 percent in 2005, compared with 22.1 percent in 2004. The investment rate remained virtually unchanged, at 19.9 percent of GDP 2004 and 19.8 percent in 2005. Special efforts were made to channel resources to the poorest areas to improve the population’s access to basic social services. Budget allocations for the social sectors in 2005 (excluding HIPC resources and the external financing project) were as follows: 14.6 percent for basic education and literacy, 10.6 percent for healthcare, 8.2 percent for secondary and postsecondary education and scientific research, and 0.9 percent for the Ministry of Social Action. The budget focus on poverty reduction is a reality: social spending on poverty reduction as a percentage of GDP increased from 4.7 percent in 2003 to 5.5 percent in 2005. The rise in spending between 2004 and 2005 was more significant in the priority sectors than in the nonpriority sectors, as the government continued its efforts to protect priority sectors from adjustments in their budget appropriations. Donor assistance was gradually matched to the priorities under the PRSP and as a result, budgetary assistance for the priority sectors was increased. On December 31, 2005, total budgetary assistance reached CFAF 93.05 billion, or 99.1 percent of the total programmed amount. Close to 75 percent of this amount was disbursed during the first three quarters of 2005.
The budget deficit (including grants) was equivalent to 5.4 percent of GDP in 2005, up from 4.6 percent in 2004.
The objective for 2005 was to continue building debt management capacity in an effort to create the conditions for long-term debt sustainability.
In general, debt management is incorporated into the Medium-Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF), which transcribes the priorities for poverty reduction in the annual budgets. The National Government Debt Committee studies all new loan requests in advance, assessing the extent to which such requests match the development priorities and examining the grant component, which should be at least 35 percent. The DFMAS software is functional and is used to monitor and assess government debt.
At end-December 2005, the outstanding government debt stood at CFAF 1,231.8 billion, in comparison with 1,072.8 billion in 2004. Of that amount, 92 percent is external debt (1,131 billion) and 8 percent domestic debt (100.6 billion). The external debt structure is characterized by a preponderance of multilateral debt, estimated at CFAF 957.4 billion (84.6 percent) at end-December 2005. Bank debt accounts for 65 percent of domestic debt. The ratio of outstanding debt to GDP, which rose to 41.3 percent, was lower than the WAEMU figure, which is normally fixed at 70 percent.
External debt service represented 11.6 percent of exports in 2005, a decrease from the 2004 figure of 17.1 percent. A debt sustainability analysis (IMF and the World Bank, June 2005) based on the external debt at end-2004 showed that Burkina Faso’s debt appeared to be moving toward the completion point, but persistent exogenous shocks pose a threat to debt sustainability. Progress in this area will depend on the scope of government efforts to ensure economic diversification and stimulate the growth of exports.
In the context of the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI), Burkina Faso’s efforts to achieve macroeconomic stability were rewarded when the IMF Executive Board approved 100 percent debt relief for all outstanding debt contracted by Burkina Faso with the IMF prior to January 1, 2005. This amounts to approximately US$82 million, excluding the aid remaining under the HIPC initiative. The IDA and the African Development Bank, which hold 67.3 percent of the outstanding debt, will also assess the country’s eligibility for the MDRI.
Balance of payments
The overall objective for 2005 was to improve the country’s external position. The assessment of the external situation in 2005 showed that Burkina Faso was still running a trade deficit, which worsened further, rising from minus CFAF 244.7 billion in 2004 to minus CFAF 252.9 billion in 2005. The impact of exogenous shocks (the dramatic drop in world cotton prices and the sharp rise in the per-barrel price of oil) was significant. As a result of the steady rise in government transfers (+7.7 percent), the external current account deficit dropped from 13.2 percent of GDP in 2004 to 11.3 percent in 2005. This deficit was reabsorbed, however, thanks to a large inflow of external aid. International reserves accounted for 5.4 months of imports, higher than the level reached in 2003 (5.0) but below that attained in 2004 (6.7).
The monetary survey at end-December 2005 in comparison with 2004 was marked by declining net external assets (−22.6 percent), swelling credit to the economy (+22.7 percent), and an increasing money stock (+1.8 percent). Increased imports and rising prices for petroleum products led to a contraction of CFAF 62 billion3 in net external assets, of which 54 percent was attributable to the central bank and 46 percent to deposit banks. Domestic credit increased significantly in 2005 over 2004 (CFAF 91.3 billion), due to the combined effect of a CFAF 86 billion increase in credit to the economy (stimulated by vigorous activity in the cotton and construction sectors) and a drop of CFAF 4.6 billion in the net government position (NGP). The money stock grew by CFAF 10.9 billion overall, and this was due exclusively to the growth of currency in circulation (CFAF +12.7 billion), given that deposits had contracted by CFAF 1.8 billion.
To summarize, Burkina Faso recorded a favorable performance in 2005 (See Table 3 below). Of particular note is the trend toward acceleration in real growth and a reduction in the overall incidence of poverty.
|Nominal GDP (billions of CFAF)||2,251.2||2,503.6||2,700.3||2,985.1|
|GDP in volume (billions of CFAF)||1,545.1||1,669.0||1,745.6||1,869.3|
|Growth of GDP in volume (percent)||4.6||8.0||4.6||7.1|
|Inflation rate (percent)||2.3||2.0||−0.4||6.4|
|Budget deficit. including grants (percent of GDP)||4.8||2.9||4.6||5.4|
|Current account deficit. including transfers (percent of GDP)||9.2||8.4||10.2||10.2|
|Gross international reserves (in months of imports)||4.5||5.0||6.7||5.4|
|Change in terms of trade (percent)||−17.0||−0.8||1.8||−16.8|
|Change in overall incidence of poverty (percent)||46.4||46.0*||42.4*|
Status of convergence
International and subregional difficulties worsened Burkina Faso’s overall position vis-à-vis the WAEMU convergence criteria in 2005. Only two of the four first-level criteria were met, and only one of the four second-level criteria. The budgetary balance/nominal GDP ratio stood at -3.2 percent, in comparison with -2.5 percent in 2004 and the WAEMU required ceiling of zero percent. Average annual inflation also increased to 6.4 percent, exceeding the WAEMU criterion of 3 percent.
There is clearly a need to continue efforts to meet the second-level criteria. In fact, only one criterion of the four established was met in 2005: the ratio of public investments from own funds to tax revenues, at about 41.4 percent versus the target of 20 percent minimum. The ratio of the wage bill to tax revenues experienced a decrease (43.2 percent) in 2005 in comparison with 2004 (38.1 percent). Efforts should also be made to improve the current account deficit (11.5 percent of GDP in 2005, versus the Community objective of 5 percent maximum). As for the tax ratio, the major efforts made to improve the collection of tax revenues in 2004 (12 percent), could not be maintained in 2005. The rate of 11.3 percent achieved in 2005 remains far below the Community objective of 17 percent minimum.
|Ratio of budgetary balance (commitment basis), grants included, to nominal GDP||−3.7 %||−1.3 %||−2.5 %||−3.2 %||Min 0|
|Average annual inflation rate (IHPC)||2.3 %||2 %||−0.4 %||6.4 %||Max 3|
|Ratio of total outstanding debt to nominal GDP||46.9 %||43.6 %||39.7 %||41.3 %||Max 70|
|Non-accumulation of payment arrears (internal and external)||0||0||0||0||0|
|Ratio of wage bill to tax revenues||42.7 %||41.5 %||38.1 %||43.2 %||Max 35|
|Ratio of public investments financed with own resources to tax revenues||37.4 %||33.2 %||41.9 %||41.4 %||Min 20|
|Ratio of current external deficit excluding grants to nominal GDP||11.8 %||12.6 %||13.2 %||11.5 %||Max 5|
|Tax ratio||10.7 %||10.8 %||12.0 %||11.3 %||Min 17|
Impact of growth on poverty reduction
Simulations conducted with the PAMS4 model show that the cumulative effects of economic growth observed in 2003 (8 percent), 2004 (4.6 percent), and 2005 (7.1 percent) likely contributed to a reduction in the overall incidence of poverty, which fell from 46.4 percent in 2003 to 42.4 percent in 2005. In addition, between 2003 and 2005, the incidence of rural and urban poverty recorded a downward trend of 3.7 and 4.7 points, respectively. The depth of poverty fell by 1.4 points and the severity of poverty by 0.5 point (See Table 5 below).
|A. Poverty indicators|
|P0 - Total incidence of poverty||46.4||46.0||42.4|
|P0 - Incidence of rural poverty||50.4||50.6||46.7|
|P0 - Incidence of urban poverty||21.5||18.0||16.8|
|P1 - Depth of poverty||14.2||14.2||12.8|
|P2 - Severity of poverty||6.2||6.3||5.7|
|B. Rate of income growth by socioeconomic group (percent)|
|Public sector wage earners (UG-2, 4.1 percent, 1.3 percent, 14.1 percent)||1.3 %||1.4 %|
|Self-employed food crop growers (RP-5, 65.3 percent, 73.1 percent, 50.2 percent)||0.2 %||5.0 %|
|Self-employed cash crop growers: cotton (RP-6. 16.8 percent, 14.1 percent, 37.8 percent)||3.0 %||8.6 %|
|Paid rural family helpers (RPX-7, 0.6 percent, 0.4 percent, 29.3 percent)||0.6 %||2.1 %|
|Wage earners in formal private sector, nontradables (UP-8, 1.0 percent, 0.2 percent, 10.0 percent)||23.7 %||−2.4 %|
|Wage earners in formal private sector, nontradables, unskilled (UP-9, 1.9 percent, 1.9 percent, 42.9 percent)||4.6 %||−0.8 %|
|Self-employed urban workers (UP-12, 5.6 percent, 4.4 percent, 35.2 percent)||24.0 %||8.8 %|
|Unpaid rural family helpers (UPX-16, 1.1 percent, 1.4 percent, 58.3 percent)||−1.5 %||−1.5 %|
|Non-active (young, elderly, handicapped, etc.) -rural (RN-17, 3.6 percent, 3.2 percent, 39.7 percent)||0.3 %||0.3 %|
Farmer incomes have increased in each socioeconomic category (5 percent for food crop producers and 8.6 percent for commercial farmers). Similarly, the incomes of agricultural workers rose 2.1 percent following the increase in income of commercial farmers.
Analysis of the results of the Ongoing Annual Survey and the Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (EAP/CWIQ) carried out by the National Institute of Statistics and Demographics (INSD) between August and September 2005 confirms the trend toward improving social indicators. Specifically, in terms of access to basic education for the poor, 87.3 percent of households are less than one half-hour from the nearest primary school, in comparison with 62.3 percent in the 2003 Burkinabè Household Living Conditions Survey (ECBVM). This time varies from one half-hour to one hour’s walk in 12.7 percent of the cases, versus 23.9 percent previously. Nevertheless, there is a significant discrepancy between the figures for urban (1.4 percent) and rural (15.8 percent) areas. This shows, however, that most households are not too far away from primary schools.
The results of the survey show a literacy rate of 34 percent for the population over 15 years of age (38.9 percent for men and 29 percent for women), compared with the results of the 2003 survey, according to which 21.8 percent of respondents were able to read and write in any language. This rate increased sharply, by 12.2 points and 19 points, in comparison with the rates recorded in 2003 and 1994. At the current pace, the national goal of 40 percent will likely be attained by 2010, by which time the rate is projected to be 41.2 percent. There are, however, enormous disparities between places of residence, genders, and standards of living.
Concerning healthcare, the results of the survey show that 77.2 percent of the population is satisfied with the medical services available. Some 36.9 percent of households, however, must travel an average of one hour to reach the nearest healthcare establishment (of which 45.4 percent live in rural areas and 4.9 percent in urban areas), compared with 33 percent in 2003. The figures for the southwestern, Sahel, northern central, and eastern central regions are above the average.
Finally, in terms of safe water, only 7.6 percent of households have a safe water point in the home, while 88.8 percent of households must walk less than one half-hour to reach a safe water point, versus 71.5 percent in 2003. The indicators for safe water are relatively good, with only 3.4 percent of the population having to travel about one hour to reach a safe water point (of which 4.2 percent live in rural areas and 0.1 percent in urban areas). The south-central region is the only area in which 10.7 percent of the population lives more than one hour away from a safe water point.
2.2.2 Budgetary reforms
The Action Plan to Strengthen Budget Management (PRGB) continues to serve as the frame of reference for the government and its partners in programming and monitoring budgetary reforms. The main actions taken during 2005 cover four major pillars: the organizational and legal framework of government finance, the formulation of the State budget, the execution of the State budget, and supervision and accountability.
- Legal and organizational framework of government finances
Efforts to improve the legal and organizational framework of fiscal management continued throughout 2005. For example, on April 1, 2005, the Council of Ministers, as part of the process of harmonizing the legal framework of government finances with WAEMU directives, adopted the main enabling texts of Law 006/2003/AN of January 24, 2003 on the Budget Law, which, in particular, consist of the decrees containing: (i) the general regulations on government accounting (RGCP); (ii) the rules governing government accountants; (iii) the rules for government payment authorizing officers and appropriations managers; and (iv) the method for monitoring the financial operations of the State and other government agencies.
The recommendations arising from the organizational audit of the General Directorate of the Treasury and Public Accounting (DGTCP) continued to be implemented. Audit processes were expedited. The report on the Directorate of Human Resources Directorate (DRH) is available and the audits of the Central Government Financial Control Office (DCCF) and the General Directorate of Cooperation (DGCOOP) are mostly underway. If the timetables are respected, the results for these two directorates could be available in the first quarter of 2006. The audit of the General Directorate of the Budget (DGB) was delayed due to the procurement process, in which an appeal filed by one of the bidders after the provisional award was announced led to a waiting period for adjudication by a commission overseeing the amicable settlement of disputes (CRAL). Nevertheless, those difficulties have now been overcome and consultants are performing the audits over a period of two months.
In terms of the government procurement system, it is worth noting the creation, as part of the second Country Procurement Assessment Review (CPAR), of a national committee charged with coordinating and monitoring government procurement reform. The responsibilities of this committee, which comprises representatives of government, the private sector, and civil society, include supervising reforms in the government procurement sector based on an action plan developed following analytical reviews and periodic audits of government procurement. The aforementioned CPAR was carried out in 2005 and an audit of 2004 government procurement was also performed. The action plan resulting from these two activities was developed following wide-ranging discussions with all actors in the sector, and its implementation will be subject to the approval of the government.
Regarding in-service training at ENAREF, a set of 17 modules is available, covering such topics as budget management, taxation, insurance, the financial management of communities, and human resources management.
The process of rehabilitating the records of the MFB and the MEDEV could not be carried out in 2005, however; this initiative will be implemented in 2006.
- Budget formulation
For the government, the State budget continues to be the best tool for implementing the PRSP. Consequently, the main objective of the 2005 budget law, which was based on the 2005-07 MTEF, was to ensure optimal financing for the Priority Action Program of the PRSP by improving revenue collection and controlling spending.
The changes made are consistent with the efforts to control macroeconomic management in the framework of the various programs being implemented. These programs are executed with the support of technical and financial partners, particularly those who are members of the Framework for Budget Support to the PRSP (CGAB-PRSP), in the form of budgetary assistance, disbursements of which in 2005 were made primarily within the budget cycle.
Expenditure projections are based on the need to ensure coverage of financing requirements under the PAP-PRSP, but also take account of the limited resources available. In the appropriation process, provisions were made to protect the priority expenditures to which the government had previously committed as part of efforts to improve the indicators for the relevant sectors.
As part of the reforms undertaken in State budget formulation, progress was made in a number of areas in 2005. Regarding the testing of the sectoral medium-term expenditure framework (MTEF), following a November 2005 workshop in Bobo-Dioulasso, a methodological approach was used to design a preliminary model for the sectoral MTEF in the MFB. Currently, data is being compiled for the model. In addition, the preparation of an MTEF manual has begun, but this activity, which was to have been supported by the French cooperation agency through the Economic and Financial Support Program (PAREF), has not made any real progress. The option of financing the production of the manual from the PRGB line in the budget under the 2006 PAP-PRGB is being reconsidered.
For several years, discussions have been held on how to improve the recording of external financing in the budget laws. As a result, this objective was achieved in the 2006 budget using the statistics processing software being developed at DGCOOP. For budgetary assistance, a summary table of commitments (confirmed or not) made by the technical and financial partners (PTF) who are members of the CGAB-PRSP was incorporated in the budget law.
The manual for the Fiscal Operations Table (TOFE) was prepared in 2005 with the help of a consultant. The manual will be distributed in the course of 2006. In addition, to ensure that programming tools were incorporated into daily activities, training sessions on how to prepare the MTEF were organized for the staff of the Directorate of Administration and Finance (DAF), the Directorate of Administrative and Financial Services (DAF), MFB units, and the Ministry of Infrastructure. Substantial support was given to the Ministry of Basic Education and Literacy Training (MEBA) to update its sectoral MTEF and to the Ministry of Secondary and Higher Education and Scientific Research (MESSRS) to develop its own sectoral MTEF. The two departments are currently working together to produce an education-sector MTEF.
With a view to improving the introduction of the program budget, the DGB prepared a balance sheet report in March 2005. Following discussions of the issue within the MFB, a workshop for DAF and DEP staff was held in Ouahigouya from August 24 to 26, 2005 to define the outlook and guidelines for the program budget in Burkina Faso.
In terms of coordinating sectoral policies, the DGEP refocused its efforts on providing direct support to the following ministerial departments for the design and preparation of their respective sectoral strategies: the Ministry of Economy and Development, the Ministry of Ministry of Social Action and National Solidarity, and the Ministry of Culture, the Arts, and Tourism. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Cooperation, and the Ministry of Youth and Employment should benefit from its support in 2006. The DGEP also prepared terms of reference and guidelines for drafting gender policy.
Some activities that had been programmed, such as the completion of the Integrated Investment Projects Bank (PIB) and the preparation of a revenue forecasting model, could not be carried out in 2005. Given the importance of these activities in the budgetary process, a suggestion was made to re-initiate them during the course of 2006. Furthermore, efforts will be made to define a mechanism for coordinating sectoral policies and accelerate the process of formulating the national gender policy, which is a relatively complex issue. A strategy to expand the sectoral MTEF to the large line ministries will also be formulated in 2006.
- Budget execution
Budget execution in 2005 was managed prudently, given the persistent uncertainties at the subregional and international level (pressures caused by the crisis in Côte d’Ivoire, rising prices for cotton and petroleum products, drought in the northern region of the country due to locust invasions in the Sahel). Despite these problems, the government intensified its efforts in the priority poverty reduction sectors by substantially increasing allocations to those sectors.
The reforms undertaken in 2005 in the execution of the State budget made significant progress. Efforts were made to introduce stock accounting. Work began in July 2005 with a series of training sessions for the agents asked to oversee the process. The operational phase of inventorying and coding was launched in November 2005 in 43 provinces, following an awareness campaign directed at regional authorities. The process, which turned out to be more costly than expected and particularly awkward to manage during this phase, was suspended in order to review the strategy, and should resume by the end of the first quarter in Ouagadougou, then in Bobo-Dioulasso. The data compiled in the 43 provinces are being processed using software especially designed for this purpose and that will facilitate the automatic uploading of this data to the management software being developed.
Remarkable efforts to fulfill end-year obligations were made in 2005. The various units in the Ministry of Finance and Budget produce general Treasury account balances, end-year Treasury accounts, and budget review laws as part of their routine tasks.
In the area of government procurement, the most notable achievements in 2005 were the performance of the second analytical review of the government procurement system (CPAR) and the audit of 2004 procurement activities. The relevant reports were produced and an action plan consolidating the recommendations made in these two documents was formulated and submitted to the government. Once adopted, the action plan will be used as a guideline for deepening reforms in the sector, under the supervision of the national committee charged with coordinating and monitoring government procurement sector reforms (CNCS), established in late 2004.
In addition, the Inspectorate-General of Finance strengthened the process of on-site government procurement audits. A total of 24 audits were conducted in 2005, in comparison with 15 in 2004.
The decentralization process. Significant progress was made with the adoption of two instruments by the Council of Ministers on February 1, 2006. The first was a decree establishing the financial and accounting system applicable to local governments, and the second a draft law defining the revenue and expenditure of local governments in Burkina Faso. These aim of these instruments is to harmonize the legal framework applicable to all local governments and to facilitate their access to resources to meet their various financial costs. The instruments on the transfer of assets and responsibilities, as well as human resources, are approaching completion.
In order to support the decentralization process, which is being accelerated, actions were taken to develop a financial system for local governments and to continue deploying CICL accounting software, which to date has been implemented in 10 accounting units in 10 administrative regions. Implementing the software in these offices will complete the required stabilization phase before extending the software to other offices. The 13 governorships, newly created in 2004, allocated close to CFAF 1 billion to set up units in the different regional capitals.
Faster settlement of government purchases. The ministerial order regarding the nomenclature to be used in the supporting documents was signed and implementation is expected to begin in 2005. The Integrated Expenditure Circuit (CDI) review that began in 2004 continued in 2005 and new functionalities were made available, such as the new classifications for the government’s supporting documentation.
Efforts continued to reduce payment timeframes in government procurement. For two years in succession, 2004 and 2005, the average payment time was substantially reduced. In fact, the average time required to execute expenditures between the verification and payment phases was 28 days in 2005, versus 29 days in 2004, while the goal of the Ministry of Finance and Budget is less than 55 days. This is the result of the important work of closely monitoring government expenditure execution carried out in 2005 by the Payment Delay Monitoring Committee (CODEP).
In terms of the deconcentration of budget management, delegated appropriations for the deconcentrated units of the core ministries, such as health and basic education, were implemented beginning in February. A total of CFAF 4.8 billion was delegated in 2005. In addition, preliminary work was undertaken to link the regional budget services (SRB) of Fada N’gourma, Dori, and Diébougou as part of the process of deconcentrating the expenditure authorization function. Officers of these three SRBs and the local authorities involved in the public expenditure process received training, which significantly increased the total volume of transactions processed at the regional level in 2005. These transactions were valued at CFAF 4.8 billion in 2004 and 2005, a considerable amount given the early stages of this initiative.
Improving the quality of expenditure management continued to be a source of concern in 2005. Following the decision to use the UNCTAD Debt Management and Financial Analysis System (DMFAS) as the main tool for managing external financing, a project work group was set up in March 2005 to ensure that the system was being implemented properly. Unfortunately, given the lack of expertise in this area at the national level (two invitations to bid were issued but were unsuccessful), the project team was not assembled until the last quarter of 2005. This forced the government to look to the WAEMU zone to staff the group, which finally began its work in October 2005.
In the framework of the action plan for the implementation of DMFAS, the project work group is responsible for: (i) adapting DMFAS to meet the need to monitor external financing; (ii) designing interfaces between DMFAS and the CIE and CID software; and (iii) training DMFAS users. The project team already has been given the necessary knowledge to properly install and manage the DMFAS software. The implementation of a software monitoring/assessment mechanism will yield results in 2006.
Although the DMFAS is still being adapted to monitor external financing, in 2005, all 330 agreements for external financing in the form of loans that were distributed among projects and programs have already been integrated into the current DMFAS format, exceeding the projected goal of 80 percent of external financing agreements. In addition, 56 grant agreements totaling CFAF 400 billion were entered into the system. The recent improvements to the DGCOOP statistical tool allow for a breakdown of external financing data by project and by recipient ministry, which will provide a clearer picture of the overall effort to benefit the different sectors.
To improve the quality and sustainability of the computerization process within the ministries responsible for economy and finance, the following actions have been taken and have produced significant results: (i) the overhaul of the CID, with the addition of new, on-demand functionalities for user departments pertaining to procurement file reference numbers, as well as the signing of an equipment and network maintenance contract and a framework agreement for revision of the master computing plan; and (ii) the acquisition of computing and networking equipment to boost the productivity of the integrated civil service personnel and salary management system (SIGASPE).
Regarding the computerization of the Central Public Procurement Directorate (DCMP), the terms and conditions for establishing the public procurement information system (SIMP) were finalized and validated. The database content generated by this system will help to compile a more detailed system of indicators over the medium term. The priority in the computing area continues to be the preparation of a new master plan for computing. Capabilities for monitoring the different contracts concluded have already been integrated into the CID. The challenge is to execute the different phases of the project once the contracts have been entered into the CID.
Improving revenue collection. Significant progress was made with a number of reforms in 2005. In the DGI, priority was given to modernizing the collection system. Thus, following the creation of the Large Enterprise Division (DGE) in 2004, emphasis was placed on computerization and the deployment of the Computerized Tax Information System (SINTAX) in the Kadiogo I and Houet I offices. Implementation of the system began in March 2005 for self-assessed taxes, and was extended to the collection of other types of taxes in the second quarter of 2005. The microcomputers required to train SINTAX users and deploy the system in the Kadiogo I tax division were acquired in June 2005. Furthermore, the adoption of the Single Taxpayer Identification Number (IFU) beginning in March 2005 facilitated the re-registration of all priority DGE taxpayers during 2005. Also beginning in March 2005, monthly and quarterly reports were produced on the ten identified management indicators. In addition, the tax census methodology and implementing document were adopted with a provisional budget of CFAF 635 million, half of which was made available to the DGI to begin the process. In the area of tax audits, 60 of the 134 files scheduled were audited. The DGI also continued drafting the General Tax Code (CGI) and setting up the National Commission on Taxation (CNF) through a decree issued by the Ministry of Finance and Budget. The process of transferring the management of the Simplified Tax System (RSI) was completed and took effect on January 1, 2005. Finally, auditors were given training to enhance their capacity to effectively monitor the activities of businesses.
Customs administration. In terms of strengthening the computerization of services, the General Directorate of Customs (DGD) continued to develop ASYCUDA++ software by implementing the prepayment function in the main offices of Ouaga Gare, Ouaga Route, Ouaga Airport, Bingo, and Bobo Gare beginning January 1, 2005, and the credit management system at these same locations, as well as in Banfora Koudougou. Work on the linkup and the interface between the DGD software and the Statistics and Information Technology Directorate (DSI)/DGD is progressing gradually.
Discussions are continuing with the DGI on how to improve the collection and application of data by developing exchange programs with other tax administrations and partners. These meetings have resulted in the signing of a cooperation and information-sharing agreement between the two entities. The issue of joint teams will also be addressed in the agreement.
The package of reforms implemented to improve the collection of revenues, in addition to the important mechanism for suppressing fraud developed by the customs and finance administrations, helped boost government revenue yields in 2005.
In summary, the planned reforms were initiated in their entirety. Some reforms are pending, however, as they proved to be more challenging than expected, such as implementing a stock accounting system and adapting ASYCUDA for use in monitoring external financing and conducting a census of taxpayers.
- Oversight and accountability
Budget execution monitoring and the fulfillment of end-year obligations are improving with each passing year. Remarkable efforts have been made to compensate for long-standing delays in government accounting.
The Inspectorate-General of Finance increased the number of on-site public procurement audits. In total, 24 audits were conducted in 2005, in comparison with 15 in 2004. These audits focused on a total of CFAF 3 billion of the total volume of procurement activities in 2005, which reached around CFAF 31.26 billion. This amount does not take the public procurement activities of the Faso Baara agency into account.
The legal control exercised by the Audit Office has increased over the years as well, mainly as a result of initiatives to build the capacities of the institution. Furthermore, the 2004 end-year Treasury accounts of public accountants (senior Treasury accountant, Paymaster General, and Receiver General) were prepared and submitted to the Audit Office on July 6, 2005. In terms of local governments, 141 end-year Treasury accounts for 2004, out of a total 150 accounts expected, were produced by September 30, 2005. As far as Central Government Public Establishments (EPE) are concerned, a total of 43 end-year Treasury accounts for 2004 were produced by September 30, 2005.
The 2001, 2002, and 2003 end-year Treasury accounts of senior public accountants were also submitted. The recognition of the Audit Office as having the highest jurisdiction in financial matters was taken into account in determining the status of its financial judges and in the context of the review of Organic Law 14/AN of May 16, 2000 organizing the Audit Office. The Draft Organic Law and its accompanying decree were sent to the Ministry of Justice for subsequent presentation to the Council of Ministers. Discussions are underway with all actors involved in the sector and the draft law should be adopted by June 2006.
Similarly, for the past several years, budget review laws have been regularly produced and submitted to Parliament and the Audit Office. Thus, the draft 2004 budget review law was prepared and submitted to the Audit Office on September 19, 2005, and to the National Assembly at end-August 2005 for review during the first session of 2006.
In August 2005, a group of Burkinabè officials traveled to Mali as part of the effort to update the unit price reference system and better define the format and approach to use in designing the system. To that end, surveys were conducted with the support of the National Institute of Statistics and Demographics (INSD), and an initial version of the reference values is available. This tool will contribute substantially to ensuring that assessments of the reasonableness (no overbilling) of the unit prices proposed by suppliers are objective and harmonized.
The effective organization by the General Inspectorate of the first meeting, in August 2005, of the coordinating body governing oversight entities was a significant achievement during that year. This meeting, attended by senior staff of the CC, the HACCLC, the IGE, the Finance Inspectorate, the technical departmental inspectorates, and the General Inspectorate of the Treasury (IGT), provided a forum for beneficial exchanges among the participants through discussion, presentations on activity programs, activity reports of each entity, and the sharing of experiences.
Furthermore, the CC/DGTCP Commission continued its work of preparing a methodology for drafting the budget review law. The legal solution for end-year Treasury accounts not produced before 2000 also continued to be implemented. The first report of the coordinating body was produced during the course of 2005 and will be officially submitted to the Head of State.
It is worth noting, however, that some reforms have not made any significant progress, in particular, the proposal for a legal solution regarding budget review laws not produced before 1992, and the review of the IGE texts. Conversely, the government finally adopted the IGF statutes through the decree organizing the Ministry of Finance and the Budget. This decree grants finance inspectors the status of civil service employees.
Other, broader reforms were initiated in 2005, and some progress has been made with their implementation. For example, the national microfinance strategy was adopted by decree of the Council of Ministers on November 30, 2005. Significant progress was also made in 2005 in terms of transferring knowledge and resources as part of the decentralization effort. A workshop for those involved in this process took place in Tenkodogo in 2005, in which a mechanism was adopted for carrying out such transfers. This led to the drafting of three main instruments to support the transfer process (the decree establishing the financial and accounting system applicable to local governments, the law defining the revenue and expenditure of local governments in Burkina Faso, and the draft instruments on the transfer of assets, skills, and human resources). At end-December 2005, none of the three instruments had been adopted, even though the process had moved forward. Finally, the national anti-corruption strategy entered its final stages of completion. The draft was prepared, but it is in the process of being finalized by the government.
The difficulties in mobilizing funds in 2005 meant that the implementation of reforms was largely financed from the State budget, with the exception of support from the World Bank’s PRCA project, which funded a few organizational audits, as well as from the European Union, which supported the Technical Secretariat of the Plan to Strengthen Budget Management (PRGB) and financed the government procurement audit for the 2004 fiscal year. In the State budget, the PRGB line, which had been allocated 527.25 million, had a 99 percent execution rate for both funds committed and disbursed.
In any case, the government remains convinced of the importance of these reforms in enhancing the budget process. Thus, efforts will be made in 2006 to eventually implement these different reforms.
2.2.3 Improvement of the business climate to promote the private sector
In terms of improving the business environment, as well as the effective implementation of the OHADA treaty, the government continued its efforts to strengthen instruments to promote the private sector and improve the legal environment for business.
Regarding the strengthening of instruments to promote the private sector, the following instruments are available to the Burkinabé private sector to reinforce and build its capacities: (i) CEFORE; (ii) the Burkina Faso Enterprise Office; (iii) Trade Point; and (iv) Fasonorm.
Business Registration Center (CEFORE): To reduce the time needed to complete the legal formalities required to set up a business and to simplify those procedures, the government adopted Decree 2005-332//PRES/PM/MCPEA/MFB/MTEJ/MJ of June 21, 2005 on the creation, powers and duties, organization, and functions of Business Registration Centers (CEFORE). The establishment of this center helped to (i) reduce the time required to complete all formalities from 21 working days to a maximum of seven; (ii) reduce the number of procedures required to start a business in Burkina Faso from eight to four; 5 and (iii) adopt a single form for starting a business.
The administrations involved appointed their representatives to the CEFORE management and consultation committees. These entities began their activities on October 6, 2005. Staff were recruited and a manual on how to start a business and a sample business plan were prepared. The Ouagadougou CEFORE began operations on January 9, 2006. During its first month of operations, it welcomed 978 new entrepreneurs and processed 334 business registration applications. On average, 15 applications were processed per day, in comparison with 12 applications per day prior to the creation of CEFORE. The average time required to complete all formalities for registering a business is seven working days, and several procedures are completed within five working days. Overall, business are registered predominantly by individuals (75.4 percent) and less often by corporations (24.6 percent). Trade and services account for the largest number of businesses created, at 49.7 percent and 28.8 percent of all registrations, respectively.
Enterprise Center of Burkina Faso (MEBF): having consolidated its achievements in 2005, the Enterprise Center of Burkina Faso was able to focus its activities on structuring businesses. As of December 31, 2005, the MEBF had 415 members, 30 of which had not yet been accredited by the annual meeting.
The MEBF assists businesses by providing support and advice; for example: (i) it assisted 737 entrepreneurs in 2005, and has served 914 entrepreneurs since it began operations in January 2004; (ii) organized four information meetings for economic agents and representatives of professional associations in Kaya, Tenkodogo, and Koudougou; (iii) supported 82 businesses and associations in the validation of files for identifying sources of financing, the preparation of partnership documents, business trips, and flash diagnostics, and more than 50 business contacts were made at numerous trade fairs, both in Ouagadougou and outside Burkina Faso; (iv) organized three days of information and awareness-raising in Koupéla, Fada N’Gourma, and Bobo-Dioulasso from June 16 to 17 and on July 6, 2005, which were attended by 11 private sector-support organizations and consulting offices, to promote the use of the Center’s advisory services; and (v) provided 102 individual consultations to businesses and professional groups from various sectors.
The Center’s achievements in 2005 are highlighted by:
- The regular and exemplary functioning of the entities involved, which points to the Center’s vitality and respect for the principles of good governance;
- The confirmation of the MEBF as a useful tool in the institutional landscape of the private sector, through its determined accomplishment of its missions and its involvement in several collaborative frameworks on economic issues;
- The establishment and reinforcement of Shared-Cost Support Fund (FSCP) activities in the private sector;
- The close relationship between the advisors and the members in particular, and economic agents in general;
- expansion of the group of technical and financial partners by accepting European Union consultancy vouchers at the MEBF; and the launching of new projects with Belgium and the International Trade Center (ITC) in Geneva;
- The beginning of work to restore and expand MEBF headquarters; and
- Building business capacities through the FSCP.
Trade Point: Throughout 2005, the Trade Point provided economic agents real-time, reliable, and regularly updated trade information to help trade operators succeed in the international market. The compilation, processing, and dissemination of economic and trade information resulted in the following: (i) some 20 enterprises became members of the World Trade Point Federation (WTPF), enabling them to become visible within this network and gain access to business information and opportunities in 148 member countries; (ii) the number of websites hosted by Trade Point partners grew from 10 sites in 2004 to 19 sites in 2005; (iii) the acquisition of Market Access Map software, with support from the ITC, as a market analysis tool enabling businesses to obtain information on market access conditions.
Fasonorm established a Technical Committee on Standardization, which is responsible for setting standards for chemical sector products, and two Technical Subcommittees on Standardization, one for cereals and the other for oilseed crops.
Approved Management Center (Center de gestion agréé): The draft decree on the creation of an approved management center is being finalized. The draft report on the feasibility study is already available. The implementation of the Center in 2006 should help to strengthen the institutional environment that supports businesses by encouraging them to move from informal to formal status. The Center will mainly: (i) provide technical assistance and information to members in accounting, management, tax matters and training; and (ii) increase confidence among its members and various partners, such as the tax administration, bankers, insurers, etc.
Improving the business environment is a central concern of the private sector development policy letter adopted by the government in November 2002. The enabling legislation (by-laws, mediation rules, statutes) of the Ouagadougou Arbitration, Mediation, and Conciliation Center was drafted and approved in 2005, and the Center’s units are currently being set up.
The National Competition and Consumer Commission (CNCC), in accordance with its observatory, advisory and regulatory roles, held a series of information and awareness-raising sessions for economic agents, consumers, and government in 12 urban centers throughout the country in 2005. The goal of this initiative is to create a competitive environment that benefits consumers by informing them of their rights and duties, and by providing still more information to economic agents regarding competition law and policy so that they are better able to face national, regional, and international competition, and to ensure that the actions of the CNCC are highly visible while also encouraging consumers and economic agents to use its services.
In the fight against evasion, a new taxpayer identification system based on a new Single Taxpayer Identification Number (IFU) was set up on January 1, 2006. This involved:
- Developing and deploying the software in the Large Enterprise Division (DGE) and in the other tax divisions of Kadiogo;
- Designing the interfaces between the IFU and the Integrated Expenditure Circuit (CID).
In terms of business support, tax exemptions were granted to 33 businesses that together account for CFAF 48 billion in investment and created 1,182 jobs in 2005.
In general, the government is committed to continue implementing reforms to encourage private sector development. The following measures have recently been taken to facilitate the process of starting a business (simplification of some administrative procedures) and promote the integration of many informal sector businesses into the formal economy (creation of approved management centers):
- No residency certificate requirement for starting a business, thereby simplifying the process for nonresident investors;
- corporations are no longer required to obtain a professional business license;
- effective application of the OHADA;
- businesses are no longer required to obtain an opinion on their by-laws, a change that will reduce wait times and the cost of starting a business in Burkina Faso;
- foreigners are no longer required to make a capital contribution of CFAF 50 million;
- centralizing the procedures for starting a business by establishing CEFOREs;
- sharply reduced fees for registering articles of incorporation: in the 2006 budget law, the fee to register the articles of incorporation and amendment of a business is now set at CFAF 6,000, and the registration fees for leasing agreements for patents, trademarks, licensing, and manufacturing processes have been reduced by half;
- the BIC down payment has been reduced by half (from 2 percent to 1 percent) to benefit importers in the formal sector, and the withholding rate for the informal sector and occasional importers has been set at 5 percent;
- references to the addressee and the purpose of the certification of tax compliance have been suspended for 3 months and are applicable under various circumstances;
- procedures for labor services have been amalgamated into a single form in the context of the implementation of CEFORE;
- the adoption of implementing legislation for the Labor Code;
- background checks are carried out after the fact instead of beforehand, thereby reducing the wait time to obtain authorization to start a business from 90 to 15 days; and
- dismantling of the ad hoc license review committee. The one-stop window has become the sole entity empowered to determine whether or not a prospective business is eligible and to make recommendations to that effect to the government without prior review by the committee, which was unable to meet regularly due to difficulties in meeting its quorum.
Although much effort has been made, expectations remain high and some objectives for 2005 were not accomplished due to: (i) the postponement of the private economic initiative day; (ii) the lack of material resources; and (iii) the shortage of business premises that provide a welcoming environment in which to work and exchange ideas.
In addition, postal sector reforms began in 2005, with the aim of reviewing the legal and regulatory framework of the postal service in an effort to prepare for the participation of private mail carriers in mail delivery services. Following a study, a reform strategy will be selected to enhance the entity traditionally responsible for the universal postal service. Finally, work has begun to prepare the legal framework of the information services corporation, taking into account the need to integrate the various types of communication and exchange: mail, telecommunications, computing, trade, electronic, digital television, etc.
