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Djibouti

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
September 1998
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Table 1.Djibouti: Basic Data, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
Prel. Est.
I. Economic and Financial Indicators
(Annual percentage changes)
National income and prices
GDP at current prices3.10.33.40.7-1.23.1
GDP at constant prices-0.3-3.9-2.9-4.0-5.10.5
Consumer prices (annual average) 1/3.44.46.54.94.22.6
Consolidated government financial operations 2/
Revenue7.55.77.7-0.80.1-3.9
Grants4.8-28.8-41.6-58.869.442.4
Current expenditure 3/34.21.0-7.7-4.2-13.03.0
Investment expenditure 3/4.3-11.9-30.0-70.97.011.8
Money and credit 4/
Net foreign assets-16.23.3-2.6-3.6-10.3-4.1
Net domestic assets10.0-5.54.16.90.22.7
Claims on the central government (net)9.61.81.92.0--2.5
Claims on the private sector 5/-0.8-3.81.18.02.0-0.3
Money and quasi money-6.2-2.21.53.3-10.0-1.4
External sector
Exports, f.o.b.-25.733.9-20.9-33.35.37.6
Imports, f.o.b.---5.9-7.1-13.6-2.21.3
Nominal effective exchange rate
(period averages; depreciation -)-4.53.01.6-5.54.010.5
Real effective exchange rate
(period averages; depreciation -)-2.86.23.6-4.75.110.6
(In percent of GDP)
Gross investment19.117.311.78.69.29.5
Gross national savings-2.84.81.42.02.63.1
Government financial operations 3/
Total revenue and grants39.337.234.531.131.330.0
Revenue26.928.429.529.129.527.5
Grants12.48.85.02.01.92.6
Total expenditure51.050.143.039.335.335.6
Current expenditure41.741.937.435.631.331.3
Capital expenditure9.38.25.63.74.04.3
Overall deficit, payment order basis, excluding grants 6/-24.1-21.8-13.4-10.1-5.8-8.1
Overall deficit, payment order basis, excluding grants and demobilization-11.7-13.0-13.4-10.1-5.8-7.5
Overall deficit, cash basis, excluding grants 6/-23.7-18.0-11.1-7.0-6.5-7.1
Primary balance, excluding grants-23.5-21.3-13.0-9.3-5.1-7.6
Government payment arrears (stock)
Domestic6.710.411.214.313.615.4
External3.93.95.05.05.20.3
External sector
External current account (deficit = -)
Excluding foreign budgetary transfers-28.3-15.1-13.2-5.9-5.9-6.4
(In millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise indicated)
Overall balance of payments (deficit -)-16.7-8.70.9-24.40.7-24.6
Total external public debt 7/211.6248.9277.7265.3284.3304.6
(in percent of GDP)45.052.857.054.158.660.9
External debt service (in percent of exports of locally produced goods and nonfactor services)6.95.66.67.77.75.5
Gross official reserves (in number of months of imports of domestically consumed goods and nonfactor services)3.53.33.73.53.83.4
Exchange rate
Djibouti francs per U.S. dollar (end of period)177.7177.7177.7177.7177.7177.7
II. Social and Demographic Indicators
AreaPopulationDensity
23,200 sq km660,000 (1996 estimate)25.8 per sq. km
Of whichRate of growth: 3 percent
0.4 percent arable landUnemployment rate: 40 percent 8/
Under 20 years of age: 51 percent
HealthEducation
Life expectancy at birth (years) 8/49.0Gross enrollment ratio, primary
Infant mortality rate(percent of school age children) 8/39.0
(per thousand live births) 8/115.0
Population per physician (1991)5,916.7Pupil-teacher ratio, primary47.2
Gross enrollment ratio, secondary (percent of school age children) 8/14.0
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

For expatriates only.

Fiscal year is the same as calendar year.

Includes extrabudgetary outlays financed by external grants and loans.

In relation to broad money stock at beginning of period.

Includes public enterprises.

After taking into account the program of demobilization of security and military personnel.

Public debt refers to the debt of both the central government and the public enterprise sector.

Data refer to the latest figures available.

Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

For expatriates only.

Fiscal year is the same as calendar year.

Includes extrabudgetary outlays financed by external grants and loans.

In relation to broad money stock at beginning of period.

Includes public enterprises.

After taking into account the program of demobilization of security and military personnel.

Public debt refers to the debt of both the central government and the public enterprise sector.

Data refer to the latest figures available.

Table 2.Djibouti: Gross Domestic Product by Sector of Origin at Current Prices, 1992–97
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
(In millions of Djibouti francs)
Primary sector2,1892,3272,3972,5172,6732,860
Secondary sector15,34615,19314,76814,84215,34616,101
Manufacturing3,9443,9243,8724,1054,3114,462
Construction and public works4,2754,3184,1894,4406,0356,639
Water and electricity7,1276,9506,7076,2975,0005,000
Tertiary sector56,79256,57458,46158,89257,24759,428
Commerce and tourism13,46912,68812,86813,37813,36313,831
Transport and communications13,03413,60814,22512,61813,19114,269
Banking and insurance 1/7,5287,0917,1927,9288,2778,566
Public administration19,83820,13520,99721,10718,36418,547
Other services2,9233,0523,1893,8614,0524,214
GDP at factor cost74,32774,09475,63776,25175,26678,389
Net indirect taxes9,1749,67210,97010,99010,94910,511
GDP at market pricey83,50183,76686,60787,24186,21588,900
(Annual percentage change)
Primary sector-2.76.33.05.06.97.0
Secondary sector13.9-1.0-2.80.53.44.9
Manufacturing10.5-0.5-1.36.03.13.5
Construction and public works12.01.0-3.06.035.710.0
Water and electricity17.1-2.5-3.5-6.1-4.00.0
Tertiary sector3.8-0.43.30.7-2.83.8
Commerce and tourism-0.9-5.81.44.02.83.5
Transport and communications-12.54.44.5-11.3-0.48.2
Banking and insurance 1/-0.9-5.81.410.34.03.5
Public administration29.91.54.30.5-5.01.0
Other services-12.54.44.521.13.04.0
GDP at factor cost5.5-0.32.10.8-0.14.1
Net indirect taxes-13.05.413.40.2-7.3-4.0
GDP at market prices3.10.33.40.7-1.23.1
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; the World Bank; and Fund staff estimates.

Net of imputed charge for banking services.

Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; the World Bank; and Fund staff estimates.

Net of imputed charge for banking services.

Table 3.Djibouti: Gross Domestic Product by Sector of Origin at Current Prices 1992–97(In percent of GDP)
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
Primary sector2.62.82.82.93.13.2
Secondary sector18.418.117.117.017.818.1
Manufacturing and handicrafts4.74.74.54.75.05.0
Construction and public works5.15.24.85.17.07.5
Water and electricity8.58.37.77.25.85.6
Tertiary sector68.067.567.567.566.466.8
Commerce and tourism16.115.114.915.315.515.6
Transport and communications15.616.216.414.515.316.1
Banking and insurance9.08.58.39.19.69.6
Public administration23.824.024.224.221.320.9
Other services3.53.63.74.44.74.7
GDP at factor cost89.088.587.387.487.388.2
Net indirect taxes11.011.512.711.512.711.8
GDP at market prices100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; the World Bank; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; the World Bank; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 4.Djibouti: Supply and Use of Resources at Current Market Prices, 1992–97(In millions of Djibouti francs)
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
Supply of resources150,705148,787144,693137,768136,368139,581
GDP at market prices83,50183,76586,60787,24186,21588,900
Imports of goods and nonfactor services67,20465,02258,08650,52750,15350,681
Use of resources150,705148,787144,693137,768136,368139,581
Total consumption99,01592,94496,38694,79592,82294,448
Private62,07356,04061,62561,40063,94369,609
Government36,94236,90434,76133,39528,87924,839
Gross investment15,91114,45410,1497,4637,9658,423
Private8,1147,5895,3414,2584,5344,587
Government7,7976,8654,8083,2053,4313,836
Exports of goods and nonfactor services35,78041,38938,15935,51035,58236,710
Memorandum items:
Gross national savings-2,3284,0281,2191,7672,2442,402
Resource gap-31,424-23,633-19,927-15,017-14,571-13,972
Sources: Data provided by Djibouti authorities; the World Bank; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by Djibouti authorities; the World Bank; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 5.Djibouti: Supply and Use of Resources at Current Market prices, 1992–97(In percent of GDP)
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
Supply of resources180.5177.6167.1157.9158.2157.0
GDP at market prices100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Imports of goods and nonfactor services80.577.667.157.958.257.0
Use of resources180.5177.6167.1157.9158.2157.0
Total consumption118.6111.0111.3108.7107.7106.2
Private74.366.971.270.474.278.3
Government44.244.140.138.333.527.9
Gross investment19.117.311.78.69.29.5
Private9.79.16.24.95.35.2
Government9.38.25.63.74.04.3
Exports of goods and nonfactor services42.849.444.140.741.341.3
Memorandum items.
Gross national savings-2.84.81.42.02.62.7
Resource gap-37.6-28.2-23.0-17.2-16.9-15.7
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; the World Bank; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; the World Bank; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 6.Djibouti: Agricultural Production by Species, 1992–96(In tons)
19921993199419951996 1/
Eggplant3322393943
Beetroot1913367
Carrot32333
Cauliflower/Cabbage9617910
Cucumber52
Zucchini52
Bush beans56
Corn and dourah53
Melon103671878291
Onion6542111921
Watermelon4328786572
Red pepper167109158274304
Leek100--
Oranges454856867438486
Lemons9061,0871,3041,5651,733
Dates136257260132146
Mangoes327392471565626
Other (including fruits)6075725421,2161,346
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

Latest data available.

Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

Latest data available.

Table 7.Djibouti: Annual Slaughter and Exports of Animals and Skins, 1992–96
19921993199419951996 1/
Number of animals
Slaughtered229,024180,317138,970138,002142,541
Sheep and goats196,803145,030114,247113,846118,128
Cattle32,02235,14824,60824,11324,376
Camels1131131154337
Export of animals on the hoof4,0001,1002,8252,8252,826
Sheep and goats----825825825
Cattle4,0001,1002,0002,0002,001
Exports of skins395385323
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

Latest data available.

Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

Latest data available.

Table 8.Djibouti: Purchases and Sales of Fish by the Maritime Cooperative, 1992–96(Kilograms)
19921993199419951996 1/
Purchases125,70055,917310,877335,747361,230
Lobsters--114--215
Fish, mollusks, and other shellfish125,70055,803310,877335,747361,015
Sales55,917310,877
Individuals
Fish stores
Exports
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

Latest data available.

Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

Latest data available.

Table 9.Djibouti: Production and Consumption of Electricity, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
Production212,698220,339224,085225,608202,494200,717
Number of users28,82629,87830,73232,53727,72328,599
Consumption198,695206,341209,506212,072167,002171,875
Industry95,73799,421117,180118,76178,39179,168
Households102,958106,92092,32693,31188,61192,707
Sales6,3186,5616,8377,1986,5926,550
Industry3,0453,1613,9333,4073,1203,118
Households3,2733,4002,9043,7913,4723,432
Average electricity price37.037.037.037.039.038.0
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.
Table 10.Djibouti: Production and Consumption of Running Water in Urban Areas, 1992–96(In cubic meters)
19921993199419951996 1/
Production13,85513,35014,90813,75014,049
Consumption9,8659,2379,9769,7279,525
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

Latest data available.

Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

Latest data available.

Table 11.Djibouti: Transportation Activity, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
Seaport traffic
Passenger (number)6,1037,26211,7465,3177,2563,812
Total merchandise (1,000 tons) 1/1,3021,0181,207736756720
Loaded and unloaded916695844530451508
Oil unloaded, bunkered, re-exported386323363206304212
Water supplied to ships, in cubic meters705333514444
Airport traffic
Arrivals and departures
Number of airplanes5,3927,3809,9069,0368,4028,382
Passengers (number) 2/122,414136,668130,996120,145109,923106,823
Freight (in tons)15,24510,7449,64512,2918,2539,480
Postal items (in tons)450463383338337336
Overall air traffic
Number of traffic units 3/279246232243
Percentage change-47-12-65
Train traffic
Passengers/kilometer592279
Merchandise (millions of tons/kilometer)137152112273
Percentage change511.4-26143
Road vehicles
Net new registration 4/1,2291,0678461,200
Percentage change
Of which
four-wheel vehicles (gross)823
Motor vehicle annual licenses sold7,0516,8206,578
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

Sum of loaded and unloaded merchandise, and oil traffic.

Sum of passengers arriving and departing, excluding those in transit (including military planes).

One unit of traffic equals 1,000 passengers equals 100 tons of freight equals 100 tons of postal traffic.

Includes net registration of all new four-wheel vehicles plus motorcycles less changes of registration numbers.

Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

Sum of loaded and unloaded merchandise, and oil traffic.

Sum of passengers arriving and departing, excluding those in transit (including military planes).

One unit of traffic equals 1,000 passengers equals 100 tons of freight equals 100 tons of postal traffic.

Includes net registration of all new four-wheel vehicles plus motorcycles less changes of registration numbers.

Table 12.Djibouti: Telecommunication Traffic, 1992–97
TelephoneTelephone TrafficFacsimileTelegraphic Traffic (Numbers)
NumberInternationalNationalNumberDomesticInternational
of(’000 minutes)(’000 of comm-ofSentReceivedSentReceivedIn Transit
UsersSentReceivedunications)Users
19926,3393,2421935599,0243,68258
19937,3494,2281711,4498,7012,785
19947,4364,57825,3001551104,6841,675
19957,7694,02825,2251484,4381,780
19968,1694,8414,92224,2051424,3801,800
19978,2574,9417,64524,7051,2515,0705,0971,249
Source: Data provided by Djibouti authorities.
Source: Data provided by Djibouti authorities.
Table 13.Djibouti: Postal and Telecommunication Tariffs in Force at the Beginning of the Year, 1992–97(In Djibouti francs)
199219931994199519961997
Postal service
Private letter, domestic
Up to 20 g303030303030
From 500 g to 1 kg290290290290290290
Private letter by air
10 g to France12012012012012075
Registered mail300420420420420375
Postal packet
Air, 1 kg to France3,2113,2113,2001,4101,4101,130
Postal box (annual rent)
Small size5,0005,0005,0005,0005,0005,000
Big size7,5007,5007,5007,5007,5007,500
Giant size10,00010,00010,00010,00010,00010,000
Telegraphic service
France (per word)565656565656
Europe (Sweden) (per word)111105105105105105
Telex
Tariff per unit6436436436385782,9431/
Telephone
Main subscription25,00025,00025,00025,00025,00025,000
Urban communication503550353535
International communication 2/353535353535
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

Per 3 minutes.

The unit is variable (from 2 to 10 seconds) according to the country called.

Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

Per 3 minutes.

The unit is variable (from 2 to 10 seconds) according to the country called.

Table 14.Djibouti: Tourism, 1992–95
1992199319941995 1/
Number of rooms330330330330
Number of beds546545545545
Days multiplied by rooms120.8120.5120.5120.5
Days multiplied by beds199.8198.9198.9198.9
Number of tourists27.624.746.620.0
Number of nights sold79.498.169.181.3
Occupancy rate39.949.334.740.8
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

Latest data available.

Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

Latest data available.

Table 15.Djibouti: Expatriate Consumer Price Index by Product Group, 1992–97(1989 = 100)
Percentage

Weight
Prel.

Est.
199219931994199519961997
General index117.6122.8130.8137.2142.9145.8
Percentage change3.44.46.54.94.22.0
Food41.0123.3128.1132.9143.7151.0152.2
Water, gas, electricity6.0102.2102.2113.3113.3113.3113.4
Domestic help6.0127.2127.2127.2127.2127.2127.4
Maintenance14.0116.8126.8141.1147.0151.5151.9
Transport and tourism17.0109.8114.9133.6134.8139.2139.7
Miscellaneous16.0113.2119.2120.6126.5134.8135.2
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.
Table 16.Djibouti: Demand for Employment and Registered Offers at the National Employment Service, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
New demands3,9924,2995,1764,9273,7802,405
Offers8994471,3401,414836604
Difference-3,093-3,852-3,836-3,513-2,944-1,801
Sum of nonsatisfied demands since 197754,28258,13461,97065,48368,42770,228
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.
Table 17.Djibouti: Number of Government Employees, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
Total number of government employees 1/12,09812,33612,51712,55111,57211,155
(percentage change)0.32.01.50.3-7.8-3.6
Of which
Interior2,3232,3332,3332,3462,3342,334
Percent of total19.218.918.618.720.220.9
National education1,4481,5341,5501,6181,7391,756
Percent of total12.012.412.412.915.015.7
Health1,0241,0671,0671,1521,1681,175
Percent of total8.58.68.59.210.110.5
Public works401405406551551327
Percent of total3.33.33.24.44.82.9
Agriculture342356356422357294
Percent of total2.82.92.83.43.12.6
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Including the army, the police, and contract personnel, but excluding mobilized personnel.

Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Including the army, the police, and contract personnel, but excluding mobilized personnel.