2.2.4 Improved competitiveness and reduced factor costs
In 2005. the government continued to implement its privatization and public enterprise reform program to increase production and investment incentives. The privatization initiatives affected 11 enterprises, whose status on December 31, 2005 was as follows:
- Privatization of ONATEL (national telecommunications company): The privatization strategy was revised on March 16, 2005. The new privatization plan proposes transferring ONATEL capital as follows: (i) 51 percent directly to a strategic telecommunications operator or to a consortium of telecommunications operators and financial investors; (ii) 20 percent simultaneously to the public through the Regional Securities Exchange (BRVM); (iii) 6 percent to ONATEL staff; and (iv) 23 percent of its residual capital to the State. The agreement and the terms and obligations were reviewed with ARTEL and ONATEL. The amended initial contract with the Investment Bank was signed. The technical and financial bids were negotiated. The government authorized the conclusion of a freely negotiated contract with the Investment Bank on December 30, 2005. The contract was signed by the two parties on January 16, 2006 and services were to be provided beginning on January 30, 2006 (timetable was updated). The notice of non-objection from the IDA (World Bank) was obtained and a meeting was held in January 2006 for investors and operators to discuss the matter. The process is expected to be completed by end-2006. Nevertheless, the prolonged wait times for the notifications of no objection from the World Bank and the lengthy procedure for processing documents are causing some difficulties.
- Privatization of SONABEL (national electricity company): As part of the leasing of SONABEL, the entire consultant recruitment process began in 2005 but fell behind schedule due to the delayed receipt of the non-objection. The current situation is as follows:
- Audit of accounts for 2002 to 2004: Following the technical and financial assessments of the consultants’ proposals, which were carried out on March 30 and July 27, 2005, respectively, the IDA’s non-objection to the financial assessment was requested on July 29, 2005 and received on January 20, 2006. Given the delay, the IDA authorized the inclusion of the 2005 fiscal year in the audit. A report was submitted to the Council of Ministers regarding the selection of the consultant, which will mark the start of the work.
- Technical audit of infrastructure and inventory of assets: Following the first invitation to bid, which was declared unsuccessful on July 27, 2005, a new call for expressions of interest was issued in October 2005 to compile a shortlist of six firms, which the IDA approved on January 20, 2006. The request for proposals was amended and sent to the Enterprise Development and Competitiveness Support Project (PACDE) on February 21, 2006 to request the IDA’s non-objection. It will be forwarded to the shortlisted consulting firms for the bidding phase.
- Rate review and design of the low-cost investment program: Before authorizing this study as originally programmed, the World Bank requested the report on the short-term rate study performed by SONABEL with support from the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). The report and the comments made by SONABEL were sent to the PACDE on February 14, 2006 for forwarding to the World Bank. The authorities are awaiting the Bank’s response before proceeding with the recruitment of a consultant to perform this study.
- Human resources audit: The terms of reference (TOR) for the human resources audit were approved by the IDA on January 20, 2006. A call for expressions of interest was issued in March 2006 for purposes of compiling a shortlist, and the bids were received on March 31, 2006. A proposed shortlist will be compiled once the bids have been reviewed.
- Implementation of the SONABEL privatization strategy: For the recruitment of the “investment bank” responsible for assisting the Privatization Commission with the implementation of the SONABEL privatization strategy, a shortlist of consultants was drawn up and submitted for the IDA’s non-objection on June 22, 2005. The IDA’s response to this list is subject to the review of Law 16-2005/AN of June 12, 2005.
The privatization of SONABEL did not make significant progress in 2005 because of the complexity of the process, the request for a review of the electricity law, and the delays in consultant recruitment.
- Privatization of SONABHY (national oil company): The technical and financial proposals for the audit of financial statements from 2002 to 2004 were evaluated on March 24 and July 27, 2005, respectively. In October 2005, the TOR were finalized for the recruitment of a consultant responsible for developing the legal texts creating the autonomous regulatory body of this subsector. On January 20, 2006, the IDA issued its non-objection on the financial assessment for the audit of the financial statements from 2002 to 2004. This should expedite the process of recruiting a consultant. The TOR for recruiting the consultant responsible for assessing SONABHY and implementing the privatization strategy were revised on March 3, 2006 and are being finalized.
- Privatization of ONEA (national water and sanitation company): The process has been temporarily halted until the government issues instructions on how to proceed with the privatization of this entity.
- Hôtel Silmandé: The privatization strategy is leasing-management. The call for bids from potential buyers was unsuccessful. During its meeting of December 28, 2005, the Council of Ministers granted authorization to begin negotiations with the sole bidder (Accor Group).
- Bureau of Mines and Geology of Burkina Faso (BUMIGEB): The bids were received in February 2005. On September 21, 2005, the Council of Ministers selected the SOFIDEC firm to evaluate, define, and implement the strategy. The contract for the provision of services was signed and work began in January 2006.
- CCVA (Automotive Vehicle Inspection Center): The CGIC firm was selected to evaluate and define the strategy. The services contract was signed and work began in January 2006.
- CENATRIN (National Data Processing Center): On June 29, 2005, the Council of Ministers announced the administrative liquidation of CENATRIN. Its personnel were then laid off and paid their benefits. The status of receivables was determined by a liquidator. An ad hoc follow up committee was set up. The process is in its final stages.
- SONACIB (National Cinema Company): The National Cinema Company is being liquidated and an agreement has been signed between the government and the Association of African Actors, Producers, and Directors (ARPA). The liquidation report is nearing completion.
- CBMP (Burkinabè Precious Metals Board): On December 8, 2005, the Council of Ministers announced the administrative liquidation of CBMP and the contractor was instructed to begin work.
- Airports (Concession of Ouagadougou Airport and leasing of Bobo-Dioulasso Airport): The government issued an invitation to bid on the management of the country’s airports. The authorities are awaiting final instructions from the government on issues related to the proposed creation of a mixed company (COPRONA) before finalizing the project to build a new airport.
In the cotton sector, new cotton-producing zones in the central and eastern regions were opened to private operators (SOCOMA and FASO COTON) in September 2004. Cotton producers hold shares in the country’s three cotton companies, broken down as follows: 30 percent hold shares in SOFITEX (since 1998), 20 percent in SOCOMA, and 10 percent in FASO COTON. During the 2004/2005 production run, SOCOMA improved its ginning capacity by installing a 45,000-ton ginning unit in Diapaga. This unit has been operating since October 2005 and has created 254 direct jobs and more than 500 indirect jobs. The Interprofessional Cotton Association of Burkina Faso (AICB), whose members include the Professional Association of Burkinabè Cotton Companies (APROCOB) and the National Union of Burkinabè Cotton Producers (UNPCB), was created in 2005 at the end of the transition period in the management of the sector. The government hopes to conduct a study, with the support of its partners, on methods of developing the sector, which should help to determine a strategic vision and identify solutions to major issues, such as the volatility of world cotton prices, improving crop yields though sustainable soil management, increasing value added by processing cotton on-site, and diversifying agricultural production. In addition, the government has ensured the follow-up of the “Sectoral Initiative in Favour of Cotton” proposal, presented to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in April 2003 by Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, and Chad. It took part in preparatory activities for the negotiations and in the Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong in December 2005.
In terms of energy sector reforms, following the March 2004 decision on structuring the subsector, the reform process focused on two areas: the implementation of a new institutional and regulatory framework, and the privatization of SONABEL. In the first area, Law 060/98/AN of December 17, 1998 was reviewed and Law 16-2005/AN on the general regulations for the supply of electricity in Burkina Faso was adopted by the National Assembly on May 12, 2005. This new law was enacted by Decree 2005-333/PRES of June 21, 2005. To show its willingness to promote dialogue and cooperation with its development partners, the government agreed to review the new law and amend some of its provisions in order to further reassure investors. In the second area, Law 16-2005/AN on the general regulations for the supply of electricity in Burkina Faso contains provisions for creating a regulatory body for the electricity subsector, and defines the purpose of this entity. Regarding the decision to review this law, the government decided to build an adequate institutional framework before creating the regulatory body.
The government’s decision of March 24, 2004 also involved the creation of an asset management company, the transformation of SONABEL into a private company underwritten by the public sector (société fermière), and the opening of a majority share of its capital to a strategic partner. The draft TOR for the recruitment of a specialized firm to create the asset management compnay was submitted for the World Bank’s non-objection. The continuation of this process is also subject to the review of the law.
The Electrification Development Fund is currently operational and its Board of Directors held two regular meetings in 2005. The work of bringing electricity to 13 communities began with the signing of contracts worth CFAF 2.4 billion with businesses and is slated for completion in 2006. Electrification studies have also been conducted for 15 new communities. Funding is now being sought for the electrification of these areas. The Tanghin Dassouri electrification project was completed in 2005 and the facilities began operating.
In addition, the drafting of the national electrification plan, which began in 2004, continued in 2005. The document is in the final stages and the provisional version will be available in March 2006. The timetable included the organization of a national validation workshop in August 2006, the adoption of the plan by the government in November 2006, and the presentation of the plan to donors in December 2006.
Efforts were also made to research potential sources of funding to popularize the use of solar energy, so that medical centers, schools, recreation centers, and local governments would have access to enough electricity improve the conditions under which they operate. Spain’s international cooperation agency, through its assistance and cooperation fund, committed to providing CFAF 2.6 billion in funding to equip 60 communities with a photovoltaic solar energy system. Invitations to bid on these projects were issued on February 22, 2006. The work will be carried out in 2006 and 2007.
Finally, the authorities continued to develop the automatic gas price adjustment mechanism throughout 2005. It should be noted that the price per barrel of Brent Crude (crude oil from the North Sea, the price of which is set in London) rose 58 percent from 2004 to 2005, from US$38 to US$60. The measures taken by the government during the same period helped to limit retail price increases to 25 percent. This surge in prices impelled the government to establish an ad hoc committee comprised of sectoral ministers and responsible for engaging in dialogue with the different actors in this subsector. The initial results of this dialogue are available and will help to take appropriate measures to better manage supplies, develop an awareness of the potential for producing biofuels, and assist the government in regulating prices more effectively by exercising more control over consumer gas prices.
Activities in telecommunications and information and communication technologies (ICT) focused on the implementation of operators’ network and services development programs. This facilitated the installation of 10,732 fixed telephone lines, bringing the total number of main lines to 91,506 in 2005, in comparison with 85,225 lines at end-2004. In terms of structural reforms, a new sectoral policy is currently being formulated. This document should set out the government’s new vision for the development of the telecommunications sector. The adoption of this sectoral policy document should be accompanied by a review of Law 051/98 on telecommunications sector reform. The amended law should make provisions for the full liberalization of the telecommunications sector, thereby offering more opportunities to all developers and private investors interested in the sector.
The mobile telephony sector has experienced a growth rate of nearly 30 percent, and the number of cellular telephones in Burkina Faso has increased by 59.8 percent, from 399,941 in 2004 to 639,208 in 2005.
Significant progress was made in the sector, in particular:
- A fiber optic network was established between Burkina Faso and Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Togo;
- The bandwidth giving Burkina Faso access to the World Wide Web was substantially increased by a connection to the SAT 3 submarine cable via Mali and Senegal, thereby increasing the data transmission rate from 38 mbps at end-2004 to 72 mbps at end-2005;
- New products and services, such as WiFi and ADSL, are now available to facilitate high-bandwidth Internet access by end users;
- 65 frequency operating licenses and 32 permits were granted to develop value-added services.
All these initiatives have led to a marked increase in fixed and mobile density, from 0.66 in 2000 to 4.04 in 2004, and to 5.70 in 2005.
In the postal sector, activities focused on improving the coverage area of postal services, in particular:
- opening a post office in Kouka;
- rehabilitating post offices in Batié, Garango, Bokin, Gaoua, and Ouaga-Tampouy;
- opening two Western Union offices in Ouagadougou; and
- launching new products, such as Money Express, a funds transfer system.
In terms of reducing factor costs, the telecommunications sector is the most sensitive to lowered rates (excluding taxes) and per minute. Fixed telephony rates have not been lowered since 2004, and there has been no change in local, long-distance, and international calling rates. In 2005, of the mobile telephony operators (TELMOB, CELTEL, and TELECEL FASO), only TELECEL FASO lowered call rates by an average of 22.5 percent, thereby bringing its rates into line with those of other operators. On December 31, 2005, the monopoly given to ONATEL came to an end and the telecommunications sector was opened to competition. Fiber optics are now being used in the Burkina Faso telephone network; this will reduce communication costs and enhance the quality of communication. In addition, the use of fiber optics presents an opportunity for subregional integration through more reliable link-ups between telecommunications networks.
Regarding the reduction of such primary factors costs as labor, the Labor Code was reviewed and Law 33-2004/AN of September 14, 2004 establishing the Labor Code in Burkina Faso was enacted. The following rules and regulations for implementing the new code were adopted in 2005:
- a paid holidays system;
- the cases and circumstances under which accommodations must be provided by the employer;
- methods of preparing the employment contract and the probationary employment contract;
- contract of apprenticeship;
- regulations on overtime and modalities for remuneration of overtime;
- employer registry;
- employee representatives;
- methods for implementing the 40-hour work week in nonagricultural establishments; and
- a draft order on the establishment of a committee for periodic consultation between government, labor, and management to facilitate social dialogue.
Four other draft decrees are being finalized in the following areas:
- composition and functioning of a National Technical Consultative Committee on Occupational Health and Safety;
- composition, powers and duties, and functioning of the Consultative Labor Committee;
- methods of filing, publishing, communicating, and observing labor-management agreements; and
- establishments in which children may be employed under certain conditions.
Regarding the amendment of Decree 99-081/PRES/PM/MEF/METSS of April 6, 1999, which sets the Minimum Guaranteed Interoccupational Wage (SMIG), negotiations began in 2005 to increase the SMIG, but were unsuccessful.
In the road and transport infrastructure sector, the government focused its efforts on developing the draft texts for the framework law. In fact, the provisional draft law and its implementing and related legislation will be submitted for the approval of all stakeholders during a national workshop. The adoption of this law will help to organize the sector and better promote its activities. In addition, the road security policy was formulated in the framework of the Sectoral Transportation Program (PST). An action plan based on this policy will be implemented with a view to substantially reducing transportation and mobility risks; as a result, factor costs will be reduced.
In conclusion, it is pleasing to note that the privatization and reform of the energy sector is progressing relatively well. Difficulties remain, however, due to burdensome administrative procedures and, in particular, the long wait time for partners to issue notices of non-objection.
2.2.5 Promotion of regional integration to develop a service economy
In December 2005, Burkina Faso attended the Sixth WTO Ministerial Conference, held in Hong Kong. The conference marked a turning point in WTO trade negotiations. The main issues under discussion included agriculture, cotton, market access for nonagricultural goods, services, and development. Burkina Faso and other countries co-authoring the Sectoral Initiative in Favour of Cotton galvanized international opinion on the distorting effects of developed country subsidies and invited members to act quickly and take concrete measures to help African cotton producers overcome a catastrophic situation.
Since it became eligible for the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) preferential regime on December 10, 2004, the Burkinabé government has worked to implement the act as quickly as possible. To that end, it organized information sessions for economic agents to explain the new opportunities offered by the United States market.
Decree 2005/647/PRES/PM/MCPEA/MFB establishing a visa system for apparel and textile exports to the United States under the AGOA was adopted on December 28, 2005.
The negotiations for Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the ACP States (Africa, Caribbean, and Pacific) and the European Community (EC) began on October 6, 2003 in Cotonou, Benin. The Executive Secretariat of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) led the negotiations for the countries of West Africa, and was assisted by the WAEMU. The negotiations were divided into two phases, in accordance with the roadmap adopted in Accra on August 4, 2004.
The objective of the first phase of negotiations, which began in 2004, was to study the priorities in the economic and trade integration of West Africa and set up the following technical groups to analyze the region’s capacity-building needs and define its negotiating position:
- Group 1: free trade area, customs union, and trade facilitation;
- Group 2: standardization, quality control and related services, SPS measures and TBT;
- Group 3: other trade-related areas;
- Group 4: investment and services; and
- Group 5: production sectors.
The objective of the first phase in terms of trade in goods was fully attained by adopting the reports prepared on the issues assigned to groups 1 and 2.
The points of disagreement in this phase were:
- Intellectual property law;
- Competition policy;
- Trade in services and investment;
- Production sector;
- Reabsorption of revenue losses due to the dismantling of intra- and bi-regional tariff restrictions; and
- Allocation of sufficient additional resources to cover adjustment costs.
The West African countries did not think it necessary to discuss these issues, as they were not set out in the roadmap.
In order to facilitate linkages and cooperation for financing the development of the EPA, another joint entity was created between West Africa and the European Community on June 16, 2004: the Regional Preparation Task Force (RPTF), comprising representatives of the ECOWAS secretariat, the WAEMU Commission, and the national payment authorizing officers responsible for the EDF. Burkina Faso is a member of this task force and is represented by the Minister of Finance (National Payment Authorizing Officer). During the first phase of negotiations, the RPTF began to study the negotiators’ recommendations and how best to implement them.
Given the broad participation of all actors in the economic life of the country, Burkina Faso established a national commission responsible for implementing the EPAs. This commission is comprised of representatives of the ministerial departments involved in trade negotiations, agencies supporting the private sector, private-sector professional organizations, professional organizations of producers, non-governmental organizations, and trade unions.
The government has also carried out information and awareness-raising activities, participated in various regional meetings, and prepared an impact assessment of the EPA on the Burkinabé economy. The study showed that the EPA will have a short-term impact on revenue from trade levies (recettes de porte). Measures will be taken to develop new methods for boosting revenues and strengthening the national productive apparatus. Terms of reference for three complementary studies were prepared.
2.2.6 Support for production sectors to enhance their contribution to economic growth
In terms of rural development and food security, 2005 was characterized by food shortages resulting from the combined effects of the drought and the locust invasion that dominated the 2004/2005 crop year. This situation resulted in a concerted effort by the government, through the entities involved in the monitoring mechanism. Thus:
The Technical Committee of the National Food Security Council (CNSA) held 10 meetings during the year to discuss the following issues:
- recruitment of consultants to review the legal texts of the National Society for Food Security Stock Management (SONAGESS);
- financing for the replenishment of national food security stocks;
- management of financial and physical resources;
- financing for the ongoing agricultural survey;
- full reporting on the 2004 locust eradication program, as well as proposed initiatives for 2005, including the locust information system;
- audit of the 2004 locust eradication program; and
- review of the legal texts on food security.
The Executive Secretariat of the National Food Security Council (SE-CNSA) organized the following activities:
- preparation of meetings of the CNSA Technical Committee (CT-CNSA);
- drafting of minutes of CT-CNSA meetings;
- monitoring the execution of CT-CNSA decisions; and
- managing the financial resources held in the accounts of the Food Security Support Fund (FASA).
In anticipation of the appointment of the members of the CNSA and the establishment of its local offices, the SE-CNSA prepared training modules for council members on the content of the national food security strategy documents. These documents are: (i) Operational Strategy and a Sustainable Food Security Program as part of Poverty Reduction; (ii) Action Plan for the Food Security Information System (PA-SISA); and (iii) General Framework for State-Partner Cooperation for Food Security. As part of this initiative, CNSA staff will receive “training for trainers” and the training modules will be finalized and copied.
The General Directorate of Agricultural Forecasts and Statistics (DGPSA) is responsible for monitoring the country’s food security. During the past year, it:
- conducted the ongoing agricultural survey, the final results of which show a cereal surplus of 704,527 metric tons; and
- began consultations on preparing the specifications for the Food Security Information Center.
The survey on vegetable production, however, was not carried out due to a lack of resources.
As part of Burkina Faso’s commitment to the Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS), a multidisciplinary technical committee was set up to study the implementation of a National Special Programme for Food Security (PSNSA). The committee began its work in January 2005. Currently, this new program is in the predevelopment phase and will be validated during a national workshop in April 2006.
In the context of its role of managing the national food security stock, food aid, and agricultural market information, SONAGESS has carried out the following activities:
- Management of national food security stocks: collection of 1,288.7 metric tons of cereals and destocking of 15,273.1 metric tons of cereals for loans to the State, the Local Development Program (PDL)/Local Development Unit (UDL), and the World Food Programme (WFP).
- National intervention stock: purchases and borrowings totaling 10,905.75 metric tons of cereals and distribution of 12,297.69 metric tons during the food crisis.
- Food aid: some 7,032.31 metric tons of rice were received, and 6,772.38 metric tons were distributed and sold.
- Agricultural market information system: regular production of 52 information bulletins on the prices of agricultural products, weekly radio broadcast of cereal prices, production of three quarterly bulletins on price trends in agricultural markets, and the publication of a cereal prices yearbook.
In 2005, the Permanent Secretariat of the National Council for Emergency Aid and Rehabilitation took action to ensure that large quantities (i.e. 14,000 metric tons) of affordably-priced cereals were distributed as part of the government’s efforts.
Food situation. The 2005/2006 crop year was characterized by an early start to the rainy season in the northern region of the country, persistent pockets of drought in parts of the west, a good year-end throughout the territory, and a stable phytosanitary situation, with the exception of a few attacks by seed-eating birds in part of the Sahel. Threshold reservoir levels were positive from June to September 2005. As a whole, cultivated crops and pasturelands showed favorable phenological development.
In terms of meeting the needs of the population, 5 provinces have a coverage rate of less than 90 percent, 14 have a coverage rate between 90 percent and 120 percent, while 26 have a coverage rate exceeding 120 percent.
There were no locust invasions in 2005. Part of the Sahel was attacked by a small group of seed-eating birds, causing the loss of an estimated 430 metric tons of cereals.
Regarding financing for its initiatives, the government, to benefit from the second disbursement earmarked for the implementation of the national food security strategy, requested the services of Deloitte & Touche Burkina to perform a financial audit and prepared the technical report on the implementation of the official letter.
In terms of identifying initiatives to be financed using the remaining funds not yet committed under the 9th EDF, a proposal was formulated to provide institutional support to the SE-CNSA to enhance the national food security policy. A request for EUR 900,000 was submitted to the Delegation of the European Commission via letter 2004- 000412/MFB/SG/DG-COOP/DCM/TN of March 4, 2004. The SE-CNSA institutional support project for implementation of the action plan of the food security information system was launched in 2005. The first program under this initiative began on August 17, 2005 and provides funding of CFAF 91,729,015.
Nevertheless, the implementation of the new food security mechanism within the General Framework for State-Partner Cooperation for Food Security continues to experience delays. The urgent actions that must be taken to accomplish this goal include:
- Installation of the members of the CNSA;
- Organizing a donor roundtable meeting to discuss the financing of PA-SISA;
- Establishing the entities provided for in PA-SISA, particularly the National Coordinating Office and the Management Unit;
- Strengthening and revitalizing the information systems of the food security mechanism, thereby facilitating the implementation of the priority activities outlined in PA-SISA.
Promoting microfinance. Activities celebrating the International Year of Microcredit (IYM-2005) began on February 24, 2005. The draft national microfinance strategy was adopted by the Council of Ministers on November 30, 2005. The objective of the strategy is to improve access for the majority of the population to more and higher-quality financial products, while also professionalizing and organizing the microfinance sector and working to ensure its linkage with the global financial sector by 2015.
Thanks to the incentives created through the establishment of decentralized financial institutions, 15 applications for authorization to operate (10 licenses and 5 agreements) were examined during the meetings of the inter-ministerial committee responsible for monitoring microfinance activities. As at December 31, 2005, there were 349 institutions in the decentralized financial system in Burkina Faso, of which 320 were officially accredited and 29 were in the accreditation process of being accredited.
Finally, also in 2005, a study on the country’s microfinance strategy was carried out in an effort to achieve a better outcome in terms of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
In the mining sector, particularly small-scale mining operations, in accordance with its commitments and to enable this sector to make an effective contribution to increasing production and reducing poverty, the government implemented the new mining code through the adoption of 6 of 11 implementing decrees in the Council of Ministers. The remaining decrees are being drafted.
In large mining operations, the government took action to encourage mining investors to work their deposits. Three private corporations under Burkinabé law were set up and the State holds 10 percent of the shares: SOMITA in Taparko, Namentenga; SOMIKA in Kalsaka, Yatenga; and BMC in Youga, Boulgou. A feasibility study on the Mana project was completed in December 2004 and the accompanying reports were submitted in 2005.
In 2005, a partner was found to update the feasibility study on zinc mining in Perkoa, Sanguie. A private corporation under Burkinabé law under the name “Nantou Mining” was created for this purpose. Construction began and is continuing on gold mines in Taparko, Kalsaka, and Youga. Other mining projects, such as Perkoa (zinc) and Mana (gold), are also in the advanced stages.
In small-scale mining, four mechanical processing units began operating in Boungou (Tapoa), Bendogo (Oubritenga), Moussobadougou (Houet), and Fandjora (Comoé) and social infrastructure was built at these sites (boreholes, pharmacies, daycare centers, and water towers) in 2005. Reforesting initiatives and pollution control measures were carried out in these auriferous areas. Gold washers received onsite training in prospecting and mineral processing techniques. Finally, a campaign was launched to raise awareness among gold washers of hygiene, health, and safety.
The accomplishments in the sector were as follows:
- four production units (each containing one pulverizing machine, two grinding mills, and a generator) were obtained, in addition to dewatering and drilling equipment on four sites, each consisting of one air compressor, two jackhammers, and two extraction pumps; and light equipment, such as washing mats and protective gear (retors); and social infrastructure (boreholes, daycare centers, latrines, pharmacies) on four sites;
- technical training for more than 200 gold washers; and
- creation of reforestation zones.
The main results achieved were as follows:
- 6 decrees were adopted in 2005;
- 4 gold washing sites were equipped with a processing unit;
- 4 gold washing sites were equipped with social infrastructures;
- 4 gold washing sites were equipped with dewatering equipment;
- 4 gold washing sites were reforested;
- A 1:200000-scale geological map covering 1 square degree was made.
Given the critical role played by small and medium-sized enterprises and industries (SMEs/SMIs), the government has sought to promote new investments and reinforce existing units. With a view to promoting new investment, industrial infrastructures (such as the industrial zones of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso) were studied and rehabilitated. As a result of the policy to support the production sectors by registering them under the Investment Code, 11 industrial facilities began operations in 2005 with an investment amount of CFAF 14.6 billion, creating 678 new jobs.
A total of 27 facilities were registered under the new investment code in 2005, 36 authorizations were granted to set up industrial facilities, and three partnership agreements to promote and protect investments are being negotiated with the following countries: the Republic of the Congo, France, and Italy.
In the trade sector, 139 authorizations to conduct trade were issued to foreign corporations and individuals. The breakdown by country/region is as follows: Africa (61), United States (6), Asia (12), Europe (50), and the Middle East (10). In 2005, efforts were also made to improve Burkina Faso’s image through trade missions led by the Prime Minister, which also gave Burkinabé businesspeople an opportunity to visit Paris, Toulouse, Louvain la Neuve, and Kuala Lumpur, among other destinations.
Tourism sector. To promote the tourism industry as a true engine of economic growth, the government made the strategic decision to focus on the development of ecotourism and agrotourism.
In the context of reinforcing the synergy between culture and tourism, the different entities responsible for managing the country’s cultural and touristic heritage worked together in 2005. This collaboration resulted in the compilation of a joint inventory of this heritage by the Cultural and Touristic Heritage Directorate.
Efforts to develop cultural infrastructure included building the Naba Oubri, Naba Yadég, and Tiéfo Amoro mausoleums. Other accomplishments include the construction of tourist camps in Sindou, Koro, and Pobe Maengao. Some of the tourist camps and mausoleums are managed in accordance with the provisions of the memoranda of understanding between the National Burkinabé Tourism Office and the local governments, and thereby generate revenues for both parties. Promotional activities included climbing Mount Ténékourou and the organization of the Ouagadougou International Tourism and Hotel Industry Fair.
Initiatives to promote Burkina Faso as a tourism destination involve the upgrading of various sites with tourism potential. In addition, the establishment of tour operators and guide services has created jobs for both local populations and travel agencies. Equipping the various tour operators may boost revenues and encourage the development of a range of tourism activities.
In the handicrafts sector, the government focused its work on the following areas in 2005:
- Conducting information and trade missions in the 45 provinces to recruit professional handicraft associations and local governments with a view to establishing the chamber of handicrafts (chambre des métiers);
- Formulating a tentative draft handicrafts code, which will be validated during a national workshop in 2006;
- Preparing an action plan for implementing the handicrafts promotion strategy. The action plan, already adopted in a national workshop, creates new opportunities for artisans in organizing their business, certification and training, financing, regulations, and marketing;
- Training and coaching for individuals in the handicrafts sector in the identification and exploitation of business opportunities (fairs, trade shows, etc.); and
- Implementing the Project to Promote the Artisanal Textile Sector (PROFITA) to build the production capacity of artisans in the textile sector. Financed by the Austrian Development Cooperation, PROFITA began activities in July 2005.
To promote the external economy, the following actions were taken:
MIDA Project: In 2005, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Cooperation, through the Supreme Council for the Burkinabé Diaspora (CSBE), began to execute the pilot stage of the Migration for Development in Africa Programme (MIDA). For this purpose, the government of Burkina Faso obtained US$52,000 in financing from the IOM to carry out the following activities:
- awareness-raising missions to Senegal and Italy in May and June 2005;
- design and publishing of the web site for the diaspora;
- survey of the priority needs of Burkina Faso;
- survey of expertise among the Burkinabé diaspora; and
- organization of a training workshop for members of the unit responsible for implementing the project.
This stage is but the prelude to the launch of the project, the total cost of which is US$1,093,987. The Burkinabé government should contribute US$164,623, or 15 percent of the total cost. Donors for the remaining 85 percent of the project budget need to be identified. A coordination meeting took place on December 8, 2005 to inform the development partners about the project objectives.
Creation of a databank of Burkinabé expertise abroad: This is one of the core components of the MIDA Programme. Some 200 Burkinabé experts were living outside the national territory on December 31, 2005. This preliminary pool of experts must be studied to determine the potential candidates likely to join the MIDA Programme. To that end, a website for the Burkinabé diaspora will be set up and contain a form so that Burkinabès abroad can register their information in the databank.
Migration policy document: No action was taken in 2005. The symposium originally planned by the Ministry of Economy and Development to draft a migration policy document ultimately did not take place. The drafting of this document requires that prior steps be taken involving various national actors. In this regard, the general meeting of the CSBE could be an opportunity to compile core data on managing international migration. In addition, a symposium should take national and international migration into account in defining the main pillars of the migration policy.
Restructuring of the CSBE: The CSBE recommended its restructuring at its 1998 general meeting. Several draft texts are now ready and will be submitted to the General Secretariat of the Government and the Council of Ministers for subsequent tabling to the Council of Ministers.
Dakolé Project: The Dakolé Project was presented by the Burkinabé delegate to a seminar on migration and integration for development, held in July 2003 and hosted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the State of Israel. Among other objectives, the project seeks to modernize agriculture in Burkina Faso by offering irrigated areas in Dakolé (southwestern Burkina Faso) to qualified or experienced agricultural workers of Burkinabé nationality who were formerly working abroad. These workers are among the group of repatriates from Côte d’Ivoire who fell victim to the crisis in that country. As a final step, a working group was set up comprising representatives of the ministries involved in the project. In 2004, a decision was made to visit the project site, but the visit has not yet taken place due to a lack of financial resources. In 2005, the project was incorporated into the PAP of the PRSP to increase its visibility and revitalize its potential.
2.3 Status of implementation of Pillar 2: Improved access for the poor to basic social services and welfare
2.3.1 Access for the poor to education services
In terms of basic education, during the 2005/2006 school year,6 Burkina Faso again made significant efforts to give boys and girls, particularly those living in rural areas, the means to complete their primary school education.
i) Expansion of the supply of education services
Final statistics will be announced on the next National Statistics Day. In meantime, the preliminary results of the flash survey showed that nationally, 1,379,837 children (610,199 girls) were enrolled in school in 2005/2006, in comparison with 1,270,837 (555,518 girls) in 2004-05. In the 20 priority provinces, a total of 385,425 children were enrolled in school (166,094 girls) in 2005/2006, in comparison with 803,126 (390,056 girls) in 2004-05.
Also at the national level, the number of new students enrolled in school continues to rise. The number of new enrollments in CP1 (1st grade) grew from 295,426 in 2004/2005 to 301,501 in 2005/2006, an increase of 10 percent. In the 20 priority provinces, the number of new enrollments in CP1 increased from 91,962 in 2004/2005 to 95,614 in 2005/2006, for a growth rate similar to the national rate of 10 percent.
Thus, the gross enrollment ratio (TBS) for primary education, which provides an overall view of the coverage of the education system, moved from 56.8 percent in 2004 (51 percent for girls) to 60.2 percent (54.5 for girls), compared with a target of 58.1 percent (52.9 percent for girls) in 2005. The progress made was not enough to change the gross admission rate to CP1 (national level), which did not vary in 2004 or in 2005, standing at 70 percent (64.1 percent for girls). In the 20 priority provinces, substantial progress was made; the gross admission rate jumped 12.7 percentage points from 47.3 percent (43.8 percent for girls) in 2004 to 60 percent (54.8 percent for girls).
In May 2004, a workshop on night school was held for the Provincial Directorate of Basic Education (DPEBA), public school principals, founders, social partners, and the central offices. As a result of this event, 628 teachers in Ouaga and Bobo taught night school courses to 10,716 students in 102 schools. These same courses were also held in some urban centers, such as Ouahigouya, Koudougou, Kaya, Garango, and Boussé.
Education coverage increased with the construction of 1,427 new classrooms (compared with a target of 3,391). During the same year, 13 satellite schools were built, and 8 inspection offices are in the process of being built. Regarding 2003/2004 constructions financed by technical and financial partners from “pooled resources,” 654 classrooms were completed and 609 are being built. It should be noted that construction activities slowed in 2005, which hindered execution of the 2005 PAP financed by “pooled resources.” Execution did not begin on the housing construction plans in the 2005 PAP financed by 2005 pooled resources. In addition, only 323 homes for teachers are being built using funds from the State budget and HIPC resources (compared with a target 3,715 homes in 2005). The delayed execution of investments financed from the State budget is attributable to administrative and financial procedures. The results for the recruitment of new teachers, however, are relatively satisfactory, with 3,000 teachers, compared with a projection of 3,450. Despite the difficulties in executing the 2005 PAP financed by “pooled resources,” the completion of academic infrastructure in recent years has helped to bring schools closer to children. In fact, almost 90 percent of students travelled less than 3 km to reach school in 2004, in comparison with 89.3 percent in 2003 and 88.8 percent in 2002.
Literacy and nonformal basic education. The policy of expanding education services resulted in the construction and equipping of 11 Nonformal Basic Education Centers (CEBNF), compared with the target of 32 in 2005. The results of the 2005 campaign show 197,412 students enrolled in the Beginning Literacy (AI) program, in comparison with 182,323 in 2004, an increase of 8 percent. The total number of students enrolled in Supplementary Basic Training (FCB) climbed 39 percent to 90,913 in 2005. In the 20 priority provinces, students tested in AI increased from 76,184 in 2004 to 179,250 in 2005, an increase of 135.5 percent. The growth in FCB was 36.1 percent, with 38,806 tests conducted in 2005.
The proportion of women enrolled in AI nationwide and in the 20 priority provinces grew from 54.5 percent in 2004 to 57.7 percent in 2005 (nationwide) and from 52.3 percent to 54.1 percent (provincially). The number of female students in AI is growing, moving from 99,273 in 2004 to 113,982 in 2005, an increase of 14.8 percent. The number of new students in FCB, both nationally and in the 20 priority provinces, continues to show a substantial increase, but the gap remains significant.
An initiative known as the “Pilot Project in Literacy” (APA) was launched during the 2005 holidays to teach literacy to 25,000 students in the 13 regional capitals. This initative became very popular and some 50,000 prospective students—double the original forecasted number—registered for the course. This initiative helped to ensure that classrooms were properly used during this period.
ii) Improvement of the quality, relevance, and effectiveness of formal education.
In order to improve the quality of basic education and literacy training, 2,547 new teachers received initial training during the 2004/2005 school year. The trainers, consisting of teaching inspectors and advisors, were also trained and/or retrained in various issues affecting teaching activities. The number of textbooks and minimum school bags distributed free of charge during the 2004/2005 school year doubled.
Some 3.5 million books were distributed free of charge to all public and private schools throughout the national territory in two stages. The distribution of books to students by subject area was as follows: history, 385,236; geography, 779,432; science, 418,322; reading, 957,439; and mathematics, 384,790. Teachers recevied books in the following disciplines: reading, 32,733; mathematics, 22,477; science, 30,287; history, 20,365; and geography, 20,045.
The distribution of free textbooks helped to achieve the following ratios:
- Reading: from CP1 (1st grade) to CM1 (5th grade), 1 book for every 2 students; and CM2 (6th grade), 1 book per student;
- Mathematics: 1 book for every 2 students;
- Other subjects: 1 book for every 2 students;
- Teacher manuals: 1 manual per class and per teacher.
In conclusion, objectives 2 and 3 of the textbooks component, which refer specifically to a ratio of 1 book for every 2 students in history, geography, and science, and 1 teacher manual per class/teacher, respectively, have been largely achieved. The execution rate for the objective of 1 student per book in French and mathematics, however, is 50 percent, or 1 book for every 2 students.
During the 2004/2005 school year, all schools were given a “minimum school bag” kit of school supplies. Five provinces benefited from a school funding program, which enabled them to directly purchase school supplies for students.
The number of schools with student cafeterias increased steadily over the past three years, from 48 percent in 2002/2003 to 52.9 percent in 2003/2004, and to 56.74 percent in 2004/2005. This is due to the huge increase in grassroots participation in the promotion of school cafeterias. During the 2004/2005 school year, community groups collected and contributed more than 1,000 metric tons of food to 1,167 schools. This increased involvement is undoubtedly the result of the National Forum on School Cafeterias, held in January 2005. The community momentum achieved should be pursued and further reinforced through awareness-raising, training, and information campaigns for grassroots actors. This is the only way in which the school meals initiative will continue, given the gradual withdrawal of some partners from the process. School cafeterias not only improve children’s access to school, but also create conditions for ensuring that students receive a quality education. School cafeterias are a catalyst for social mobilization in schools: meals at school encourage good attendance and help to improve students’ performance.
The results of the flash survey cannot be used to calculate repeater, drop-out, and promotion rates, but in advance of National Statistics Day, the rates for the past three school years are indicated below.
The repeater rate in primary school by subcycle was reduced, as follows:
- In 2002-03, the primary school rate was 10.80 percent, with 10.65 percent for girls; elementary school, 15.23 percent, with 15.22 percent for girls; and middle school, 25.94 percent, with 27.16 percent for girls.
- In 2003-04, the primary school rate was 8.99 percent, with 8.87 percent for girls; elementary school, 14.01 percent, with 13.75 percent for girls; and middle school, 24.70 percent, with 25.69 percent for girls.
- In 2004-05, the primary school rate was 7.97 percent, with 7.62 percent for girls; elementary school, 13.20 percent, with 12.90 percent for girls; and middle school, 23.13 percent, with 24.22 percent for girls.
The primary school drop-out rate evolved as follows:
- In 2002-03, the primary school rate was 5.65 percent, with 5.54 percent for girls; elementary school, 7.44 percent, with 6.55 percent for girls; and middle school, 25.94 percent, with 27.16 percent for girls.
- In 2003-04, the primary school rate was 5.52 percent, with 5.47 percent for girls; elementary school, 6.47 percent, with 5.50 percent for girls; and CM1, 7.04 percent, with 6.75 percent for girls.
- In 2004-05, the primary school rate was 6.79 percent, with 7.57 percent for girls; elementary school, 5.67percent, with 4.88 percent for girls; and CM1, 7.59 percent, with 6.73 percent for girls.
The primary school promotion rate increased, as follows:
- In 2002-2003, the primary school rate was 83.55 percent, with 83.81 percent for girls; elementary school, 77.34 percent, with 78.23 percent for girls; and CM1, 75.63 percent, with 74.79 percent for girls.
- In 2003-04, the primary school rate was 85.50 percent, with 85.67 percent for girls; elementary school, 79.52 percent, with 80.76 percent for girls; and CM1, 77.26 percent, with 76.87 percent for girls.
- In 2004-05, the primary school rate was 85.24 percent, with 84.81 percent for girls; elementary school, 81.12 percent, with 82.22 percent for girls; and CM1, 77.72 percent, with 77.58 percent for girls.
The success rate for the primary level surpassed the 70 percent mark, the projected goal at the end of the Ten-Year Plan for Basic Education Development (PDDEB) in 2010. In fact, the rate moved from 62.91 percent in 2002 to 70.01 percent in 2003, 73.73 percent in 2004, and 69.01 percent in 2005.
The primary school completion rate was 31.3 percent in 2003-04 and 32.8 percent in 2004-05, with rates of 27.3 percent and 28.7 percent for girls, respectively. According to the results of the flash survey, the completion rate climbed to 34.9 percent (32.2 percent for girls) in 2005/2006, exceeding the goal of 33.8 percent set for 2005-06.
In summary, between the 2002-03 and 2004-05 school years in particular, primary schools showed a positive trend in the following quality indicators: promotion rate, repeater rate, drop-out rate, and completion rate. The success rate at the primary school level decreased in 2004-05, however.
iii) Intensifying and improving the quality of literacy/training activities
The extension of nonformal education was reinforced, particularly through the application of a **downstreaming approach and the establishment of a National Fund for Literacy and Nonformal Education (FONAENF). The number of languages used in literacy activities during the 2003 campaign increased from 18 to 24 in 2005. Other languages are being transcribed and will be introduced in future campaigns.
The draft action plan for women’s literacy and training was formulated, but it was not validated in 2005 as expected due to the non-implementation of the 2005 pooled resources action plan.
Testing of the new curricula began during the 2004/2005 campaign. Activities are being carried out that contribute to the implementation of the editorial policy, adopted during the Second National Forum on Literacy.
With respect to the number of hours of training required, the number of learning hours in Basic Literacy Training (AI) was increased from 200 to 300, and the total for Supplementary Basic Training (FCB) from 240 to 300, resulting in a total of 600 hours for the basic training cycle.
In AI, 172,023 learners were assessed in 2004-05, in comparison with 153,667 in 2003-04. The percentage of women assessed increased from 56.09 percent in 2003-04 to 88.52 percent in 2004-05. In the 20 priority provinces, the number of learners assessed jumped from 76,184 in 2003-04 to 179,250 in 2004-05. In FCB, 80,021 were assessed in 2004-05, in comparison with 56,328 in 2003-04. In the 20 priority provinces, the number of learners assessed rose from 28,514 in 2003-04 to 38,806 in 2004-05.
The number of learners assessed as literate increased from 47,780 in 2003-04 to 67,472 in 2004-05. In the 20 priority provinces, 32,422 learners were assessed as literate in 2004-05, in comparison with 24,268 in 2003-04, while the percentage of women determined to be literate increased from 51.29 percent in 2003-04 to 83.61 percent in 2004-05.
The FONAENF, the government’s preferred partner in literacy initiatives, is making considerable efforts in this area and contributes substantially to national initiatives. Its activities had an impact on all 45 provinces during the 2004-05 campaign: the number of registered students rose from 31.52 percent in 2003-04 to 43.06 percent in 2004-05 for all levels together, and from 175 to 239 operators for the same periods.
The number of Nonformal Basic Education Centers (CEBNF) grew from 52 in 2003-04 to 63 in 2004-005. A total of 2,968 students were registered in apprenticeship courses in 2004-05, in comparison with 2,387 in 2003/2004 and 1,896 in 2002-03.
In addition to the CEBNF there are other training centers for young people who have either dropped out or never attended school, such as the Banma Nuara centers, community schools, and herder schools, among others, whose students must be taken into account in the nonformal education subsector in the future.
In order to expand nonformal education, the government has helped to increase the number of learners by adopting a downstreaming strategy with the creation of the FONAENF. For the 2005 campaign, authorization was given to include literacy initiatives for which no funds had been earmarked in community subprojects.
This positive trend in indicators is the result of the implementation of the PDDEB, which introduced new strategies, more robust initiatives, and a more organized education system. Thus, the faire faire (downstreaming) strategy and the faire ensemble (mixed approach) or faire inclusif (in-house) strategy helped to motivate change in the nonformal education system. The State’s decision to have Parents’ Associations (APE) cover girls’ tuition, the free distribution of textbooks and supplies, and a strong campaign to mobilize public opinion in favor of education for girls have helped to improve education indicators.
(iv) Improvement of planning and management capacities in the sector
Efforts continued in 2005 to build education sector planning and management capacities. The preparation of the 2005 action plan involved all DPEBAs. The formulation of the sectoral MTEF for “Basic Education” 2006-08 included the definition of central and regional appropriation ceilings for the preparation of 2006 action plans. Current activities will culminate in the preparation of a sectoral MTEF entitled “Education” for MEBA and the MESSRS. Nevertheless, efforts must still be made to align the budget preparation timetable with the process of planning physical needs. The implementation of the education map in the 45 provinces as a tool for microplanning and management will help to anticipate local and regional needs to achieve the planned objectives of the PDDEB and Education for All (EPT) initiative. Thus, the goal of the series of training sessions is to help the staff of local and deconcentrated directorates assimilate techniques for preparing the education map. Finally, to accelerate the achievement of the MDGs, the government drafted and adopted two sets of regulations, one pertaining to the regionalization of recruitment and another to compulsory and free basic education.
In 2005, the establishment of an inter-ministerial committee comprising the Ministries of Finance and Budget; Local Government and Decentralization; Civil Service and Government Reform; Infrastructure; Infrastructure, Transportation and Housing; and Basic Education and Literacy laid the groundwork for discussing problems related to the performance of contracts and the situation of teachers.
Regarding decentralization, inventories of MEBA assets and personnel to be allocated to rural municipalities have been completed and the transfer should be gradual.
The main conclusion is that the performance of the basic education subsector has improved steadily. Significant problems remain, however, regarding coverage, quality, and efficiency in the use of resources. Better coordination is needed, as well as links between the priorities of the sector, the programs, and budget allocation and execution to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of expenditure in order to achieve the development goals of the country’s education system. Improving the effectiveness of education expenditure must be the top priority in the years ahead. To that end, the Earmarked Treasury Special Account (Compte d’affectation spéciale du Trésor - CAST) and a related monitoring committee were created following the elimination of the Education Projects Bureau (BPE). More effective social spending will involve, among other things, improving the monitoring of expenditures, reinforcing the management capacity of the MEBA, decentralizing administration, making communities accountable, and streamlining control systems. The main challenges are to:
- increase the supply of education services;
- ensure the provision of basic education free of charge;
- improve the success rate at the end of primary school studies;
- strengthen financial management instruments and public procurement procedures; and
- develop a Medium-Term Expenditure Framework (MEBA and MESSRS).
In the areas of secondary and higher education and scientific research, the policy of increasing enrollment capacity continued with the construction of the Bassi General Education School (Collège d’enseignement general - CEG), a building to house the archives of the Academic and Professional Guidance Information Center of Burkina, and 13 classrooms (for standardization purposes) in the following institutions:
|- Rollo CEG (Bam)||: 02|
|- Loropéni CEG (Poni)||: 02|
|- Doulougou CEG (Bazèga)||: 02|
|- Tanghin Dassouri Departmental Secondary School (Kadiogo)||: 02|
|- Kaya Provincial Secondary School (Sanmatenga)||: 02|
|- Boromo Provincial Secondary School (Balé)||: 02|
Three boreholes were dug at the Bassi, Matiacoli, and Botou CEGs so that students would have access to safe water.
In 2004, the government began building and equipping two lecture halls seating 250 students each in Bobo-Dioulasso as part of efforts to boost enrollment capacity in postsecondary institutions. The project is slated for completion in 2006. In addition, the University of Koudougou was founded in the context of continuing the deconcentration of the education system. At the École Normale Supérieure de Koudougou (ENSK), several buildings were built (R+2 building including classrooms, teachers’ offices, and a library). At the Bobo-Dioulasso Polytechnical University, a complex including classrooms and a practical research laboratory was constructed. The university campus construction project in Ouagadougou has been making satisfactory progress and should be completed by 2006.
The execution of the Education IV/BAD project, with a rate of 112 percent, has been relatively satisfactory. Nevertheless, delays occurred in the execution of the Permanent Functional Literacy Centers (CPAF), the CPR, and in the delivery of equipment to the vocational secondary schools of Fada N’Gourma and Ouahigouya.
In terms of technical and vocational education, the Technical and In-Service Training Center project did not make any significant progress in implementing its activities. The low execution rate (16.6 percent) is explained by the fact that China (the main project donor) suspended its disbursements for purposes other than the functioning of the center, and as a result, training activities and construction work could not be carried out, and equipment could not be ordered.
Regarding improvements in the quality and effectiveness of post-primary education, the costs associated with equipping the laboratories and technical establishments were fully covered, thereby contributing to the proper functioning of public secondary schools in the country. The second phase of the modular teaching experiment consisted of a series of seven workshops (of the 10 planned), which included sessions on the following topics:
- validation of methods and tools for assessing skills-based modular training;
- approval of manuals on the methods of implementing on-the-job training and on the validation of acquired knowledge;
- training of teacher advisors for technical and vocational secondary teachers using the skills-based modular approach.
Institutional capacity-building continued in 2005. Achievements include the contraction of the MESSRS Regional Directorate for the Sahel in Dori, the headquarters of the National Institute for Social Sciences and the Institute for Health Sciences Research, and the offices of the university president. At the ENSK, a guest house was built and equipment and office furnishings were obtained.
Despite these achievements, the indicators have shown little improvement: the gross secondary enrollment rate increased from 13.02 percent in 2002 to 15.55 percent in 2004, while the rate for post-secondary enrollment rose from 1.52 percent in 2002 to 2.22 percent in 2004.
The main conclusion is that the performance of this subsector is steadily improving but at a slow pace, despite the fact that the MESSRS has one of the most extensive program budgets. The difficulties lie in the fact that the MTEF resource envelopes are not sufficient to attain the objectives of the sector. In 2005, some activities, which had been scheduled since 2004, were not fully executed. Others will be carried over to 2006 without ever having received funding. Given the success of the system of devolved appropriations to MEBA, the extension of this system to the MERSS should be pursued. In addition, the government should define a strategy for the sustainable growth of postsecondary education, including cost recovery. Finally, it should pursue its teacher training policy (mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology) to meet current needs and improve the quality of teaching.
2.3.2 Access to health and nutrition services for the poor, and control of HIV/AIDS
The government, with the support of its partners, continued its efforts to strengthen healthcare coverage through the development of healthcare infrastructures and facilities. Thus, eight complete CSPSs were built; 22 dispensaries and 39 maternity care centers were transformed into CSPSs; and 20 EGD (essential generic drug) storage facilities, 67 housing units, 128 latrines/showers, 18 incinerators, 41 boreholes and 67 kitchens were built. In addition, four youth centers were built; the Kaya CHR was inaugurated; the Banfora CHR remained under construction; the CHUYO, the CHUSS and four CHRs in Gaoua, Dori, Koudougou, and Dédougou were upgraded; and six dispensaries and six maternity care centers were rehabilitated.
Regarding training, 17 physicians received training in health district management and 16 in essential surgery. Members of management committees (COGES) were trained in managing the activities of healthcare facilities, including those that are community-based, and in management procedures for EGD storage facilities by ECDs. Traditional practitioners received training aimed at improving the quality of their services. The national list of essential drugs was also revised. Two hundred community outreach workers and one hundred mothers per district, in the 55 health districts, were trained in home-based treatment of simple malaria. Regulatory texts on the decentralization of the health services were adopted and circulated by the CADSS.
With regard to improving the quality of health services, quality care rules and standards for all levels of the health system were established and distributed. The diagnostic and treatment guides (GDT) have been revised and made available to all public health centers in remote areas. Healthcare workers have been trained. The referencing and cross referencing system has been organized. Regular supply and distribution of EGDs in the health districts is ensured and overseen at all levels of the healthcare system by the competent authorities. The emergency services of five hospitals have been upgraded.
With regard to promoting the health of specific groups and stepping up the fight against communicable and noncommunicable diseases, the action plan against youth smoking has been implemented. In addition, health workers have been trained in active and passive epidemiological surveillance of diseases of public health concern, including AIDS. The 2006-2010 strategic plan for malaria has also been prepared.
Further, in the context of combating micronutrient deficiencies, the government continued the free distribution of vitamin A. Some of the many other activities conducted in this context included:
- organization of a national workshop on strengthening the nutrition components of health-related activities;
- organization of a consultation meeting to exchange views on the integrated communication plan;
- organization of a meeting to facilitate consultation and exchanges of views with consumer groups and associations of restaurant owners;
- supply of titration equipment for the testing of iodized salt to laboratories in border areas and major quality control centers;
- training staff in six health regions in the use of the equipment for quality control of iodized salt.
In the context of the fight against malaria, in 2005 the following activities were carried out:
- Adoption of the new malaria treatment protocol;
- Revision of the malaria treatment training modules and directives;
- Training and refresher training of public and private sector health workers in the treatment of malaria based on the new protocol;
- Organization of a workshop to validate the diagnostic and surveillance algorithm for serious malaria;
- Supply of Medical Centers, Regional Hospital Centers (CHR) and University Hospital Centers (CHU) with emergency anti-malaria medicines and medical consumables;
- Provision of laboratory supplies and reagents to CMA laboratories;
- Training/refresher training of community outreach workers and mothers in the treatment of simple malaria and the distribution of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITMNs);
- Supply of therapeutic units to trained community outreach workers.
- Training/refresher training of technicians from CRESAs and health workers in insecticide treatment of nets;
- Awareness training for community health workers on the benefits of ITMNs and setting up a community-based distribution network;
- Supply and distribution of Séréna brand ITMNs nationally through a joint public/private sector campaign;
- Purchase of insecticides and treatment kits;
- Support for the establishment of 60 insecticide treatment sites by providing supplies and equipment;
- Holding of a national workshop to build consensus on the vector control plan.
Communication and outreach:
- Preparation and implementation of an integrated communication plan;
- Preparation of a plan for community-based interventions.
Planning and monitoring/assessment:
- Regular collection of data on malaria morbidity and mortality in the health districts;
- Monitoring the sensitivity of parasites to anti-malaria drugs and of vectors to insecticides;
- Training of DRS, CHU/CHR and district managers of Health Information and Epidemiological Surveillance Units (CISSÉ) in data collection;
- Preparation of a 2006-10 strategic plan focusing primarily on the following strategies:
- The treatment of serious malaria in health centers
- The promotion of chemoprophylaxis in pregnant women
- Community-based treatment of simple malaria
- The promotion of insecticide-treated materials
- Support strategies as follows: IEC, communication for behavioral change, epidemiological surveillance, supervision, operational research and monitoring/assessment.
All of these efforts resulted in important achievements, including:
- Adoption of the new malaria treatment protocol;
- Adoption of the health code;
- Development of a healthcare waste management plan;
- Improvement in the rate of use of healthcare services and coverage of preventive care due in part to the introduction of free preventive care services and medical coverage of some illnesses;
- Decline in the rate of deaths from serious malaria in health centers in 2005 from 5.03 percent in 2004 to 3.89 percent in 2005;
- Application of some of the measures recommended by the study on the motivation of health personnel with a view to encouraging health workers to serve in disadvantaged areas (special allowances);
- Over 95 percent of new healthcare graduates were assigned to remote facilities as a priority;
- Adoption of the national subsidization strategy for births and emergency obstetrical care (SOU);
- Adoption of the law on reproductive health;
- Adoption of a fistula eradication program;
- Development and validation of the strategic plan to secure contraceptive products;
- Training of healthcare workers in obstetric and neonatal care (SONU);
- The theoretical radius of action in 2004 was 8.34 [km] (the figure for 2005 is not yet available).
- Very satisfactory vaccination coverage in 2005 as compared to previous years (see Table Annex 1);
- 300,000 pretreated mosquito nets were packaged and distributed under the brand name SERENA;
- National health accounts measuring national health expenditures were prepared for 2003 and 2004. These accounts serve as a decision-making tool for the allocation of resources.
In 2005, the program for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission was applied in 38 health districts, and 10 are in a preparatory phase. In all these districts combined, 134 health centers have incorporated MCT/HIV services in their minimum package of activities.
Regarding the fight against AIDS, efforts aimed at the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections continued to be implemented as follows:
- Reproduction and distribution of the third version of the algorithms for the case management of STIs, including a version in poster form;
- Preparation and sale of STI treatment kits at affordable prices (CFAF 100-200 and CFAF 250). The health units of the ministries of defense and security as well as those attached to detention centers were included in the distribution of kits;
- Setting up of an enhanced surveillance system at monitoring sites;
- Human capacity building: a series of training sessions dealing with specific issues was organized with support from partners. These training opportunities were also available to private practitioners across the country;
- Extension and strengthening of successful approaches piloted in commercial sex areas. After the dedicated healthcare unit called “Zoodo” set up in the Pissy district and those established in the districts of Ouahigouya and Banfora, the SIDA3 project helped the Koupéla and Secteur 30 districts of Ouagadougou set up similar units to address the healthcare needs of sex workers.
In the context of the providing free treatment of opportunistic infections in PLWHIV, the Ministerial Committee on AIDS (CMLS) within the health sector continued to supply healthcare facilities with drugs and, over the course of several workshops, drew up a list of opportunistic infections eligible for treatment as well as a list of essential drugs related to these opportunistic diseases and/or symptoms.
In the context of surveillance of the epidemic, since 2004, thirteen monitoring sites spread across the thirteen health regions have been collecting data for regular epidemiological surveillance. The data are collected at 42 Health and Social Promotion Centers (CSPS) located in urban and rural areas. In 2005, the epidemiological surveillance team trained over 100 health personnel in the use of the second-generation protocol, continued reproducing and disseminating the protocol, and also set up a technical committee on surveillance of the AIDS epidemic. At end-2005, HIV prevalence among adults between 15 and 49 years of age, estimated according to the UNAIDS/WHO EPP model, was 2.3 percent. The UNAIDS report estimates that of the 180,000 persons living with HIV in 2005, 88 percent are adults between 15 and 49 years of age and 12 percent are children under 15 years old. The 88 percent of adults is further broken down into 49.4 percent women and 50.6 percent men.
The total number of AIDS cases reported since 1986 rose from 20,931 in 2003 to 26,977 at end-2004, i.e. 6,046 new cases recorded by health centers in 2004.
With regard to improvement in the overall treatment of persons living with HIV/AIDS and/or affected by HIV/AIDS, one of the high points of 2005 was the launch of the project to expedite access to antiretroviral therapy, with two important developments marking the improved geographic accessibility of ARVs, namely:
- Involvement of the districts, through the CMAs, in the medical treatment of PLWHIV with ARV prescriptions;
- Accreditation of health centers established and run by associations and which prescribe ARVs.
Some of the main activities aimed at enhancing the technical capacity of facilities included:
- Training of 150 public and private sector pharmacists in the dispensing of ARVs;
- Training of 105 laboratory technicians in biological follow-up;
- Rehabilitation of four CHRs to provide medical treatment (in progress);
- Training of 20 dental surgeons in counseling, screening and psychosocial care of PLWHIV;
- Training of 75 physicians in the medical treatment of PLWHIV;
- Training of 25 social workers from treatment centers in psychosocial care;
- Training of 50 paramedics in providing medical treatment;
- Supply of laboratory reagents and consumables to health centers for the medical treatment of PLWHIV across the country.
In any event, the government’s efforts, with the support of its partners, in the fight against HIV have contributed to achieving encouraging results. The main achievements are:
- Adoption of the AIDS Strategy Paper for the 2006-2010 period;
- The total number of PLWHIV receiving ARVs jumped from 3,867 in 2004 to 8,136 in 2005, representing an increase of 110.4 percent;
- The percentage of persons with AIDS receiving ARVs was 33.9 percent in 2005, up from 7.1 percent in 2004 and 2.5 percent in 2003;
- The total number of treatment centers providing ARVs increased from three in 2003 to 24 in 2004 and 45 in 2005, representing an increase of 87.5 percent between 2004 and 2005;
- The proportion of health districts with at least one treatment center providing ARVs rose from 20 percent in 2004 to 38 percent in 2005;
- The total number of voluntary screening counseling centers was up from 56 in 2004 to 85 in 2005;
- The proportion of districts with at least one voluntary screening counseling center rose from 40 percent in 2004 to 55 percent in 2005;
- The total number of MTC/HIV centers climbed from 31 in 2004 to 135 in 2005, representing a 335.5 percent increase;
- The proportion of districts with at least one MTC/HIV center soared from 9 percent in 2004 to 69 percent in 2005;
- The number of laboratories with a CD4 counter (Global Fund and TAP) progressed from 5 in 2004 to 22 in 2005, i.e. a 340 percent improvement;
- The average cost of monthly treatment stood at US$10.00, or around CFAF 5,000 in 2005, compared to US$77.00, or around CFAF 38,500, in 2003.
With the aim of increasing the efficiency of services and promoting healthcare risk-sharing mechanisms (including healthcare mutual societies), the following activities were implemented:
- The revised treatment and diagnostic guides were distributed to all the health districts and are being used in almost all the health and social promotion centers;
- A drug registration system based on the appreciation of the wholesale price excluding taxes set up in 2004 continued to be implemented in 2005;
- Price reductions achieved by the purchasing center (CAMEG) and other supply entities are automatically passed on to the peripheral level. The general inspectorate for health services, the competent unit within the Ministry of Health, conducted regular field visits to monitor effective application of the prices;
- The document outlining the mechanism for indigent care at each health center was adopted along with the strategy for implement ting the mechanism;
- A draft support plan for healthcare mutual societies was prepared as part of the effort to promote healthcare mutual societies.
Lastly, efforts aimed at institutional capacity building were pursued in 2005 through the improvement of organizational and legal frameworks; enhancement of administrative, managerial; and support capacities; improved coordination of intervention in the health sector; and the strengthening of intersectoral collaboration. In that context:
- Legal texts were either revised or prepared at the central directorate level;
- Regional health directors and district chief medical officers received training in health law and legislation;
- Job profiles or regulatory texts on the organization of specific jobs were adopted but the job descriptions still need to be updated;
- At the PNDS monitoring committee meeting of May 17, 2005, the partners decided that the time was not yet ripe for the management procedures manual common to all partners that was to be developed after the study on financing the National Health Development Plan (PNDS);
- Collaborative frameworks were put in place and are functional at all levels of the health system. Worthy of mention are, inter alia, the CASEM and the DRS conferences at the central level, the CTRS (regional technical health committees) at the regional level, and the district health councils at the district level.
In conclusion, it can be said that the results obtained in 2005 are largely satisfactory. The provision of preventive care services for children and prenatal care free of charge improved the affordability of healthcare. The coverage of preventive and curative services also improved, with DTC3 vaccination coverage increasing from 88.4 percent in 2004 to 96.3 percent in 2005. Vaccination coverage rates against measles and yellow fever also improved, from 78.3 percent and 76 percent, respectively, in 2004, to 84 percent and 84.1 percent in 2005. The percentage of Health and Social Promotion Centers (CSPS) that comply with staffing standards stood at around 76 percent for the 2003-04 period. At 2.3 percent in 2005, the prevalence of HIV seems to have stabilized thanks to the government’s strong political commitment to combating the pandemic and to the prevention and treatment efforts supported by technical and financial partners. BCG vaccination coverage far exceeds 100 percent. Malaria, on the other hand, remains endemic and is the leading cause of death among children under five years of age. In order to be effective in combating this scourge, there needs to be greater mobilization on the part of the international community on a scale similar to that of the mobilization against AIDS.
Despite these ongoing efforts to improve access to healthcare services for the poor, major challenges still lie ahead. Foremost among these is the need to:
- Improve the performance-based budgeting and monitoring system (sectoral MTEF);
- Strengthen monitoring and improve the application of existing price reductions for preventive care and primary health service;
- Continue decentralization of budgetary resource management;
- Strengthen accountability and improve performance in hospital management, in particular by introducing performance contracts between the State and hospitals including benchmarks for service provision, financial performance, and equity.
The main message is that it remains important to increase the resources allocated to the health sector and to improve the equity and efficiency of existing health expenditure as well as the quality and affordability of care so as to make more rapid progress towards achieving the objectives set in the PRSP and realizing the Millennium Development Goals.
2.3.3 Access for the poor to safe water and sanitation–Pollution control
The government committed itself to implementing the “road map” for achieving the MDG drinking water and sanitation target. In that context, a safe water supply and sanitation (AEPA) inventory was conducted and the results were validated in February 2006, facilitating the establishment of AEPA standards and indicators. Further, improving the supply of safe water to all segments of the population was given high priority through numerous infrastructure development projects, including the creation of safe water supply systems in five towns, the installation of 1,984 water points and 12 mini water supply systems. The year 2005 also saw the effective start-up of the Water and Sanitation Sector Program Support (PADSEA 2). Lastly, with a view to finding appropriate solutions acceptable to all stakeholders, a collaborative framework involving the MAHRH and AEP partners (CCP-AEPA) was established by joint decree 2005/0045/MAHRH/MFB of August 11, 2005. Its primary responsibility is to focus poverty reduction efforts in the area of water and sanitation on achieving the PRSP objectives and the MDGs.
The government also focused on promoting waste management and efforts to combat various forms of pollution. In 2005, the day-to-day management of environmental issues centered around (i) follow-up of environmental impact studies, with the issuing of 14 reasoned opinions on the environmental feasibility of public and private projects and examination by the National Investment Commission of 16 private investment projects, for seven of which reasoned opinions were issued, (ii) finalization of the national inventory of waste oils in Ouagadougou, Bobo-Dioulasso, Koudougou, and Banfora, (iii) conducting analyses of industrial waste waters in Bobo-Dioulasso and Banfora.
Mention should also be made of various competitions organized to promote eco-citizenship, such as the competitions for most pleasant neighborhood (Meilleur cadre de vie) and most eco-friendly school (Meilleure école écologique) held in Ouagadougou. In addition, Environmental Days were held almost everywhere in all of the regions of Burkina, as part of initiatives to raise awareness and educate the general population on the importance of a healthy environment.
With regard to institutional capacity building, it is important to note the setting up of a National Biosafety Agency and the development of national biosafety rules and regulations as well as the operational launch of a corps of inspectors of dangerous, unhealthy, and unfit premises.
In 2005, a number of framework documents were prepared and validated, including in particular the national environmental policy, the second report on the state of the environment in Burkina Faso, the national plan for implementation of the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants, the action plan for waste oil management, two environmental assessment guides, and two decrees on application of the WAEMU regulation on the importation of substances harmful to the ozone layer and on the nomenclature for premises classified as dangerous, unhealthy, and unfit. Lastly, the national sanitation strategy was reviewed and validated.
2.3.4 Improvement of the living conditions of the poor: Housing
Efforts to improve living conditions continued pursued, particularly with regard to regulatory and institutional arrangements. The draft code prepared in 2004 was validated at the national level in March 2005. Urban and rural planning and management tools were also developed. In this regard, three master plans were completed (Pouytenga, Toma, and Réo) and three others are being carried out with an estimated completion date of end-2006. The process of setting up the Banque de l’Habitat (housing bank) could begin by end-June 2006. Investments in the housing sector focused essentially on:
- Production of serviced land parcels to be made available to the public. Development has already started in Ouaga 2000, Bobo-Dioulasso, Garango, Bousé, Ouahigouya, Saaba, and Tougan;
- Housing development projects in 16 departmental capitals;
- 85 low-cost housing units made available to the public through the Centre de Gestion des Cités (CEGECI), Ouagadougou;
- Continued implementation of the ZACA project, with the payment of compensation, preparation and sale of parcels, opening up of new roadways, finalization of the technical studies on road and service networks construction, and the award of contracts for the construction of the main canal;
- Completion of the Third Urban Project, under which the cities of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso were provided with urban rainwater drainage and waste management infrastructure.
Activities in the area of waste management focused on stakeholder awareness building in the context of the installation of a plastic waste storage site in Fada N’Gourma, conducting an inventory of pesticides used in market gardening, supporting associations involved in household refuse collection, assisting 51 associations and/or cleanliness committees (comités de salubrité) in their activities, and setting up a solid waste landfill in Ouagadougou.
2.3.5 Welfare services for the poor
In 2005, government efforts to protect the poor were pursued in areas such as the advancement and protection of children and adolescents, the protection and promotion of families, the promotion of solidarity and the protection of specific groups, organization of emergency assistance and rehabilitation, and strengthening the institutional capacity of the MASSN.
(i) Advancement and protection of children and adolescents
With regard to early childhood development, the aim of the government is to achieve gradual and steady improvements in the relevance and quality of both formal and nonformal instruction. To that end, a national policy on integrated early childhood development (PNDIPE) was drawn up. It was approved in a national forum and is slated for submission very shortly to the Council of Ministers for adoption. In 2006, the various actors involved in this field are expected to take ownership of the PNDIPE. For operational purposes, a simulation model has been developed with UNICEF support. The model also includes a projection of costs and resources up to 2010.
Regarding pre-school education, the enrollment rate is steadily improving but remains very low. It went from 1.17 percent in 2004 to 1.34 percent in 2005. Improvements in the quality of instruction were made through the revision and printing of 26,625 copies of school books used in the three sections of pre-school. Nine applications for land to set up preschools were examined and approved.
In respect of the nonformal childcare system, which includes community-based children’s facilities called Bisongos, instructional capacities have been strengthened with the construction and equipment of 12 new Bisongos with indoor and outdoor play equipment, thus raising the number of Bisongos from 25 to 48. Capacity building efforts for child care providers were also continued with 182 management committee members of 26 Bisongos receiving training in nutrition and management. A study was undertaken to measure the impact of Bisongos and other early childhood centers on the enrollment of girls in school and its findings were presented in December 2005.
Socioeducational and educational assistance was provided to adolescents and young people in difficult circumstances through public and private, open, closed and semi-closed facilities. In 2005, open facilities pursued their efforts to enhance conditions for the successful social integration of children and young people in difficult circumstances. These included:
- Adoption of the National Action Plan for community-based education/rehabilitation (PAN AEMO) to serve as an operational framework for the involvement of all actors;
- Making operational resources available to five provincial AEMO facilities to enhance their ability to respond to the specific needs of young people in difficult circumstances;
- Delivery of 400 primary healthcare interventions;
- Supply of 4,565 meal vouchers and clothing to 478 street children;
- Organization of literacy classes and enrollment in school, respectively, for 50 and 20 young people in difficult circumstances;
- Offering preliminary vocational training opportunities in modern and traditional basketry, woodwork, wood staining, and mechanics to 220 young people living in the street;
- Assisting 115 street children to develop income-generating activities and placing 94 in apprenticeships with craftspeople;
- Supporting 60 girls living in the street.
In addition, as part of its ongoing efforts to raise funds to implement the AEMO national program, the government organized a preliminary meeting bringing together over 80 partners.
Outreach organized in a closed environment was provided through the Special Education and Training Center (CESF) and the André Dupont Children’s Center in Orodara (MEADO). In 2005, these two organizations served some 523 young people aged between seven and 21 years (of whom 291 borders and 232 day students) catering to their socioeducational, schooling, and vocational training needs. In terms of socioeducational assistance, 106 psychological counseling sessions, 72 supervised clothes washing sessions, 1,412 group discussions, 66 general cleaning sessions, 175 educational discussions, 96 board game activities, 126 film projections, and 98 family mediation sessions were held. Regarding schooling, out of the total intake of 523 students, around 326 attended primary school classes. Of the 101 who took the CEP exam, 60 passed, representing a success rate of 59.41 percent. In terms of vocational training, 209 young people received training, of whom 17 learned masonry, 36 auto mechanics, 72 carpentry, 58 welding, and 26 sewing. In addition, all of the young people received training in livestock production techniques (pigs, chickens, rabbits) and market gardening. Around 95 young people found jobs in their area of specialization at the end of their training period, and implementation of the small business start-up scheme introduced in 2004 with the supply of materials to former students was continued. Regarding the functioning of these centers, in addition to the provision of material and financial resources, in 2005 HIPC resources made it possible to supply kits of materials for a total value of CFAF 150,000,000.
With regard to orphans and other children at risk (OEV), a national program is in the process of being validated and should contribute to better management of OEVs. In that context, the government has received an agreement in principle from the Italian Cooperation Agency for the building of a shelter for children in difficult circumstances in Ouagadougou at a cost of CFAF 163,987,502. Thanks to other sources of support, CFAF 35,000,000 was allocated to facilities for children in moral danger (orphanages) and more than 5,000 OEVs were provided with school supplies.
As regards combating youth poverty, the poverty reduction program aimed at disadvantaged and marginalized youth in the provinces of Houet and Tuy remained on target, focusing on:
- Capacity building of the State’s decentralized services responsible for the coordination, planning, monitoring and assessment of activities related to young people in difficult circumstances;
- Capacity building of civil society organizations and decentralized public services involved in the provision of psychosocial and behavioral stabilization services for children, young people, and parents in difficult circumstances with the assistance of local volunteers;
- Assisting in the organization of over 68 listening/counseling sessions for over 70 young people;
- Covering training costs in microenterprise development for 92 young people;
- Supporting the process resulting in the selection of 37 new youth sponsorship beneficiaries, including 16 girls;
- Facilitating financial project support to 20 young microentrepreneurs, including 12 girls. Financing agreements for the microentrepreneurs were signed with the relevant partners.
In 2005, the fight against internal and crossborder trafficking in children was further strengthened as eight provincial watch committees (Comités de Vigilance et de Surveillance, CVS) were equipped with motorcycles, 40 departmental CVSs received logistical and sound equipment, and all the CVSs were linked through a network. In total, over 600 children were intercepted and returned to their families and 263 victims of child trafficking were rehabilitated through placement in training workshops, schools, or income-generating activities. In Ouagadougou, 150 children, both girls and boys, were removed from the Pissy quarry, while efforts were deployed to promote nonformal education services for child victims of trafficking in the province of Ioba. A shelter and training center was also rehabilitated. Further, various outreach activities in the form of extension work in the five arrondissements of Ouagadougou on Law 038 AN of May 27, 2003 defining and sanctioning child trafficking in Burkina Faso, awareness raising on the issue of child labor through lecture/discussions and the showing of documentary films, as well as sporting events, were organized. The adoption of a national action plan to combat internal and crossborder trafficking in children will make it possible to provide a coherent framework for the activities of all those involved in this subsector.
The care of children in danger is a shared concern of both public entities and civil society. Around 21 child victims of sexual abuse were taken into care in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso. The forthcoming adoption of the national action plan to address the sexual abuse of children will make it possible to provide the various actors involved in this subsector with a coordinated framework for action.
To enable children to participate actively in the promotion of their rights and in the search for solutions to their problems, the Children’s Parliament has been given renewed impetus with the holding of 201 working sessions with the Provincial Children’s Parliaments, one ordinary session of the Children’s Parliament bringing together all 100 child parliamentarians, and awareness-raising activities in the 45 provinces on the Children’s Parliament, including radio programs, public lectures, and the showing of films followed by debates.
Other activities aimed at improving the quality of interventions related to the promotion and protection of the rights of child were also pursued. They included the training of 30 social workers from specialized services (justice system, detention centers, hospitals) and 40 traditional chiefs, validation of the training module on the rights of the child and the action plan for the introduction of the rights of children and adolescents in education. A permanent data collection system on the situation of children is in the final stages of preparation and will be used to inform policy formulation and decision-making.
(ii) Protection and promotion of the family
The main actions undertaken in this area were:
- Strengthening outreach and training capacities geared towards young illiterate and out-of-school girls through the setting up of seven new social welfare centers and the ongoing acquisition of equipment to provide training for the girls in sewing, fabric dyeing, weaving, hairdressing;
- Strengthening the activities of the production and training centers for young girls based in Sourou: 10 pilot market gardening groups were supplied with production kits comprising inputs, pumping equipment and small tools for processing farm products. Around 150 girls from the first group of trainees initially trained in fabric dyeing received refresher training in the new fabric dyeing techniques on cotton Bazin and yarn as well as in traditional Bogolan (mudcloth) dyeing on white cotton fabric. In the context of post-training follow-up, 564 field visits were conducted to provide advice to girls who have started their own businesses. In October 2005, the project took in 500 girls for its fourth training cycle of 18-24 months, depending on the area of specialization. To better serve its student body, a continuous education program was also put in place to enhance staff skills;
- Promoting adolescent girls’ sexual and reproductive health in the provinces of Bazèga and Gourma: 33 activities geared towards capacity building of the social and health services, increasing the availability of community-based services, and promoting the rights of adolescent girls were conducted. The PSADO village sites were supplied with medical consumables and three youth centers were equipped for conducting awareness-raising activities. The project also obtained financial assistance for the setting up of soap-making units managed by young married women;
- Conducting field visits as part of an information campaign on the registration of births in the Northern and Sahel regions. The MATD has acquired the necessary equipment for collecting and storing information on births in these two regions. In another registration drive covering four provinces, 16,597 children were duly registered in four provinces. The 2005 action plan for the registration of births served as a tool for mobilizing partner support around this project.
- Combating the practice of excision by strengthening the competencies of the resource persons. In that context, 60 opinion leaders, 360 antennae within the framework of the integrated communication program in the provinces covered (thanks to support from the Netherlands), 30 association members and 73 physicians were trained in IEC/Excision. An in-depth study on the evolution and analysis of the rate of the practice of excision in Burkina Faso is underway and its findings are expected to enhance the strategy in place to combat this practice. Ongoing efforts to provide medical assistance to victims of excision resulted in the surgical repair of 52 cases of excision-related injuries. A clip and documentary film were also produced to help raise public awareness of the harmful effects of excision. Lastly, the preparation of a National Action Plan on Zero Tolerance of Female Genital Mutilation will improve the coordination of activities implemented in the fight against the practice of excision.
- Ongoing preparation of the national action plan for the family.
(iii) The promotion of solidarity, and protection of specific groups
In the context of the promotion of solidarity, solidarity days were held at end-2005 in place of the solidarity month. Around 1,500 leaflets, 1,000 tee-shirts and 500 publicity gadgets were produced and distributed with a view to raising awareness and informing the public about the importance of solidarity. In the context of promoting assistance to vulnerable groups, around 23,840 persons received aid in the form of food, clothing, medicines, etc.; 5,000 needy pupils received assistance to purchase school supplies; ten projects and two microprojects run by associations of disadvantaged persons were funded; community events such as a Christmas party for 300 disadvantaged children were held; ten vacation clubs were organized for 456 pupils and a regional vacation camp was organized for 100 needy children.
A contribution to the care of disabled persons was made through the acquisition of ten orthopedic prostheses, 76 pushchairs and three-wheel scooters.
(iv) Organization of emergency assistance and rehabilitation
En 2005, 1,225 emergency cases were documented and the government continued to provide assistance to 2,674 affected persons. In the wake of the cereal shortfall from the previous harvest, cereals were sold at subsidized prices and 17,726.46 metric tons were distributed free of charge to ensure access to food for the population. In addition, 754 informal talks-debates and 85 working sessions with COPROSUR on the prevention and management of natural disasters were organized.
Registration and assistance of repatriated persons was also pursued, with accommodation and assistance provided to 69 Burkinabè repatriated from Cameroon, assistance in the form of foodstuffs and basic necessities provided to 2,986 repatriated persons, school supplies provided to 850 repatriated school-aged children, and follow-up services provided to 753 repatriated persons engaged in income-generating activities. With regard to capacity-building in the area of disaster prevention and management, 20 officers received training in various aspects of disaster prevention and management, 210 COPROSUR members attended courses on disaster risk mitigation techniques, and 13 officers acquired skills in monitoring and assessment.
(v) Social welfare instruments
The social welfare policy formulated through a consensual process in 2005 has three main thrusts: (i) ensure access to basic social services for indigent people and particularly vulnerable groups; (ii) provide appropriate social benefits for informal sector workers; (iii) conduct an institutional reform of the social security system and strengthen its legitimacy. Action plans to support implementation of the overall policy are under preparation.