Table 18.Djibouti: Employment and Wage Bill, 1992–97(In millions of Djibouti francs, except as noted)
199219931994199519961997
Central Government
Number of employees 1/12,09812,33612,51712,55111,57211,155
Percentage change0.32.01.50.3-7.8-3.6
Wage bill 1/15,35015,76616,02617,33014,50215,423
Average annual wage1.31.31.31.41.31.4
Private sector and parastatals
Number of employees17,612
Wage bill12,208
Average annual wage (thousands)727
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Including the army, the police, and contract personnel, but excluding mobilized personnel.

Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Including the army, the police, and contract personnel, but excluding mobilized personnel.

Table 19.Djibouti: Public Investment Program, 1992–97(In millions of Djibouti francs)
Prel.

Est.
199219931994199519961997
Primary sector5409507431,9641,213729
Agriculture2002251082099350
Livestock and fishing495278751683680
Rural water and power2916735571,0044370
Secondary sector2,1911,0551,5691,9369531,040
Industry--
Mining93139--------
Water2,013811921464344309
Electricity77284821,387609731
Handicraft87716685----
Infrastructure9,6598,4135,9975,0924,2684,825
Roads3,2532,6401,907590111415
Port4,9212,9952,4972,4981,6991359
Air transport7771,434603149109--
Post and telecommunications35270673260336302
Construction1211516574--
Urban development5521,0603011,0212,0132748
Tourism--
Social sectors3,1404,2583,7332,0248311,006
Population and employment1086426964285120
Education and training1,4711,8322,3161,302345464
Health431532277356301315
Culture and sports53269969------
Social development and women295496336228100107
Environment----------
Communication239261196----
Other643228------
Administration, planning, and finance2,2882,7132,5041,172697447
Economic management1,5251,6791,422910697447
Administrative equipment7631,0341,082262--
Total17,81817,39014,54612,1887,9628,047
Public enterprises10,02110,5249,7428,9824,5314,211
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 20.Djibouti: Consolidated Fiscal Operations, 1992–97(In millions of Djibouti francs)
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
Revenue22,46323,75125,59125,39025,39524,408
Tax revenue21,19322,46124,32023,56923,48621,881
Nontax revenue1,2701,2901,2711,8211,9092,527
Total expenditure42,58041,98237,21734,24230,43031,649
Current expenditure34,78335,11632,40931,03626,99927,813
Wages and salaries19,83820,13520,99721,10718,34819,701
Material and supplies9,6369,5235,7406,4414,2684,400
Maintenance657555635454422453
Other 1/2,1082,1622,5353,0343,9613,259
Capital expenditure7,7976,8664,8083,2063,4313,836
Balance (payment-order)-20,117-18,231-11,626-8,852-5,035-7,241
Arrears (decrease = -)2873,1311,9842,772-603953
Balance (cash-basis)-19,830-15,100-9,642-6,080-5,636-6,288
Financing19,83015,1009,6426,0805,6386,288
Domestic financing8,0214,8993,2042,8871,085405
Bank financing5,6901,0431,0601,12151880
Nonbank financing2,3313,8572,1441,7661,034-475
External financing11,80910,2016,4383,1934,5533,802
Grants10,3667,3824,3141,7791,6112,294
Net borrowing432,5542,063-1,8562,8351,492
Debt regularization0003,27010716
External financing gap000002,081
Financing secured000002,0812/
Residual gap000000
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes estimates of extrabudgetary current outlays financed by external grants and loans.

Comprising DF 786 million in grants for the demobilization program, DF 290 million in budgetary grants, and DF 1,005 million in debt regularization.

Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes estimates of extrabudgetary current outlays financed by external grants and loans.

Comprising DF 786 million in grants for the demobilization program, DF 290 million in budgetary grants, and DF 1,005 million in debt regularization.

Table 21.Djibouti: Government Revenue, 1992–97(In millions of Djibouti francs)
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
Total revenue22,46323,75125,59125,39025,39524,408
Tax revenue21,19322,46124,32023,56923,48621,881
Direct taxes8,7289,1869,8439,43410,4099,560
Property tax7239117948281,078932
Licenses1,3451,4051,2071,1591,4541,312
Tax on wages and salaries3,0672,7193,1623,0983,6753,262
Tax on income and profits1,5881,6732,0241,7411,6271,426
Tax on companies1,2991,1511,5811,3181,2711,062
Other (BIC, BNC, and PVI)288522444423356364
Other224286615711339564
Patriotic contribution1,7822,1932,0421,8972,2362,064
Indirect taxes11,17712,03813,10112,72511,79811,323
Domestic taxes8,0498,0428,1547,8587,4387,117
Surcharge on Khat1,4831,9722,2562,3452,2362,192
Surcharge on petroleum products4554131,0731,0911,0411,021
Surcharge on tobacco513707682592467251
Surcharge on alcohol413603650537500484
Other surcharges266301285302116258
Registration, tags and stamp duties1,2871,2381,3761,4111,279998
Registration fees and tags573584582788595527
Stamp duties560506409302388471
Other1541473863212960
Nontax revenue1,2701,2901,2711,8211,9092,527
Estate revenue1491611413814431
Service revenue398483356266283289
Other5514394891,0219291,623
Property sales172207285496690
Debt relief484174
Other fees290
Reimbursement of family benefits120
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 22.Djibouti: Government Revenue, 1992–97(In percent of GDP)
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
Total revenue26.928.429.629.129.527.5
Tax revenue25.426.828.127.027.224.6
Direct taxes10.511.011.410.812.110.8
Property tax0.91.10.90.91.31.0
Licenses1.61.71.41.31.71.5
Tax on wages and salaries3.73.23.73.64.33.7
Tax on income and profits1.92.02.32.01.91.6
Tax on companies1.61.41.81.51.51.2
Other (BIC, BNC, and PVI)0.30.60.50.50.40.4
Other0.30.30.70.80.40.6
Patriotic contribution2.12.62.42.22.62.3
Indirect taxes13.414.415.114.613.712.7
Domestic taxes9.69.69.49.08.68.0
Surcharge on Khat1.82.42.62.72.62.5
Surcharge on petroleum products0.50.51.21.31.21.1
Surcharge on tobacco0.60.80.80.70.50.3
Surcharge on alcohol0.50.70.80.60.60.5
Other surcharges0.30.40.30.30.10.3
Registration, tags and stamp duties1.51.51.61.61.71.1
Registration fees and tags0.70.70.70.90.70.6
Stamp duties0.70.60.50.30.50.5
Other0.20.20.40.40.30.0
Nontax revenue1.51.51.52.12.22.8
Estate revenue0.20.20.2--0.20.0
Service revenue0.50.60.40.30.30.3
Other0.70.50.61.21.11.8
Property sales0.20.20.30.60.10.0
Debt relief0.2
Other fees0.3
Reimbursement of family benefits0.1
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 23.Djibouti: Government Revenue, 1992–97(In percent of total revenue)
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
Total revenue100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Tax revenue94.394.695.092.892.589.6
Direct taxes38.938.738.537.241.039.2
Property tax3.23.83.13.34.23.8
Licenses6.05.94.74.65.75.4
Tax on wages and salaries13.711.412.412.214.513.4
Tax on income and profits7.17.07.96.96.45.8
Tax on companies5.84.86.25.25.04.4
Other (BIC, BNC, and PVI)1.32.21.71.71.41.5
Other1.01.22.42.81.32.3
Patriotic contribution7.99.28.07.58.88.5
Indirect taxes49.850.751.250.146.546.4
Domestic taxes35.833.931.930.929.329.2
Surcharge on Khat6.68.38.89.28.89.0
Surcharge on petroleum products2.01.74.24.34.14.2
Surcharge on tobacco2.33.02.72.31.81.0
Surcharge on alcohol1.82.52.52.12.02.0
Other surcharges1.21.31.11.20.51.1
Registration, tags and stamp duties5.75.25.45.65.04.1
Registration fees and tags2.62.52.33.12.32.2
Stamp duties2.52.11.61.21.51.9
Other0.70.61.51.31.20.0
Nontax revenue5.75.45.07.27.510.4
Estate revenue0.70.70.60.10.60.1
Service revenue1.82.01.41.01.11.2
Other2.51.81.94.23.76.6
Property sales0.80.91.12.00.30.0
Debt relief0.7
Other fees1.2
Reimbursement of family benefits0.5
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 24.Djibouti: Government Expenditure, 1992–97(In millions of Djibouti francs)
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
Total expenditure42,58041,98237,21734,24230,43031,649
Current expenditure34,78335,11632,40931,03626,99927,813
Treasury33,27833,62531,46730,76225,75327,813
Wages and salaries19,83820,13520,99721,10818,34819,701
Budget allocation15,57815,92516,02616,60714,99116,658
General mobilization/demobilization4,2604,2104,9714,5013,3573,043
Mobilization4,6374,0373,2072,434
Demobilization----334464150609
Material and supplies9,6369,5235,7406,4414,2684,400
Budget allocation7,2326,3585,1596,067
General mobilization2,4033,165581374
Maintenance657555635454422453
Transfers2,0342,3752,1311,7352,1092,518
International organizations1408019390152100
Special treasury accounts17012015313278127
Publics entities276563543323312692
Private entities251149138147107155
Subsidies248248113150150409
Scholarships7551,071817859830642
Other36714235480393
Reduction in arrears15973134
Other32921285
Interest on public debt510366371602606456
External debt361167146151237200
Domestic debt106178145370255256
Certificates of deposits43218080114
Other—Adjustment5726621,5728755810
Extra-treasury1,5051,4919422746650
Capital expenditure 1/7,7966,8654,8083,2063,4313,836
Domestically financed1,7779031,038735444584
Budgetary1,343502835
Food aid proceeds10210418
Special accounts33229818593
Foreign financed6,0195,9623,7702,4702,8943,252
Functional classification
Current expenditure33,27833,62531,46731,03626,99927,813
General administration12,26312,07310,90512,30410,27111,122
Defense5,0894,7024,6484,4813,7124,019
Mobilization/demobilization6,6637,3755,5534,8753,3573,635
Social services4,4294,4884,5094,8554,4864,858
Education2,3792,5752,6153,2022,9903,238
Health2,0501,9131,8941,6531,4961,620
Economic services1,6871,5751,7581,033850920
Agriculture461483535552450487
Public works569538588481400433
Maintenance work657555635
Transfers2,0032,3662,1101,7352,1092,518
Other32921285
Interest on public debt510366371602606456
Other—Adjustment5726621,5721,1511,6080
Sources; Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Prior to 1997, the treasury did not include foreign-financed capital expenditure in its accounts; consequently the distinction was between treasury and extra-treasury capital expenditure.

Sources; Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Prior to 1997, the treasury did not include foreign-financed capital expenditure in its accounts; consequently the distinction was between treasury and extra-treasury capital expenditure.

Table 25.Djibouti: Government Expenditure, 1992–97(In percent of GDP)
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
Total expenditure51.050.143.039.235.335.6
Current expenditure41.741.937.435.631.331.3
Treasury39.940.136.335.330.531.3
Wages and salaries23.824.024.224.221.322.2
Budget allocation18.719.018.517.418.7
General mobilization/demobilization5.15.05.75.23.92.7
Mobilization5.44.63.70.7
Demobilization----0.40.60.20.7
Material and supplies11.511.46.67.45.04.9
Budget allocation8.77.66.07.0
General mobilization2.93.80.70.4
Maintenance0.80.70.70.50.50.5
Transfers2.42.82.52.02.42.8
International organizations0.20.10.20.10.20.1
Special treasury accounts0.20.10.20.20.10.1
Publics entities0.30.70.60.40.40.8
Private entities0.30.20.20.20.10.2
Subsidies0.30.30.10.20.20.5
Scholarships0.91.30.91.01.00.7
Other--0.1----0.50.4
Reduction in arrears0.20.10.2----
Other----------0.3
Interest on public debt0.60.40.40.70.70.5
External debt0.40.20.20.20.30.2
Domestic debt0.10.20.20.40.30.3
Certificates of deposits0.1--0.10.10.1
Other—Adjustment0.70.81.80.30.70.0
Extra-treasury1.81.81.10.30.80.0
Capital expenditure9.38.25.63.74.04.3
Treasury2.11.11.20.80.60.7
Budgetary2.11.11.20.80.6
Food aid proceeds0.10.1--
Special accounts0.40.40.20.1
Extra-treasury7.27.14.42.83.43.7
Functional classification
Current expenditure (treasury)41.741.937.435.631.331.3
General administration14.714.412.611.912.5
Defense6.15.65.44.34.5
Mobilization/demobilization8.08.86.45.64.14.1
Social services5.35.45.25.25.5
Education2.83.13.03.53.6
Health2.52.32.21.71.8
Economic services2.01.92.01.01.0
Agriculture0.60.60.60.50.5
Public works0.70.60.70.50.5
Maintenance work0.80.70.7--
Transfers2.42.82.42.02.42.8
Other------0.3
Interest on public debt0.60.40.40.70.70.5
Other—Adjustment0.70.81.81.31.70.0
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 26.Djibouti: Government Expenditure, 1992–97(In percent of total expenditure)
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
Total expenditure100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Current expenditure81.783.687.190.688.787.9
Treasury78.280.184.589.886.587.9
Wages and salaries46.648.056.461.660.362.2
Budget allocation36.637.943.148.549.352.6
General mobilization/demobilization10.010.013.413.311.07.7
Mobilization11.711.710.51.9
Demobilization----0.80.60.51.9
Material and supplies22.622.715.418.814.013.9
Budget allocation17.015.113.717.9
General mobilization5.67.51.50.9
Maintenance1.51.31.71.31.41.4
Transfers4.85.75.75.16.98.0
International organizations0.30.20.50.30.50.3
Special treasury accounts0.40.30.40.40.30.4
Publics entities0.61.31.40.91.02.2
Private entities0.60.40.40.40.40.5
Subsidies0.60.60.30.40.51.3
Scholarships1.82.62.22.52.72.0
Other--0.10.10.11.61.2
Reduction in arrears0.40.20.4
Other0.1--0.10.9
Interest on public debt1.20.91.01.82.01.4
External debt0.80.40.40.40.80.6
Domestic debt0.20.40.41.10.80.8
Certificates of deposits0.10.10.20.30.4
Other—Adjustment1.41.75.22.61.90.0
Extra-treasury3.53.62.50.82.20.0
Capital expenditure18.316.312.89.411.312.1
Treasury4.22.22.82.11.81.8
Budgetary3.21.22.21.5
Food grant proceeds0.20.2--
Special accounts0.80.70.50.3
Extra-treasury14.114.210.07.29.510.3
Functional classification
Current expenditure (treasury)81.783.687.190.688.787.9
General administration28.828.729.033.835.1
Defense12.011.212.412.212.7
Mobilization/demobilization15.617.614.814.311.611.5
Social services10.410.712.014.715.3
Education5.66.17.09.810.2
Health4.84.65.04.95.1
Economic services4.03.74.72.82.9
Agriculture1.11.11.41.51.5
Public works1.31.31.61.31.4
Maintenance work1.51.31.7
Transfers4.75.65.65.16.98.0
Other0.1--0.10.9
Interest on public debt1.20.91.01.82.01.4
Other—Adjustment1.31.64.23.45.30.0
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 27.Djibouti: Financing of Consolidated Fiscal Operations, 1992–97(In millions of Djibouti francs)
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
Balance (payment-order basis and excluding grants)-20,117-18,231-11,626-8,852-5,035-7,241
Arrears (decrease = -)2863,1311,9842,773-603953
Domestic arrears2863,092993-7171,987
Wages and salaries1,678-165-2772,242
Goods and services2861,4141,158-440-255
On budget746211,054-568-135
On special accounts213806104-128-120
External arrears--39991114-1,034
Balance (cash basis and excluding grants-19,830-15,100-9,642-6,079-5,638-6,288
Financing19,83015,1009,6426,0795,6386,288
Domestic financing8,0214,8993,2042,8871,085405
Bank financing5,6901,0431,0601,12151880
Central bank5,5245931451404011,105
Claims on government--307227--741431
Government deposits5,52428682140-340-674
Reserve fund----13213500
Treasury cash in vaults-853-81-35-8-6
Other-4,671-205-47---332-668
Commercial banks166450915981-416-97
Claims on government--4462,079-381-257-134
Government deposits-1664-1,1641,362-15937
BDD--66-128
Nonbank financing2,3313,8572,1441,7661,034-475
Public enterprises2,3684,5731,8252,5021,843--
Short term deposits3581,9753552,0021,343--
General mobilization700----------
Budget contribution--980750500500--
Loans1,0251,150720------
Advances--400--------
Certificates of deposits28568--------
Other public entities46261-5123-37--
Customs duty bills74-47565413----
Other----56---342--
Amortization157503340772430-475
External financing11,80910,2016,4383,1934,5535,883
Grants10,3667,3824,3141,7791,6112,294
Treasury4,5743,1172,1238181,217147
Extra-treasury5,7924,2652,1919613942,147
Net borrowing432,5542,063-1,8562,8351,492
Drawings1,7323,1882,5211,7843,1251,671
Amortization1,6896344583,640290-179
Debt relief1,401265613,27010716
External financing gap000002,081
Financing secured000002,081
Residual gap000000
Memorandum items
Balance (payment-order basis and including grants)-9,751-10,849-7,312-7,033-3,424-4,947
Overall balance (cash basis and including grants)-9,465-7,718-5,328-4,300-4,027-3,994
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 28.Djibouti: Financing of Consolidated Fiscal Operations, 1992–97(In percent of total financing)
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
Overall financing100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Domestic financing40.432.433.247.519.26.4
Bank financing28.76.911.018.40.914.0
Central bank27.93.91.52.37.117.6
Claims on government--2.02.40.013.16.9
Government deposits-27.9-1.90.9-2.36.0-10.7
Reserve fund----1.4-2.20.00.0
Treasury cash in vaults-4.3-0.5---0.10.0-0.1
Other-23.6-1.4-0.50.00.0-10.6
Commercial banks0.83.09.516.1-7.4-1.5
Claims on government--3.021.6-6.30.0-2.1
Government deposits-0.8--12.1-22.4-7.40.6
BDD0.01.2-2.0