With regard to the introduction of supplemental welfare benefits, the services of private providers, including non-profit entities, will be used to complement the basic package of care and services available under the general plan.
Work has begun on a preliminary draft law on mutuality, as well as on the process of expanding social security benefits for wage earners. The definition of a specific legal status for social security bodies, a review of the social security code and, the raising of the retirement age are also under consideration.
(vi) Strengthening the capacity of the MASSN
In the area of institutional capacity-building, a meeting of top officials of the MASSN provided an opportunity to validate the situational analysis document on the sector and make recommendations on the putting in place of relevant programs for the protection of the poor. Flowing from that, 19 officers were trained in project planning, analysis and follow-up. Preparation work on the national social action policy, the framework law on social action, and the social action ten-year plan was launched in the third quarter of 2005. These three reference documents are to be finalized in May 2006 at the latest.
With a view to enhancing the skills of the staff responsible for the social welfare of the poor, in 2005 the government authorized the hiring of 100 social workers from several socioprofessional backgrounds.
(vii) Main investments within the framework of social welfare services for the poor
Activities in this area were focused primarily on:
- Social infrastructure development, including a social complex in Sebba; three chicken-rearing projects in Konean, Dablo, and Vogodo in the province of Sanmatenga; five stockraising farms in Tougouri, Fada N’Gourma, Diapaga, Pama, and Legmoin; four socioeconomic promotion centers in Zorgho, Sangha, Houndé, and Dissin; and a cereals bank in Zam. The total cost of these infrastructures was CFAF 590,000,000;
- Refurbishing of offices for staff in Saaba, Réo, Pô, Kombissiri and at the Yam la tuuma center of Ouahigouya at a cost of CFAF 5,000,000;
- Construction of the Western Central Regional Directorate and the Provincial Directorate of Koulpélogo for an amount of CFAF 54,000,000;
- Completion of the building of the Provincial Directorates for Social Welfare of Pama, Sapouy, and Gayéri at a cost of CFAF 33,555,000;
- Supply of various associations and groups with production kits (grain mills, gardening implements, farm implements, carpentry tools, etc) for an estimated amount of CFAF 691,682,797;
- Purchase of 2 generators for girls’ production and training centers.
In conclusion, it is evident that numerous social welfare and solidarity activities have been implemented in support of the most disadvantaged social groups. The main message is that it is important to finalize the MASSN sectoral policy so as to have in place a coherent framework underpinning the activities of all partners. The policy also needs to be accompanied by an action plan or medium-term expenditure framework that translates the priorities of the sector into financial terms. The setting up of a framework for consultation among technical and financial partners is a major prerequisite for mobilizing additional resources for the implementation of the action plan and would also help increase the equity and efficiency of current expenditure.
2.3.6 Advancement of Women
The government, with the support of some technical and financial partners, continued to implement its policy aimed at reducing degrading sociocultural practices acknowledged to be detrimental to the promotion of the basic rights of women and young girls. Activities included a multimedia campaign to combat violence against women as well as the training of 35 members of associations and NGOs in listening/counseling techniques, 40 teachers as paralegals, and 349 women in women’s rights issues.
In the political decision-making arena, women’s progress has been slow. In 2005, there were:
- Four female Ministers out of a total of 31, i.e. 12.9 percent versus 10.8 percent in 2001;
- Thirteen female MPs out of 111, i.e. 11.7 percent versus 9 percent in 2001;
- Three female mayors out of 57, i.e. 5.3 percent versus 8.6 percent in 2001;
- Three female governors out of 13, i.e. 23.1 percent.
Activities geared towards promoting women’s literacy and the self-sufficiency of women’s organizations included literacy training for some 554 women, the provision of training for 92 women in microproject development and microcredit management as well as the establishment of 12 literacy centers.
Female poverty reduction efforts centered around making available appropriate infrastructure and equipment to women’s associations and groups to facilitate socioeconomic integration through income-generating activities. Under this scheme, 110 grain mills, ten dehullers, 60 sewing machines, eight motor pumps, 50 looms, 30 wheelbarrows, 100 wire fences, 75 donkey carts, ten manual shea butter presses, 50 two-wheel baggage carts, 20 soap manufacturing units, ten gas and coal driers, and five shea nut dehullers were provided.
The government continued to implement its building and equipment policy focusing on women’s centers (maisons de la femme) in Gayeri, Sebba, Boromo, Sindou, Diébougou, Manga, and Tenkodogo; a center for the advancement of women (center de promotion féminine) in N’Dorola; and eight boreholes. As part of the process of revitalizing the women’s centers, in collaboration with UNICEF, the government conducted a study on the centers’ impact on the socioeconomic status of women in the UNICEF convergence area. The recommendations of the study are in the initial stages of being implemented.
In parallel with this study, and supported by the Poverty Reduction Program at the Municipal Level, municipal programs for the advancement of women were prepared in fifteen municipalities across the country to improve the living conditions of women, particularly in rural areas.
Activities aimed at strengthening the institutional framework and mechanisms included harmonization of the action plan for the advancement of women with the national policy on the advancement of women, and the holding of the annual session for national coordination of the action plan for the advancement of women (CN-PAPF). The meeting held between the government and the technical and financial partners on gender issues is part of the efforts to strengthen policy dialogue.
With regard to gender equality, the government has committed itself to promoting equal access for men and women to human development opportunities. School fees for girls have been abolished and a system of subsidization for obstetric care has been introduced. Regarding literacy, the proportion of women enrolled in AI, both at the national level and in the 20 priority provinces (PP), has risen, up from 54.5 percent in 2004 to 57.7 percent in 2005 at the national level and from 52.3 percent to 54.1 percent at the provincial level. Women are, therefore, very well served by literacy programs. The number of women AI students is also on the rise, moving from 99,273 in 2004 to 113,982 in 2005, representing a 14.8 percent increase. The gender gap in the literacy rate is narrowing every year. Similarly, in terms of the gross rate of primary school enrollment, the gap between girls and boys has narrowed from 5.9 percent in 2003 to 5.7 percent in 2005.
The situation is less favorable, however, in the area of promotion of equal access for men and women to economic and productive resources. A Burkinabè survey conducted in 2003 on household living conditions showed that, in general, households headed by women consume a significantly lower share of income and assets per capita. In rural areas, for instance, women’s per capita expenditure is 21 percent lower, while their income per capita is 34 percent less.
Lastly, regarding equal status for men and women and equal legal protection, the Constitution of Burkina Faso guarantees equal legal rights for men and women. The presence of women in political decision-making spheres such as the national assembly, government, municipal councils, and senior administration is increasing. The municipal elections are expected to further enhance the political role of women in elected assemblies. Some political parties have given instructions to ensure male/female parity on their electoral lists. Forced marriage is outlawed in Burkina Faso and both spouses have the right to seek divorce.
2.4 Status of implementation of Pillar 3: Broadening, under equitable conditions, of job opportunities and income-generating activities for the poor
2.4.1 Reduction of the vulnerability of agricultural activity
Government efforts have contributed to the enhancement of the income-generating capacities of the poor through the promotion of their participation in the production process. In 2005, the government pursued its policy of accelerated implementation of action plans for production streams and stepped up its soil fertilization program. The program aimed at reducing the vulnerability of agricultural activities is supported by implementation of the Integrated Soil Fertility Action Plan and the Agricultural Mechanization Action Plan.
With regard to hydro-agricultural development, several projects and programs involving the mobilization and improvement of water resources were implemented in 2005. Their activities included:
- The holding of two round table discussions with the PDIS donors (Samendéni);
- Conducting of around a hundred studies on dam sites;
- Completion of around a dozen dams;
- Start of construction of around forty dams expected to result in the mobilization of 140 million m3 and the irrigation of 3,000 ha of land;
- Summary development and enhancement of around 140 ha of bottom land, including around fifty hectares handled directly by the PPIV;
- Realization, with support from partners, of 103 wells for vegetable production, 156 manual wells, two water capture ponds, and two boulis;
- Making available to producers of 346 motor pumps, 49 metric tons of seed, 954 metric tons of fertilizer, 826 pedal pumps and 14 power tillers;
- Exploitation of 21,000 ha of surface planted, of which 5,700 ha of maize, 500 ha of cowpeas, 600 ha of cassava, 11,300 ha of vegetables, 1,500 ha of fruit, and 1,400 ha of other crops, for the production of 186,000 metric tons of agricultural produce, of which 21,613 metric tons of maize, 396 metric tons of cowpeas, 15,443 metric tons of cassava, 89,172 metric tons of vegetables, 49,860 metric tons of fruit, and 10,143 metric tons of other crops;
- Job creation through the involvement of more than 105,370 people, including 36,879 women in small-scale irrigation activities spread across more than 1,161 sites throughout the 13 agricultural regions;
In the area of livestock, the government implemented the emergency fodder security plan and strengthened the epidemiosurveillance system of infectious diseases, particularly African swine fever and infectious bronchitis. In addition, producers were provided with over 1,000 pieces of equipment for fodder harvesting, processing, and transportation.
2.4.2 Improvement and protection of access to land
In this context, the government launched the preparation of a national policy on land tenure security in rural areas (PNSFMR), which will constitute the frame of reference for both government action on rural land management and development partner support on issues of land tenure security for rural producers. The document, which contains an analysis of the rural land situation as well as strategic guidelines and areas for action on rural land tenure security, was discussed at a validation workshop on March 14, 2006. The next step involves the preparation of a draft rural land law and a policy implementation or action plan as well as national legislation on land tenure security in rural areas. Note should also be taken of the 10th National Farmers Day—held on February 27 and 28, 2006 in Manga around the theme «Land tenure security and the promotion of agricultural, forestry, and pastoral production systems»—which is an integral part of the consultative approach adopted by the government in the formulation of the PNSFMR.
Regarding OPSFs, the ongoing pilot initiative to promote land tenure security in Burkina Faso, the main achievements for the PFR/G in 2005 were the completion of the land advertising phase, the preparation of land holding reports, implementation of the three new components “land mediation,” “local land management support,” and “legal facilitation.” The PFR was closed at end-December 2005 and the final assessment phase is being launched. The OPSF/PNGT2 and the PDL/Ouest PADEMA pilot project are ongoing.
2.4.3 Intensification and diversification of plant, animal, forestry and wildlife, and fisheries production
- In the agricultural sector
Implementation of the actions plans for cereals development, integrated soil fertility management, and agricultural mechanization formed the basis of government production intensification activities in 2005. With efficiency and consistency with the PRSP in mind, and taking account of the various policy changes that have taken place at the national, subregional, and international levels, government adopted a rural development strategy at the Council of Ministers meeting of December 30, 2003. In that framework, several action plans and priority programs are in the pipeline and some are already being executed.
Action plans in progress
Three action plans—for rural finance (PA/FMR), rice (PA/FR), and cereals—have already been prepared and are in the implementation phase. There is also a cotton sector action plan.
The rural finance action plan (PA/FMR): The main objective of this action plan is to support the development, rationalization, and professionalism of decentralized financing structures and to foster the setting up of an organization of decentralized financial systems (SFD), capable in the medium-term of assuming responsibility for executing the action plan.
The rice action plan (PA/FR): The main objective of this action plan is to increase national rice production in an economically, socially, and environmentally sound manner, primarily by raising the income of producers grouped as needed in organizations of rice producers (OPRs).
The cereals action plan (PAC): This action plan was initially prepared in 1999, revised in March 2002 and its activities commenced in June 2004, with the establishment of the management unit (CG). Its aim is to make the cereals sector more economically and financially viable so as to contribute to the achievement of sustainable food security in Burkina Faso. The more specific goal that flows from this overall objective is to improve the performance of participants in the sector by creating an enabling environment and by improving their organizations. The PAC was operationalized through a program start-up budget (DP) covering the period from October 2004 to March 2005 financed by the German and Danish Cooperation Agencies:
- physical installation of the Interprofessional Cereals Committee;
- start-up of the management unit (CG);
- conduct of missions and information meetings with partners on the Cereals Action Plan;
- development of an operational implementation strategy for the PAC
Action Plans prepared and in search of funding
The five action plans prepared and in search of funding are:
- The Agricultural Mechanization Action Plan (PAMA);
- The Action Plan for Integrated Soil Fertility Management (PAGIFS);
- The Action Plan for developing the cowpea sector (PA/Niébé);
- The Action Plan for promoting the oilseeds sector;
- The Action Plan for the development of root crops.
Activities under these plans included extension of intensive farming techniques, support for seed production from high-yield varieties, and enhancement of the organizational capacities of stakeholders in the various sectors.
Activities to promote crop production included, the operationalization of 17 seed farms, the development of 1,180 ha of rice lowlands, the training of 324 producers from management committees, the inspection of 2,207 seed production parcels with certification of 5,000 metric tons expected, and the organization of 15 guided tours of seed farms and rice lowlands.
In the area of plant protection and processing, activities focused on the establishment of six desert locust surveillance and control teams to survey at-risk areas and implement treatment measures as needed, phytosanitary control of foodstuffs and pesticides (290,000 metric tons of product, including 1,460 metric tons and 684,565 liters of pesticide), and training of 40 agriculture technicians and 8,762 producers.
Regarding capacity-building for stakeholders in the various sectors and support to rural institutions, the activities included (i) helping Regional Chambers of Agriculture (CRA) improve their organizational management and strengthen their role through training sessions on the preparation of work programs and action plans, as well as sessions on the delivery of training to CRA members in the 13 regions, (ii) support to young farmers within the framework of implementation of the national strategy for retaining young people in their home communities, (iii) support/counseling for producer organizations, notably 325 members of the management committees of rice producer organizations in organizational and financial management, (iv) support for the establishment of the National Rice Producers Union, installation of the consultative council of the cooperative movement.
Regarding extension and research and development, efforts to improve soil fertility were continued, with the construction of 536,835 manure pits in 2005—representing an execution rate of 107 percent—compared to 240,746 in 2004, providing farmers with access to organic manure to help increase the productivity of rainfed and off-season crops. Soil fertility management was complemented by the promotion of agricultural mechanization to raise the level of equipment of producers with tillage, transport, storage, and processing equipment, such as motorized and animal-drawn carts, metal silos, and shea presses and grain mills. Under Operation China II, over 500 pieces of equipments were provided to farmers in 2005.
Increases in agricultural production were achieved through continuation of the Saaga program coupled with these operational activities. Indeed, the season saw record cereal production of over 3.6 million metric tons, a 28 percent gain on 2004 and 26 percent in relation to the average for the last five crop years. The resulting cereal surplus was evaluated at 704,527 metric tons for 2005. For other crops, the results were as follows: other food crops 575,060 metric tons, cash crops 968,359 metric tons, including 750,985 metric tons of seed cotton.
Lastly, in 2005 within the framework of the specialization of regional products and in collaboration with the Regional Chambers of Agriculture, diversification was initiated through the introduction of cash crops on farms.
With regard to fisheries resources and under the program for the promotion of aquaculture, emphasis was placed on activities designed to contribute to increasing the supply of fish, in particular: (i) the building of three alewife production centers and acquisition through the national budget of 500 floating cages for installation in various water courses; (ii) official launch and start-up of construction work on an aquaculture complex in Ziga comprising, a hatchery, a farm for commercial fish production, and an aquaculture training and research center; (iii) production of 1.2 million alewives, out of a forecasted 2 million, at the Bagré, Bazèga, and Ziga stations; and (iv) setting up of two fish food production units in Ziga and Bagré. The preliminary draft strategy and action plan for sustainable development of aquaculture as well as the three preliminary draft texts on the development and management of aquaculture activities under preparation are also expected to contribute to creating a sound framework for stakeholder interventions and more coherent management of the subsector. As regards increasing fish catches, the following activities were carried out: (i) construction of four regional fisheries equipment centers in Bobo-Dioulasso, Diébougou, Di and Pama, (ii) the stocking of four dam reservoirs with 200,000 alewives to improve their productivity and consequently, catches. Regarding the participatory and responsible management of fisheries resources, the government adopted texts regulating the committees responsible for the management of aquaculture perimeters of economic significance and finalized the official installation of these bodies at the Bagré and Kompienga fisheries. The process of introducing co-management systems at Sourou and Ziga was also officially launched. Lastly, activities aimed at adding value to fisheries products were also implemented. They included mainly (i) the construction of a fish processing unit, and (ii) strengthening of the regulatory framework through the preparation of preliminary draft texts on standards specifying thresholds for the content of certain metals in fish products, on quality criteria, and a code of practice for fish products.
- In the livestock sector
In 2005, priority was given to the following areas:
Enhancement of the legal security of pastoral activities, efforts centered around dissemination of the Framework Law on Pastoralism (LORP). Some 12,882 farmers, including 3,882 nomadic herders, benefited from information and outreach activities. In terms of pastoral infrastructure enhancement, the results are quite insignificant (17 boulis, 17 boreholes and 6 dams). The difficulties were related to procurement procedures, to unsuccessful contract awards for the boreholes, and the lengthy process of defining needs for the boulis and vaccination yards.
In addition, work was completed on the marking of 1,105 km of livestock trails, 19 grazing areas, and ten pastoral zones.
Improving livestock productivity, emphasis was placed on the production of over 1,400,000 bales of hay, representing a 70 percent execution rate. Thanks to the livestock rescue emergency plan, close to 8,602 metric tons of agroindustrial by-products (oilseed cakes, cotton seed, and bran) were mobilized for the benefit of producers. Regarding livestock health coverage, the results were acceptable, with a vaccination coverage rate against contagious bovine peripneumonia of 91 percent of forecasts, i.e. 1,810,984 cattle vaccinated, and 67 percent of forecasts for poultry, i.e. 4,031,306 heads vaccinated. Lastly, although the national policy on genetic improvement has not yet been finalized, some 19 bulls and 125 inseminated cows from pure-bred breeding stock were placed on rural and urban farms.
Improvement of the competitiveness of animal products and market access, infrastructure development for the livestock/meat sector covered six livestock markets, 27 slaughtering yards, and one butchering facility. In addition, two mini-dairies were built and ten were equipped. Regarding the professionalization of individuals working in the sector, the legislative and regulatory framework governing private exercise of the veterinary and zootechnical professions is under revision. With respect to improving access to credit, producers received support in developing 632 microprojects. As a result, 2,283 private stakeholders were able to get loans from financial institutions. Further, within the framework of government withdrawal from the productive, processing and marketing sectors, the Faso Kossam dairy in Bobo-Dioulasso was transferred to a private operator. Discussions are underway regarding the Cissin dairy in Ouagadougou.
In the area of strengthening the capacities of producers, some 17,837 producers, out of a planned 400,000, received technical training. The low execution rate of 4.5 percent was due to a lack of funds for the delivery of training.
Actions to improve the institutional framework included an institutional audit of the Ministry of Animal Resources. The training plan recommended by the audit is under preparation. Further, progress in implementing the livestock sector action plan and investment program continued with the preparation of Eastern and Northern regional programs and the preparation of a dairy sector action plan. Regarding the national livestock survey, a plan for the mobilization of funds was prepared and implementation is scheduled for 2006.
- In the environmental sector
Regarding forestry resources, in 2005, efforts focused essentially on strengthening the capacity of the national federation of unions of forestry management groups through the dissemination of training modules and support documents on forestry legislation in the national languages, Moore, Nuni, and Dioula; literacy instruction for 282 members; the use of non-timber forest products and the formulation of eight plans for the development and management of timber resources; and forestry development training, facilitation, execution and follow-up. In 2005, work was also completed on forest trails, with the construction of 8 shallow water river crossing points and a slab, thus helping to increase the sustainable supply of wood.
Within the framework of the effort to develop non-timber forestry products (PFNL), the national components of subregional programs, such as “Operation Acacia,” “Sustainable management of non-timber forest products and market development analysis (ADM) for the promotion of microenterprises,” and “Improvement of gum and resin yields and quality” were implemented and made it possible to:
- Heighten awareness of the populations in the Northern Central, Central Plateau, Sahel, Northern, and Eastern regions;
- Train seven supervisors and 23 community facilitators in market development;
- Carry out an inventory of PFNL at eight sites;
- Conduct PFLN market surveys in the form of local market studies at the village, departmental, and provincial levels;
- Prepare a user’s guide on the production and marketing of gum Arabic;
- Prepare databases on the production and marketing of gums, resins, and their byproducts to facilitate the participation of producer countries in international trade;
- Conduct research to improve the quality of the gums and resins produced, particularly by monitoring orchards of cloned high-yield trees.
A date palm pilot project carried out between 2002 and 2003 facilitated the planting of ten sites on privately-owned plantations in the Sahel region and one site at the Dori regional nursery. This experiment made it possible to come up with a project for a 200-ha date plantation, which is currently being studied by interested technical and financial partners.
With regard to the expansion and protection of forested areas, 39 departmental forests and 181 village forests were planted on 20,635 ha; 276,800 ha of forests were developed; 189,363 persons participated in awareness-building activities; and 163,126 producers were trained in production and operating techniques in 4,323 villages; 55 new forestry management groups were set up and 64 were revitalized as part of efforts to promote rational and remunerative use of forests, resulting in the production of over 935,000 steres of firewood and 7,000 posts; 54 charcoal production sites were identified in 23 provinces and are monitored on a regular basis. Under the national reforestation campaign, which was carried out in collaboration with 101 partners from the public and private sectors, civil society, and opinion, religious, and traditional leaders, it was recorded that 7,848,407 seedlings were produced and nearly 7,228,000 planted. Soil management and protection efforts led to the rehabilitation of 2,444 ha of degraded lands, preparation of eight development plans for natural forests and the assisted natural regeneration of 344.75 ha of vegetation.
In an effort to reduce bush fires, 240 new anti-fire committees were set up; wildfire management committees set up watch groups in 135 communities; 30,000 people received awareness-building information and 1,500 were trained in rural fire management techniques; and around 60 km of fire breakers were completed. The remunerative production of useful herbaceous plants was encouraged and tested in five regions (Boucle du Mouhoun, Central, Western Central, Northern Central, and North) as a means of rallying popular support for protecting forests against wildfires. Around 27 producers received training to that effect in fodder cutting and storage techniques.
With respect to forestry research, around 3,500 kg of seeds were produced and 6,113 kg of seeds were made available to nurseries for the production of good quality seedlings. Around 100 producers received training in grafting techniques for certain species such as mango and jujube and an inventory of medicinal plants for treating children was drawn up in the municipality of Ouagadougou.
With regard to wildlife, in 2005 (i) wildlife inventories were conducted in 5 wildlife conservation areas, (ii) wildlife habitats were developed and rehabilitated through the marking of around 4,000 km of trails providing access to wildlife reserves and 62 salt marshes were enriched, (iii) the potential of wildlife was enhanced through the monitoring of 25 hunting reserves, (iv) the legal status of two wildlife areas not under concession, Arly and Nazinga, was regularized and monographs were prepared for the two zones, (v) support was provided to farmers to develop two microprojects for the rearing of small game, particularly agoutis, in the Nazinga area, (vi) over 6,000 producers benefited from training, and (vii) an impact study of the 25 hunting reserves was conducted.
Various framework documents on the management of natural resources were prepared and validated in 2005. They included, inter alia, the national strategy on wildfire management, the national strategy for decentralization of the environmental sector, and the national strategy and action plan for the charcoal sector. Legislative and regulatory texts such as the order on charcoal making and selling; the law regulating the production, sale and use of agricultural and forestry seeds; and the related implementing texts were also adopted.
Regarding institutional capacity-building, an environmental agency has been set up and is already proving to be an important tool for people seeking information on the natural environment, changes in the ecosystems, and on the mapping of forested and wildlife areas. A directorate responsible for monitoring resources has also been set up.
2.4.4 Growth and diversification of rural incomes
In support of income-generating activities, 632 microprojects were prepared with assistance from various partners, making it possible for 2,377 producers, including 646 women, to have access to credit for animal fattening activities. Around 1,000 Rhode Island Red cocks were placed on farms.
In addition, in order to protect traditional poultry raising, a reliable and permanent source of income for poor households, 874 new volunteer village vaccinators were sent out into the field and two new satellite units of the Village Livestock Development Program (PDAV) were set up. With government support, farmers organized various promotional events including: a Chicken Day in Poa, a Pork Week in Bobo, and a livestock show in Ouagadougou.
Regarding fisheries resources, women received training in fish processing, conservation, and sale.
Professional agricultural organizations received significant support under the PNGT2. In 2005, 703 community land management plans (PGTs) were funded in the amount of over CFAF 9 billion.
Numerous rural and urban employment promotion activities were conducted within the framework of efforts to promote the rational use of natural resources and sanitation. Examples include, (i) the establishment of private nurseries(ii) the training of women in the making and sale of fuel-efficient stoves, (iii) horticulture promotion, (iv) the production, transport, and wholesale and retail distribution of fuel wood and charcoal, (v) the harvesting, picking, and gathering—mainly by women—of non-timber forestry products, such as shea nuts, nere, gum Arabic, forest seeds, etc., (vi) the sale of medicinal plants, (vii) support/advice for craftspeople on the rational processing of natural products for their activities, (viii) the promotion and production of honey, (ix) extension and outreach services to promote small game rearing, (x) monitoring of restaurants selling wild meat, (xi) the professionalization of hunting guides, taxidermists, management staff of hunting reserves and the inhabitants of neighboring villages, (xii) the promotion of activities related to household refuse collection, processing of plastic waste, landscape gardening and the production and sale of flowers; etc.
In the area of forestry and wildlife in Burkina Faso, there are over 450 farmers’ associations and a minimum of 8,808 private nurseries. These areas also provide permanent remunerative employment for a minimum of 200,000 people, including for example 3,000 wholesale wood and charcoal transporters and 48,000 retailers in Ouagadougou alone.
In its turn, and just in the cities of Ouagadougou, Bobo-Dioulasso and Ouahigouya, the sanitation sector provides work for some 3,500 people, the majority of whom are women. In the Eastern region, the BOYABA association actively involves more than 800 women in sanitation activities, while GAFREB in Bobo-Dioulasso has become a reference in plastic waste recovery and recycling. The CNSF provides 450 women with seasonal employment crushing seeds and in rural areas a large number of women regularly supply the CNSF with gathered or harvested seeds.
2.4.5 Improving the living and working conditions of rural women
In 2005, efforts to improve the living and working conditions of rural women focused essentially on capacity-building for women and the acquisition of appropriate technologies.
In the area of improving the living and working conditions of rural women, the government continued to support women’s groups in acquiring processing technologies. For shea butter processing, beneficiaries included the women of Song-taaba, with a turnover of CFAF 245 million and a 22 percent profit margin; 17 women from Benkadi in Bobo-Dioulasso; and four women’s groups for the performance of a contract for 350 metric tons; while for milk processing, assistance was provided to three female entrepreneurs from Bobo-Dioulasso. Support was also provided for the overall organization of the fisheries sector, fish processing, cattle fattening, market gardening, and the participation of 400 women in the development and management of river basins in the South-West. In total, over CFAF 500 million was injected into rural areas to support production, marketing, and processing activities.
The government continued the dissemination of multifunctional platforms to serve as modern energy services companies in rural areas in order to reduce energy constraints and revitalize economic and social life in the villages. The following activities carried out in 2005 helped reduce income poverty in the covered areas by increasing production and diversifying revenue sources:
- Identification of four intervention areas (East, Central West, North and Boucle du Mouhoun);
- Selection of three new local execution agencies or partner NGOs, to take charge of distributing platforms in the intervention areas;
- Establishment of support/advice units;
- Installation of 28 platforms;
- Construction in progress of a mini water network at Soaligu in the East region;
- Conduct of several feasibility studies aimed at facilitating access to credit for platform company promoters.
2.4.6 Promoting employment and vocational training
- Component: Jobs
• Draw up a directory of trades and occupations (ROME): Two officers from the National Employment Agency (ANPE) received training. The ministry received support from the ANPE of France and GIP/Inter to adapt the French ROME to the realities of Burkina Faso. A draft agreement is in the process of being adopted.
• Operationalize, through the establishment of agencies and training of their members, collaborative frameworks for employment promotion (CNEFP, CNPS, CRPS): the National Council on Employment and Vocational Training (CNEFP) was enacted by Law 033-2004/AN establishing the Labor Code, which stipulates that a decree shall fix the powers, composition, and operations of the said Council. According to procedure, the draft decree was duly submitted to the Consultative Labor Committee, which adopted it in January 2006. A government seminar is expected to examine the draft text before its adoption by the Council of Ministers. Similarly, a draft decree on the creation, composition, attributions, and operations of the national commission and regional commissions for the promotion of apprenticeships was prepared. The consultative bodies, CNEFP, CNPS, CRPS, can only be set up after approval by the Council of Ministers. However, a consultative and coordination committee for vocational training and apprenticeships (CCFPA) has been set up to serve as a collaborative framework for vocational training through apprenticeship.
• Strengthen the financial capacities of financing entities (FASI, FAPE, PNAR-TD): the Informal Sector Support Fund (FASI), the Employment Promotion Support Fund (FAPE), and the National Program for the Reintegration of Retrenched Workers (PNAR-TD), are active in seeking to improve access to funding for entrepreneurs.
The Informal Sector Support Fund (FASI)
In response to growing demand on the part of enterprises and entrepreneurs, FASI established branch offices in the provinces in order to bring funding closer to the entrepreneurs. In 2005, FASI financed 951 microprojects totaling CFAF 462,678,500. FASI is present in fifteen provincial capitals and covers 44 provinces, with the exception of Ziro. In total, 255 new jobs were created and 2,391 consolidated.
The Employment Promotion Support Fund (FAPE)
As part of its decentralization plan, FAPE continued to open new offices, increasing the reach of its financing services for entrepreneurs to four provinces: Bobo-Dioulasso, Ouahigouya, Koupela, and Kaya. In 2005, FAPE financed 135 microenterprises, thus helping to create or consolidate 675 jobs in the agropastoral, crafts, trade, and services sectors. FAPE also pre-financed 15 entrepreneurs, with 150 jobs created or consolidated. Loans granted amounted to CFAF 459,547,000 for direct loans and CFAF 77,362,374 for pre-financing, respectively.
National Program for the Reintegration of Retrenched Workers (PNAR TD)
In 2005, PNAR-TD financed 49 projects totaling CFAF 170,775,000. This funding generated 101 permanent jobs, compared to a forecast of 60, and 283 temporary jobs, exceeding the 200 initially forecast. The 2003 HIPC resources made it possible to finance eleven projects totaling CFAF 55,320,000, thus generating 14 permanent jobs and 27 temporary jobs. PNAR- TD operates in 29 provinces, but its operations have not yet been decentralized.
It should be noted that as part of the efforts to strengthen their financial capacities, these structures received operating subsidies from the government and HIPC resources for their financing activities.
• Create a capital investment company by 2007: Thus far, there has been no progress on this.
• Create an advisory/counseling network for entrepreneurs and job seekers: preliminary consultative meetings resulted in an assessment of the advisory/counseling system available to entrepreneurs and job seekers, an inventory of associations and agencies dealing with unemployment issues, and of cooperatives that help create jobs to fight poverty.
• Finalize and adopt the national action plans for implementation of the conclusions of the Special Summit of Heads of State of the African Union on Employment and Poverty Reduction: A framework document to guide implementation of the conclusions of the Summit and a national action plan to promote employment and poverty reduction, incorporating national priorities, have been prepared. These documents have not yet been adopted by the government, but the process is underway.
• Set up a guarantee fund for employment promotion by end-2005: A draft decree establishing a guarantee fund and a draft order on the organization and operations of the fund have been prepared. The setting up of this fund should make it possible to be more responsive to the needs of young entrepreneurs, particularly by giving them greater access to project financing.
- Component: Vocational training
• Rehabilitate, modernize, and equip regional offices and departments of the ANPE: In 2005, the two ANPE regional offices in Gaoua and Ziniaré were completely refurbished. Work is nearing completion on the Manga office and has started on the offices in Solenzo, Sindou, Koupéla, Diapaga Boromo, and Ouagadougou. Equipment has also been acquired for all of these centers except Ouagadougou.
In the context of the ongoing activities of the CEFP Ouagadougou extension and modernization project (BID/EMCO), work is being done to develop performance indicators for the ANPE. This same project also supported the preparation of a service procedures manual and the acquisition of various equipment for the ANPE. Under the technical assistance component of the BID/EMCO project, feasibility studies were conducted for the Ziniaré and Banfora specialized training centers. The dossier has been submitted to the BID.
• Recruit and train staff of training agencies: A group of around thirty heads of private training centers received training in teaching and the management of training centers.
• Review the framework document on the strategy for employment promotion and vocational training by end-2006: The terms of reference were prepared and the review exercise is scheduled to begin in April 2006.
• Develop a national policy for promotion of the informal sector and an action plan by end-2006: In that context, plans were mooted for the holding of a forum on the informal sector but they did not materialize for lack of funds. The first version of a preliminary draft national policy for promotion of the informal sector has, however, been developed.
• Organize an annual “Recognition of Excellence” event in the informal sector: Regarding the holding of 5th edition of the “Recognition of Excellence” event, which was to take place in Bobo-Dioulasso in 2005, the terms of reference were prepared but the required funds could not be raised.
• Placement of job seekers through the ANPE: Within the framework of its socioprofessional services for job seekers and entrepreneurs, in 2005, the ANPE registered 5,307 job seekers and handled 535 offers of employment from businesses, and 50 job seekers were placed in internship programs.
As part of the effort to promote direct youth employment, a study was conducted on the promotion of youth employment using the HIMO approach and drawing on the use of local construction materials in Burkina Faso. Another study on the setting up of a national volunteer program was also carried out.
Further, in 2005, the National Employment and Vocational Training Observatory (ONEF) conducted a study on promising sectors and another on trends in the job market in Burkina Faso.
• Develop regulatory texts on harmonizing the content of apprenticeship vocational training programs by end-2006: With a view to better organizing the vocational training system, a tripartite workshop was held to discuss the broad outlines of a certification system for vocational training. In addition, regulatory texts on the functioning of the Permanent Secretariat of the Consultative Committee for Apprenticeship Vocational Training were prepared. A study followed by a workshop on the modeling and structuring of a modern apprenticeship system in Burkina Faso was also conducted. Officials from the Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Youth participated in a workshop on ownership, management, and running of a vocational training system
• Identify priority sectors and develop training curricula by end-2006: curriculum development is underway for the seven priority sectors identified as follows: construction, agriculture-related trades, maintenance and repair of household appliances, electrical engineering, maintenance of automobiles and other motor vehicles, transport, hotels and restaurants, and beauty treatment and care.
The ANPE trained 98 job seekers in job-search techniques (TRE), and provided another 166 job seekers with entrepreneurship training. Advice and support was made available to 1,125 entrepreneurs and job seekers and 90 files on qualified candidates were put together for entrepreneurs. In addition to these beneficiaries are the 2005 graduates of ANPE vocational assessment and training centers.
To gain a better understanding of the labor market and vocational training, a survey on matching training and employment in major businesses was launched in December 2005 and is expected to be finished in 2006.
- Component: Capacity-building
• Create a website to facilitate the strengthening of partnerships with enterprises and other partners: Three sites are available (Ministry of Youth and Employment, National Employment and Vocational Training Observatory (ONEF), National Employment Agency (ANPE).
• Implement the Ministry’s statistical program: Having benefited from the implementation of the national statistics development project, in 2005 the Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Youth organized a series of informative workshops for social partners on the importance of labor and employment statistics, harmonization of labor market concepts and tools for the compilation of employment and labor statistics, data processing and analysis techniques, and statistical data collection methodologies. Participants in the workshops included statistical correspondents from central offices, reporting offices, and external agencies, as well as Regional Directors of Labor, Employment, and Youth. The aim of these activities was essentially to improve the Ministry’s statistical production through capacity-building for statistical correspondents and Regional Directors in the areas mentioned above, namely the collection, processing, and dissemination of statistics on employment, vocational training, labor, social security, and youth, with a view to ensuring the regular production of statistics.
In summary, implementation of this program in 2005 led to a more favorable environment for job creation, the development of vocational training and apprenticeship, and operational capacity-building for entities responsible for promoting employment.
2.4.7 Opening up of rural areas
With a view to improving media access across the country the following actions were taken in 2005:
- Enhancement and expansion of radio and television broadcast coverage
- completion, equipment and start-up of 12 new television broadcast centers;
- equipment of 18 existing television broadcast centers;
- completion, equipment and start-up of a land station in Ouagadougou;
- subscription to Intelsat satellite TV.
- Deconcentration and decentralization of rural radio stations
- construction of a perimeter wall at the Fada N’gourma regional directorate;
- finishing works in progress on main building of the Fada N’gourma regional directorate;
- construction of a perimeter wall and parking facilities at the Ouahigouya regional directorate;
- major construction work 50 percent complete on the building sites of the Gaoua and Banfora regional directorates.
- Decentralization of the Sidwaya publishing company
- refurbishing of main building 60 percent complete and all equipment purchased.
- Support for the promotion of ICTs for development, specifically local radio
- construction and finishing of the Ouargaye local community radio station;
- construction work on the Nouna local community radio station 70 percent complete;
- acquisition of all studio and broadcasting equipment for the three local community radio stations of Ouargaye, Nouna, and Gayeri;
- work on Internet connection of the directorates attached to the ministry, namely the State-owned media companies RTB and the Sidwaya publishing company.
These important achievements have made it possible to bring the listening audience closer to the media and strengthens capacities of State-run and private media companies.
Implementation of the national rural transport strategy (SNTR) was a priority area for government action in 2005. In that context, the investment program was pursued, with the construction and maintenance of rural and cotton roads and the decentralization of rural road management by deploying civil engineering staff and equipment to the 45 provinces. The following activities were implemented: award of contracts for the construction of 1,000 km of rural roads in four provinces; award of contracts for the construction of 975 km of rural and cotton roads in thirteen provinces; construction of 80 km of rural roads nearing completion, conduct of detailed technical studies on 800 km of feeder roads serving departmental capitals; conduct of technical studies on 206 km of rural roads in two provinces of the Sahel region; construction of 200 km of rural roads in three provinces of the Eastern region of Burkina Faso; maintenance of 227 km of rural roads already built and start-up of works on 143 km, 109 km and 69 km of rural roads.
Regarding road infrastructure, activities dealt mainly with the maintenance of the road network, rehabilitation of unpaved roads and the building and paving of new trunk roads. Some of noteworthy results achieved in were as 2005 following:
- Regular maintenance of 13,092 km;
- Periodic maintenance of unpaved roads; this involved works on 804 km of roads started in 2004. It is estimated that out of 476 km initially planned, 161 km of roads have so far been treated given the rate of execution of the works. The periodic maintenance of unpaved roads currently underway covers a 648 km stretch;
- Increase of paved roads; start-up of works on the Ouagadougou-Koupela stretch was launched in the second half of 2005. By end December a 50 km section had been covered. Reinforcement works are also underway on 391 km of paved roads;
- Completion of work on 177 km of unpaved roads, out of a 504 km planned for the period, from a stretch of 1,046 km earmarked for rehabilitation;
- Paving of new trunk roads; paving works were completed on 356 km of roads, as against 350 km scheduled for 2005, and are ongoing on 466 km.
Works on the marking/signage of the classified and maintained road network effectively started in 2005 and may be completed in 2006.
Regarding road transportation, training was conducted to strengthen the capacities of SMEs and SMIs, stakeholders in the transportation sector. Studies on the configuration and setting up of the database were launched and significant progress has been made at DGTTM and DEP of the MITH, while for the CBC the terms of reference were prepared and the process of recruitment of a consultant is underway. Lastly, a follow-up study on impediments to traffic flow, such as roadblocks and the illicit collection of fees, was undertaken in 2005.
In road safety, the government started work on formulating a communication policy and plan. Material support was provided to the police services to assist with data collection on road accidents and the behavior of road users.
Regarding railroad infrastructure, steps were taken towards the realization of the Ouagadougou-Koumassi-Bouankra railway line with a view to improving the country’s linkages to its coastal neighbors. Initiatives included the search for funding and the preparation of common financing requests to the AfDB and other donors. Terms of reference were prepared to update the feasibility study on construction of the Kaya-Tambao railway line and rehabilitation of the Ouaga-Kaya line.