Nonbank financing11.825.522.229.118.3-7.6
Public enterprises11.930.318.941.232.7--
Short term deposits1.813.13.732.923.8--
General mobilization3.5----0.00.0--
Budget contribution--6.57.88.28.9--
Loans5.27.67.50.00.0--
Advances--2.6--0.00.0--
Certificates of deposits1.40.5--0.00.0--
Other public entities0.21.7-0.50.4-0.8--
Customs duty bills0.4-3.16.80.20.0--
Other----0.60.0-6.1--
Amortization0.83.33.512.77.6-7.6
External financing59.667.666.852.580.893.6
Grants52.348.944.729.328.636.5
Treasury23.120.622.013.521.62.3
Extra-treasury29.228.222.715.87.034.1
Net borrowing0.216.921.4-30.550.323.7
Drawings8.721.126.129.355.426.6
Amortization8.54.24.759.95.1-2.8
Debt relief7.11.80.653.81.90.3
External financing gap33.1
Financing secured33.1
Residual gap0.0
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 29.Djibouti: Financing of Consolidated Fiscal Operations, 1992–97(In percent of GDP)
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
Balance (payment-order basis and excluding grants)-24.1-21.8-13.4-10.1-5.8-8.1
Arrears (decrease = -)0.33.72.33.2-0.71.1
Domestic arrears0.33.71.1-0.82.2
Wages and salaries--2.0-0.2-0.32.5
Goods and services0.31.71.3-0.5-0.3
On budget0.10.71.2-0.7-0.2
On special accounts0.31.00.10.1-0.1
External arrears--0.10.30.1-1.2
Overall balance (cash basis and excluding grants)-23.7-18.0-11.1-7.0-6.5-7.1
Overall financing23.718.011.17.06.57.1
Domestic financing9.65.83.73.31.30.5
Bank financing6.81.21.21.30.11.0
Central bank6.60.70.20.20.51.2
Claims on government--0.40.3--0.90.5
Government deposits-6.6-0.30.1-0.20.4-0.8
Reserve fund----0.2-0.2--0.0
Treasury cash in vaults-1.0-0.1------0.0
Other-5.6-0.2-0.1-----0.8
Commercial banks0.20.51.11.1-0.5-0.1
Claims on government--0.52.4-0.4---0.2
Government deposits-0.2--1.3-1.6-0.50.0
BDD--0.1-0.1
Nonbank financing2.84.62.52.01.2-0.5
Public enterprises2.85.52.12.92.1--
Short term deposits0.42.40.42.31.6--
General mobilization0.8----0.00.0--
Budget contribution--1.20.90.60.6--
Loans1.21.40.8------
Advances--0.5--------
Certificates of deposits0.30.1--------
Other public entities0.10.3-0.1------
Customs duty bills0.1-0.60.8------
Other---------0.4--
Amortization0.20.60.40.90.5-0.5
External financing14.112.27.43.75.36.6
Grants12.48.85.02.01.92.6
Treasury5.53.72.50.91.40.2
Extra-treasury6.95.12.51.10.52.4
Net borrowing0.13.02.4-2.13.31.7
Drawings2.13.82.92.03.61.9
Amortization2.00.80.54.20.3-0.2
Debt relief1.70.30.13.70.10.0
External financing gap2.3
Financing secured2.3
Residual gap0
Memorandum items
Balance (payment-order basis and including grants)-11.7-13.0-8.4-8.1-4.0-5.6
Overall balance (cash basis and including grants)-11.3-9.2-6.2-4.9-4.7-4.5
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 30.Djibouti: Factors Affecting Changes in Domestic Liquidity, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
(In millions of Djibouti francs; changes, December to December)
Net foreign assets-9,6491,863-1,435-1,992-5,887-2,090
Monetary authorities-2,966-1,478620-1,277255-2,017
Commercial banks-6,6833,341-2,055-715-6,142-73
Net domestic assets5984-3,0702,2683,8201311,380
Domestic credit5178-1,1471,7255,5891,147886
Net credit to central government56909941,1181,121-151,064
Credit to the rest of the economy-512-2,1416074,4681,162-178
Other items (net)806-1,923543-1,769-1,016494
Money and quasi-money-3665-1,2118351,828-5,756-710
Currency in circulation2,068-930292-1,326319-236
Demand deposits835612-394-657-2,419-1,232
Time deposits-6,568-8939373,811-3,656758
(Change from year earlier, as percent of broad broad money at beginning of period)
Net foreign assets-16.23.3-2.6-3.6-10.3-4.0
Monetary authorities-5.0-2.61.1-2.30.4-3.9
Commercial banks-11.26.0-3.8-1.3-10.7-0.1
Net domestic assets10.0-5.54.16.90.22.7
Domestic credit8.7-2.73.110.12.01.7
Net credit to the central government9.51.81.92.0--2.1
Credit to the rest of the economy-0.8-3.81.18.02.0-0.3
Other items net-1.43.4-1.0-3.2-7.81.0
Money and quasi-money-6.2-2.21.53.3-10.0-1.4
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 31.Djibouti: Monetary Survey and Risk Indicators, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
(In millions of Djibouti francs)
Net foreign assets35,35837,22235,78733,79527,90825,818
Monetary authorities14,80613,32813,94812,67112,92610,909
Commercial banks20,55223,89421,83921,12414,98214,909
Net domestic assets20,55217,48219,75023,57023,70125,081
Domestic credit33,54432,39834,12239,71140,85841,744
Net credit to the central government-1,885-8912271,3481,3332,397
Credit to the private sector35,42933,28833,89538,36339,52539,347
Other items (net)-12,991-14,915-14,372-16,14117,15716,663
Money and quasi-money55,91254,70455,53757,36551,60950,899
Currency in circulation11,33110,40110,6939,3679,6869,450
Demand deposits21,59422,20921,81421,15718,73817,506
Time deposits22,98622,09423,53026,84123,18523,943
(In percent)
Risk indicators
Share of non-performing loans in total loans13.212.713.113.914.614.9
Share of foreign exchange loans in total lending21.115.916.824.123.820.4
Share of foreign exchange deposits in total deposits37.444.744.051.948.856.2
Share of foreign currency-denominated liabilities in total liabilities36.941.039.346.746.650.3
Share of foreign currency-denominated assets in total assets60.060.159.060.056.654.2
Share of housing loans in total loans7.912.611.48.18.9
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 32.Djibouti: Analytical Accounts of the Monetary Authorities, 1992–97(In millions of Djibouti francs, end of period)
199219931994199519961997
Foreign assets14,82313,34713,96212,68813,68212,052
Monetary cover 1/11,81410,85911,27710,08910,1129,977
Other foreign assets2,4562,4512,6852,5843,5441,954
SDR holdings3737--1526137
Reserve position in the Fund516---------16
Claims on government 2/--3075345341,2751,839
Claims on commercial banks 2/39404042303405
Reserve money12,18711,25011,86910,37010,25010,144
Currency outside banks11,33110,40110,6939,3679,6869,450
Currency issued 3/11,81410,85911,27710,08910,1129,977
Less: Currency held by treasury91252223159
Less: Banks’ cash392433562699411518
Currency with banks392433562699411518
Banks’ deposits4644166143.04153176
Foreign liabilities171914177561,143
Government deposits 2/956719743603943515
Other items (net)1,7021,7061,9102,2743,311-2,494
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

The monetary cover is equivalent to the sum of ‘Currency outside banks’, currency inside banks, and currency in the treasury.

As of December 1996, includes overdraft advances.

Includes currency held by the treasury.

Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

The monetary cover is equivalent to the sum of ‘Currency outside banks’, currency inside banks, and currency in the treasury.

As of December 1996, includes overdraft advances.

Includes currency held by the treasury.

Table 33.Djibouti: Analytical Accounts of the Commercial Banks, 1992–97(In millions of Djibouti francs; end of period)
199219931994199519961997
Reserves8689251,1481,065638778
Foreign assets35,56138,96737,59437,31430,80129,719
Correspondent accounts34,08835,92536,13535,68528,98228,619
Other1,4733,0421,4591,6291,8191,100
Claims on the government--4462,5252,1441,5691,678
Claims on the economy35,15632,54033,80138,24739,42539,247
Claims on public enterprises444483419464599778
Claims on the private sector34,71232,05733,38237,78338,82638,469
Total assets/liabilities71,58572,87875,06878,77072,43371,422
Demand deposits21,59422,20821,81421,15718,73817,506
Time deposits22,98622,09423,03026,84123,18523,943
Foreign liabilities15,00915,07315,75516,19015,81914,810
Correspondent accounts9,1257,1818,7928,4527,1067,691
Demand deposits3,9334,2913,7483,4024,2702,886
Time deposits1,5741,4101,4682,5142,3492,212
Other3762,1911,7471,8222,0942,021
Government deposits9299252,089727568605
Credit from the central bank3940404040406
Other items (net)11,02912,54012,34013,81514,08314,152
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.
Table 34.Djibouti: Analytical Accounts of the Development Bank of Djibouti, 1992–97(In millions of Djibouti francs; end of period)
199219931994199519961997
Cash and bank deposits251261167803024
Claims on private sector4,2024,4724,2774,1263,5372,530
Claims on the government44148296296362601
Total assets/liabilities4,4974,8814,7404,5023,9293,155
Time deposits663131316
Long-term foreign liabilities64471261070580415
Government lending funds1,9991,7881,5421,5331,180919
Capital accounts1,5291,5571,5578071,6961,301
Other items, net3198181,000561441514
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.
Table 35.Djibouti: Structure of Interest Rates, 1995–97(In percent per annum)
Time Deposits 1/Lending Rate 2/
Min. MaxMin. Max
1995
3rd quarter4.0-6.59.9-12.8
4th quarter4.2-6.09.4-13.1
1996
1st quarter3.7-4.39.2-13.9
2nd quarter2.0-6.09.2-13.6
3rd quarter2.0-4.89.5-13.2
4th quarter2.1-4.09.5-13.3
1997
1st quarter3.4-4.09.1-12.1
2nd quarter2.0-4.09.1-12.3
3rd quarter2.0-4.09.2-12.4
4th quarter3.6-6.09.2-12.4
Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

The minimum balance for time deposits in Djibouti francs is DF 1,000,000 with a minimum term of one month.

Rate applicable to overdrafts of under DF 10 million.

Source: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities.

The minimum balance for time deposits in Djibouti francs is DF 1,000,000 with a minimum term of one month.

Rate applicable to overdrafts of under DF 10 million.

Table 36.Djibouti: Balance of Payments, 1992–97
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Exports, f.o.b.53.271.256.437.639.642.6
Of which
Locally produced goods15.712.119.313.613.812.9
Imports, f.o.b.259.1255.1237.1204.9200.5203.2
Of which
For domestic use208.6196.8191.6177.0170.7170.3
Trade balance-205.9-183.9-180.7-167.4-160.9-160.6
Services and income (net)60.173.985.2100.293.696.9
Credit177.5192.0182.0188.1183.8188.4
Debit-117.4-118.0-96.8-87.9-90.2-91.5
Of which
Interest due-4.3-2.9-3.4-3.7-3.2-3.4
Unrequited transfers74.580.255.349.046.944.7
Official83.990.666.260.157.053.6
Private-9.4-10.4-10.9-11.1-10.1-8.8
Current account (including official transfers)-71.4-29.8-40.2-18.2-19.4-18.9
Current account (excluding official transfers)-155.2-120.4-106.4-78.3-76.4-72.5
Capital account54.721.141.0-6.220.1-5.6
Foreign direct investment2.31.41.43.23.32.4
Public capital36.434.026.2-12.315.718.0
Drawings43.440.834.415.926.024.3
Amortization-7.0-6.8-8.2-28.1-10.2-6.3
Private capital16.0-14.313.42.82.2-26.0
Commercial banks37.6-18.811.64.034.60.4
Other capital and errors and emissions-21.64.51.8-1.2-32.4-26.4
Overall balance (deficit -)-16.7-8.70.9-24.40.7-24.6
Financing (decrease -)16.78.7-0.924.4-0.712.9
Payments arrears (decrease -)--0.42.6-1.2--1.4
Net foreign assets of the central bank (increase -)16.78.3-3.57.2-1.411.5
Assets16.78.3-3.57.2-5.69.2
Liabilities--------4.22.3
Of which
Use of Fund credit--------4.21.5
Exceptional financing received 1/------18.40.611.7
(In percent of GDP)
Memorandum items:
Imports for domestic use44.441.839.336.035.234.0
Exports of locally produced goods3.32.64.02.82.82.6
Imports by French army 2/24.946.230.230.929.029.4
Current account (including official transfers)-15.2-6.3-8.2-3.7-4.0-3.8
Current account (excluding official transfers)-33.2-25.5-21.8-15.9-15.7-14.5
Outstanding debt45.052.857.054.158.660.9
Debt service payments (in percent of locally produced goods and nonfactor services)6.45.66.67.77.75.5
Debt stock (in percent of exports of locally produced goods and nonfactor services)129.2143.2156.3150.3163.0172.2
Official reserves
In millions of U.S. dollars83.475.178.671.477.067.8
In number of months of imports 3/3.53.33.73.53.83.4
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes debt relief and arrears regularization.

This information is provided to facilitate comparison with pre-1996 reports, where imports by the French army were included as both imports and re-exports.

Imports of goods and nonfactor services for domestic use.

Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes debt relief and arrears regularization.

This information is provided to facilitate comparison with pre-1996 reports, where imports by the French army were included as both imports and re-exports.

Imports of goods and nonfactor services for domestic use.

Table 37.Djibouti: Direction of Trade, 1992–97 1/(In percent of total)
Prel.
199219931994199519961997
I. Imports
Industrial countries53.850.447.143.244.747.8
France15.916.215.413.414.715.1
United Kingdom10.68.36.35.85.97.4
Italy6.26.46.65.97.56.5
Japan6.75.85.25.13.55.3
Netherlands3.64.04.13.84.03.9
Other countries10.79.69.59.49.19.6
Developing countries46.249.652.956.853.252.2
Africa5.36.69.110.113.114.3
Ethiopia4.15.47.68.210.79.5
Other countries1.11.21.61.92.44.7
Asia28.624.230.832.823.022.9
Taiwan Province of China2.82.82.54.25.63.6
Singapore2.72.63.14.53.73.3
Thailand7.19.515.815.83.75.4
Hong Kong, China3.03.02.52.01.12.3
India6.15.63.53.01.64.0
Other countries6.90.73.33.17.24.2
Middle East11.017.410.911.315.013.1
Bahrain1.31.72.42.63.52.3
Saudi Arabia6.611.56.16.17.57.6
Other3.14.22.42.64.03.2
Other countries1.21.42.02.62.11.9
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
II. Exports
Industrial countries4.53.13.08.13.03.1
Developing countries95.596.997.091.996.396.9
Africa63.752.257.076.772.674.3
Somalia29.023.726.235.339.336.9
Ethiopia34.027.830.741.433.337.4
Middle East28.142.738.611.723.722.6
Yemen, Republic of25.440.737.37.620.719.0
Saudi Arabia2.21.60.53.23.02.1
Other3.72.01.43.40.71.5
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Source: IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics.

Based on data of trading partner countries.

Source: IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics.

Based on data of trading partner countries.

Table 38.Djibouti: Domestically Consumed Imports Classified by Main Product Groups, 1992–97(In millions of Djibouti francs)
Prel. Est.
199219931994199519961997
Food and beverages10,4089,8249,5628,8338,5198,718
Tobacco568536522482465476
Khat4,3464,1023,9933,6893,5573,641
Minerals490463450416401410
Petroleum products2,9732,8062,7312,5232,4332,490
Chemical products1,7731,6741,6291,5051,4511,485
Plastic products555524510471455465
Paper products, newspapers, books714674656606585598
Clothing and footwear2,8082,6512,5802,3832,2992,353
Stone, cement, ceramic, and glass products357337328303292299
Wood, wood products, and furniture719678660610588602
Metals and metal products1,7871,6861,6411,5161,4621,497
Machinery and electric appliances7,0516,6556,4785,9845,7715,906
Vehicles and transport equipment1,2541,1831,1521,0641,0261,050
Other products248234228210203208
Other transactions1,014957931860830849
Total37,06534,98434,05131,45730,33731,048
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 39.Djibouti: External Public- and Publicly-Guaranteed Debt, External Debt Service, 1993–97(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Prel.
19931994199519961997
Medium- and long-term debt and publicly-guaranteed debt 1/248.9277.7265.3284.3304.6
Bilateral loans82.594.682.196.598.6
Of which
China4.24.21.90.09.8
France9.29.29.19.81.0
Italy29.635.335.945.845.8
Kuwait23.827.427.128.029.7
Saudi Arabia12.114.48.112.912.3
United Arab Emirates3.74.10.00.00.0
Multilateral loans166.3183.1183.2187.9205.9
Of which
African Development Fund52.857.960.466.058.3
Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development15.014.514.313.313.9
Arab monetary Fund0.00.00.00.00.8
European Development2.53.23.13.63.6
International Development Association39.641.143.843.741.1
International Fund for Agriculture Development2.01.91.82.13.5
Islamic Development Bank2.82.52.42.88.5
OPEC Special Fund1.91.71.61.94.4
Disbursement40.834.515.930.226.5
Amortization6.88.328.110.26.3
Interest payment3.84.34.64.14.4
Short term0.90.90.90.91.0
Long term2.93.43.73.23.4
Arrears, stock end of period0.43.01.82.72.4
Stock beginning of period--0.43.01.82.7
New accumulation--2.60.30.90.8
Settlement--0.0-1.50.0-1.2
Memorandum items:
External public debt as percent of GDP52.857.054.158.660.9
Total debt in percent of export of locally produced goods and nonfactor services143.2156.3150.3163.0172.2
Total debt service in percent of export of locally produced goods and nonfactor services5.66.67.77.75.5
Average interest rate on total debt (in percent)1.421.451.641.361.38
Average interest rate on long-term debt (in percent)1.161.221.411.131.13
Sources: Data provided by Djibouti authorities; the World Bank Debtor Reporting System; and Fund Staff estimates.