Regarding air transportation, the following actions were undertaken to improve air transport service to Burkina Faso:
- Revision and updating of the air services agreement with Morocco, which made it possible for Royal Air Maroc to operate the Casablanca- Ouagadougou route;
- Opening up of the Accra-Ouagadougou-Accra route by Antrak Air;
- Signing of a double taxation agreement with Ethiopia;
- Signing of air services agreements with Cape Verde and China;
- Operations of Point Air Burkina between Cotonou and Dakar;
- Exchanges of correspondence with the United Arab Emirates and Nigeria with a view to concluding air services agreements;
- Pursuit of activities required to facilitate construction of the Ouagadougou-Donsin international airport, in particular, award of contracts for the conduct of environmental impact studies and studies on the relocation of residents from the airport site as well as feasibility studies on access roads for the future airport and on financing from the BOAD and the IDB, respectively.
Regarding strengthening the capacities of the Ouagadougou airport, a generator was installed in January 2005.
Regarding the telecommunications sector and the promotion of ICTs, the activities undertaken focused essentially on:
- Continued development of rural telephone services through the replacement of equipment serving the areas of Koudougou and Dori so as, on the one hand, to improve service to the communities already served in these areas, and on the other, to provide service to ten additional communities in the provinces of Sanguie, Boulkiemde, Seno, Oudalan, and Yagha;
- Issuing of tenders for the setting up of sixteen high-speed Internet access centers in remote or disadvantaged localities, within the framework of the ADEN project aimed at reducing the digital divide;
- Preparation of tender documents for granting a license to an operator to build and operate a telephone and Internet access network in the South-West region, comprising the provinces of Ioba, Noumbiel, Poni and Bougouriba. This pilot project falls within the framework of implementation of the strategy to develop a universally accessible telecommunications service.
At December 31, 2005, the number of rural localities with fixed-line telephone service rose to 220, of which fourteen received service in 2005.
2.5 Status of implementation of Pillar 4: Promotion of good governance
Following the assessment of the National Plan for Good Governance—1998-2003, by decree No. 2005-459/PRES/PM/MFPRE/MFB of August 31, 2005, the government adopted the framework document setting out national policy on good governance for the 2005-15 period. The government also adopted decree No. 2005-656/PRES/PM/MFPRE/MEDEV of December 30, 2005 establishing a steering mechanism for implementation of the national policy on good governance.
2.5.1 Political governance
Regarding consolidation of the rule of law, the process was strengthened by the successful holding of presidential elections in November 2005. The practice of democracy was further entrenched by the expansion of opportunities for freedom of expression. The government continued to provide financial assistance to the private press. Thus, around fifty private press companies received government subsidies amounting to CFAF 150 million. Further, in 2005, there was significant progress in the area of television and radio broadcasting coverage, all of which served to enhance public participation in the democratic process.
In the area of justice, substantial progress has been made in the implementation of the National Strategy and Action Plan for Judicial Reform for 2002-2006. In terms of strengthening judicial institutions, two draft texts are in the process of adoption for the establishment of a Jurisdiction Court on the one hand, and on the other, for the establishment of four regional courts (TGIs) and four detention/correctional facility (MACs) in Djibo, Nouna, Orodara and Diébougou. The code of criminal procedure is being revised to take into account, among other things, procedures applicable to minors.
With a view to improving access to the judicial system, the activities undertaken in 2005 contributed to bringing the judicial system closer to those it serves through, on the one hand, the building of the TGI and MAC of Boromo and the Court of First Instance of Bobo-Dioulasso, and on the other, the refurbishing-extension of the Directorate of Penitentiary Security and all the jurisdictions at the headquarters of the Bobo-Dioulasso court of appeal. Construction work on the TGI and MAC of Léo and Yako is almost completed, while the Diapaga and Dori institutions are being refurbished. Information and awareness campaigns, including open-house events, were held and a legal aid fund is being set up to serve those most in need.
In respect of strengthening the efficiency of the justice system, the government pursued its efforts to increase and develop human resources, equip the judiciary and improve the working conditions of magistrates and judicial personnel. Regarding human resource enhancement and development, under the government’s recruitment and undergraduate training policy, implementation of specific plans at ENAM and the national police academy, respectively, resulted in the recruitment and training of 30 magistrates, ten chief bailiffs, six bailiffs, three court clerks and secretaries, 250 prison officers, 30 assistant prison officers, 20 senior prison offers and 15 inspectors of prisons. Regarding equipment, the judicial services were provided with vehicles, computing equipment, office equipment and furniture, and dedicated security equipment for penitentiaries, while ENAM graduating magistrates received legal document kits.
In the area of human rights protection, the government pursued its ongoing public awareness campaign on civil registration. Outreach activities also focused on promoting a culture of respect for human rights and the rule of law in both urban and rural areas through the use of message dissemination tools such as mobile cinema, theatre, radio and television broadcasts, human rights prize competitions, awareness training of heads of penitentiaries and public lectures. As part of the effort to foster more humane practices in prisons and other detention facilities, visits of prisons and police holding cells were conducted and corrective measures proposed to ensure compliance with acceptable standards of detention. Regarding the promotion of the rights of specific groups, a study on the children’s rights code made it possible to take stock of existing legal texts governing the rights of the child. Its findings are to be widely disseminated in 2006. Further, a study conducted on the rights of the disabled outlined various strategies for the promotion of the rights of people with disabilities. Regarding women’s rights, within the framework of the fifth national forum on human rights, a dedicated workshop provided an opportunity to discuss the forms and causes of violence against women as well as the judicial instruments available for combating such violence. Discussions also centered around identifying appropriate measures to solve this societal problem.
In the area of reinforcing security, the acquisition of vehicles and transmission equipment as well as the recruitment and training of security personnel (700 new police officers and 500 gendarmes) contributed to enhancing the operational capacities of the security services, reducing police response times and accelerating the transmission of information along the chain of command. With the official launch of the plan introducing community policing followed by the setting up of local safety committees throughout the province of Kourrittenga conditions are now effectively in place for popular participation in the search for solutions to the security problem. Regarding the putting in place of permanent collaborative frameworks, in 2005 training and awareness-building activities were organized for the major players in community policing, such as Regional Police Chiefs, Regional Commanders of the Gendarmerie, Provincial Police Chiefs and Commanders of gendarmerie squads, Governors, High Commissioners, Prefects, and Mayor. Finally, watch patrols of high-crime areas were organized, and this reduced the number of armed assaults and certain acts of delinquency.
2.5.2 Administrative governance
Overall reform of public administration has progressed significantly. The texts on the organization of the Ministry of Civil Service and Central Government Reform were amended to take account of regional decentralization of the ministry. Law No. 13/98/AN of April 28, 1998, which sets out the legal regime applicable to civil service jobs and employees was revised through the adoption of Law No. 19/2005/AN of May 18, 2005. Various texts on the organization of specific jobs were also adopted. In addition, the functionality of the integrated civil service personnel and salary management system (SIGASPE) was strengthened. SIGASPE has now been rolled out to 22 ministries and institutions.
Decree No. 2005-203/PRES/PM/MFPRE/MATD/MFB of April 6, 2005 established the general principles of administrative deconcentration in Burkina Faso. To take account of certain imperatives and the reality on the ground, the standards of organization and management of public administrative structures were adjusted by adoption of Law No. 11-2005/AN of April 6, 2005 modifying Law No. 20-98/AN of May 5, 1998 establishing the standards of creation, organization and management of public administrative structures.
With a view to promoting the development of electronic administration, Web sites have been set up at all the ministerial departments and institutions with facilities for updating by the end user. The official gazettes from 1954 to the present have been digitized to make them accessible via a digital library. Self-training interactive multimedia content in national languages has also been produced in the areas of rural development and public health education. The objective of these actions is to raise the visibility of government and institutional activities, improve public access to information on their rights and duties, on administrative procedures, and on issues of socioeducational interest. Also worthy of mention is the launch of the pilot project for the setting up of a government Intranet by migrating the RESINA network linking the 30 buildings in the Ouagadougou administrative area to a very high speed voice and data network.
However, the following important concerns persist concerning civil service reform:
- Imprecise definition of responsibilities, lack of rationality in the organization of administrative structures, and weakness of their capacity for policy analysis and formulation;
- Lack of forward-looking personnel management, limited capacity for human resources planning and monitoring, ineffective in-service training system not aligned with needs.
- Inadequate communication with citizens/users of the public administration;
- Inadequate enforcement of texts;
- Inadequate enactment of enabling decrees for laws;
- Inadequate capacities of oversight agencies and bodies.
2.5.3 Economic governance
With specific reference to the fight against corruption, the government has sought to strengthen administrative oversight structures and has adopted new regulatory measures to strengthen transparency and improve the system of administrative accountability. This involves, inter alia:
- Preparation and publication of procedural manuals containing information on the nature of services provided by each administrative entity as well as on the procedures and formalities to be followed in order to access those services;
- Strengthening of control measures by making participatory management structures, such as CASEM and cabinet and management councils, more dynamic and publishing the reports of oversight bodies.
In addition, the following salient points should be noted:
- Publication of the results of public procurement tenders in a newsletter established for that purpose;
- Launch of a process of revision of the general regulations on public procurement to make operations more transparent;
- Strengthening the legal framework for business through the gradual alignment of national law with the provisions of the treaty of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).
Government anti-corruption efforts also focused on strengthening civil society organizations, in particular mass media. Given their role in the fight against corruption, the deepening of democracy and the awakening of national consciousness, the government provides the private print and electronic media with an annual subvention of CFAF 100 million to help the industry make qualitative improvements. Lastly, a national anti-corruption policy providing the broad outlines of the government’s strategies and mechanisms for combating corruption more actively and efficiently, is in the process of being finalized.
2.5.4 Local governance
With the adoption of the general code on local governments (CGCT) by the National Assembly in December 2004, the decentralization process entered a more dynamic phase involving the deepening and active consolidation of the devolution of powers to the regional and communal level across the country. This means that local governments now have primary responsibility for grassroots development, poverty alleviation and enhanced popular participation in democracy. In keeping with the CGCT, texts governing the transfer of powers and resources to local governments have been prepared as follows:
- A decree on the transfer of government property to local governments. Regarding urban municipalities, following the inventory of property, three devolution decrees in the areas of health, primary and pre-school education, and culture, youth, sports and leisure as well as enabling ordinances for the above-mentioned decrees have been concluded in conformity with article 41 of the CGCT.
- A draft law setting out resources and expenditures of local governments;
- A decree establishing the financial system for local governments;
- A draft law establishing the legal framework applicable to posts and employees of local governments.
With regard to rural municipalities, the study on spatial population distribution, preparation of socioeconomic models, and assessment of the start-up infrastructure needs have all been concluded. The strategic framework for implementing decentralization was prepared as were the decentralization monitoring and assessment indicators. The adoption of this document signals the government’s commitment to clarifying the timelines set out in the CGCT. With a view to promoting socio-political ownership of the decentralization process, a communications strategy was devised. Three information workshops were held for regional governors, secretaries general of regions and provinces, and prefects. Thirteen regional conferences on the CGCT and 351 departmental conferences were also organized bringing together all those involved in the decentralization process. The communication campaign made it possible to bring a large number of stakeholders in the process up to the same level of information.
The main delays concern the transfer of powers and resources to local governments and managerial capacity-building for elected representatives and employees of local governments.
III. Monitoring/assessment Strategy
3.1 Institutional mechanism
The institutional mechanism for monitoring PRSP implementation, created by Decree 2003-560/PRES/PM/MEDEV dated October 29, 2003, consists essentially of three levels: the Ministerial Steering and Monitoring Committee (CMOS), sectoral and thematic commissions (CST), and decentralized agencies at the Regional Consultative Development Council (CCRD) level.
With the exception of the CCRDs, the other levels have functioned relatively well. The CMOS, chaired by the Head of Government, held its first session only on February 16, 2006. The meeting adopted guidelines assigning objectives and targets to the CSTs.
As 2005 was a presidential election year and preparations were underway for municipal and legislative elections, the CSTs met behind schedule, in April 2006. Questions arose regarding ownership of the PAPs by the sectors and the overall co-ordination of the process with the regional level. Up to the time of the review, it had not been possible to provide the various stakeholders with a precise timeframe for the process involving the CSTs. The CSTs were, however, able to hold a meeting to validate the review report.
3.2 Outcome measurement tools and the issue of monitoring indicators
Progress in poverty reduction was measured by means of a consensus-based matrix of indicators. The main issue with these indicators is the weak capacity of the various administrations to gather information on the areas concerned. The timetable for updating these indicators should take account of the fact that the schedule set out in the PRSP implementation guidelines requires that reviews take place in April of year (T) for year T-1. Those involved in the monitoring system will need to ensure that statistical data for year (T-1) is available by March of year (T). However, some indicators may be updated more than once a year so that developments can be discussed at the regular meetings of the CSTs.
The year 2005 was devoted to finalizing the 2005-07 PAP, resulting in late delivery of the final document. This suggests that in future the document should be available at the time of the review and should have an accompanying timetable for implementation of the main activities up to the next review period. The survey based on the Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaire (CWIQ) was carried out in 2005, but the delay in producing and analyzing the data made it impossible to gather information for most of the monitoring indicators.
The status of implementation of the subject-based statistical timetable indicates that education, health, and macroeconomics data were available from administrative sources.
IV. Lessons Learned and Outlook for 2006–08
4.1 Lessons Learned
The following lessons can be drawn from this second experience of preparing the PAP implementation report:
- Sectoral ownership of the PAP should be promoted and there should be better overall coordination of the process with the regional and decentralized levels. A precise timetable needs to be worked out for the process involving the CSTs up to the PAP review. Special emphasis needs to be placed on ensuring that the CSTs and CCRDs function effectively.
- Some monitoring indicators are not updated in a timely manner, which suggests that the statistical calendar should be implemented in accordance with the established timetable. Thus, the preliminary results of the CWIQ survey for year (n) need to be available at the latest in February of year (n+1). The initial results of the general population and housing census (for which mapping is underway) are expected to be available in June 2007. Similarly, the agriculture census is scheduled to take place in 2007 with the results set for release in 2008. The fourth EDS will be conducted in 2008 and results will be made available in March 2009. The government is counting on the usual participation of its partners to help it carry out these operations.
- Despite significant progress in budget management and a growing emphasis on results, the government intends to adjust the budget preparation process to better align it with the PAP-PRSP. In particular, the reinstatement of sectoral MTEFs and closer integration with planning and monitoring of the PAP-PRSP are needed to avoid imbalances in allocations, both among and within priority sectors. Better integration of budgetary processes and the PRSP means that the annual PAP-PRSP report must be available when the budget is prepared. This would make it possible to derive lessons and establish guidelines for the upcoming budget that would be integrated into the overall MTEF, which should in turn be based on the annual report. From this standpoint, April of each year is a good time for the annual review.
- Aid and the budget are being increasingly aligned with PRSP priorities. However, additional efforts by partners and the government are needed to increase the predictability of disbursements.
- Finally, the rate of absorption of financial resources remains relatively low. This situation needs to be corrected through better project programming and selection, regular oversight of project management, adherence to project start-up schedules, improved public procurement procedures, and by strengthening the technical capacities of certain project managers.
4.2 Outlook for 2006–08
4.2.1 Macroeconomic objectives over the 2006-08 period
A Baseline scenario
Economic growth objectives for the 2006-08 period are based on the targets established for reducing the incidence of poverty, which is expected to drop from 46.4 percent in 2003 to 39.9 percent in 2008, representing an average annual reduction of around 1.1 points.
Assuming that the government continues to pursue its sectoral policies and the international environment remains relatively favorable, Burkina Faso’s average annual economic growth should be about 7 percent over the 2006-08 period. This growth trajectory should unfold in a context in which inflation is held at about 2 percent, and cotton and mining production increase. Thus, the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors would experience average annual growth of 4.2 percent, 8.8 percent, and 8.9 percent, respectively. Average GDP per capita will improve by about 4.5 percent.
If rainfall is sufficient, the small-scale village irrigation program is stepped up, and all the action plans of the Agriculture Department are implemented, gross cereals production would increase by the following amounts: 2 percent in 2006 and 3 percent in 2007 and 2008. Under these conditions, primary sector value added would grow in real terms by 3.5 percent in 2006 and 4.5 percent in 2007 and 2008.
Projected cotton production in 2006 would total 799,500 metric tons, compared to 750,975 metric tons in 2005, an increase of 6.6 percent. This projection includes production from all the cotton-growing areas. From 2007 to 2008, this rate would hold steady at 6.6 percent per year if world prices increase and producer prices are maintained. Cotton exports should increase in volume by 17 percent in 2006 and by 6.6 percent in 2007 and 2008.
The secondary sector’s share of GDP is expected to stabilize at 19.5 percent over the 2006-08 period. Growth for the sector has been estimated at 10.8 percent in 2006, 7.6 percent in 2007, and 8.1 percent in 2008, with increased production from the cotton ginning industries, particularly in the two other cotton-growing areas—Faso Coton and SOCOMA—as a result of increased installed capacity. In addition to ginning activity, the textile sector is also expected to expand.
In the area of construction, average annual growth of 12.7 percent is projected, assuming the continuation of current works, such as the ZACA project, and the start-up of new works, such as the paving of the Ouaga-Kongoussi and Sakoinse-Bobo roads in 2006. In 2007, planned works include the reconstruction of the Rood Woko market, construction of the Samandeni dam with work scheduled to begin in late 2006/early 2007, and construction of the Kaya-Dori and Bobo-Dedougou roads as well as the ring road linking Pissy to the Fada road, with work scheduled to begin in 2006.
Regarding the extractive industries, with the opening of the Youga, Taparko, and Kalsaka mines, production is expected to total 1.6 metric tons in 2006, 1.6 metric tons in 2007, and 1.7 metric tons in 2008. The total contribution of the secondary sector to growth has been estimated at 1.9 percentage points in 2006, 1.4 percentage points in 2007, and 1.5 percentage points in 2008, with the major impetus coming from the manufacturing and construction subsector.
The tertiary sector is expected to grow by 8.5 percent in 2006, 9.9 percent in 2007, and 8.2 percent in 2008. Its share of GDP would increase from 42.5 percent in 2006 to 43.4 percent in 2007 and 44 percent in 2008. GDP growth would be mainly driven by this sector, the contribution of which would expand from 3.3 percentage points in 2006 to 4 percentage points in 2007 and 3.4 percentage points in 2008, driven in particular by the transportation and telecommunications sector and the trade sector. On average, this sector would grow by 8.9 percent under the assumptions selected, especially in the transportation subsector in connection with strong agricultural production (mainly of cotton), continued training of sector professionals, improvement of the road network, and easier traffic flow. In the tourism subsector, over 500,000 visitors are expected by end-2006. In addition, large projects are underway, including in particular the development of tourism sites and the construction of about fifty tourist encampments. Ouagadougou’s International Tourism and Hotel Industry Fair, now a regularly scheduled event, is also a springboard for the development of this sector.
Under the dual assumption of continued strong agricultural performance and stable petroleum prices, the inflationary surge of 2005 should be contained over the 2006-08 period. Thus, the rise in overall prices should be around 2 percent on average, leading to an increase in domestic demand. For 2006, the overall price increase is estimated at 3.6 percent, while the assumption is for oil price to average around US$45.00 a barrel.
Regarding public finances over the 2006-08 period, the steps taken by Burkina Faso to improve and consolidate the reorganization of public finances will continue. Several actions are being implemented under the PAP/PRGB to control expenditure and improve revenue collection.
Main characteristics of the priority action program
The various projects and programs, by sector and area, are derived essentially from the program budgets of the ministries and from the medium-term expenditure framework (MTEF). Their eligibility under the priority action program depends on the following essential criteria: (i) conformity with PRSP priorities; (ii) relevance and degree of contribution to the attainment of poverty-reduction objectives; and (iii) absorptive capacities of the initiating ministerial departments over the last three years. The sources of financing already identified are highlighted (including funds expected under the HIPC Initiative), as are anticipated external funds and financing gaps.
Financing of the priority action program
The resources needed to implement the poverty reduction strategy over the next three years, based on the macroeconomic framework, amount to CFAF 2,007.3 billion, compared to overall program costs of CFAF 2,416.2 billion. Financing of the poverty reduction strategy in terms of public investment over the 2006-08 period is estimated at CFAF 1,246.8 billion, or an average of CFAF 415.6 billion per year (see Table 6). External financing amounts to CFAF 658.8 billion over the period, or 52.8 percent of total financing. Financing through the government budget totals CFAF 588 billion, or 47.2 percent of the total.
|Program costs, excluding debt, including net loans||748.1||796.1||872.0||2,416.2|
|Grant financing (PIP)||101.9||104.0||106.0||311.9|
|Residual funding requirements (−)||8.1||1.2||51.7||61.0|
The result is a financing gap of CFAF 132.3 billion over the period, or an average of CFAF 44.1 billion per year. Taking into account the resources obtained under the HIPC Initiative, which are estimated at CFAF 71.3 billion over the period, residual funding requirements to cover supplemental activities and measures aimed at achieving the goal of an average 1.1 point reduction in the incidence of poverty amount to CFAF 61 billion over the period in question, i.e., CFAF 20.3 billion per year.
B Worst-case scenario
This scenario assumes possible constraints on government financing. Slower growth in tax revenues than in past years could compromise the financing of public expenditure. Public investment would then be inadequate to ensure a high level of growth.
The assumption for the 2006/2007 crop year is based on the average change in food crop production over the four preceding years, i.e., a reduction of 2.5 percent and cotton production lower than in the last three seasons, or 1.6 percent.
The terms of trade would deteriorate noticeably under the assumption of a drop in cotton prices and an increase in petroleum prices to around US$55 a barrel on average. The latter would boost the prices of petroleum imports and help to widen the trade deficit. For 2006-08, an average petroleum price increase of 5 percent relative to its 2005 level is assumed. In addition, risks related to international cotton prices raise the threat of a worsening balance of payments.
In the area of public finances, the outcome would be characterized by weak growth in tax revenues compared to the past three years. Table 7 below shows that growth would not be strong enough to bring about a significant reduction in poverty.
|Real GDP growth (%)||4.7||4.2%||5.0%|
|Inflation rate (%)||2.9||2.8%||2.6%|
|Budget deficit, including grants (% of GDP)||4.9||5.7||6.5|
|Current account deficit, including transfers (% of GDP)||9.8||10.3||11.4|
|Gross international reserves (in months of imports)||5||6.7||5.4|
|Change in terms of trade (%)||1.9||−1.1||4.4|
|Change in overall incidence of poverty (%)||43.0||43.4||43.9|
Realizing such a scenario with a view to achieving the MDGs would require much greater financing than under the baseline scenario. The resources expected to be needed over the next three years amount to CFAF 1,865.8 billion, compared to an overall program cost of CFAF 2,425.6 billion. Funding of the strategy out of public investment over the 2006-08 period is estimated at CFAF 1,246.8 billion, or an annual average of CFAF 415.6 billion (see Table 8). External financing represents CFAF 658.8 billion, or 52.8 percent of overall financing. Financing out of the government budget amounts to CFAF 580.3 billion, or 47.2 percent of the total. The resulting financing gap over the period totals CFAF 273.9 billion, or an average of CFAF 91.3 billion per year. Taking into account the HIPC funds, which are estimated at CFAF 71.3 billion over the period, the residual financing needed to cover supplemental activities and measures would be CFAF 202.6 billion, i.e. CFAF 67.5 billion per year.
|Program cost, excluding debt, including net loans||755.1||797.1||873.0||2,425.2|
|Grant financing (PIP)||101.9||104.0||106.0||311.9|
|Residual financing requirements (−)||20.0||68.7||113.8||202.6|
4.2.2 Economic policy measures and actions
In order to achieve macroeconomic and financial objectives, the government intends to adopt effective public policies and to take the accompanying measures required for sustained growth. The main thrust of these policies will be as follows:
1. Strengthening of budget management: Over the 2006-08 period, the goal will be more effective implementation of the plan for enhanced budget management. In the quest for effectiveness in public expenditure, the medium-term expenditure framework will be the preferred instrument for channeling more resources to the priority sectors. Significant attention will be paid to the establishment of sectoral MTEFs, especially within the priority ministries (MEBA-MESSRS, MFB). The delegation of appropriations will be introduced in the regional MESSRS directorates by end-2006. Attention will be paid to public expenditure reviews (MATD and MFB). To boost the collection of tax and customs revenue, the government plans to implement the following measures: (i) Continued modernization of tax administration, particularly through implementation of the revised single financial identification number, support for the operations of the Large Enterprise Division (DGE), continuation of efforts to computerize the DGI, and support for development of the Integrated Revenue System. In particular, the DGE will carry out tax audits of 60 large enterprises and will finalize the census of large enterprises in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso. The goal will also be to continue installing a fully functional ASYCUDA++ and enhance the interconnectedness of the various departments of the General Customs Directorate (add Bobo gare, Bobo CDP, BVA, Ouga CDP, Bittou, Dakola, Koudougou, and Niangoloko to the network), (ii) Intensification of efforts to combat tax fraud and evasion. A special unit charged with checking the final destination of duty-free imports admitted under the Public Investment Program will operate within the General Customs Directorate. Finally, the sectoral policy, action plan, and sectoral MTEFs of the Ministry of Finance and Budget will also be drawn up and approved during 2006. To improve public expenditure management, efforts will focus on: (i) strengthening the capacities of units charged with budget management, particularly the performance of audits of the DGB, DCCF, DGI, DAF, and DEP; (ii) improvement and enforcement of the legal framework for budget management, particularly with regard to the approval and implementation of the CPAR action plan and the computerization of public procurement; (iii) improvement of the quality and transparency of the budget law, and particularly the preparation of periodic reports on public finances; (iv) enhanced monitoring of budget execution and fulfillment of end-year obligations (introduction of materials accounting, preparation of 2005 end-year treasury accounts of senior government accountants, local governments, and public enterprises (EPE); (v) expanded deconcentration of budgets (development of the financial regime for local governments, study on the deconcentration of MFB units, deconcentration of payment authorization, deployment of CICL accounting software in local governments); (vi) improved management of specific expenditure (implementation of the CGAB framework, audit of government domestic debt and the balance); (vii) improvement in the quality and sustainability of the computerization process within the Ministries of Economy and Finance (revision of SIGASPE, CID, and SDI); and (viii) strengthening of budget management oversight (review of texts pertaining to the IGE and approval of the new status of finance inspectors).
2. Effectiveness of public investments: government policy in this area will seek to enhance the impact of public investments, which should result in a better selection of public investment projects. The selected projects should henceforth better reflect the government’s growth, job creation, and poverty reduction objectives. The government will take steps to give priority to employment issues in public investment programs, in order to help boost the population’s incomes and reduce poverty.
3. Liberalization and privatization/Dialogue with the private sector: Over the 2006-08 period, the government plans to achieve the main intervention objectives set out in the Policy Letter on Private Sector Development, and in particular to: (i) continue its disengagement from productive sectors by implementing the privatization program involving nine (9) enterprises (SONABEL, SONABHY, CBMP, Hotel Silmande, BUMIGEB, CCVA, ONEA, ONATEL, and the Airports of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso) so that the private sector can fully play its role in increasing supply at competitive prices; (ii) strengthen the role of the private sector in implementing the PRSP by drawing up State/private sector performance contracts.
4. Improvement of the business climate to promote the private sector: The Burkinabé authorities will take steps to improve the business climate in order to create incentives for private investment and substantially improve the rate of private investment. This requires an institutional context free of constraints and an incentive-oriented tax system.
At the institutional level, government efforts will focus on making available human and logistical resources to ensure that the one-stop window becomes fully operational and is physically transferred to the Burkina Faso Enterprise Office. The business climate will be further improved by bringing the Mediation and Conciliation Center onstream and by accelerating judicial reform, particularly through the strengthening of the commercial divisions of the higher courts and, from 2007 onwards, the setting up of commercial courts. All of the foregoing should help create a more attractive and secure environment for private investment.
To combat tax fraud, the issuance of a single financial identification number will be extended to all taxpayers subject to the various tax regimes, while the mechanisms for monitoring exemptions will also be improved. In addition, the government will see that the necessary reforms are carried out to simplify the tax system and provide incentives for the private sector, particularly through revision of the Investment Code by end-2006.
Regarding the reduction of the cost of such primary factors as labor and capital, the government intends to continue its efforts to improve their productivity. To this end, the Labor Code has already been reviewed and Law 33-2004/AN of September 14, 2004 has been promulgated. In addition, a review is underway of certain regulations on working hours such as orders 932/FPT/DGTLD of January 01, 1976 and 243/FPT/DGTLS of February 9, 1976, with a view to making them more flexible. The aim is to implement the required reforms by 2006 in order to introduce greater flexibility into the labor market and reduce certain social costs that weigh heavily on small and medium-sized enterprises and industries (SMEs/SMIs). Regarding the functioning of the capital market, the government will seek to encourage the banking sector to do more to promote SMEs/SMIs by putting in place various financial mechanisms such as guarantee funds (including the operationalization of the interbank guarantee fund), interest rebates for certain priority sectors, and the streamlining of loan procedures.
5. Improvement of the competitiveness of the economy and reduction of factor costs to gain market share
The important reforms undertaken by the government since 1997 in the agricultural sector will continue. The State will continue to support the effective operation of regional Chambers of Agriculture and Farmers’ Professional Organizations (OPAs), strengthen their capacities, and obtain swing credits and equipment for their members. In the cotton sector, the coming onstream of the AICB in January 2006 will add a new dimension to the management of the sector. Further, with the support of its partners, the government is planning to conduct a study on future prospects for the cotton sector, which it is hoped will underpin the formulation of an overall strategy offering solutions on how to address major challenges such as price volatility in world markets, improved yields for sustainable soil management, increasing value added through on-site cotton processing, and the diversification of agricultural production.
In keeping with the sprit of Law 060/98/AN of December 17, 1998, regulating Burkina Faso’s power supply system, the government will endeavor to improve the administration of the energy sector and the country’s energy coverage, reduce energy costs, and create conditions more conducive to private sector participation in the development of energy infrastructures.
Over the 2006-08 period, the government’s efforts will focus mainly on:
- Implementation of the strategy for reform of the energy sector, and particularly the establishment of the regulatory agency for the electricity subsector, the approval of a legal and regulatory framework for the electricity and hydrocarbons subsectors, and the adoption of the national electrification plan;
- Construction of the line connecting Bobo-Dioulasso and Ouagadougou;
- Financing of electrification projects by the Electrification Development Fund;
- Electrification of (12) rural localities per year.
In addition, the government will continue to apply the mechanism for the automatic adjustment of retail prices based on import and distribution costs, and will encourage the installation of petroleum product distribution pumps in rural areas that do not have them. Finally, it intends to organize periodic consultations with the other partners in order to reach consensus on the conduct of energy sector reforms, and to emphasize other sources of energy such as photovoltaic cells, biomass and biofuels.
In the area of road and transport infrastructure, the government intends to submit a draft framework law on the transport sector to the National Assembly for approval by end-2006 in order to outline the overall objectives, principles, and projections for the sector. It will also approve regulatory texts setting out new rules for the road transport industry. The Transport Sector Program (PST2) will help continue the training of carriers with a view to boosting the managerial capacities of private carriers and helping them gain access to the guarantee facility established by WAEMU for SMEs/SMIs. In order to better document the obstacles to road transport, the PST2 will finance follow-up studies of roadblocks and the associated illicit collection of fees, and will publish the results on a half-yearly basis. Finally, support will be provided to the Burkinabé Shippers Council (CBC) to help it better serve its members and expand the services it provides to small-scale transporters. CBC will also receive support to strengthen the database intended to improve the monitoring of road transport services.
In the area of information and communication technologies, national regulatory capacities will need to be strengthened following the complete opening up of the telecommunications sector to competition in January 2006. The aim is to create a transparent, predictable, attractive, and secure environment conducive to stimulating ongoing and stepped-up private sector development of basic infrastructure, while also guaranteeing businesses, administrations, and the general public access to reliable, good quality telecommunications services at affordable prices.
To continue promoting the private sector, the government will take advantage of opportunities available under various components of the World Bank-financed Enterprise Development and Competitiveness Support Project (PACDE) to implement the Policy Letter on Private Sector Development and its action program, including the privatization program and enhancement of the institutional capacities of the Burkina Faso Enterprise Office (MEBF) and the Shared-Cost Support Fund. The enterprise capacity-building program will also be used to improve the competitiveness of the economy. Financing and support structures, such as the Informal Sector Support Fund, the Employment Promotion Support Fund, and the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Support Program (PAPME), will be strengthened to support the efforts of the Burkina Faso Enterprise Office. In the same vein, a system of cheques services (prepaid payment vouchers) will be put in place and the approved Ouagadougou pilot management center set up.
6. Promotion of regional integration to develop a service economy
To foster greater integration of Burkina Faso’s economy into the global trading system, the government intends to conduct a study under the Integrated Framework Initiative by end-2006. This trade integration study is expected to lead to the preparation of a letter of intent on international trade development policy by 2007 at the latest. A letter of intent of this kind would help Burkina Faso set up a mechanism to promote foreign trade development through, for instance, the establishment of facilities such as an export processing free zone.
To benefit more fully from the implementation of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), the government intends to carry out three complementary studies, namely: (i) a study on export promotion through the upgrading of export sectors and industries; (ii) a study on the determinants of saving and private investment in Burkina Faso; (iii) and a study on the medium-term impact of EPAs on the main poverty indicators.
7. Support to productive sectors to enhance contribution to economic growth
In the area of rural development and food security, the government will continue to support the effective operation of regional Chambers of Agriculture and farmer’s professional organizations, and their acquisition of swing credits and equipment for their members. In addition, the general agricultural census will be carried out in 2006 to better assess agricultural potential. The management and prevention of food crises, through management of national food security stocks and early warning systems, will be of critical concern.
The government also intends to continue implementation of a number of measures and actions that represent important advances toward the harmonization and coordination of interventions in the agricultural sector. Primary among these are the following: (i) establishment of the new government/partners food security consultation mechanism within the National Food Security Council (CNSA); (ii) deconcentration; (iii) implementation of the action plan for the food security information system (PA-SISA); (iv) implementation of the system for institutional reorganization of the Ministry of Agriculture, Water Resources, and Fisheries; (v) coordination, harmonization, and alignment with a view to eventually providing the sector with an effective investment program and an expenditure framework; (vi) establishment of a monitoring system intended to gauge the poverty reduction impact of the support provided, especially in terms of the improvement in incomes and productivity.
In the area of agricultural product processing, the government will provide incentives for the creation of small agrofood processing and spinning units, particularly by means of tax breaks for equipment purchases, mainly through revision of the Investment Code by end-2006. Regarding the promotion of microfinance, a national strategy has been adopted by the government and the objective for 2006 is to finalize and implement an effective action plan.
In the mining sector, for the 2006-08 period, the goal will essentially be to develop the following activities to enable the sector, and particularly artisanal mining, which employs about 200,000 people in over 200 gold-washing sites, to contribute effectively to growth and poverty reduction.
Given the critical role played by small and medium-sized enterprises and industries (SMEs/SMIs) in wealth creation, the government will endeavor over the next three years to develop and implement a specific national program to support SME/SMI development, focusing on such major issues as their funding through the creation of a national investment promotion agency, their equipment, and the supervision and training of operators. The Investment Code will be revised to enhance its incentives.
In the tourism sector, the focus of government policy will be to promote ecotourism and agrotourism, develop ecological and cultural heritage, and supervise tourism sector operators. Further, by end-2006, the government intends to adopt a tourism development policy to serve as a framework for the activities of all stakeholders in the sector.
In the handicrafts sector, the government has put in a place a master plan for the promotion of handicrafts in Burkina Faso. In order to reenergize this sector, which provides income for both the rural and urban poor, it intends to:
- Conduct a census of craftspeople;
- Organize the tenth Ouagadougou International Arts and Crafts Fair (SIAO) in 2006;
- Modernize and strengthen SIAO’s operational capacities;
- Implement the action plan of the strategy for the promotion of handicrafts;
- Establish a technical handicraft support center in the Hauts-Bassins region in 2006;
- Conduct a study in 2007 on the setting up of a handicrafts village in Fada N’gourma;
- Conduct a study on the setting up of a handicrafts village in Ouahigouya en 2008;
- Establish the Chamber of Handicrafts and launch its operations by end-2007;
- Support the Bureau of Craftspeople;
- Launch a handicrafts registry by end-2006;
- Support the establishment of handicrafts villages in Fada N’Gourma and Ouahigouya;
- Finalization of the handicrafts code by end-2008;
- Support handicraft centers by strengthening their organizational and professional capacity through the setting up professional umbrella organizations, enhancing their technical and managerial skills through basic and refresher training, and improving their financial situation by improving access to credit and various financing instruments;
- Ease the tax burden on crafts and tradespeople by end-2008.
In the area of information and communication technologies, opening up of the telecommunications industry to competition will make it possible to mobilize the necessary public and private resources to accelerate basis infrastructure development and nationwide access to telecommunications services, data networks, and the Internet.
To ensure that the new information and communication technologies serve as a tool for universal skills enhancement and a powerful lever for economic and social development, in addition to supporting basic infrastructure development the government intends to promote the development of e-administration, e-commerce, distance learning, e-medicine, and e-content and services in national languages tailored to the needs of people living in rural areas. With this in mind, the legal and regulatory framework will be revised to facilitate and boost the development of electronic transactions and teleworking, while paying particular attention to the protection of the fundamental rights of individuals and combating cybercrime.
Regarding the Postal sector, the ongoing reforms will be pursued to better define the operating conditions and regulatory framework for the sector. The regulatory framework to be developed will support the government’s objective of promoting the development of this sector with a view to strengthening the decentralization process through the availability of reliable postal services.
Regarding the promotion of the cross-border economy, government policy will focus, on the one hand, on gaining a better understanding of migratory movements and their destinations and, on the other, on creating an environment conducive to the repatriation of financial flows resulting from migration.
8. Basic social services and welfare
(i) Access for the poor to basic education
To remedy the inadequacies of the national education system, overall government policy for the period leading up to 2010 under the PDDEB is based on the following basic principles:
- Greater coverage of basic education and simultaneous quality improvement;
- Promotion of balanced development of the education system to be more responsive to the needs of the economy, in both quantitative and qualitative terms;
- Development of a dedicated, coherent program providing broad opportunities for literacy and high-quality nonformal education for adults, in particular women;
- Building capacity in education management and policy-making.
Experience with the implementation of this policy in recent years shows that the indicators have improved very slowly. Accelerated development of basic education is still imperative, however, if the poverty reduction strategy is to succeed. With this in mind, MEBA’s action plans aim to respond to educational needs, in terms of the acquisition, by as many children as possible, of skills useful in working life, by emphasizing access (construction accounts for over 60 percent of the budget), quality (teacher training represents about 15 percent of the budget), and operations (about 25 percent of the budget), as well as by lengthening the basic education cycle to 10 years (instead of 6) so as to respond effectively to the needs of the country’s economy. With the second phase of the PDDEB in mind, a discussion group was set up to review the situation for this phase of the PDDEB, which could result in a new distribution of the components. In addition, in furtherance of its Education for All goal, the government intends to strengthen its new policy on the recruitment of new teachers (regionalization of recruitment, review of statutes pertaining specifically to teaching personnel vis-à-vis the overall civil service reform). Lastly, regarding the extension of basic education to include the first cycle of secondary education, an interministerial committee has been set up to look into the matter.
More efficient organization and more vigorous action on the part of all participants in the education sector should make it possible at least to reach an enrollment rate of 70 percent by 2010, improve the quality and efficacy of the system, and develop and diversify literacy actions and approaches. With the aim of achieving the MDGs, the quantitative objectives will be updated for the second phase of the PDDEB.
In order to consolidate the achievements in terms of attaining these objectives, the 2006-08 Priority Action Program will emphasize:
- Updating the ten-year basic education development plan (PDDEB) to take account of the need to broaden the concept of basic education and of new initiatives such as Education for All, 25/2005 Initiative, Fast-Track;
- Effective implementation of compulsory and free basic education, in particular through the provision of textbooks and school supplies and the collection of parents’ association dues;
- Organization of so-called initial activities as a priority in the 20 provinces with the lowest enrollment rates and where there are zones with low apparent demand for primary education or resistance to schooling, and consolidation of alternatives such as satellite schools (ES), bilingual schools, nonformal basic education centers (CEBNF). This will be accomplished by testing an integrated approach to education, including early childhood development, nonformal education based on the “downstreaming” approach to literacy, etc.;
- Continued experimentation with bilingual education in these provinces;
- Assessment of the cost-effectiveness of the integrated program and the bilingual curriculum;
- Accelerated development of tools to manage the implementation of the ten-year plan, including institutional reforms;
- Operationalization of the integrated program through a broadening of the mandates of the deconcentrated entities (regional and provincial directorates of basic education) and organization of local levels (departments and villages) based on a high-quality education project;
- Close monitoring of programs involving the construction of school infrastructures and facilities;
- Implementation of the regionalization of teacher recruitment;
- Development of a coherent and effective strategy for communicating about education issues.
Literacy/training activities will be intensified and their quality improved by accelerating efforts geared to disadvantaged areas through the implementation of economic projects targeting women, the creation of permanent literacy and training centers and nonformal basic education centers, and the linkage of literacy/training activities with a range of other activities and services such as health, education, credit, and extension work through informational talks and basic literacy/post-literacy booklets. The dissemination of nonformal education will be enhanced through the “downstreaming” approach, with steps taken to strengthen monitoring and assessment and build on experience. This will serve as a solid basis for consolidation of the experiences of the CEBNFs and development of the National Fund for Literacy and Nonformal Education.
With a view to improving quality, relevance, and effectiveness, an exercise is underway to update curricula by redefining programs, reorganizing the various levels of basic education, increasing classroom time, and improving the assessment system. Attention is also being paid to basic teacher training, basic and refresher training of principals and supervisors, and the production and distribution of school books and supplies.
Planning and management capacities in the sector are being enhanced by devising a master plan for computerized management of educational programs to improve the information system, developing effective financial management tools, and preparing a legal framework for the recruitment and management of new teachers.
Implementation of the various subprograms requires an increase in budget allocations. Thus, education sector expenditure out of the government own funds, including HIPC resources, will rise from 16.44 percent of the total budget in 2006 to 17.30 percent in 2008.
In other areas of education, during the 2006-08 period, measures will focus on:
- Increasing access to general, technical, and vocational secondary education and to higher education,
- Improving the quality of education;
- Promoting the right to education and greater equality of access by seeking to reduce the gap in school enrollment between girls and boys, between rural and urban areas, and between different socioeconomic groups;
- Improving the quality and relevance of schooling and apprenticeships to adapt content to the country’s economic development needs;
- Expanding university enrollment capacity and strengthening teacher training;
- Strengthening private initiatives;
- Building management capacities in the Ministry of Secondary Education, Higher Education, and Scientific Research.
(ii) Access of the poor to health/nutrition services - HIV-AIDS prevention and control
The main measures required to foster better public health and well-being are as follows:
- Increasing national health coverage by developing health infrastructure and equipment, setting up health districts, developing community-based services, and strengthening cooperation with the private and traditional health sectors in supplying healthcare. The objective is to increase the percentage of the population living within 10 km of a health center from 60 percent in 2003 to more than 85 percent in 2007;
- Improving the quality and use of health services by enforcing rules and standards of quality care at each level, enhancing the availability of essential, high-quality drugs, reinforcing health support and promotion activities, and promoting health sector risk-sharing mechanisms, including healthcare mutual societies;
- Regarding HIV-AIDS, operational efforts will focus on: continuing to reduce new HIV infections by promoting voluntary screening in health centers, improving syndromic STD case management, and expanding efforts to prevent mother-to-child transmission; making available condoms and high-quality drugs such as ARVs and medicines to combat opportunistic infections at subsidized prices; building an integrated HIV screening center in each healthcare facility (CHU, CHR, CMA); training 200 physicians and 2,500 paramedics from 55 CMAs and 12 hospitals to prescribe ARVs; establishing a functioning epidemiological and clinical HIV/AIDS observatory;
- In the context of combating micronutrient deficiencies, the twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation program for infants aged between six and 59 months will be continued, a meeting will be organized to facilitate consultation and an exchange of views among consumer associations and restaurant owners, officers in six health regions will be trained in the use of quality control equipment for iodized salt, and hypocaloric diets will be developed using local foods and appropriate cooking techniques. Efforts in this area will also consist of producing and broadcasting documentaries in national languages, radio and television programs, leaflets, and radio and television spots.
(iii) Access of the poor to safe water and sanitation
The main challenges facing the safe water and sanitation sector in rural areas concern: (i) the strengthening of coordination and sectoral planning in the implementation of the roadmap for achieving the MDGs, (ii) decentralization, which will transfer responsibility for safe water supply and sanitation, and water resource management to the 350 new municipalities, (iii) sustainability of the services needing improvement, as 23 percent of the 29,500 manual pumps and 40 percent of 360 water supply systems are non-functional, (iv) strengthening the capacities and, in particular, the financial resources of the DGAEPs and DRAHRHs to enable them to implement specific activities to complement the efforts of donors, and (v) the promotion of hygiene and sanitation, particularly in rural areas.
Regarding sanitation, the new national strategy, which is currently available in draft form, is expected to be validated in 2006. Following that, each of the institutions concerned will be able to prepare their specific action plans. Improving access to stand-alone sanitary facilities is vital for improving environmental cleanliness, reducing child mortality and morbidity, and fostering school enrollment, particularly of girls. To achieve the MDGs, the sector’s execution capacity in the area of sanitation will need to be multiplied by 6.5 if 61 percent of the population is to have access to improved sanitation facilities.
In urban areas, some interesting experiments have been conducted to improve the situation, under the supervision of ONEA, which has been conducting hygiene promotion campaigns for over a decade, funded out of its own resources, through cross subsidization of water rates, in conjunction with NGOs and local masons in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso. Around 9,000 stand-alone sanitary systems are built every year. Households finance 50 to 80 percent of the systems. This program is considered to be a model for the development of sanitation and constitutes an excellent basis for replication and extension to smaller secondary towns and rural areas in particular, where the situation is particularly acute. ONEA has already drafted four strategic plans and intends to prepare six more strategic sanitation plans (PSAs) for the towns of: Kaya, Dori, Tenkodogo, Koupela, Pouytenga, and Dedougou in line with the following timetable:
- 2006: outreach to communal authorities and establishment of partnerships through memoranda of cooperation,
- 2007-08: selection of service providers and conduct of studies, finalization of the PSAs;
- 2009: running of pilot projects and launch of implementation of the PSAs.
The aim is to achieve a significant increase in hygiene best practices and the installation of stand-alone sanitary systems in households, schools, and health centers over the 2007 to 2009 period.
In rural areas, a hygiene and sanitation education program is being implemented in the Boucle du Mouhoun, Eastern Central, and Northern regions within the framework of PADSEA 2. This activity is to be reinforced in three provinces by a pilot program aimed at promoting hygiene and sanitation and at building stand-alone sanitary systems in conjunction with the municipalities and with support from specialized NGOs. The long-term objective of the pilot program is to enable DGAEAP and the DRAHRHs to implement the national sanitation strategy currently being validated by gaining practical know-how in this field before scaling up.
(iv) Improving the living conditions of the poor: Housing- Pollution control
Over the 2006-08 period, the main activities will involve the drafting and submission to the government of a national strategy paper on housing, improving the regulatory framework through the approval and dissemination of the urban planning and building code, continued preparation of planning documents for urban centers, implementation of town planning and land use development operations, construction of public facilities, provision of low-cost and subsidized housing as well as serviced lots, and improving basic urban services primarily in the urban municipalities.
Regarding anti-pollution measures, priority focus in 2006 will be on implementation of air pollution control projects in Ouagadougou and the action plan to eliminate POPs, conduct of environmental inspections, support for decentralized waste management, environmentally sound management of waste oils, and the furtherance of waste water analysis.
Regarding the improvement of living conditions, achievements made will be consolidated through (i) the setting up of environmental units in strategic ministries to follow up studies on the environmental impact of various productive activities, (ii) finalization and implementation of the environmental and sustainable development plan, the ministry’s ten-year action plan, the national land use development strategy and the national strategy on sustainable plastic waste management. Partnerships will be strengthened at all levels, in particular through the promotion of ‘green citizenship,’ environmental education campaigns, and implementation of the environmental sector decentralization strategy.
At the institutional level, efforts will focus on strengthening emerging sectors in the area of environmental management. Thus, a national biosafety framework and a law organizing the legal regime applicable to biosafety will be developed. A national nuclear safety and radiation protection agency will also be established. In addition, projects falling within the framework of the mechanism for clean development and aimed at reducing various forms of pollution through carbon sequestration or biofuel production, inter alia, will be formulated and implemented.
(v) Welfare services for the poor
Over the 2006-08 period, the government will continue its efforts to provide welfare services for the poor in the following main areas:
- Protection of children in danger, particularly combating trafficking in children and the sexual abuse of children;
- Ongoing support for the socioeconomic integration of young people trained in rehabilitation and training facilities;
- Strengthening of actions promoting national solidarity and the social welfare of specific groups;
- Pursuit and stepping up of the implementation of the program for the socioeconomic reintegration of repatriated persons.
(vi) Advancement of women
Over the 2006-08 period, the government will continue implementing the following policy objectives on the advancement of women:
- Improve the social and legal status of women through enforcement of the fundamental rights of women and young girls;
- Promote women’s access to decision-making spheres (elective and appointed positions, representation in professional organizations, etc.) through awareness-raising and capacity-building activities;
- Promote women’s education and enhance their capacities and expertise by taking steps to achieve equal access to education and training for girls and boys, promote women’s literacy, and encourage the self-promotion and self-management of women’s organizations;
- Alleviate the poverty of rural women by taking measures aimed at securing access to productive jobs for poor women. It will also be necessary to create conditions conducive to the emergence of women entrepreneurs, and to improve women’s access to agrofood technologies, and access to markets through the promotion of small processing units;
- Strengthen the institutional framework and mechanisms for the advancement of women by improving capitalization, monitoring/assessment, and vigilance in the area of the advancement of women.
Further, the government also intends to continue disseminating multifunctional platforms to serve as modern energy services supply companies in rural areas to help reduce the incidence of income poverty among women. Over the 2006-08 period, the aim is to install 350 platforms, of which 40 percent with mini water and electricity networks. These enterprises run by women are expected to generate around 2,500 jobs.
(vii) Labor and social security, youth, promotion of employment and vocational training
Over the 2006-08 period, activities in this area will involve employment promotion, development of vocational training and apprenticeships, and operational capacity-building of the agencies responsible for labor, youth affairs, employment, and vocational training.
9. Equitable expansion of job opportunities and income-generating activities for the poor
The overall objective and critical priority of this third component is enhancement of the income-generating capacities of the poor through the promotion of their participation in the production process. This is to be achieved through: (i) reduction of the vulnerability of agricultural activity; (ii) improvement and protection of access to land; (iii) intensification and diversification of plant, animal, fishery, forestry, and wildlife production; (iv) increase and diversification of rural incomes; (v) opening up of rural areas; (vi) support for producers’ organizations and development of collective infrastructures; (vii) improvement of the living and working conditions of rural women; (viii) promotion of employment and vocational training.
The overall objective of the rural development strategy is to ensure sustained growth of the rural sector so as to contribute to poverty reduction, greater food security, and the promotion of sustainable development by 2015. The government’s strategy is aimed at reducing the vulnerability of agricultural activities through agricultural water management, building of manure pits, establishment of a national water information system, and enhancing the security of pastoral activities. Off-season crop cultivation will also be developed.
Regarding improvement and protection of access to land, over the 2006-08 period, a policy paper on rural land tenure security, with an implementation strategy, and an action plan will be developed. These documents will form the basis for the institutional, legal, and regulatory actions to be taken to ensure proper implementation of the policy on rural land tenure security, namely:
- Draft a rural land law or revise the RAF;
- Define the institutions, procedures, and tools for rural land management;
- Coordinate land management and local development.
In respect of the intensification and diversification of plant production, the government will proceed with implementation of the action plans for traditional cereals and rice. Producers will be provided with tractors and motorized pumps. In support of the small-scale village irrigation project (PPIV), producers’ organizations in improved perimeter sites will be assisted in better structuring their activities. The PPIV program forecasts cultivation of 26,617 ha of off-season crops, including 9,256 ha of maize, 1,122 ha of cowpeas, 789 ha of cassava, 1,800 ha of fruit, 12,244 ha of vegetables, and 1,406 ha of other crops, on a total of 1,504 sites involving 135,000 farmers. This projection will be supported by the mobilization of water resources. For that purpose, plans are in place to complete:
- 1,140 manual boreholes,
- 68 wells for vegetable production and
- 25 ponds
In addition, start-up of development of 2,000 ha of wheat in the Di department of Sourou province and a wheat seed multiplication project are planned for the 2005-07 period. Regarding oilseed crops (groundnut, sesame, and shea nut), the objective is to re-energize production and increase product quality, enhance the professionalization of stakeholders in the sector, and disseminate high-yield varieties, particularly by: (i) stepping up groundnut and sesame production; (ii) disseminating varieties with high oil content; (iii) improving the organization of shea nut collection and the training of women and collectors to obtain high-quality nuts; (iv) protecting and conserving natural stands of shea nut trees; (v) supporting the professionalization of stakeholders.
In respect of the intensification and diversification of animal production, priority activities in the 2006-08 period will focus on the following areas:
Area 1: Enhancement of the legal security of pastoral activities through: (i) the improvement of the legislative and regulatory framework governing access to resources; (ii) dissemination of the framework law on pastoralism (LORP); (iii) strengthening of pastoral infrastructure; (iv) support for the development of pastoral zones; (v) development of a pastoral water resources policy.
Area 2: Improvement of livestock productivity through: (i) the intensification of animal production through better feeding, good health coverage, and improved performance of the breeds raised; (ii) support for the development of village poultry raising; (iii) prevention of animal trypanosomiasis; (iv) prevention of livestock diseases and surveillance of animal health.
Area 3: Improvement of competitiveness and market access through: (i) assistance in facilitating access to the domestic market, (ii) improving competitiveness and access to external markets, iii) supporting the development of growth sectors.
Area 4: Professionalization of stakeholders through: (i) support for the private exercise of veterinary and zootechnical professions, (ii) support for the professionalization of stakeholders and for the private sector.
Area 5: Strengthening of the institutional framework through: (i) training of new staff, (ii) strengthening of the monitoring/supervision mechanism, (iii) regionalization of the livestock sector development policy.
In the area of natural resources management, ongoing forestry development and monitoring of wood and charcoal production, promotion of non-timber forest products, and the coming onstream of gum Arabic production augur well for the creation of jobs that will benefit women in particular. The professionalization of stakeholders in the wildlife sector through monitoring, coaching, awareness-raising, and training also bodes well for the creation of jobs, particularly in the area of management of concessions, development of game meat and other products of hunting and ecotourism. Regarding the sanitation component, implementation of the plastic waste management strategy will involve various stakeholders, including residents of municipalities. The government also plans to implement a series of actions to promote landscaping and horticulture, a sector with strong potential for job creation.
The opening up of rural areas requires the creation of good opportunities for communication and trade. The strategy for improving rural roads will be a priority over the 2006-08 period. In addition, the government plans to foster access to lighting for at least 20,000 households each year through solar energy systems or connection to the network. In order to improve the accessibility of all areas of the country, community call centers will be set up to foster universal access to information and communication technologies.
Lastly, the government intends to pursue its efforts to inject greater flexibility into the labor market and stimulate job creation by adopting implementing instruments for the new labor code. A study on the labor market in Burkina Faso will be conducted to provide an analytical basis for implementation of the national employment strategy.
10. Promotion of good governance
(i) Political governance
The government’s priority is to ensure that the democratic process, which has been underway since 1991, enjoys continuity and stability through the organization of municipal elections in 2006 and legislative elections in 2007.
In the area of strengthening the justice system, the focus will be on:
- Pursuing efforts to ensure that jurisdictions across the country have adequate human and financial resources, in particular through the building of infrastructure, recruitment of judges, and provision of logistical support;
- Guaranteeing the freedom and autonomy of judges, particularly those responsible for ruling on infractions relating to civil liberties or corruption;
- Training Audit Office judges in matters related to audits, financial control, and the use of information and communication technologies;
- Strengthening the resources and prerogatives of State inspectors;
- Simplifying laws and improving the ability of the poor to access the justice system, through public information and awareness campaigns on the procedures, role and function of the competent institutions.
Regarding the promotion and protection of human rights, emphasis will be placed on human rights education; strengthening the legal framework for human, civil, and political rights by adapting national legislation to the provisions of international treaties and agreements regularly ratified by Burkina Faso, finalizing a strategy on the promotion of a culture of tolerance and peace and preparing and implementing a related action plan to ensure that the enjoyment of these rights is protected and to promote a culture of peace, tolerance, and respect for human rights; promoting and protecting the rights of specific groups, such as the rights of women, children (campaign against all forms of exploitation of children, promotion of the child’s right to education), the disabled, and other vulnerable and disadvantaged groups.
Regarding the protection of persons and property, the aim is to increase the mobility and intervention capacities of the public security forces and enhance security coverage rates to make rural and urban areas safer.
Finally, regarding the new partnership approach between government and civil society, the government will create an enabling environment for civil society organizations to strengthen their management, advocacy, and leadership capacities, as well as their technical skills, and to increase the resources of grassroots organizations to enable them to participate more effectively in the fight against poverty and HIV/AIDS.
(ii) Administrative governance
As far as future actions are concerned, the government will first focus on the smooth functioning of the SIGASPE mechanism at the central level, (MFPRE, MFB, DRH of ministries and institutions) and its extension to the regions. At the same time, the government will take steps to bring administrative offices closer to users, through the gradual deconcentration of the Ministry of the Civil Service and State Reform. Government will also seek to:
- Prepare and implement regulations on the organization of specific jobs in the various ministries as well as on the organization of interministerial jobs;
- Follow up and maintain SIGASPE, with particular emphasis on the training of maintenance specialists;
- Prepare an action plan for extending SIGASPE to the line ministries and for the deconcentration of personnel management;
- Ensure accessibility to government through the use of ICTs;
- Strengthen the human resources of local governments (terms of transfer, social security system);
- Establish a mechanism for preventing and handling government disputes (baseline report, draft texts for the creation of an entity responsible for preventing and handling government disputes);
- Strengthen efforts to inform all stakeholders and the public of the stakes involved in comprehensive civil service reform and the content thereof, as well as the dissemination of all relevant texts;
- Develop the action program for implementation of the national policy on good governance (PNBG);
- Operationalize the Permanent Secretariat of the PNBG
- Continue the process of administrative deconcentration in tandem with the decentralization process;
- Implement the new performance assessment system.
The government intends, at the same time, to pursue its own reform policy with a view to better adapting to changes in its internal and external environment. Efforts will therefore focus on developing a national strategy for governmental reform consistent with civil service reform.
(iii) Economic governance
Within the framework of ongoing and operational management of the economy, emphasis will be on:
- Enhancement of national capacities for the programming of public investment;
- Continued implementation of the Plan to Strengthen Budget Management (PRGB) with emphasis on the legal framework for budget management, budget monitoring with adherence to end-year reporting requirements, increased deconcentration of the budget, and strengthening of budgetary controls;
- A better PRSP monitoring/assessment system that would target key annual indicators demonstrating certain improvements in social services, as well as periodic impact studies of income-generating activities;
- Greater predictability of budget support in order to ensure the relevance and efficacy of actions targeting the poor;
- Improvement of anti-corruption efforts, through increases in staff and resources allocated to the various oversight bodies (General Government Inspectorate, General Finance Inspectorate, technical inspectorates of ministerial departments, etc.);
- Studies, audits, and public expenditure reviews aimed at improving budgetary arbitration in favor of priority poverty-reduction sectors.
The government is committed to ensuring the achievement of the following results: enhancement of the management of public resources by fighting corruption, strengthening of the budgetary process, and improvement of public procurement procedures. In the context of combating corruption, the strategy will be finalized and an action plan prepared.
The coordination of official development assistance is a precondition for strengthening technical and financial partnerships. In the coming years, the government plans to pursue the following actions:
- Harmonization of development assistance with the priorities defined in the PRSP;
- Synchronization of the fiscal calendar with the disbursement of funds;
- Conduct of joint assessment missions;
- Establishment of a consensus-based framework on reforms, development priorities, forms of assistance, and progress indicators;
- Implementation of the general framework for the organization of budget support.
(iv) Local governance
With a view to promoting regional and land use development, the government intends to strengthen the decentralization process by taking multifaceted measures, including:
- Strengthening of the capacities of local governments to formulate local development programs;
- Training of local elected officials and municipal employees in their mandates, duties, and rights, within one year after their election or recruitment;
- Approval and implementation of the regional planning law enabling the government to finance the regions;
- Development and establishment, by end-2006, of a policy for promoting local economies and reducing regional disparities;
- Implementation of the program on regional development hubs, including a component on decentralized urban development by end-2006;
- Development and implementation, by end-2007, of national and regional land use development plans to support the decentralization and poverty reduction policy;
- Establishment of a legal framework for the expansion of deconcentration by end-2006;
- Establishment of a database on local stakeholders by end-2006;
- Establishment of a regionalized civil service by end-2006;
In any event, the move to transfer powers and resources is to continue progressively. In accordance with the provisions of articles 75 and 77 of the general code on local governments, the transfer of powers to the regions and rural municipalities must be made effective at the latest by end-December 2007 after the setting up of the deliberative bodies. However, in the case of rural municipalities, powers and resources are to be transferred by end-June 2006 in the following priority areas: health, preschool education, basic education excluding the first cycle of secondary schooling, literacy, culture, sports and recreation. These “priority” powers also extend to the environment and natural resources management starting from the second half of 2006. The final delegation of powers and mandates is scheduled for the first quarter of 2006, while the deliberative bodies of the rural municipalities and regions are to be put in place by end-2006.
|Dimension/Sector||Indicator||2003||2004||2005||Level of disaggregation||Comments|
|Education*||Gross primary school enrollment rate Girls||52.2%||56.8%||58.1%||60.2%||Region, province, sex, level of education||Provisional results (PR) in 2005|
|Gross CP1 (first grade) admission rate Girls||65.95%||70.0%||70.7%||70.0%||"||PR in 2005|
|Primary school completion rate Girls||31.3%||32.8%||33.8%||34.9%||"||Provisional results in 2005|
|27.3%||28.7%||29.7%||31.2%||Provisional results in 2005|
|Adult literacy rate||27.0%||28.4%||No data||30.5%||"||Provisional results in 2005|
|Health||Rate of vaccination coverage by antigen||Region, health district|
|Rate of assisted childbirths||30.92%||33.49%||40%||33.79%||"|
|Infant/child mortality rate||184%||No data||"||Indicator provided by EDS in 2003.|
|Rate of seroprevalence of HIV/AIDS infection||4.2%|
|Prevalence of underweight children under the age of 5||38%||38%||> 40%||NA||"||Indicator provided by EDS in 2003.|
|Water and sanitation||Rate of safe water coverage Rural and suburban Urban||70%|
|Region, province||PR 2005|
|Percentage of households with access to working latrines||-----||33.3%||35%||No data||Region, province||No data|
|Living conditions||Electrification rate||12.5%||14%||15%||15%||Region, province|
Concerning basic education, the indicators are the provisional results of the December 2005 MEBA flash survey.
Concerning basic education, the indicators are the provisional results of the December 2005 MEBA flash survey.
|Macroeconomic and fiscal||Real GDP growth||8.0%||4.6%||4.7%||7.1%|
|Average annual inflation rate||2.0%||−0.4%||3.1%||6.4%|
|Fiscal balance (commitment basis, including grants) as percentage of GDP||−1.3%||−2.5%||−2.1%||−3.2%|
|Private sector and competitiveness||Contribution of exports to GDP||7.4%||9.4%||9.2%||8.7%||Contribution at current prices (IAP)|
|Sector||Indicators||2003||2004||2005||Level of disaggregation||Comments|
|Health, nutrition, and demography||Percentage of CSPSs meeting staffing standards||76.8%||75.8%||85||No data||Region, health district|
|Breakdown in supply of essential and generic drugs at CAMEG for the 45 essential products||1.84%||1.63||< 5%||2.96%||Region, health district|
|Proportion of AIDS patients under ARV treatment||2.5%||7.1%||Increase of 50%||33.9%||Region, health district|
|Rate of contraceptive prevalence||15.85%||16.39%|
|Employment and vocational training||Number of jobs created by projects financed with support funds||780||1,030||1,050||No data||Region, Province|
|Agriculture||Apparent rate of cereals coverage||114.3%||127.7%||106.5%||96.8%||Region, province||Cereals production acc. to IAP|
|Growth rate of cereals production||0.6%||16.5%||−19.4%||24.7%||"||(IAP)|
|Private sector and economic competitiveness|
|Macroeconomy, budget, living conditions, and SHD||Nonaccumulation of domestic and external payment arrears||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||--||According to IAP|
|Good governance (economic, democratic, local)||Ratio of expenditures audited by ex post administrative control||Number 10||Number 10||Number 12 and 5% in value||No data||--|
|Rate of budget execution in priority ministries||69%||70%||80%||75%||–|
|PILLAR 1: ACCELERATE EQUITY-BASED GROWTH|
|• Incidence of overall poverty||INSD||46.4% in 2003||43.7%||42.4%||PAMS estimate|
|• Incidence of urban poverty||INSD||21.5% in 2003||16.6%||16.8%||PAMS estimate|
|• Incidence of rural poverty||INSD||50.4% in 2003||48.5%||46.7%||PAMS estimate|
|Support for production sectors|
|Annual increase in cowpea and wadzoo production||SP/CPSA||−38.1% in 2004||3.5%||76.6%||IAP|
|• Annual increase in seed cotton production||SP/CPSA||32.8% in 2004||3.8%||16.9%||IAP|
|• Increase in gum Arabic production||SP/CPSA||5%||Not|
|• Annual increase in agricultural exports||MCPEA||13.3% in 1998-2003||15-30%||4.7%||IAP, balance of payments, and export price index|
|• Annual increase in livestock exports||MCPEA||27.78% in 2004||6.5%||37.6%||IAP|
|• Annual increase in gold exports||DG/Mines||4.2% in 2004||30%||3.8%||IAP|
|Number of km of roads classified as receiving ongoing maintenance||DGR||12,697 km in 2004||13,092||13,092|
|Number of km of earthen roads receiving periodic maintenance||GR||475||161||Work in progress on 643 km|
|Number of km of paved roads||DGR||0||0||50||Start of work on 391 km in 2005|
|Number of km of earthen roads rehabilitated||DGR||823 km in 2004||504||177||Work in progress on 868 km|
|Number of km of paved roads built||DGR||75 km in 2004||350||356||Work on 466 km in progress|
|PILLAR 2: ACCESS TO BASIC SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE|
|Increasing budget allocations to social sectors|
|• Education (as % of total public expenditure)||13.8% in 2003||14.5%||14.7%||PR 2005|
|• Health (incl. HIV/AIDS) (as % of total public expenditure)||SP/PPF||11.8% in 2003||13.25%||13.60%||PR 2005|
|• HIV/AIDS (as % of total public expenditure)||SP/PPF||2.3%||3.3%||PR 2005|
|Improving access to educational services|
|• Gross primary school enrollment rate in the 20 priority provinces||DEP/MEBA||39.8% in 2004||44.9%||46.8%||PR 2005|
|- Girls||34.7% in 2004||39.6%||41.6%||PR 2005|
|• Gross first grade admission rate in the 20 priority provinces||DEP/MEBA||47.3% in 2004||60.0%||60.0%||PR 2005|
|- Girls||43.8% in 2004||56.5%||54.8%||PR 2005|
|• Gross rate of secondary school enrollment||MESSRS||14.24% in 2004||15.55%||No data|
|- Girls||MESSRS||10.99% in 2003|
|• Student/teacher ratio||DEP/MEBA||52 in 2003||52||50|
|• Math books per student Reading primers per student||DEP/MEBA||0.58|
|• Students without seating (as %)||DEP/MEBA||15.3% in 2003||Progress||NA|
|Improving access to health services|
|• Percentage of population living within 10 km of a health center||EDS - 1998||87%||> 87%||No data|
|• CPN2 (prenatal care) coverage rate||EDS - 1998||62.05% in 2004||75%||Not available|
|Percentage of EGD (essential/generic drug) storage facilities w/o supply failure (10 EGDs) (%)||SNIS||90% in 2004||80%||91.28%|
|Number of new contacts/year in primary care units (CSPS and CMA)||SNIS||0.34 in 2004||0.34||0.32|
|Improving access to drinking water|
|• Number of provinces having over 75% coverage||10 in 1999||35||24|
|Number of new boreholes drilled||2,490 in 2004||1,804||1,890|
|Strengthening of social protection for the poor|
|• Percentage of children in functioning and monitored rehabilitation centers||DEP/MASSN||44.3% in 2004||50%||43.24%|
|• Number of children trained||DEP/MASSN||800 in 2004||960||1,065|
|• Number of children reintegrated||DEP/MASSN||2,285 in 2004||2032||411|
|• Number of vulnerable persons covered by government budget||DEP/MASSN||365,918 in 2004||383,500||37,106|
|Gross preschool enrollment rate||DEP/MASSN||1.17% in 2004||1.5%||1.34%|
|Rate of prevalence of the practice of excision (0-20 years)||DEP/MASSN||42% in 2004||39%||43%|
|PILLAR 3: BROADENING OF JOB OPPORTUNITIES AND INCOME-GENERATING ACTIVITIES|
|Reducing the vulnerability of agriculture|
|• Land recovered (ha/year)||SP/CPSA||7,273 ha in 2000-01||30,000||23,817||MECV 2,444 ha in 2005 MRA 1,300 ha PDES II 2005|
2004 no data
|• Number of hydroagricultural development projects (ha/year)||SP/CPSA||1,360 ha in 2004||1,000||1,180 ha of lowland rice fields|
|• Number of manure pits built/year||SP/CPSA||240,476 in 2004||500,000||536,835|
|Intensification and diversification of livestock production|
|• Rate of vaccination against Newcastle disease||DEP/MRA||12.7% (2,542,143 head)||80% (20,694,771 head)||19,5% 4,031,306 head)|
|• Rate of vaccination coverage against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP)||DEP/MRA||26% 1,538,699 in 2004||80% 6,085,544||28% 1,810,984|
|• Number of poultry vaccinated||DEP/MRA||2,542,143 head||20,694,771 head||4,031,306 head|
|Intensification and diversification of aquaculture production|
|Environment and combating desertification|
|• Increase in managed forestry areas for production of wood energy/year||DEP/MECV SP/CPSA||115,000 ha in 2004||120,000 ha||276,800 ha||PR 2005|
|Improving the living and working conditions of rural women|
|• Number of women receiving microcredits||FAARF||54,920 in 2004||56,000||No data|
|• Total microcredits granted to women||FAARF||2.269 billion in 2004||2.700 billion||No data|
|Promotion of employment and vocational training|
|• Number of jobs created by projects financed by the Support Fund||DEP/Employment||1,030 in 2004||1,050||No data|
|• Number of projects to be financed by FAPE||100 in 2004||175||No data|
|• Total value of projects financed by FAPE||297 million in 2004||600 million||No data|
|• Permanent jobs created -PNAR-TD||115 in 2004||70||No data|
|• Non-permanent jobs created - PNAR-TD||375 in 2004||210||No data|
|Opening up of rural areas|
|• Number of km of departmental roads built||DGR||0 km in 2004||200||200||Work in progress (red tape) Study for 300 km in progress in 2005|
|• Number of km of cotton access roads built||DGPR||0 km in 2004||0||0||Study for 250 km in progress in 2005|
|• Other rural roads built (in km)||DGPR||463 km in 2004||80||136||Work on 408 km of rural roads in progress in 2005|
|• Number of km of departmental roads maintained||DGR||4,300 km in 2004||4,450||4,450|
|• Number of km of cotton access roads maintained||DGPR||546 km in 2004||50||50|
|• Other roads maintained||DGPR||433 km in 2004||250||227|
|• Number of schools equipped with lighting systems, by province||DG/Energy||0 in 2004||90||0||Slowness of negotiations with Spain. Financing not received; discussions continue|
|• Number of health centers equipped with lighting systems, by province||DGE||0 in 2004||90||0||Slowness of negotiations with Spain. Financing not received; discussions continue|
|• Number of recreational centers equipped with lighting systems, by province||DGE||0 in 2004||90||0||Slowness of negotiations with Spain. Financing not received; discussions continue|
|• Number of departmental capitals equipped with telephones in rural areas||ONATEL||17 in 2004||40||14|
|• Number of provincial capitals equipped with call centers||ARTEL||0 in 2004||15||0||Project not yet launched|
|• Rate of radio coverage||Ministry of Information||80% in 2004||90%||80%|
|• Rate of television coverage||Ministry of Information||70% in 2004||85%||80%|
|PILLAR 4: PROMOTING GOOD GOVERNANCE|
|Promoting administrative governance|
|• Existence of a national strategy for State reform||DEP/MFRE||In progress||Delay|
|• Existence of an updated SIGASPE database||Directorate of State Personnel/IMFRE||Continual updating||Continual updating|
|• Existence of an action plan for expansion of SIGASPE to sectoral ministries and decentralization of personnel management||MFB MFPRE||In progress||Action plan prepared in March 2005|
|Promoting political governance|
|• Reducing armed attacks||DEP/Security||284 cases (2004)||Reduction of 50%||No data||Data collection problems prevented obtaining data for 2005|
|• Security forces’ scope of action||‘’||60 km in 2004||40 km||None||Construction of new infrastructure and redeployment of police and gendarmerie services not yet accomplished|
|• Number of civil society organizations that have received training in the protection of human rights||MPDH||49 in 2004||10||No data||No data|
|• Number of new courts||DEP/Justice||1 in 2004||3||4|
|• Number of inhabitants per judge||DEP/Justice||1/56,000 in 2004||1/43,000||No data|
|• Number of judges recruited||DRH/Justice||30 in 2004||30||30|
|Strengthening local governance|
|• Number of rural municipalities set up||DGCL||No data||2006 target = 302|
|• Number of local elected officials trained||DGCL||1,092 in 2003||2,358||1,200||No data|
|Strengthening economic governance|
|• Number of public procurement contracts audited||SP/PPF||10 in 2004||12||24||No data|
|Execution rate of the ‘PRGB’ line in budget (%)||SP/PPF||≥85% in 2004||≥85%||99%||No data|
|Time required for processing government orders (days)||SP/PPF||29 in 2004||≤ 55%||28||No data|
|Adherence to preparation timeframes: ||Adherence in 2004|
Adherence in 2004
|Adherence Adherence||Adherence in 2005|
Adherence in 2005
|• Social action (as % of total public expenditure)||SP-PPF||0.8 in 2004||0.9%||0.9%|
|Growth rate of cotton fiber exports (%)||DGEP||19.9%||31.6%||IAP estimate|
|Time required to complete procedures for setting up businesses (days)||MCPEA||15 in 2004||7||7|
|Number of administrative procedures for setting up businesses||13 in 2004||4||4|
|MEBA budget execution rate (% verification basis)||≥ 85%||Overall = 93.5%|
|MS budget execution rate (% verification basis)||≥ 85%||Overall = 97%|
|Rate of sanitation coverage|
40% in 2004
20% in 2004
|Rate of increase in cotton producers’ income (%)||48%||41%|
|Rate of increase in fruit and vegetable production||5% in 2004||3.5%||5%||IAP estimate|
|Share of local government expenditure compared to central government expenditure||NA||NA||NA|
|Rate of inclusion of project loans and budget assistance in SYGADE (%)||60%||100%|
|Rate of tax revenue collection||≥ 90%||88%|
|Rate of increase in total exports||35.9% in 2004||4.1%||IAP estimate|
|Contracts audited by IGF|
|243 billion out of 31. 3 billion concluded directly by the CID|
|Programs||Measures/Actions||Responsible Agencies||Partner Agencies||Implementation Status||Comments|
|Consolidation of macroeconomic stability||FOCUS 1: Strengthen the capacities of agencies responsible for budget management|
|Conduct organizational audit of DGB||DGB||In progress||The firm CAFECKA is conducting this audit during a contractual period of 60 days|
|Conduct organizational audit of DCCF||DCCF||In progress||The contract was awarded to the firm of Deloitte and Touche|
|Conduct organizational audit of DGCOOP||DGCOOP||In progress||Provisional report available|
|Conduct organizational audit of DGI||DGI||Audit Office||In progress||TOR available|
|Conduct organizational audits of DAF, DEP, and DRH||SG/MFRE/DGB/DGEP||Every ministry and Institution||In progress||DRH completed and DAF and DEP not completed|
|Implement recommendations of previous organizational audits (capacity-building plan and investment plan, etc.)||DGTCP/Agencies concerned||In progress|
|Design a plan to rehabilitate files and begin implementation||SG/MFBSG/MEDEV||In progress||TOR preparation phase|
|Provide ongoing support for the CP/PRGB Technical Secretariat||SP-PPF||Completed|
|Prepare a sectoral strategy and MTEF||SP-PPF||In progress||Diagnostic assessment available|
|Prepare a PTAS||SP/PPF/DAF/DEP||Not completed||Depends on availability of sectoral strategy|
|Conduct a Public Expenditure Review (PER) of MFB||SP/PPF/DAF/DEP||Not completed||Programmed in 2006|
|Reform basic training at ENAREF (CIE SIGASPE CID modules… + training Infrastructure)||ENAREF/DSI/DRH||In progress|
|Placement in service by DGI of steering mechanism for the DGE, K& and H1||Completed|
|Prepare a matrix of measures and indicators to monitor performance under the CGAB to be agreed jointly with the Burkinabé authorities and the TFPs (technical and financial partners)||Completed|
|Prepare a matrix of agreed measures and indicators to monitor the 2005 PRGB and a government finance sectoral strategy||MFB||In progress||If the timetable for formulation of the strategy is adhered to, the strategy, action plan, and indicators for monitoring its implementation should be available by end-May 2006|
|FOCUS 2: Improve the legal framework for budget management and its enforcement|
|Adopt and widely disseminate texts implementing Law 006/2003/AN||DGTCP||Completed||Wide dissemination in progress|
|Identify and draft texts for application of the implementing decrees of Law 006/2003/AN||DGTCP||Completed|
|Train trainers in the area of public procurement and carry out the public procurement training program||DCMP||Completed|
|Adopt an action plan for CPAR implementation||DCMP||Completed|
|Audit procurement contracts concluded under the fiscal 2004 government budget||DCMP||Completed|
|Proceed with the computerization of procurement||DSI/DCMP||MEDEV||In progress||The specifications for the government procurement information system (SIMP) were finalized and validated. The choice of operating method for its implementation will be made by the steering committee based on the findings of the fact-finding trip to Morocco on the availability of commercial software packages and successful experiences with the development of in-house software by task forces. Procurement software is available.|
|Adopt 2006 budget law on the basis of the sectoral ceilings of the 2006 METF in accordance with PRSP priorities||MFB||Completed||The budget law was adopted by the National Assembly on December 15, 2005|
|FOCUS 3: Improve the quality and transparency of the budget law|
|Finalize the integrated investment project database||DGEP||In progress||The databases exist. The authorities plan to hire a consultant to finalize them.|
|Include budget assistance in the 2006 budget law||DGB/DGCOOP||Completed|
|Implement a sectoral policy coordination mechanism||DGEP||In progress|
|Revitalize the introduction of program budgets||DGB||In progress||The assessment of program budget implementation was finalized and forwarded for amendment to the ministry directorates concerned in March 2005; the document was discussed with appropriations managers and DEPs during a workshop in Ouahigouya from August 24 to 26, 2005 to define the aims and objectives of the program budget.|
|Draft and disseminate a TOFE preparation manual||SP-PPF||Completed||The provisional version of the TOFE preparation manual is available; preparation of the regular TOFE by the central government continues; the inclusion of central government agencies as well as social security agencies is also being considered with a view to expanding the TOFE in accordance with WAEMU community directives; the main problem is obtaining the data from the units involved.|
|Draft and disseminate the MTEF manual||SP-PPF||Not completed||Following the call for expression of interest, the short list of firms is available for the next step in the contracting process (request for proposal). The reprogramming of the PAREF in May 2005 provided funding for this.|
|Make the MPB user-friendly||SP-PPF||In progress|
|Expand MTEF ownership||SP-PPF||Completed||The SP/PPF provided training in MTEF preparation for the staffs of DAFs and the Administrative and Financial Services of the MFB and the Ministry of Infrastructure. Follow-up support was provided to the MEBAfor updating its sectoral MTEF, and to the Ministry of Secondary and Higher Education and Scientific Research and the MFB for the use of the sectoral MTEF.|
|Develop a revenue forecasting model||DEP/MFB||In progress||TOR in the finalization stage|
|FOCUS 4: Strengthen the monitoring of budget execution and the fulfillment of end-year obligations|
|Introduce stock accounting||DGB||In progress||The process proved to be more complex than expected.|
|Produce on a timely basis and disseminate the overall balance of Treasury accounts||DGTCP||Completed||The final version of the overall balance of the 2004 Treasury accounts has been prepared; it will be published by the DELF with comments concerning usage.|
|Produce 2004 end-year treasury accounts of senior government accountants, local governments, and EPEs.||DGTCP||Completed|
|Continue the production of end-year treasury accounts of CLs (local governments) and EPEs (public enterprises) for 2001, 2002, and 2003 currently pending (work station training and support)||SP/PPF||Completed|