Refers to the debt of both the central government and the public enterprise sector.

Sources: Data provided by Djibouti authorities; the World Bank Debtor Reporting System; and Fund Staff estimates.

Refers to the debt of both the central government and the public enterprise sector.

Table 40.Djibouti: Exchange Rate Data, Period Averages, 1992–97
NominalFrench
EffectiveFranc
ExchangeFrenchperUS$
RateFrancDjiboutiper
(1990=100)per US$FrancSDR
1992101.05.510.0311.389
Q1
Q2101.15.440.0311.390
Q396.04.960.0281.453
Q4101.25.260.0301.404
1993105.15.550.0311.376
Q1
Q2103.35.460.0311.413
Q3106.35.810.0331.403
Q4107.45.920.0331.373
1994110.45.860.0331.388
Q1
Q2108.95.690.0321.415
Q3105.15.350.0301.458
Q4104.55.310.0301.467
1995103.35.170.0291.493
Q1
Q299.14.920.0281.566
Q3101.04.950.0281.517
Q4102.14.930.0281.493
1996104.15.030.0281.465
Q1
Q2105.75.160.0291.446
Q3105.45.090.0291.452
Q4106.55.180.0291.444
1997112.45.600.0321.393
Q1
Q2114.55.780.0331.382
Q3118.36.090.0341.364
Q4120.55.880.0331.366
Sources: IMF, Information Notice System; and International Financial Statistics.
Sources: IMF, Information Notice System; and International Financial Statistics.
Djibouti: Summary of the Tax System

(as of March 31, 1998)

TaxNature of TaxExemptions and DeductionsAssessment Base and Rates
1.Taxes on Income, Profits, and Capital Gains
1.1Individual
- Tax on wages and salariesA progressive monthly tax levied on all wages, benefits, in cash and in kind, and pensions paid in Djibouti. The tax, payable by the employee, is withheld from wages and salariesExemptions:

Monthly wages below DF 25,000 Certain allowances and reimbursements of actual occupational expenses
Monthly cash income rate:
DF 25,000-30,000:2%
DF 30,000-100,000:6%
DF 100,000-200,000:10%
DF 200,000-400,000:14%
DF 400,000-600,000;19%
DF 600,000-800,000:25%
over DF 800,00032%
Monthly in-kind income rate:
less than DF 30,000:0%
DF 30,000-100,000:4%
DF 100,000-150,000:5%
DF 150,000-250,000:6%
DF 250,000-350,000:7%
DF 350,000-450,000:8%
DF 450,000-550,000;9%
over DF 550,00010%
- Patriotic contribution1A flat monthly tax levied on all Djibouti wages and salariesTotal of wages, benefits, and pensions less than DF 60,000 per month10 percent of taxable income
1.2Corporate
- Business lump-sum taxLevied on preceding year’s turnover of all natural or legal persons exercising handicraft, commercial, or industrial activities, or liberal professionsNot deductible from taxable income1 percent of turnover but not less than DF 120,000
- Tax on professional earningsLevied by self-assessment on profits and similar income of members of the professions and on the remuneration of business operators with a controlling interest in their companies if the amount of the tax is higher than that on the business lump sum taxExemptions:

Net profits of less than DF 600,000 a year
25 percent of profits
- Tax on business profits of individualsLevied by self-assessment on the profits of unincorporated industrial, commercial, or craft enterprisesExemptions:

Investment income As provided for in Investment Code Income from real estate
25 percent of net taxable annual profits
- Tax on company profitsLevied by self-assessment on the profits of joint-stock companies, cooperatives, and partnerships (including government-owned enterprises, mixed-economy enterprises, and industrial or commercial public enterprises)



The following three categories of taxpayers are subject to a system of estimated payments pending determination of their assessable profits for purposes of the income and profits tax (see 1.3):
Exemptions:

Income from real estate As provided for in Investment Code Net profits of less than DF 600,000 a year
25 percent of net taxable annual profits







Charchari:

10 percent of c.i.f. price of imported merchandise plus indirect duties



Livestock importers:

DF 800 per sheep or goat

DF 1,000 per head of cattle



Khat importers:

DF 100 per kilogram of khat
Itinerant enterprises;

Livestock importers; and Khat importers
1.3Other Unallocated Taxes on Income, Profits, and Capital Gains
- Tax on real estate capital gainsLevied on buildings upon transfer and payable by transferrer. Same for land without buildingsExemptions:

Principal residences

Real estate assets of enterprises

Sales below DF 100,000
5 percent of net capital gain
2.Taxes on Property
2.1Recurrent Taxes on Immovable Property
- Real property tax on buildingsAssessed on the annual rental value of the property beginning with the sixth year following the year of building completion. Buildings may be exempted for a maximum of ten years after completion under the Investment CodeExemptions:

Public buildings

Religious and sports facilities

Industrial facilities (Investment Code)

Deductions:

20 percent of rental value for amortization, maintenance, and insurance



Exemptions:

Government property

Land used for schools, sports, humanitarian, or social welfare purposes

Agricultural land in farming use outside urban areas. Land owed by international organizations, embassies, and consulates of accredited countries
DF 0-1,120,00:10%
DF 1,120,001-3,840,000:20%
DF 3,840,001-6,720,000:25%
Over DF 6,720,000:30%
- Real property tax on unbuilt landLevied on unbuilt land, on land under buildings temporarily exempt from the real property tax on buildings during the exemption period, and on vacant land belonging to a building to the extent that it exceeds three times the built-on areaExemptions:

Government property Properties used for educational, sporting, huma purposes
21 percent of rental value
Developed agricultural land Properties of international organizations, embassies, and consulates
- Tax on undeveloped real propertyLevied on real property not recorded as being in use by January 1 of the tax year, or no longer in use for a period of over five yearsExemptions:

Public property

Agricultural plots

Lots belonging to international organizations, embassies, and consulates of accredited countries
5 percent of assessed value
- Garbage removal taxLevied yearly from the owners, users, or principal tenants of real property on the same basis as the real property tax on buildingsExemptions:

industrial enterprises Buildings in governmental use Buildings without garbage removal services
4.5 percent of rental value after 20 percent deduction
2.2Taxes on Financial and Capital Transactions
- Registration dutyPayable on documents under private seal, public civil documents, Judicial documents, verbal leases, and transfers inter vivos or causa mortis



Prorated duty applies to all legal documents involving obligation, release, condemnation, placement or payment of money or securities, transfers of real and movable property, and insurance premiums

A fixed duty is collected on all other legal documents

A progressive duty is payable on transfers inter vivos or causa mortis
Exemptions:

Transactions to which the government is a party

Investment Code approvals Miscellaneous (see Registration and Stamp Duty Code)

Embassies
Prorated duty:

5 percent and 10 percent



Fixed duty:

DF 2,000

DF 4,000

DF 6,000



Progressive duty:

See Registration Code schedule
- Recordation dutyLevied on the provisional or definitive grant or the conveyance of real property, and for the registration or cancellation of mortgages. Subrogation of mortgages is not subject to the duty. Definitive grants are subject to prior assessmentExemptions:

The government Investment Code approvals
Recordation:

DF 200,500,1,000 or 5,000 per sheet or act
3.Domestic Taxes on Goods and Services
3.1Taxes on Specific Services
- Tax on construction permits



- Gambling levy
Levied upon filing of applications for construction permits with the Ministry of Public Works, Town Planning, and HousingExemptions:

Government buildings Investment Code approvals
1.5 percent of planned construction cost