|Disseminate government finance statistics||DEP||Not completed||GFS compilation financed by the PRCA and TOR in process of preparation.|
|Effectively implement the work plan to improve the tracking of externally financed expenditure||MFB||In progress||More than 60 percent of external financing entered in DMFAS by end-2005.|
|FOCUS 5: Expand budget deconcentration|
|Continue implementing the EPE financial system||DGTCP||Not completed||Action needs to be refocused.|
|Deploy EPE accounting software at pilot sites and provide monitoring and assessment with a view to installing it in the other EPEs.||DG TCP/EPA||Not completed||Procedure to cancel contract in progress owing to the failure of the consulting firm.|
|Carry out fact-finding trip and establish procedures for delegating payment authorization to the sectoral ministries||DGB||In progress|
|Conduct study on the management of delegated appropriations||DGB||Not completed||Action included in the PRCA|
|Deploy CICL software in local governments||DGTCP||In progress|
|Begin discussion on the establishment of a financial system for local governments as a complement to the local governments code.||DGTCP||In progress|
|Establish a comprehensive mechanism for concertation on authorizations to incur expenditure||DGTCP||In progress|
|Continue the deconcentration of payment authorization (3 additional regions)||DGB||Completed||Ongoing until 2007|
|Conduct study on the deconcentration of MFB units to ensure that the MFB is properly represented in the decentralization process||SG/MFB||Not completed||TOR being prepared|
|FOCUS 6: Improve the quality of the management of specific expenditure|
|Implement general framework for organizing budget assistance||SP-PPF||Completed|
|Produce timely development cooperation reports||DGCOOP||In progress|
|Complete the review of texts on the regulation of projects||DGCOOP||In progress||Submitted to the Council of Ministers|
|Organize a workshop on external financial issues||SG/SP-PPF||Completed|
|Prepare an action plan for implementing DMFAS that takes into account the roles of all units involved in the external financing process (DGCOOP, DGTCP, DGEP, DSI, DGB) and begin implementation||DGB/DSI/DGTCP/DGEP/DGCOOP||In progress||The full project group began its work in October. The project launch document was validated by the steering committee on November 22, 2005 (i) The decrees establishing the working groups, (ii) the TOR for the project and (iii) the recruitment notice for IT consultants were prepared and the project launch document was validated.|
|Revise the borrowing strategy||DGTCP/CNDP||In progress|
|Conduct a domestic debt audit||DGTCP||In progress||The provisional report submitted by the consultant is not consistent with the TOR|
|Implement an action plan to strengthen public debt management capacities||DGTCP||In progress|
|Conduct an PER on the impact of public investment expenditure||SP-PPF/DGEP||Not completed|
|Targeted billetage operation (in-person payment of wages)||DGB/MFPRE||Not completed||Moved ahead to 2006|
|Train human resources managers in the use of SIGASPE and conflict resolution||MFB, MFPRE||Completed|
|FOCUS 7: Improve the quality and sustainability of the computerization process within the ministries responsible for economy and finance|
|Accelerate development of the CIE summary documents and software stabilization module||DGTCP/DSI||In progress|
|Define specifications and begin revision of SIGASPE||DSI/DGB/DGFP||In progress|
|Continue revision of the CID||DSI||Completed||The revision of the CID begun in 2004 continues; the progress report for February to May 2005 indicates substantial progress|
|Continue activities related to the revised SDI (launch, assessment of existing plan, general guidelines, scenarios)||DSI||In progress|
|Ensure sufficient operating resources for the DSI and task forces (buildings, operating budget, renewal of maintenance contracts, training)||SG/MFB||In progress||The DAO is being prepared|
|FOCUS 8: Strengthen budget management oversight|
|Take steps to make the Audit Office the highest financial authority||In progress||Draft decree forwarded to the Ministry of Justice for submission to the Council of Ministers|
|Revise Organic Law 14/AN of May 15, 2000 organizing the Audit Office||In progress||Draft decree forwarded to the Ministry of Justice for submission to the Council of Ministers|
|Approve the status of juge financier by giving them the title of juge financier||In progress||Draft decree forwarded to the Ministry of Justice for submission to the Council of Ministers|
|Adopt and carry out an Audit Office training plan||Completed|
|Review the IGE texts||In progress||Should be started|
|Approve the new status of finance inspectors||In progress||MFPRE decision following the introduction of specific MFB positions|
|Adopt and carry out an IGE training plan||Completed|
|Adopt and carry out an IGF training plan||Completed|
|Approve the content and methodology for preparing budget review laws||In progress||The work of the Audit Office/MFB joint commissions is underway.|
|Propose a legal solution for budget review laws not produced before 1992||Not completed||The Audit Office/MFB joint commission has been established.|
|Finalize the legal solution for end-year treasury accounts prior to 2000||Completed|
|Give a workshop on the framework for dialogue among ex post control units||Completed|
|Produce the Audit Office annual report||Completed|
|Establish a unit price reference system||Completed|
|Produce a report on the 2004 budget review law||In progress|
|Audit of public procurement contracts by the IGF||Completed|
|Establish a new taxpayer identification system based on the revised IFU (taxpayer identification number)||Completed|
|IMPROVEMENT OF REVENUE COLLECTION|
|At the DGI|
|Establish a task force to strengthen computerization||DGI/DSI||In progress||Update the action plan by including the creation of a task force, organizational audit of the DGI, and preparation of an IT master plan|
|Propose a CSI transfer plan||SG/MFB||Completed|
|Complete establishment of the revised IFU file||DGI/DSI||In progress||The IFU management software was revised within the required time. The interconnection of DRIs and DFs necessary for the deconcentration of IFU management is also under way, as well as the development of interfaces between the IFU and the other applications of the Ministry of Finance and Budget. The initial planning of activities related to the launch of the new IFU is being revised to take account of the delay in ordering the equipment.|
|Conduct tax audits of 60 large enterprises||DGI||Completed|
|Establish a communication program (CGI, audited taxpayer charter, CNF, JPO, brochures, etc.)||DGI||In progress|
|Develop a census methodology||Execute||The census methodology was prepared and discussed in a validation workshop on June 18 and 19, 2005.|
|Conduct census of large enterprises in Ouaga and Bobo||DGI||In progress||The implementing document for the tax census was adopted with a provisional budget of CFAF 635 million, 50 percent of which is currently provided by the central government budget. Training modules were prepared and the census data processing software completed. An organizing committee was set up to ensure that the operation is properly prepared and executed.|
|Collect data for the 10 indicators identified to measure DGE productivity, K1 and H1||Completed|
|Carry out a training plan||DGI/DRH||Completed|
|At the DGD|
|Continue installation of fully functional ASYCUDA++ and ensure interactivity with DGD software||DGD/DSI/MFB||In progress|
|Prepare a directive on the procedure for checking value and establish the DGD internal valuation record||DGD/DSI/MFB||Completed|
|Implement the transfer of competence to the audit firm in accordance with its specifications.||DGD||Completed|
|Create a network linking the main customs offices.||DGD||In progress||Western offices still need to be included|
|Install a radio network and a PC in subdivisions, teams, and border offices||DGD||In progress||20 percent of the work remains to be done|
|Organize units for direct management of customs credits||DGD||Completed|
|In the Single Customs Declaration (DDU), include value check, clearing agents, and customs collectors||DGD/DRH||Completed|
|Create a special unit to check the final destination of duty-free imports||DGD||Completed|
|Create a suspicious persons/vehicles/operations file||DGD||Completed|
|Improve the customs clearance procedure for vehicles||DGD||Completed|
|Procure scales to combat fraud||DGD||Completed|
|At the DGTCP|
|Continue CIR development||DGTCP/DGI/DGD||In progress||The bus for integrating the various applications is available; interfaces will be programmed in 2006; the new deputy project manager will come on board in 2006. According to the task force plan, installation of the network infrastructures, software deployment, and user training will occur in the first half of 2006.|
|Implement the action plan combining all the measures resulting from the various reports to improve service revenue and provide relevant guidance||DGTCP||Completed|
|Improvement of the competitiveness of the economy and reduction of factor costs||Privatization of ONATEL: conclusion of bidding||MCPEA||MPT||In progress||The government authorized the conclusion of a private contract with the investment bank on December 30, 2005. The two parties signed the contract in January 2006 and the timetable was updated. The IDA (World Bank) notice of nonobjection was obtained on January 20, 2006. The six-month process is expected to wind up in the second quarter of 2006|
|Privatization of SONABEL: search for partners and conclusion of bidding||MCPEA||MMCE||In progress||After obtaining the notice of nonobjection from the World Bank on the outcome of the technical analysis of the bids to audit the FY 2002 to FY 2004 accounts, the privatization committee opened the bids for auditing those same accounts on January 27, 2006. On January 20, 2006 the IDA issued a notice of financial nonobjection to the hiring of a consultant to perform the audit of the 2002-2004 accounts. The TOR for the human resources audit were also approved by the World Bank on January 20, 2006. Regarding the recruitment of an “investment bank,” a short list was proposed to the World Bank on June 22, 2006 to request a notice of nonobjection from the IDA. The World Bank’s reaction depends on the wording of the law on electricity. At the conclusion of a meeting held October 11 and 12, 2005, the technical and financial partners requested amendment of the law on elecriticity to clarify certain aspects related to the regulation of the subsector, the rate schedule, and the management of investments.|
|Open up the capital of SONABHY to private investment||MCPEA||MMCE||In progress||In October 2005, in the course of implementing the process, the Inspectorate General of Economic Affairs (IGAE) submitted terms of reference (TOR) to the Enterprise Development and Competitiveness Support Project (PACDE) for the recruitment of a consultant to draw up documents for the creation of an autonomous regulatory body for the subsector. On January 20, 2006 the IDA issued a notice of nonobjection to the financial estimate for the audit of the 2002-2004 accounts, which should expedite the process of recruiting the consultant. The TOR for hiring the consultant responsible for appraising the company and formulating the strategy for adoption by the privatization committee are being drawn up.|
|Open up the capital of ON EA to private investment||MCPEA||MAHRH||In progress||The process is suspended for the time being, pending instructions from the government on the final course of action to be taken. Generally speaking, a number of enterprises included in the program are finding it difficult to adhere to their schedules owing essentially to the delay in the issuance of the World Bank’s notice of nonobjection to certain activities. Now that the Bank’s various notices have been received, it is to be hoped that the entire process will make significant progress.|
|Deepen the discussion of the mechanism for determining the price structure of oil products||MCPEA||MFB, MCEM||In progress||The mechanism for determining the price structure of oil products was inaugurated by Decree 01-033/MCPEA/SG/IGAE of May 10, 2005. This price adjustment mechanism was prepared with the participation of all interested parties and validated by the technical and financial partners. Under the policy to reform the hydrocarbons sector, it is expected that a price ceiling will be set instead of the current practice of setting a price floor. It will therefore be necessary to wait until the (reform has been approved and implemented for the measure to be adopted by all the interested parties.|
|Establish a unit price reference system||MCPEA||Chamber of Agriculture|
|Adopt and implement the strategy for reform of the energy sector, in particular:||MMCE||Private sector|
|Prepare and adopt a strategy for organizing the electricity subsector||MMCE||World Bank- TFP|
|Prepare and adopt a strategy for the hydrocarbons subsector||MMCE||Danida/AfDB/World Bank|
|Finalize the study on regulation||MMCE|
|Adopt a legal and regulatory framework geared to the strategy selected||MMCE|
|Prepare and adopt a rural electrification strategy document||MMCE|
|Implement the energy sector reform strategy, in particular:||MMCE||Private sector|
|Establish a regulatory body for the electricity subsector||World Bank-TFP|
|Adopt a legal and regulatory framework for the electricity and hydrocarbons subsector||MMCE||MCPEA|
|Prepare and adopt a National Electrification Plan||MMCE||UER, DGE, BM, AFD, BEI, NDF, DAN IDA|
|Install power lines between Bobo-Dioulasso and Ouagadougou||MMCE||UER, DGE, BM, AFD, BEI, NDF, DAN IDA|
|Adopt a framework law for the transportation sector||MT/DGTTM||Unions, MFB, MEDEV||Draft documents prepared||Validation by the ministerial committee and the holding of a workshop for validation at the national level still pending|
|Adopt a national road safety policy||MITH/DGTTM||MSECU, Carriers, Ministry of Defense, Drivers, TFP||Study on the preparation of a national road safety policy and related action plan completed and approved||Adoption by the competent authorities and implementation of the action plan in the context of the 9th FED still pending.|
|Create an investment capital firm||MCPEA, METJ, MFB||Management and labor, TFP Burkinabé Employers Federation, BCEAO|
|Adopt a statement of sectoral policy on postal and postal financial services||MPT||SONAPOST, PACDE, TFP|
|Prepare a draft law on postal sector reform||MPT||SONAPOST, PACDE, TFP|
|Prepare and adopt a strategy for opening up the telecommunications sector as a result of the end of the ONATEL service monopoly||MPT||ARTEL, PACDE, TFP|
|Create commercial divisions in all tribunaux de grande instance||MCPEA||MJ||In progress||Discussions with the department responsible for justice are in progress|
|Physical transfer of the one-stop window to the Burkina Faso Enterprise Office||MCPEA||Not completed|
|Allocation of logistical and human resources to the one-stop window||MCPEA||Private sector CCIA-B -TFP||Not completed||Measures regarding this action will be adopted upon completion of the Burkina Faso Enterprise Office building. A request was submitted to the Enterprise Development and Competitiveness Support Project to finance procurement of the equipment necessary for transfer of the one-stop window to the MEBF.|
|Set up a single center for setting up businesses||MCPEA||Private sector CCIA-B -TFP||In progress||Decree 2005-332/PRES PM/MFB/MTEJ/MJ of June 21, 2005 establishing the powers, organization, and operation of Business Registration Centers (CEFORE) has been adopted. The launch of operations occurred on January 9, 2006. The physical transfer of the one-stop window to the Burkina Faso Enterprise Office is still pending.|
|Review and adopt trade laws and regulations||MCPEA||MJ||It was not possible to prepare legal and regulatory texts conducive to the promotion and facilitation of trade in agricultural products.|
|Open the single center for setting up businesses||MCPEA||Private sector CCIA-B -TFP||In progress||The launch of operations occurred on January 9, 2006|
|Reduce the number of steps involved in setting up businesses from 8 to 4||MCPEA||GPI, D140 Burkinabé Employers Federation||Completed||The establishment of CEFORE nevertheless reduced the number of business starts. According to Article 25 of the decree of June 21, 2005, the steps required to set up businesses in Burkina Faso are the following: Registration in the Trade and Personal Credit Register; Declaration of fiscal existence; Issuance of the professional business license for individuals;|
Membership in the social security system
|Conduct a study on promoting exports by upgrading export sectors and industries in the context of implementing EPAs (economic partnership agreements)||MCPEA||MEDEV||Not completed||Search for financing|
|Conduct a study on the determinants of saving and private investment in Burkina Faso in the context of implementing EPAs||MCPEA||MEDEV||Not completed||Search for financing|
|Revise the investment code||MCPEA||Not completed|
|Conduct a study on the medium-term impact of EPAs on the main poverty indicators in the context of implementing EPAs||MCPEA||MEDEV||Not completed||Search for financing|
|Prepare standards and labels for oilseed (sesame, cashew, shea) and cowpea products||MCPEA||FASONORM||In progress||Financing in the amount of CFAF 13,854,400 was obtained from the Ministry of Finance and Budget to prepare standards for these products. The process of drafting standards began with the organization on December 8 and 9, 2005 of a workshop in which an “technical subcommittee for oilseed standardization” was appointed. The draft standards for shea, sesame, and cashew will be submitted to this subcommittee. The member units of the subcommittee are gradually sending FASONORM the names of their representatives (official and alternate). The subcommittee will be installed once all the representatives have appointed their members. The work of amending the draft standards could begin in the first two weeks of February 2006.|
The draft standards for cowpeas will be submitted in early February to the ‘technical subcommittee for the standardization of cereals and legumes” established on August 3, 2005’.
|Support for productive sectors||Establish a quality control mechanism for agricultural inputs||MAHRH, MCPEA||OPA, TFP|
|Adopt legal texts aimed at tax breaks for the purchase of equipment necessary for the creation of small agrofood processing and fiber-ginning units.||MFB||MCPEA CCIA-B|
|Draft an agropastoral investment code.||MAHRH, MR A, MECV||MCPEA-MFB-MEDEV, TFP- OPF and OPA||Not completed|
|Establish a Center for the Arbitration of Business Disputes||CCIAB||MFB-ONAC Ministry of Justice|
|Develop sectoral guidelines for the preparation and review of environmental impact studies.||MECV||MAHRH, World Bank|
|Establish environmental units and launch their operations||MECV||MAHRH, World Bank|
|Supervise the environmental management plans of IDA projects||MECV||MAHRH, World Bank|
|Implement the plan to build environmental assessment capacities||MECV||MAHRH, World Bank|
|Inventory forest timber resources and prepare an investment program for sustainable management||MECV||MAHRH, World Bank|
|Adopt legal and regulatory texts aimed at (i) better organization of small-scale mining operations, (ii) tighter security at gold washing sites, (iii) closer supervision of gold washers, and (iv) environmental restoration.||MMCE||MECV-MEDEV-MFB, MJ, Security, TFP-Private sector-GPI|
|Create a development support fund for the mining sector|
|Create a development support fund for SMEs/SMIs||MCPEA- MFB||CCIA-B and TFP|
|Adopt texts granting tax benefits to artisans and tradespeople||MCPEA- MFB||CCIA-B||In progress|
|Prepare a draft handicrafts code||MCPEA||In progress||The draft has been prepared and must be discussed in a national workshop.|
|Provide information on and enhance awareness of the establishment of the national chamber of handicrafts||MCPEA||Completed||Information and awareness campaigns for stakeholders in the provinces have been conducted. An agreement in principle has been concluded for a partnership with the Standing Conference of Chambers of Handicrafts of France and the Chamber of Handicrafts of Lyon.|
|Support for productive sectors||Create a tourism development fund||MCAT||MITH - MFB, Private sector||In progress||Naba OUBRI Mausoleum (CFAF 20,000,000);|
Naba YADEGA Mausoleum (CFAF 13,554,061);
TiefoAMORO Mausoleum (CFAF 10,529,355);
Sindou Camp (CFAF 27,000,000);
Koro Camp (CFAF 20,900,000);
Pobe Mengao Camp (CFAF 18,500,000);
Purchase of three 32-seat buses: CFAF 133 million;
Purchase of three double-cabs (CFAF 57,599,999);
Purchase of a light-duty vehicle (CFAF 11,900,000);
Generator for TOMA Isle (CFAF 6,879,400).
Climb of Mont Tenekourou (CFAF 7,000,000);
Organization of the International Tourism and Hotel Industry Fair in Ouagadougou (CFAF 15,000,000)
|Development of the cross-border economy||Reorganize the CSBE||MAET/CR|
|Establish a database on Burkinabé expertise abroad||MAET/CR|
|− Complete the Dakole Project feasibility study||MAET/CR|
|− Carry out the first phase of the MIDA project||MAET/CR|
|Prepare a migrations policy paper||MAET/CR - PM -MEDEV||METJ - MASSN-Burkinabe Associations abroad|
|2. Improved access for the poor to basic social services and welfare|
|Education||Adopt regulatory measures to expand basic education to include the first cycle of secondary education||MESSRS- MEBA||MFB-MATD Education management and labor, TFP||In progress||Government seminars were held on the subject. An interministerial task force on reform of the education system was established.|
|Update the ten-year plan for the development of basic education to take into account the need to broaden the concept of basic education and accommodate new initiatives (Education for All, the 25/2005 Initiative, Fast Track, etc.);||MEBA||TFP, Education management and labor||In progress||This update cannot be carried out without the results of the midterm review of the PDDEB. The provisional results are now available and a draft plan for updating the PDDEB has been prepared|
|Prepare and adopt regulations on compulsory, cost-free basic education||MEBA, MFB||TFP- Local governments, education management and labor, National Assembly||Various actions under way such as the distribution of free minimum school bags to all students at the CP1 level, payment of tuition for girls, free textbooks, providing schools with food supplies.||TOR are being prepared for holding an idea-sharing workshop on the legal backing for all regulatory texts on education in accordance with the education framework law|
|Complete the transfer of responsibility for the recruitment and assignment of teaches to the DREBAs||MEBA||MATD, Local goverments||In progress||At present, recruitment is handled at the central level and assignments to schools by the DREBAs. The entry into force of the measure is linked to the decentralization process and to other ministries such as the Ministry of the Civil Service and the Ministry of Finance and Budget|
|Prepare an action plan for the transfer of responsibilities for the management of teachers and related budget resources to the DPEBAs||MEBA|
|Pursue the policy of education subsidies in the 20 provinces with the lowest enrollment (distribution of textbooks and school supplies, cafeteria food)||MEBA, MFB||TFP, Local governments||Completed||The measure is ongoing.|
|Prepare sectoral MTEF (MEBA, MESSRS)||MEBA, MESSRS||MFB||In the finalization stage||The basic document has been prepared and feedback and validation workshops are being held|
|Education||Establish a coordinating committee and a technical committee for the formulation of a national education and technical and vocational training policy||MESSRS||MPF/TFP||In progress||Establishment of the committee was formalized through the adoption of Decree 2005-010/PM/SG/DASCE of December 7, 2005|
|Implement the national technical and vocational training policy||MESSRS||MTEJ|
|Provide preschool education in the poorest provinces||MASSN|
|Health- Nutrition- HIV/AIDS||Prepare and disseminate quality care rules and standards for all levels of the health system||Ministry of Health||TFP|
|Implement the Ministry of Health master IT plan||Ministry of Health||DELGI|
|Strengthen the Ministry of Health program budget||Ministry of Health||In progress|
|Implement emergency obstetrical care subsidies and reduce the cost of assisted births||Ministry of Health||In progress|
|Implement the comprehensive childhood disease coverage initiative (PCIME) in 15 districts||Ministry of Health||Completed|
|Verify application of the rate schedule for professional services and hospital stays.||Ministry of Health||Completed|
|Revise the legal texts governing indigent care and diseases posing a threat to public health (including malaria) and provide guidance for indigent care initiatives in several districts||Ministry of Health||In progress|
|Health- Nutrition- HIV/AIDS||Effectively implement the anti-malaria strategy, particularly subsidies for treated mosquito nets||Ministry of Health||Completed|
|Pursue free vaccinations policy||Ministry of Health||Completed||Ongoing activity|
|Implement an action plan for the motivation and distribution of personnel||Ministry of Health||Completed|
|Finalize and adopt the health program for youths and adolescents||Ministry of Health||MTEJ|
|Finalize a 2006-2008 MTEF for the health sector||Ministry of Health||MFB||In progress|
|Draw up a timetable for the description of positions and profiles for employment in the health sector||Ministry of Health||MFPRE||Completed||Existence of a decree on the composition of the technical committee responsible for implementing the motivational plan|
Provision of hazard and nursing allowances for staff of district health centers
Institution of allowances for nursing duties in poverty areas
Institution of special work allowances for certain managers in outlying areas
|Launch study||Ministry of Health||MFPRE|
|Priority assignment of graduates from national schools to DRSs and health districts||Ministry of Health||MFPRE||There are not enough graduates to cover needs in the field|
|Verify application of the rate schedule for professional health services and hospital stays.||Ministry of Health||Consumer leagues/organizations, Health sector management and labor||The implementation of Decree 2001-179/PM/MEBA was the subject of a circular-letter dated April 17, 2002 concerning inauguration of the sub-cycle system in the 2003-2004 school year.||Based on the education statistics collected, it appears that the decree is not properly implemented, judging by the number of repeating students per level|
|Health- Nutrition- HIV/AIDS||Reorganize payment procedures (conduct study of current healthcare costs, define procedures for the payment of medical expenses, strengthen the collections and staff supervision departments)||Ministry of Health||MFB, TFP|
|Define corrective measures to ensure application of the price structure||Ministry of Health||MFB, TFP|
|Budget appropriations sufficient for application of the price structure|
|Assessment of prices charged in the field|
|Application of the price structure|
|Verify, by sampling, that the new price structure is being applied.|
|Implement system of emergency obstetrical care subsidies and reduce the cost of assisted births||-Ministry of Health||TFP||In progress||The document has been prepared and is in process of adoption by the Council of Ministers|
The implementation planning document is being finalized
|Develop and implement a system for monitoring the overall resources of hospitals, districts, DRD, and COGES||-Ministry of Health||In progress|
|Provide coverage for childhood diseases in 15 health districts||-Ministry of Health||TFP||Completed||The PCIME is implemented in 17 districts instead of 15|
|Increase delegated appropriations by at least 10 percent for fiscal 2005||-Ministry of Health||MFPRE|
|Establish voluntary, confidential HIV consultation and testing centers in all CMAs and hospitals||-Ministry of Health||SP/CNLS-IST|
|Train providers in all CMAs and hospitals in the prescription of anti-retroviral drugs||Ministry of Health||SP/CNLS-IST|
|Revise texts concerning COGES to emphasize community involvement in decision-making, public health initiatives, and price-setting||Ministry of Health||COGES|
|Revise texts to cover indigent care and diseases posing a threat to public health, including malaria||Ministry of Health||MFB COGES -NGO-TFP||In progress||March 2005, orientation workshop held on program-based research in indigent care|
October 2005, national workshop held on the definition of indigent care procedures in public health units
|Health- Nutrition- HIV/AIDS||Continue the free distribution of vitamin A||Ministry of Health||MASSN- NGO- TFP||Completed|
|Establish a framework for multisectoral consultation on nutrition and food security, including the health, agriculture, education, economy, and development sectors.||Ministry of Health||MAHRH-MEBA-MEDEV||In progress||Ministerial decree on the establishment of a consultation framework in process of preparation|
|Strengthen measures to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and STDs and promote voluntary testing||Ministry of Health||CNLS, SP/CNLS|
|Strengthen access to community-based treatment and medical care for persons living with HIV/AIDS||Ministry of Health||TFP-NGO-Private sector|
|Strengthen protection and support for persons living with HIV/AIDS, affected persons, and other specific groups||Ministry of Health|
|Strengthen partnership, coordination, and the mobilization of resources||Ministry of Health|
|Strengthen surveillance of the epidemic, monitoring/assessment, and the promotion of research||Ministry of Health|
|Prepare and adopt a 2006-2010 strategic framework for combating HIV-AIDS and STDs||Ministry of Health||Completed|
|Effectively implement the anti-malaria strategy, particularly the subsidy for treated mosquito nets||MECV||Completed|
|Continue vaccination programs||MECV||Completed|
|Prepare a national nutrition policy||MECV||In progress||A working paper is available|
|Safe water and sanitation||Develop guidelines for the preparation and review of environmental impact studies||MECV||Completed||The draft was finalized and submitted to the partners for financing, which is not yet available|
|Establish environmental units and launch their operations||MECV||Not completed|
|Review and assess environmental management plans of IDA projects||MECV||In progress||Of two planned reviews and assessments of environmental management plans (3rd urban project and PDEB), only the urban project was reviewed and assessed because of insufficient financing|
|Implement plan to strengthen environmental assessment capacities||MECV||Completed||Financing being sought for implementation|
|Inventory forest timber resources and prepare an investment program for sustainable management||MECV||Not completed|
|Strengthen the capacities of stakeholders in proper environmental management and combating desertification||MECV||Not completed|
|Improve the management of stands of shea trees||MECV||In progress||An agreement is being drawn up in Nahouri province to establish a system for the protection and sustainable management of the stand of shea trees in Dakola.|
|Implement an institutional and legal reform program for decentralization in the forestry sector||MECV||Completed||The draft institutional and legal reform for decentralization facilitated the establishment of a strategy for decentralization of the environmental sector, which was validated in early 2006|
|Finish preparing implementing texts for the environmental code and review the national forestry policy||MECV||In progress||Delay caused by the interministerial nature of the texts|
|Begin the process of establishing a baseline for the safe water subsector||MAHRH||Every other ministry or institution + TFP||Completed|
|Assess the management and maintenance of APE water infrastructures at the national level and in the reform test area||MAHRH||Every other ministry or institution + TFP||In progress||The inventory was conducted and is to be analyzed in the next steering committee meeting at end-January 2006|
|Define the program, investment plans, and financing plan for implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) action plan||MAHRH||Every other ministry or institution + TFP||In progress|
|Prepare an action plan for the establishment of a public/private partnership in the area of urban water resources||MAHRH||Not applicable||In view of the current satisfactory performance of the urban water sector, this reform is no longer a government priority|
|Review the framework paper on the package of semi-urban equipment maintenance reforms||MAHRH||Not applicable||Measure to be deleted; see above measure/action concerning the assessment of management and maintenance in rural and semi-urban areas|
|Revise the national sanitation strategy||MAHRH||Every other ministry or institution + TFP||In progress||Preliminary version of the strategy is available|
|Safe water and sanitation||Continue checking systems in public buildings to reduce government water bills||MAHRH||Equipment Directorate of the Ministry of Finance and Budget in the cities of Ouagadougou, Koudougou, Bobo Dioulasso, Dori, and Ouahigouya||Completed||The report of the audit mission states that 19 of 42 subscribers had their meters removed, and the mission suggested the cancellation of their subscriptions|
|Issue invitations to bid for water supply concessions in 13 provinces||MAHRH|
|Environment and quality of life: Housing||Draft an urban planning and construction code||MITH||MATD-MEDEV||The draft code was prepared and submitted for adoption by the govdernment and the National Assembly||Need to expedite the process by adoption in the Council of Ministers|
|Prepare 9 master plans for national and regional land development and urban planning in the provincial capitals and in certain departments||MEDEV, MITH||MATD, Local governments||13 SDAU have been prepared: Pouytenga, Toma, Reo, and three (3) are being preparaed: Gourcy, Garango, Solenzo|
|Establish the Banque de I’Habitat (housing bank)||MFB||MITH- BCEAO||In progress||Headquarters of the institution selected, appointment of the PCA and recruitment of the Director. Recruitment of other staff in progress. Start of activities in 2006;|
|Welfare programs for the poor||Protection and advancement of children and adolescents|
|Prepare and implement regional programs and a national program for comprehensive early childhood development||MASSN||In progress||Document available for submission to the Council of Ministers|
|Implement the PAN AEMO||MASSN||Not completed||Delay in financing by Japan|
|Prepare and implement the national program for the care of orphans and other at-risk children||MASSN||In progress||Draft available|
|Strengthen the care of children in difficult circumstances in closed education centers||MASSN||Completed|
|Implement the poverty reduction program targeting underprivileged youths in the provinces of Houet and Tuy||MASSN||In progress|
|Strengthen the operational capacities of units responsible for defending and promoting children’s rights||MASSN||In progress||Training not yet provided because of insufficient financing|
|Finalize and implement the PAN to combat domestic and cross-border trafficking in children||In progress||PAN nearing completion but insufficient resources to finalize the activity|
|Finalize and implement the PAN to combat the sexual abuse of children||MASSN||In progress||Financing problems|
|Support the Children’s Parliament||MASSN||Completed|
|Advancement and protection of the family|
|Rehabilitate and build education and social development centers||MASSN||Completed|
|Train and equip producers in training and production centers for girls||MASSN||Completed|
|Promote the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and youths||MASSN||In progress|
|Implement the national birth registration plan||MASSN||In progress||Financing insufficient and delayed|
|Finalize and implement the PAN for zero female genital mutilation||MASSN||In progress||Plan ready but not yet approved|
|Conduct a study on the impact of the decade of combating the practice of excision||MASSN||In progress|
|Prepare and implement a new national program to disseminate the individual and family code||MASSN||In progress||TOR drafted|
|Draw up action plan for advancement of the family||MASSN||Not completed||TOR drafted|
|Organize an annual solidarity month||MASSN||Not completed||Because of the presidential election, only a two-week solidarity program was organized|
|Welfare programs for the poor||Conduct a national study on the situation of the elderly||MASSN||Not completed||Financing problems|
|Conduct program-based research on the phenomenon of begging and social exclusion||MASSN||Not completed||Financing problems|
|Support for income-generating activities for the handicapped||MASSN||Completed|
|Provision of mobility equipment for 900 handicapped individuals per year||MASSN||Not completed||Financing problems|
|Support for the purchase of school supplies for 5,000 needy students||MASSN||Completed|
|Orqanization of emerqency assistance|
|Continue implementing the operational plan in support of the socioeconomic reintegration of repatriated persons||MASSN||In progress||Monitoring difficulties owing to the multisectoral nature of the program|
|Organization of communication campaigns to change behaviors in respect of disaster issues and techniques for minimizing risks||MASSN||Not completed||Financing problems|
|Direct support for victims of natural disasters||MASSN||In progress||Insufficient assistance compared to the needs expressed|
|Build the capacities of the Ministry of Social Action and National Solidarity|
|Finalize the national welfare policy||MASSN||Not completed||Financing problems|
|Develop the national welfare policy||MASSN||In progress||Unavailability of consultants hired|
|Draft the social action framework law||MASSN||Not completed||Unavailability of consultants hired|
|Develop ten-year social action plan||MASSN||Not completed||Unavailability of consultants hired|
|Conduct a study on the PER of the Ministry of Social Action and National Solidarity||MASSN||Not completed||Activity included in the 2006 government budget|
|Establish a permanent data collection, processing, and dissemination system||MASSN||Not completed||Financing problems|
|Conduct surveys and studies on emerging social issues||MASSN||Not completed||Financing problems|
|Develop a set of social action indicators||MASSN||Not completed||Financing problems|
|Strengthen the institutional capacities of the ministry and monitoring/assessment of the ten-year plan||MASSN||Not completed||Financing problems|
|Build and equip 3 DRs and 6 DPs||MASSN||Not completed||Moved to 2007|
|Implement the social action staff training plan||MASSN||Not completed||Unit responsible for implementation is being reorganized|
|Finalize the national social action policy|
|Finalize the national welfare policy||MTSS||MASSN||In progress|
|Draft the social action framework law||MASSN|
|Implement a permanent system for collecting, processing, and disseminating data on the care of children in difficult circumstances||MASSN|
|Conduct a survey and study on emerging social issues||MASSN|
|Develop a set of social indicators||MASSN|
|Strengthen the institutional capacities of the ministry and monitoring/assessment of the ten-year plan||MASSN|
|Step up the prevention of juvenile delinquency||MASSN|
|Establish healthcare mutual societies for rural and periurban women’s groups and associations||MASSN|
|Step up microinsurance activities||MASSN|
|Social Security for waqe earners|
|Extend Social Security;||MTSS||In progress|
|Define legal status specifically for social welfare agencies||MTSS||In progress|
|Review the social security code||MTSS||In progress|
|Raise the retirement age||MTSS||Completed|
|Prepare a draft law on mutuality||MTSS||In progress|
|Welfare programs for the poor||Mobilize society against child labor through information campaigns and the media|
|Hold conferences and discussions on the issue of child labor||MTSS||Completed|
|Show documentaries on child labor||MTSS||Completed|
|Organize sporting events focusing on the issue of child labor||MTSS||Completed|
|Support the removal of 150 children/girls and boys from the PISSY quarry|
|Reinforce the training of 150 children in carpentry metalworking, general mechanics (boys) sewing and embroidery (girls)||MTSS||Completed|
|Provide institutional support to the Ministry of Labor for the review and harmonization of child labor laws and regulations in Burkina Faso|
|Conduct a study on the inventorying and harmonization of laws and regulations and propose a new legal framework||MTSS||Completed|
|Rehabilitate a shelter|
|Rehabilitate a shelter and training center||MTSS||Completed|
|Socioeconomic reintegration of 70 children who are victims of trafficking||MTSS||Completed|
|Outfit and equip the center||MTSS||Completed|
|Recruit and place 70 children in apprenticeships as part of their socioeconomic reintegration in the sewing, mechanics, carpentry, and welding fields||MTSS||Completed|
|Raise the awareness of the administrative, religious, and customary authorities; associations of parents and mothers of students; teachers; resource persons; schools; and community organizations concerning the dangers of child trafficking.||MTSS||Completed||Presentation of action program objectives to the various partners and stakeholders in the area. Discussions concerning the criteria for identifying and selecting children should be based on their vulnerability. Selection of 103 children for the DISSIN area|
|Mobilize communities through village CVSs||MTSS|
|Welfare programs for the poor||Promote formal and nonformal education for victimized and at-risk children;||MTSS||Completed||Start of rehabilitation of alpha centers for community children|
|Boost the income level of parents of children victimized by or at risk of trafficking||MTSS|
|Support the mobilization and strengthen the capacities of employers and workers in the road transport sector in the fight against child trafficking in Burkina Faso||MTSS||Completed||Training of 50 union delegates from the National Union of Road and Passenger Carriers|
|Promote the signing of a multilateral agreement on combating child trafficking in West Africa||MTSS||Completed||Agreement signed by 9 West African countries|
|Finalize the training module on children’s rights for vocational training schools||MASSN||MEBA|
|Conduct a national study on the situation of the elderly||MASSN||MESSRS|
|Conduct program-based research on the phenomenon of begging and social exclusion||MASSN||MESSRS TFP|
|Conduct a multisectoral study on the handicapped||MASSN||MESSRS TFP|
|* Establish a consistent data collection, processing, analysis, and dissemination system within the MASSN||MASSN||MEDEV|
|Advancement of women||* Update and implement the plan for monitoring/assessment of the action plan for the advancement of women||MPF||MEDEV, MASSN|
|Ratify the optional protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights and the optional protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women||MPF MPDH|
|Harmonize the action plan and national policy for the advancement of women||MPF||MEDEV||Completed||The national policy for the advancement of women, which has not yet been adopted|
|Set up a statistical program for the advancement of women||MPF||MEDEV|
|Strengthen the institutional framework and mechanisms for the advancement of women||In progress|
|Draw up the national gender policy||MEDEV||MPF, MASSN MPDH||In progress||TOR adopted|
|Establish a permanent framework for concerted action to promote women||Completed|
|3. Broadening of job and other income-generating opportunities|
|Secure access to land||Review the RAF and prepare/adopt certain implementing regulations||MEDEV||MAHRH - MPF, MRA, MECV|
|Draft a land law||MATD/MEDEV|
|Develop and adopt a communications strategy for disseminating the RAF and other regulations||MPF, Ministry of Information, MAHRH, MRA|
|Translate the RAF into national languages||MAHRH-MEDEV-MECV MATD, MEBA||MPFOPA- Livestock farmers- TFP|
|Intensification/diversification of crop production||Implement action plans for the cereals, oilseeds, and cowpea sectors||MAHRH||TFP||Not completed||Implementation of the action plan for the cereals sector began in June 2004. Lack of financing has prevented implementation of the action plans for the oilseed and cowpea sectors.|
|Begin implementing the action plan for the fruits and vegetables sector||MAHRH||Sector professionals, MITH||Completed||The launch began with the establishment of SOBFEL in Bobo|
|Strengthen the capacities of stakeholders in proper management of the environment and combating desertification||MECV|
|Improve the management of stands of shea trees||MECV|
|Place in service the system for detecting and preventing locust infestations||MAHRH||TFP|
|Intensification and diversification of livestock production||Disseminate the framework law on pastoralism||MRA||In progress||The unavailability of the document due to lack of financing has limited the results.|
|Establish a company to promote the livestock/meat industry||MRA||MCPEA||In progress||A working group has proposed TOR to study the feasibility of such a company.|
|Develop a national genetic improvement policy||MRA||Not completed|
|Define quality standards for animal products||MRA||MCPEA|
|Conduct a survey on the guarding of herds||MRA||MCPEA||Not completed||Lack of financing|
|Prepare a dairy sector action plan||MRA||MCPEA||Completed|
|Implement the pork sector action plan||MRA||MCPEA||Not completed||Lack of financing|
|Develop a livestock and meat sector action plan||MRA||MCPEA||In progress||TOR available|
|Conduct an organizational and institutional audit of the MRA||MRA||Completed||The implementation of certain recommendations is already under way|
|Intensification and diversification of fishery products||Create an aquaculture training and applied research center||MAHRH||Polytechnic University of Bobo- Dioulasso (IDR), MAHRH TFP|
|Intensification/diversification of forestry and wildlife products||Implement an institutional and legal reform program for decentralization in the forestry sector||MECV||MATD|
|Prepare a program for the management of the stand of shea trees in Dakola||TFP OPA|
|Augmentation and diversification of rural incomes||Prepare and adopt laws and regulations to promote and facilitate trade in agricultural products||MCPEA MAHRH||OPA||Not completed||Discussion and preparation of the texts could begin in 2006 and adoption of the legislative texts could occur in 2007|
|Develop a sectoral strategy for the promotion of exports||MCPEA||OPA||Not completed||The strategy for the livestock and meat sector has been prepared|
|Launch the sectoral strategy for the promotion of exports||MCPEA||OPA||Not completed|
|Prepare and adopt an information system on the agricultural products markets.||MAHRH, MRA||MEDEV/INSD-ONAC-CBC-CCIA/B|
|Build a slaughterhouse in compliance with international standards in Bobo-Dioulasso and a refrigerated slaughterhouse in 10 medium-sized cities||MCPEA/MRA||CCIA-B, TFP|
|Augmentation and diversification of rural incomes||Set up livestock markets in areas bordering neighboring consumer countries (Cote-d’lvoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin) and in other appropriate locations||CCIA-B- ONAC-Organizations of livestock farmers and exporters, MCPEA|
|Adopt by decree the national microfinance strategy||In progress||The decree was adopted by the Council of Ministers on November 30, 2005|
|Design and implement a plan to support the promotion of small and medium-sized industry in the agricultural, livestock, fisheries, forestry, and wildlife sectors||MCPEA||MAHRH MEDEV-MFB - MRA-TFP|
|Adopt a text on the principles and rules governing the exercise of functions transferred or delegated to other industry stakeholders (CRA OPA interprofessions, private sector)||In progress||Only the CRAs have been set up, a harmonization study is under way|
|Develop a plan to support the promotion of small and medium-sized industry in the agricultural, livestock, fisheries, forestry, and wildlife sectors|
|Complete the drafting of implementing regulations for the Forestry Code and the Environmental Code and review the national forestry policy||MECV||MAHRH-MRA|
|Improvement of the living and working conditions of women||Implement the multifunctional platforms project||MEDEV||Every ministry and institution, Private sector|
|Promotion of employment and vocational training||Compile an operational directory of trades and occupations (ROME)||MTEJ||MCPEA, management and labor, TFP||In progress||Training of two ANPE officers Support from the ANPE of France and GIP/lnter for adapting the French ROME to circumstances in Burkina Faso. A draft agreement is being negotiated. Conclusion of negotiations and signing of the agreement|
|Establish a subregional directory (WAEMU) of trades and occupations by 2006||MTEJ|
|Not completed||The national directory of trades and occupations is not available|
|Make operational (install bodies, train members) frameworks for concerted action on the promotion of employment (CNEFP, CNPS, CRPS): finalize the relevant texts by end-2005 and adopt them in 2006||MTEJ|
|Every ministry and institution, Private sector||The National Council on Employment and Vocational Training (CNEFP) was established in 2004 by Law 033-2004/AN setting forth the Labor Code. The decree defining the powers, composition, and operation of the said council and the draft decree establishing and defining the composition, powers, and operation of the national and regional commissions for the promotion of internships were prepared and validated by the Consultative Labor Committee in January 2006.|
A Consultative and Coordination Committee for Vocational Training and Apprenticeships (CCFPA) has been set up and is functioning. The consultative bodies, CNEFP, CNPS, CRPS, can only be set up after approval of the draft instruments by the Council of Ministers.
|Strengthen the financial capacities of the financing units (FASI, FAPE, PNAR-TD) during 2005-2007||MTEJ|
|Create an investment capital company as an apex unit for the financing plan by 2007||MTEJ|
|Create an advisory/counseling network for entrepreneurs and job seekers in 2006||MTEJ|
|Not completed||Assessment of the advisory/counseling system available to entrepreneurs and job seekers, an inventory of associations and agencies dealing with unemployment issues, and of cooperatives that help create jobs|
|Create an advisory/counseling network for entrepreneurs and job seekers in 2006||MTEJ|
|Not completed||5,307 new job seekers were registered by the ANPE, 535 offers of employment from businesses were processed, and 50 job seekers were placed in internship programs. Training of 98 job seekers in job search techniques (TRE), 166 job seekers in entrepreneurship, support/counseling to 1,125 entrepreneurs and job seekers, preparation of 90 files for entrepreneurs.|
Conduct of a study on the promotion of youth employment using the HI MO approach and drawing on the use of local construction materials in Burkina Faso.
Two studies on growth sectors and trends in the job market in Burkina Faso.
|Finalize and adopt the national action plan for implementation of the conclusions of the Special Summit of African Union Heads of State on Employment and Poverty Reduction by 2006||MTEJ|
|Not completed||A framework document to guide implementation of the conclusions of the Summit and a national action plan to promote employment and poverty reduction have been prepared.|
A draft decree establishing a unit responsible for monitoring implementation of the AU recommendations on employment and poverty reduction was submitted for adoption at end-2005
|Establish a guarantee fund for the promotion of employment by end-2005||MTEJ|
|Rehabilitate, modernize and equip the regional offices and services of the ANPE by 2006||MTEJ|
|Not completed||Two ANPE regional offices (Gaoua and Ziniare) were completely refurbished and the Manga office is nearing completion.|
Continuation of the activities of the CEFP Ouagadougou expansion and modernization project (BID/EMCO): development of performance indicators for the ANPE, preparation of a service procedures manual and the acquisition of various equipment for the ANPE
|Review the strategy framework paper on the promotion of employment and vocational training by end-2006||MTEJ|
|Organize an annual informal sector “recognition of excellence” event||MTEJ||Not completed|
|Draft regulations on harmonizing the content of apprenticeship vocational training programs by 2006||MTEJ||Not completed||Organization of a tripartite workshop to discuss the broad outlines of a certification system for vocational training. Preparation of regulatory texts on the functioning of the Permanent Secretariat of the Consultative Committee for Apprenticeship Vocational Training (CCFPA).|
Study conducted and workshop organized on the modeling and structuring of a modern apprenticeship system in Burkina Faso. Organization of a workshop for Officials from the Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Youth on the ownership, management, and running of a vocational training system.
|Recruit and train the staff of training units||MTEJ||Not completed|
|Identify priority sectors and prepare training curricula by end-2006||MTEJ||Not completed|
|Develop a national policy and an action plan for promotion of the informal sector by end-2006||MTEJ|
|Preparation of an initial version of a draft national policy for promotion of the informal sector. Organization of a workshop for staff on the draft national policy and action plan to promote the informal sector (Bobo- Dioulasso)|
|Create an advisory/counseling network for entrepreneurs and job seekers||METJ/DGFP||MCPEA|
|Opening up of rural areas||Launch the electrification development fund||MMCE||MFB|
|Implement the national rural transport strategy||MITH/DGPR||-MATD, Local governments, TFP||The strategy has been implemented:|
-construction of roads under way, -assignment of civil engineering technical agents in the 45 provinces.
-provision of motorized and movable equipment in progress
- Financing of 7,500 km of rural roads out of the 12,000 km planned between 2000 and 2009.
-Launch of deconcentration of the DGPR.
-Lack of financing for the remaining 4,500 km of roads.
-Construction of provincial branches not started.
-Public involvement and participation not started owing to the slowness of the decentralization process.
|Opening up of rural areas||Continue the construction of rural roads||Completed|
|Financing of electrification projects by the Electrification Development Fund||FDE||DGE, DGCOOP|
|Electrify 10 communities per year||FDE||DGE, DGCOOP|
|Provide service to departmental capitals and set up community call centers||MPT DELGI||ONATEL-ARTEL-Information TFP-Private sector|
|4. Promotion of good governance|
|Administrative governance||Complete the harmonization of the SIGASPE database and keep it up to date||MFPRE, MFB||Local governments||In progress||The texts creating the various software management units have been prepared. The specifications will be drawn up in a workshop during the first quarter of 2006|
|Draw up an action plan for the extension of SIGASPE to sectoral ministries and deconcentrate personnel management||MFPRE-MFB||TFP||In progress||SIGASPE training was provided for the DAFs and DRHs (78 trained); Legal training was given November 10-12 and December 6-9, 2005|
|Finalize the national government reform strategy||MFPRE||MEDEV, MFB||In progress|
|Draw up an action plan for the national good governance policy||MFPRE-MFB||In progress|
|Political governance||Introduction of more humane practices in prisons||MPDH||Production of a report on inspections of prisons and police station holding cells; Organization of a human rights training session for penitentiary officials in Fada N’Gourma|
|Human rights training for penitentiary staff||MPDH||MJ|
|Support for participants in the penal system||MPDH||MJ|
|Advocate the introduction of more human practices in police station holding cells||MPDH||M. Security/MJ|
|Revise the Code of Criminal Procedure||MPDH||MJ|
|Train judicial police staff and officers||MPDH||M. Security/MJ|
|Strengthen surveillance mechanisms||MPDH||M. Security|
|Provide nonformal human rights education|
|Conduct information and outreach campaign|
|Encourage the creation of works conveying an awareness of human rights issues by producing and distributing television documentaries, special human rights awards, and other productions||DPVDH/DCPM||Presentation of two special human rights awards during the 16th FESPACO and the 8th Galian. Newspaper articles, radio and TV spots and broadcasts were distributed; Spots on respecting human rights were produced and distributed|
|Encourage the dissemination of works conveying an awareness of human rights issues||DPVDH/DCPM||Placement often (10) articles in the press; Organization of two forum theater tours to raise awareness concerning the civil registration of births and voting procedures; Production and distribution of a documentary film on “the status of human rights in Burkina Faso.”|
|Organize mobile cinema tours||DPVDH/DCPM||Organization of a mobile cinema tour|
|Strengthen the capacities of SCOs|
|Political governance||Strengthen Human Rights Information and Documentation Centers||DPVDH||Purchase of office furniture; Purchase of 300 works and documents on human rights issues|
|Strengthen civil and political rights|
|Promote and protect basic rights|
|Promote, strengthen, and consolidate women’s rights|
|Promote women’s citizenship and civic participation||MPDH||SCO||In progress||A discussion workshop on “human rights and violence against women”|
|Promote, strengthen, and consolidate children’s rights||MPDH||SCO||In progress||Preparation of a code on the protection of children|
|Ensure conformity of the new laws with the CDE (convention on the rights of children)||MPDH||SCO||In progress|
|Strengthen and consolidate the rights of the handicapped||MPDH||SCO|
|Local governance||Review and adapt national laws and regulations||MPDH||SCO||In progress||Draft report prepared on the status of the rights of the handicapped|
|Strengthen civil registration|
|Establish a steering unit||MPDH||Other|
|Officially launch the national campaign||MPDH||Ml|
|Strengthen the main civil registration centers||MPDH||MATD|
|Deconcentrate civil registration centers||MATD||MPDH|
|Discussion workshop on the conditions governing the granting of supplementary rulings||MPDH||MATD|
|Increase awareness of the civil status certificates initiative||MPDH||MATD|
|Strengthen economic, social, and cultural rights|
|Strengthen and broaden the right to education|
|Prepare and adopt a detailed plan for compulsory primary education for all (curricula)||MPDH||MEBA|
|Introduce human rights instruction in educational institutions (curricula)||MPDH||MEBA/MESSRS|
|Launch a fund-raising campaign||MPDH||Ml|
|Strengthen and broaden the right to healthcare|
|Set up a ministerial internal steering unit||MPDH||Other|
|Local governance||Draw up TOR and hire three consultants||MPDH|
|Organize three discussion seminars||MPDH||Other|
|Prepare draft legislation and/or regulations||MPDH||MJ/AM|
|Draft law on consumer protection||MPDH||SCO|
|Process of adopting legislation and/or regulations||MPDH||AN|
|Advocate in favor of combating stigmatization and discrimination against persons living with HIV||MPDH||MS/MASSN/SCO|
|Advocate for greater access to medicines for persons living with HIV||MPDH||MS/MASSN/SCO|
|Strengthen and broaden the right to work|
|Monitor PAMODEC plan activities||MPDH|
|Adoption of a global pact by economic decision-makers||MPDH||M. Commerce/SCO|
|Promote the rights of household employees||MPDH||MET J|
|Biennial forum of NGOs and associations||MPDH||MEDEV/SCO/MATD|
|Advocate in favor of the promotion of labor agreements||MPDH||METJ/MI|
|Powers and resources to be transferred to municipalities||MATD||MFB||In progress||Texts governing transfers of powers and resources have been drafted. Examination and adoption by the Council of Ministers pending|
|Finalize the framework for the transfer of resources and powers to municipalities||MATD||Every ministry||In progress||The texts have been […] and validated. Adoption by the Council of Ministers pending|
|Powers and resources to be transferred to regions||MATD||Local governments||In progress||The texts have been […] and validated. Adoption by the Council of Ministers pending|
|Establish 302 municipalities||MATD||Every ministry||In progress||Awaiting the municipal elections of April 23|
|Draft and implement a regional planning law||MEDEV||Local governments||In progress|
|Draft and implement a law promoting local economies||MATD||MFB, MEDEV||In progress|
|Draft and implement the SNAT and SRATs||MEDEV||MFB, MATD, MAHRH||In progress|
|Deploy the “integrated local governments account”||MATD, MFB||TFP-MEDEV||In progress|
|Establish the legal framework for the extension of deconcentration||MATD||Private sector||Completed||Decrees summoning electoral bodies and launching the campaign have been adopted|
|Prepare and monitor municipal elections||MATD||Associations- NGO||The texts have been validated and submitted for adoption|
|Finalize and adopt strategic framework for decentralization||MATD||In progress||The final document has been validated; adoption by the Council of Ministers pending|
|Monitor the progress of decentralization||MATD||Monitoring/assessment||The document on the system for monitoring and assessing the process has been prepared and is pending issuance|
|Deconcentration of financial and budgetary services||MFB||MATD||Texts prepared||The texts governing this deconcentration were prepared and validated in the Tenkodogo workshop in December 2005|
|Create special regional offices||MATD||MFB, MFPRE|
|Strengthen the knowledge of administrative authorities regarding technical and financial oversight||MFB|
|Identification and control of expenses related to government deconcentrated services||MFB|
|Make use of and disseminate administrative census data||MATD||MEDEV, MFB||In progress||The preselection of data entry operators has been made. Data processing will take place in May 2006.|
|Transfer property and assets to urban municipalities||MATD||MFB||Completed||The inventory of assets has been completed and the decrees on devolution have been adopted.|
|Computerize local governments||MATD||MFB, MFPRE||In progress|
|Assess start-up needs of rural municipalities||MATD||In progress||A reference document is available and a budget is being prepared|
|Finance local government infrastructures and equipment||MATD||In progress||Appropriation in the 2006 budget for the construction and equipment of 9 town hall offices|
|Develop teaching tools for the exercise and social ownership of local project management||MATD||In progress||The tools have been prepared and are pending validation|
|Create a database of local stakeholders||MATD||In progress||Studies are under way|
|Local governance||Build on and disseminate experience gained in local project management||MATD||In progress||TOR for the documentary collections are available|
|Establish a unified system for central government technical support to local governments||MATD||In progress||The technical support system was prepared and validated by CASEM/MATD|
|Set up a permanent investment fund for local governments||MATD||MEDEV, MFB||In progress||Basic documents prepared and pending adoption by the government|
|Establish a financial system for local governments||MATD||Completed||Texts adopted by the Council of Ministers|
|Establish a unified system for monitoring and assessing decentralization||MATD||In progress||Document prepared and validated in a workshop|
|Conduct socioeconomic configuration studies||MATD||In progress||Document prepared and validated in a workshop|
|Train rural municipalities” support staff||MATD||In progress||Priority training modules being prepared|
|Assess microproject financing||MATD||In progress|
|Establish a local civil service||MATD||MFPRE||In progress||Draft law establishing the legal regime applicable to FPT (local civil service) employees and positions validated and submitted for adoption|
|Economic governance||FOCUS 8: Strengthen budget management oversight|
|Approve the new status of government finance inspectors||IGE/PM|
|Adopt and carry out a training plan at the IGE||IGE||In progress||The review of IGE texts should be started|
|Adopt and carry out a training plan at the IGF||IGF||In progress||Discussion of document on the status of finance inspectors in the context of defining specific MFB positions and forwarding to the MFPRE for decision.|
|Conduct public expenditure reviews of the MASSN||MFB||Ministries concerned|
|Conduct public expenditure reviews of the MATD||MFB||Ministries concerned|
|Create a city and urban economies observatory||MEDEV/MATD||In progress||TOR have been prepared. Calls for expression of interest have been issued.|
|Provide adequate staffing and resources for the various oversight bodies (General Government Inspectorate, General Finance Inspectorate, technical inspectorates of ministerial departments, etc.) to combat corruption||MFB||Ministry and institution concerned|
|Finalize a national strategy to combat corruption||Office of the Prime Minister||MFB-MEDEV-MJ-MCPEA-MPDH TFP-NGO-Private sector-Civil society||In progress||The project has been prepared but is being finalized by the government.|
|Compile a government finance statistics yearbook||MFB|
|Statistical monitoring||Make available the results of the survey on the incidence of poverty (CWIQ survey)||INSD - STC/PDES|
|Successfully implement the work program for the General Population and Housing Census||INSD|
|Successfully implement the work program for the General Agricultural Census||INSD-DGPSA|
|Conduct a survey on monitoring the expenditure of deconcentrated Health and Basic Education services||INSD|
|PILLARS/PROGRAMS/SUBCOMPONENTS||2005 Programming||Amount acquired or mobilized||2005 Expenditure||Mobilization rate||Execution rate (expenditure/amount acquiredX100)||Funding source|
|PILLAR 1: ACCELERATION OF EQUITY-BASED GROWTH|
|Objective: Increase GDP per capita by at least 4 percent per year beginning in 2004|
|1||Consolidation of macroeconomic stability||65,0||123,0||123,0||100,0||189,2|
|1.1||Support the preparation and updating of sectoral policies||15,0||73,0||73,0||100,0||486,7||GOVT|
|1.2||Monitor the PIP on an annual basis||25,0||25,0||25,0||100,0||100,0||GOVT|
|Support for DEP||25,0||25,0||25,0||100,0||100,0||GOVT|
|2||Enhance competitiveness and reduce production factor costs||20,094,4||3,337,4||1,214,1||36,4||6,0|
|2.1||Construct line connecting Bobo-Dioulasso/Ouagadougou||14,000,0||350,0||350,0||100,0||2,5|
|2.2||Electrify 10 communities per year and promote the connection of cities to the national network||3,000,0||0,0||0,0||0,0||DANIDA|
|2.3||Promote the installation of pumps to distribute petroleum products in agricultural areas||2,0||0,0||0,0||0,0|
|2.4||Introduce taxation favorable to mining investment||105,0||0,0||0,0|
|2.5||Provide small-scale mining operators with production equipment for gold sites||85,0||85,0||85,0||100,0||100,0||World Bank|
|2.6||Establish 5 gold production units (PRECAGEME)||774,5||774,5||119,5||15,4||15,4||World Bank|
|2.7||Promotion of rural metal construction enterprises and mechanics||116,9||116,9||116,9||100,0||100,0||Austria|
|2.8||Development project for the industrial and artisanal processing of cotton||231,0||231,0||67,5||29,2||29,2||Austria|
|2.9||Enterprise Development and Competitiveness Support Project||1,780,0||1,780,0||475,2||26,7||26,7||World Bank|
|3||Increase agricultural production by 30 percent per year between 2004 and 2006.||32,000,7||25,545,2||17,053,8||66,8||53,3|
|3.1||Recovery of sectors||PM||0,0||0,0|
|3.1.1||Cereal sector action plan||PM|
|3.1.2||Rice sector action plan||PM||FED/Beneficiaries|
|3.2||Support for promotion of the rural environment||32,000,7||25,545,2||17,053,8||66,8||53,3|
|3.2.2||Organization of Farmers’ Day||150,0||150,0||150,0||100,0||100,0||Govt|
|3.2.3||FEER II Program||583,6||313,3||313,3||100,0||53,7||Govt/Switzerland/Belgium Sweden|
|3.2.4||Local Development Program in the Provinces of Tapoa, Gnagna, Ganzourgou, Loroum, and Yatenga||1,806,0||2,324,0||1,320,0||56,8||73,1||AFD/FFEM|
|3.2.5||Support for the development of rural structures (WFP)||627,8||714,5||714,4||100,0||113,8||GOVT/PAM|
|3.2.6||Contribution to the development of seed farms||150,0||150,0||150,0||100,0||100,0|
|3.2.7||PAD kouritenga II||512,0||190,0||176,6||92,9||34,5||Austria|
|3.2.8||Program to support the local development of Koulpelogo (PADL/K)||512,0||244,4||135,3||55,4||26,4||Austria|
|3.2.9||PDR for Noumbiel/PDR Southwest||4,307,7||4,335,4||976,7||22,5||22,7||GOVT/FIDA/BO AD/Belgium/SNV|
|3.2.10||PDRDP of Bazega and Kadiogo||4,068,2||3,618,2||2,229,7||61,6||54,8||GOVT/AfDB|
|3.2.12||PPRP Rainfed rice||3,462,4||556,7||678,0||121,8||19,6||China|
|3.2.13||Program for the development of small-scale village irrigation (PPIV)||247,2||247,2||0,0||0,0||0,0||GOVT/FKDEA|
|3.2.14||Local development programl (PDL)/Zoundweogo||843,3||816,5||814,9||99,8||96,6||GOVT/DANIDA|
|3.2.15||Local development program (PDL)-Sanmatenga||1,473,8||2,103,4||2,103,4||100,0||142,7||GOVT/DANIDA|
|3.2.16||Local development program (PDL)-Oudalan||1,438,0||1,608,2||1,608,2||100,0||111,8||GOVT/DANIDA|
|3.2.17||Local development program (PDL)- Sanguie Boulkiemde||1,438,0||967,9||1,122,7||116,0||78,1||GOVT/DANIDA|
|3.2.20||Special contribution to development of the rural environment||1,240,6||1,240,6||1,192,9||96,2||96,2||GOVT|
|3.2.21||CES AGF 2nd phase||678,6||678,6||434,0||64,0||64,0||GOVT/FIDA|
|3.2.22||Project for the development of agropastoral resources in Namentenga (PAPNA)||866,9||866,9||239,4||27,6||27,6||GOVT/UNDP/FE NU Belgian solidarity fund|
|3.2.23||Project to support the identification of young people with their land||130,0||130,0||130,0||100,0||100,0||UNDP|
|4.||Support for the promotion of trade, industry, and handicrafts||219,6||0,0||0,0||0,0|
|4.1||Prepare the trade balance||19,6||0,0||0,0||0,0|
|4.2||Establish artisans’ offices||200,0||0,0||0,0||0,0|
|5||Promotion of the mining sector||919,5||919,5||829,5||90,2||90,2|
|5.1||Train managers for outreach to gold washers in the field||45,0||45,0||45,0||100,0||100,0|
|5.2||Train small-scale mining operators in management techniques||100,0||100,0||10,0||10,0||10,0|
|6||Raise the income level of agricultural operators by 3 percent per year and per operator between 2004 and 2006||3,390,0||3,090,5||2,599,2||84,1||76,7|
|6.1||Increase in production and support for the processing and marketing of agricultural products||3,390,0||3,090,5||2,599,2||84,1||76,7|
|6.1.1||Improve living conditions (PDR - Boulgou)||1,206,0||1,206,0||1,370,6||113,6||113,6||DANIDA|
|6.1.2||ECOSOC- PPOKK Project||965,7||965,7||916,4||94,9||94,9||Belgium|
|6.1.3||Implementation of systems reform||618,2||318,8||93,2||29,2||15,1|
|7||Create conditions conducive to the availability and accessibility of sufficient and balanced foodstuffs for the population||3,346,1||6,985,7||6,485,7||92,8||193,8|
|7.1||Strengthen food security and management of the national security stock||3346,1||6985,7||6485,7||92,8||193,8|
|7.1.1||Support for strengthening the food security stock||1,560,0||4,816,3||4,816,3||100,0||308,7||GOVT|
|7.1.2||SONAGESS security stock||1,500,0||1,500,0||1,000,0||66,7||GTZ/Japan|
|7.1.3||Agricultural statistics and early warning system||100,0||100,0||100,0||100,0||100,0|
|7.1.4||Support for strengthening the food program (WFP)||186,1||569,4||569,4||100,0||305,9|
|8||Expand and strengthen the sustainable management of natural resources in 2002-2006||13,995,2||15,317,5||8,281,1||54,1||59,2|
|8.1||Protect natural resources and ecosystems||13,995,2||15,317,5||8,281,1||54,1||59,2|
|8.1.1||Construction of manure pits||50,0||50,0||50,0||100,0||100,0|
|8.1.2||Food security project/rehabilitation of degraded land in the North||410,9||410,9||80,0||19,5||19,5||GOVT, BOAD, Beneficiaries|
|8.1.4||PNGT II||8,035,0||8,094,0||3,604,6||44,5||44,9||GOVT/IDA/DANI DA/UNDP/FIDA/SILEM|
|8.1.5||Input Purchase Program/PIV||114,0||114,0||114,0||100,0||100,0|
|8.1.7||Natural resources management project/Seno-Yagha||1,058,0||1,058,0||866,8||81,9||81,9||DANIDA|
|8.1.9||Project for sustainable management of forestry resources in the southwest, eastern central, and eastern regions (PROGEREF)||46,0||46,0||0,0||0,0||0,0||FAD|
|8.1.10||Project to support PSB/UNDP||258,4||357,5||83,2||23,3||32,2||UNDP|
|8.1.11||Project to support wildlife conservation units (PAUCOF)||771,6||771,6||677,1||87,8||87,8||GOVT, AFD, FEM|
|9||Put in place by 2007 instruments for the sustainable management of water resources (legal and technical instruments)||30,0||30,0||30,0||100,0||100,0|
|9.1||Water resources inventory and planning||30,0||30,0||30,0||100,0||100,0|
|9.1.1||Water resources inventory and planning||30,0||30,0||30,0||100,0||100,0||GOVT|
|10||Develop 1,000 ha per year in 2004-2006||39,553.0||39,210.9||25,477.0||65.0||64.4|
|PILLARS/PROGRAMS/SUBCOMPONENTS||2005 Programming||Amount acquired or mobilized||2005 Expenditure||Mobilization rate||Execution rate (expenditure/amount acquiredX100)||Funding source||Responsible unit|
|10.1||Development of hydroagricultural facilities||39553,0||39210,9||25477,0||65,0||64,4|
|10.2||Yakouta 1 construction||336,0||336,0||300,6||89,5||89,5||CHINA||MAHRH|
|10.3||Small Sud Ouest 1 dam||275,6||30,0||25,7||85,5||9,3||GOVT/Germany||MAHRH|
|10.4||Development and management of small areas||275,6||275,6||0,0||0,0||MAHRH|
|10.5||Construction of various dams||640,0||640,0||609,9||95,3||95,3||GOVT||MAHRH|
|10.6||Bagre integrated rural development project (Bagre/Hydroagriculture)||3,105,6||1,749,3||1,491,6||85,3||48,0||GOVT/BID/FKD EA/FSD/OPEC||MAHRH|
|10.7||AEP Ouaga ZIGA Project||27,735,5||30,309,8||20,546,0||67,8||74,1||GOVT/FKDEA/B||MAHRH|
|10.8||Development of 910 ha in DEBE (AMVS)||1,450,5||1,115,1||816,1||73,2||56,3||GOVT, BID||MAHRH|
|10.9||Samandeni dam project||2,071,9||1,092,9||628,2||57,5||30,3||GOVT/Abu Dabi/BID||MAHRH|
|10.10||Integrated water resources management||434,5||434,5||278,4||64,1||64,1||GOVT/DANIDA||MAHRH|
|10.11||Pilot project for the development of private irrigation and related activities||173,1||173,1||4,1||2,4||2,4||Govt/IDA||MAHRH|
|10.12||Liptako Gourma III water supply project||512,2||512,2||406,3||79,3||79,3||GOVT/BOAD||MAHRH|
|10.13||Project for agricultural development downstream from small dams in the East||1,059,8||1,059,8||370,1||34,9||34,9||MAHRH|
|10.14||Program for the development of water resources in the West||613,6||613,6||348,0||56,7||56,7||GOVT/FED||MAHRH|
|10.15||Project to promote the sustainable management of small dams||650,0||650,0||100,0||15,4||15,4||GOVT/AfDB||MAHRH|
|10.16||Program for the development of small-scale irrigation||219,0||219,0||0,0||0,0||0,0||MAHRH|
|11||Increase pluviometry activities||460,0||460,0||460,0||100,0||100,0||-|
|11.1||Induced rainfall operation - SAAGA||460,0||460,0||460,0||100,0||100,0|
|12||Using and increasing the value of catches||926,9||926,9||433,6||46,8||46,8|
|12.1||Project for the co-management of fisheries in Kompienga and Bagre||137,1||137,1||76,5||55,8||55,8||MAHRH|
|12.2||Fishery products supply and distribution center project (CADIPP)||589,8||589,8||157,1||26,6||26,6||MAHRH|
|12.3||Outfitting of 3 alewife production centers||100,0||100,0||100,0||100,0||100,0||MAHRH|
|12.4||Establishment of a pilot aquafarm||100,0||100,0||100,0||100,0||100,0||MAHRH|
|13||Construction of cultural infrastructure||206,0||139,6||121,7||87,2||59,1|
|13.1||Popular theater of Gaoua||45,0||0,0||0,0||0,0||MCAT|
|13.3||Construction of the headquarters of the national museum (storage area)||101,0||89,6||71,7||80,0||71,0||Govt||MCAT|
|13.4||Naba OUBRI Mausoleum||20,0||20,0||100,0||GOVT||MCAT|
|13.5||Naba YADEGA Mausoleum||13,6||13,6||100,0||GOVT||MCAT|
|13.6||Naba AMORO Mausoleum||10,5||10,5||100,0||GOVT||MCAT|
|13.9||Pobe Mengao Camp||18,5||18,5||100,0||GOVT||MCAT|
|13.10||SNC accommodation center||100,0||100,0||100,0||GOVT||MCAT|
|13.12||Strengthen the capacities of “national artistic groups”||182,0||182,0||100,0||GOVT||MCAT|
|13.13||Kaya Regional Directorate||79,2||33,3||42,1||Morocco||MCAT|
|13.14||Procurement of three 32-seat buses and three 3 dual cabs and one vehicle||202,5||202,5||100,0||GOVT||MCAT|
|13.15||Procurement of a generator for Toma||6,9||6,9||100,0||GOVT||MCAT|
|14||Development of cinematographic activities||154,9||30,0||30,0||100,0||19,4|
|14.1||Fespaco administrative block||154,9||30,0||30,0||100,0||19,4||MCAT|
|TOTAL SUBPROGRAM 1||115,361,3||96,116,2||63,138,7||#VALUE!||1,058,1|
|SUBPROGRAM 2: GUARANTEE ACCESS FOR THE POOR TO basic social services and welfare|
|Objective: Improve the delivery of and access for the poor to basic social services and welfare|
|1||Promotion of access for the poor to education services||85,116,5||64,821,1||34,655,8||53,5||40,7|
|1.1.2||School water supply project||3,885,6||3,885,6||1,169,5||30,1||30,1||GOVT, AFD||MEBA|
|PILLARS/PROGRAMS/SUBCOMPONENTS||2005 Programming||Amount acquired or mobilized||2005 Expenditure||Mobilization rate||Execution rate (expenditure/amount acquiredX100)||Funding source|
|1.1.3||Basic education project (ES-CEBNF)||1,735,5||1,735,5||1,299,5||74,9||74,9||GOVT, CHINA, UNICEF|
|1.1.4||Cathwell School Cafeteria Project||3,307,4||3,307,4||3,307,4||100,0||100,0||GOVT, CATHWEL, HIPC|
|1.1.5||Common basket (PDDEB)||19,424,2||19,424,2||1,109,4||5,7||5,7||Govt, ACDI, Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Denmark, AFD, IDA|
|1.1.7||Partnership for Nonformal Education (PENF)||369,6||369,6||261,5||70,7||70,7||ACDI|
|1.1.8||Project to improve the delivery of basic education||2,378,6||2,378,6||1,957,0||82,3||82,3||AFD|
|1.1.9||Integrated HIV/AIDS Education Pilot Project||285,3||285,3||220,7||77,4||77,4||GOVT, UNDP|
|1.1.10||One School, One Grove Project||162,2||162,2||111,9||69,0||69,0||GOVT, CHINA|
|1.1.11||School infrastructure construction program||3,547,4||3,547,4||2,983,0||84,1||84,1||GOVT|
|1.1.12||Construction/rehabilitation of DREBAs||147,0||147,0||37,2||25,3||25,3||GOVT|
|1.1.13||Project for construction of the Ouahigouya ENEP and 60 school complexes||845,8||468,7||127,1||27,1||15,0||GOVT, BID|
|1.1.14||Support for basic education BKF 6130/WFP||1,627,1||1,627,1||1,537,6||94,5||94,5||GOVT, WFP|
|1.1.15||Project to support the training of basic education staff||53,2||53,2||51,7||97,2||97,2||Netherlands|
|1.1.16||Primary education project III||4,119,3||4,119,3||3,742,0||90,8||90,8||GOVT, BID|
|1.1.17||BKF 010 Literary Support Project||1,149,7||1,149,7||1,129,2||98,2||98,2||Luxembourg|
|1.1.18||Literacy and training program||592,0||592,0||505,4||85,4||85,4||Switzerland|
|1.1.19||National Education Support Project (PAEN)||336,9||336,9||329,9||97,9||97,9||French cooperation agency|
|1.1.20||School water supply||3,885,5||3,885,5||1,169,5||30,1||30,1||GOVT, AFD|
|1.1.21||Administrative materials and equipment (all services combined+DREBA)||243,2||243,2||224,8||92,5||92,5||GOVT|
|1.2||Strengthening of secondary education||22,877,8||5,910,4||3,731,0||63,1||16,3||Govt/External financing|
|1.2.1||Construction and equipment of 60 CEGs0 and equipment of 60 classrooms (standardization)||1,680,0||1,680,0||241,0||14,3||14,3||Govt/AfDB|
|Construction and equipment of classrooms||155,0||152,6||98,5|
|Equipment of Laboratory and ETP||95,0||94,8|
|Repair of administrative buildings||160,0||160,0|
|1.2.2||Construction and equipment of 20 life/earth science (SVT) and physics/chemistry (PC) laboratories||425,0||0,0||0,0||0,0|
|1.2.3||Creation of 3 resources centers, construction of 3 EET P/18||1,200,0||852,0||119,6||14,0||10,0|
|1.2.4||Rehabilitation of 6 EETs||1,761,0||17,2||17,2||100,0||1,0||Austrian cooperation agency|
|1.2.5||Testing and installation of a modular system in Burkina Faso||717,9||94,9||18,5||19,5||2,6||AfDB|
|1.2.6||IV/AfDB education project||14,633,7||2,505,2||2,822,8||112,7||19,3||Govt/AfDB|
|1.2.7||Project in support of basic education and capacity-building||2,460,3||246,0||0,0||0,0||0,0||GOVT FAD|
|1.3||Strengthening of higher education and research||11,830,9||8,880,1||7,744,1||87,2||65,5|
|1.3.1||Construction and equipment of 2 amphitheaters (500 seats) in BOBO||200,0||200,0||120,7||60,3||60,3||CHINA|
|1.3.2||Construction and equipment of 2 amphitheaters (1,000 seats) in Ouagadougou||1,200,0||525,4||525,4||100,0||43,8||GOVT|
|1.3.3||Construction and equipment of a large (1,500 seats) library: University of Ouagadougou||1,300,0||0,0||0,0||0,0|
|1.3.4||Post-primary education project||2,704,0||2,611,0||2,710,0||103,8||100,2||Govt/World Bank|
|1.3.5||PNDSA/INERA portion||2,331,7||2,331,7||2,306,8||98,9||98,9||Govt/World Bank|
|1.3.6||PNDSA/IRSAT portion||657,9||657,9||172,5||26,2||26,2||Govt/World Bank|
|1.3.7||Technical and in-service training center||772,0||425,9||70,6||16,6||9,1||CHINA|
|1.3.8||Construction and equipment/University of Ouagadougou||145,4||292,4||292,4||100,0||201,0||Govt|
|1.3.9||ENSK: misc. construction and equipment||283,7||283,7||283,7||100,0||100,0||Govt|
|1.3.10||UPB: misc. construction||171,9||171,9||171,9||100,0||100,0||Govt|
|1.3.11||Construction equipment of CENOU||74,0||82,8||82,8||100,0||111,9||Govt|
|1.3.12||Construction of a university campus in Ouagadougou||1,990,4||990,4||717,1||72,4||36,0||Govt/OPEC|
|1.3.14||Acquisition, construction, … of the CNRST||155,6||155,6||100,0||Govt|
|3||Improvement of the living conditions of the poor||14,589,5||14,569,5||13,770,1||94,5||94,4|
|3.1||Construction of day-care center buildings||22,0||22,0||22,0||100,0||100,0|
|3.2||Construction of latrines|
|3.3||Construction of drug storage facilities at gold sites|
|3.4||Acquisition of health and safety equipment for mine operators|
|3.5||Construction of cereals banks at gold sites|
|3.6||Reforestation and combating pollution at gold sites||2,0||2,0||2,0||100,0||100,0|
|3.7||Drill water boreholes at gold sites||104,5|