30 percent of the gross proceeds from gambling
3.2Taxes on Use of Goods or on Permission to Use Goods or to Perform Activities
- Patent (business license duty)Payable by all persons engaged in an industrial or commercial activity within Djibouti. A special annual patent is levied on industrial, commercial, or agricultural companies head-quartered in Djibouti but operating mainly abroad. The same applies to holding companies and financing companies headquartered in Djibouti. For collection purposes, a distinction is made between the regular patent and the prepaid patentExemptions:

The government and public enterprises Certain occupations (e.g., midwives, fishermen)

As provided for in the Investment Code; the term and conditions of the exemption are set forth in the approval decision

Importer patents are not required for transshipment, transit, provisioning, and fueling of ships and aircraft or for re-export
The patent is made up of a fixed duty and a prorated one, both specified for each industry in the general schedule of patents



Fixed duty: Set for each enterprise carrying out operations subject to the patent. Persons engaged in various kinds of business through a single enterprise pay the patent only on the operations subject to the highest duty, except where the operations are defined as not consistent for purposes of taxation
The official assessment for the latter is used only to finalize the amount; they apply mainly to business of an itinerant nature (e.g., traveling salesmen). (Excludes the surcharge of 7.5 percent levied for the international Chamber of Commerce and Industry)(non cumulables (NC)); (e.g., an importer’s patent: NC)



Prorated duty: Based on the rental value of the premises, whatever their type, in which the occupations subject to the duty are performed
- License feesPayable for the entire calendar year by all persons authorized to sell beverages. The amount depends on the type of establishment and on its hours and location
ClassRate
1 A:DF 700,000
1 B:DF 580,000
2 A:DF 400,000
2 B:DF 350,000
3:DF 250,000
4:DF 200,000
5:DF 150,000
6:DF 15,000
7:DF 3,000
8:DF 240,000
- Market taxFor permits to sell at retail in a marketCovered market: DF 10 per day

Covered stalls: DF 210 per month

Pavilion:

Full place—DF 2,000 per month

Half place—DF 1,000 per month
- Weights and measures dutyAnnual duty levied by the Economic Affairs and Prices ServiceDF 100-5,000 per weighing or measuring device
- Drivers’ license and registration feeSpecific fees apply to the issue of drivers’ licenses, registrations, and transfer authorizations
Driver’s license:
Issue:DF 7,000
Change:DF 7,000
Duplicate:DF 5,000
Registration:

DF 4,500 per HP (DF 90,000 maximum)
- Differentiated motor vehicle feeLevied on all motor vehicles
1-4 HPDF 15,000
5-9 HPDF 20,000
10-20 HPDF 25,000
Over 20 HPDF 30,000
- Recreational boat registration feeLevied annually on boat owners in accordance with engine sizeExemptions:

Professional fishermen
DF 500 per actual HP
3.3Domestic consumption tax (TIC)Levied on all goods imported into and consumed in Djibouti







Vegetable oil, sugar, food paste, powder milk, and medicines
Exemptions:

Diplomatic privileges investment Code approval Special agreements Specific decrees or arrêtés
Base: c.i.f. value or reference value 5 percent on food products Specific duty of DF 5/kg on fresh vegetables and cereals

Standard rates (on valeurs mercuriales):10 percent
20 percent
33 percent
Rate: 10 percent
- Dairy products and fruit juice taxLevied on imports of:

Dairy products

Fruit juices

Other carbonated flavored beverages
DF 160 per kilogram (net)
- Meat inspection taxLevied for inspection of meat and other imported foodstuffs of animal originMeat, fish, cheese, yogurt, honey:

DF 100 per kilogram

Milk, eggs: DF 20 per kilogram
- ToiletriesDF 300 per liter of alcohol content
- PerfumesDF 2,500 per liter of alcohol content
- Mineral water tax and soft drinksLevied on imported mineral water and locally-produced soft drinksDF 14 per liter
- Alcohol surtaxLevied on alcohol, alcoholic beverages, and similar productsExemptions:

Denatured alcohol Nondenatured ethanol, 80° or higher, for medicinal use
Table wines: DF 100 per liter Other alcoholic beverages: DF 4,700 per liter of alcohol content Ad valorem for champagne and brandies: 160 percent of c.i.f. value
- Petroleum products surtaxLevied on imported petroleum productsExemptions:

None except those provided for under international conventions
Regular and premium gasoline:

DF 49.50 per liter

Gas oil: DF 6 per liter

Kerosene: DF 14 per liter

Lubricants: DF 100 per liter

Jet fuel; DF 2 per liter
- Khat surtaxLevied on all qat imports for local consumptionDF 850 per kilogram gross weight
- Tobacco surtaxLevied on all tobacco imported for domestic consumption27 percent of c.i.f. import value
4.Taxes on International Trade and Transactions
4.1Export Duties
- TIC on re-exported tobacco and alcoholLevied on tobacco and alcohol in transit and re-exported by sea, air, or landExemptions

Loaded on ships of 200 tons and more Loaded on wagons inside the port area Accompanied by documentation showing an agreed destination
10 percent of c.i.f. value
4.2Other Taxes on International Trade and Transactions
- Health certificateIssued at import, export, and transit of livestock on the hoof and of leather and hidesLivestock:

Cattle and camels: DF 1,000 per head

Sheep and goats: DF 200 per head

Leather and hides: DF 6,000 per ton
- Nonresident taxLevied on compensation paid to individuals and corporations not domiciled in Djibouti. Taxable compensation consists of:

• remuneration paid for services of any kind rendered or used in Djibouti;

• royalties received for use of copyright, patents, trademarks, and similar intellectual property
Exemptions:

International transport operations and related services

Charter and repair of vessels and aircraft used in international transport Equipment installation costs
10 percent of gross compensation
5.Other Duties and Taxes
5.1Stamp Taxes
- Stamp dutyRequired on all civil, judicial, and extrajudicial documents and all legal deeds and writs

Passports, visas, and alien identity cards are subject to stamp duty
Exemptions:

Diplomatic corps and international organizations on their leases Miscellaneous (see Registration and Stamp Tax Code)
DF 500-1,000 per sheet

DF 200-5,000 per contract

Note 1: A 15 percent ad valorem duty applies to insurance premiums Note 2: Passports, visas, and alien identity cards: DF 1,500-20,000
Source: Information provided by the Djibouti authorities.

A temporary tax introduced in 1992 to finance exceptional expenditures associated with the general mobilization. It currently applies to all wage earners. For government and public enterprise employees, it is called budget withholding.

Source: Information provided by the Djibouti authorities.

A temporary tax introduced in 1992 to finance exceptional expenditures associated with the general mobilization. It currently applies to all wage earners. For government and public enterprise employees, it is called budget withholding.

APPENDIX II Djibouti—Public Agencies and Enterprises

Social security agencies

  • Caisse Nationale de Retraite, CNR, Ministry of Finance

  • Caisse des Prestations Sociales, CPS, Ministry of Labor

  • Coopérative Militaire de Retraite, Ministry of Defense

  • Service Medical Inter-entreprises, SMI, Ministry of Labor

Public agencies

  • Institut Scientifique d’Etudes et de Recherches, ISERST, Presidency

  • Palais du Peuple, Presidency

  • Chambre de Commerce International de Djibouti, CCID, Ministry of Commerce

  • Office National d’Approvisionnement et de Commercialisation, ONAC, Ministry of Commerce, Transport and Tourism

  • Etablissement Public des Hydrocarbures, EPH, Ministry of Commerce

  • Office National des Refugiés et Sinistrés (ONARS) - Presidency

  • Central Regional Inter-Linguistique (CRIL) - Ministry of Education

  • Office National de Tourisme et l’Artisanat

Nonfinancial public enterprises

  • Electricité de Djibouti, EdD, Ministry of Industry

  • Office National des Eaux de Djibouti, ONED, Ministry of Industry

  • Aéroport International de Djibouti, AID, Ministry of Commerce

  • Port Autonome International de Djibouti, PAID, Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications

  • Office des Postes et Télégraphes, OPT, Ministry of Interior

  • Société des Télécommunications Internationales, STID, Ministry of Interior

  • Chemin de Fer Djibouti-Ethiopien, CDE, Ministry of Commerce, and the Government of Ethiopia

  • Société Hotelière de l’Etat, Ministry of Commerce

  • Société des Eaux de Tadjourah, Ministry of Industry

  • Société Immobilière de Djibouti, SID, Presidency and Ministry of Public Works

  • Laiterie de Djibouti, LDJ, Ministry of Industry

  • Magasins Généraux, Chamber of Commerce

  • Société Aliments Bétail, (SAB), Ministry of Agriculture

Financial public enterprises

  • Banque Nationale de Djibouti, BND

  • Banque de Développement de Djibouti, BDD

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