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Bolivia

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
June 2001
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Bolivia: Basic Data

I. Social and Demographic Indicators
Area (sq. km)1,099,000Nutrition (1994)
Arable land (percent of land area)26.4Protein intake (per capita a day)46
Population (2000)Health (1999)
Total (million)8.3Physicians per 10,000 inhab.3,614
Annual rate of growth, 1990-98Health centers per 10,000 inhab.3
(percent a year)2.4Nurses per 100,000 inhab.17
Density (per sq. km.)7.4
GDP per capita (US$). 19991,044Access to electricity (1998)
Percent of dwellings
Population characteristics (1999)Urban97.0
Life expectancy at birth in years62Rural26.0
Crude birth rate (per thousand) 1/33
crude death rate (per thousand) 1/9Access to safe water (1998)
Infant mortality (per thousand live births), 1/67Percent of population
Under 5 mortality rate (per thousand)92Urban92.0
Rural44.0
Income distribution in cities (1999)
Percent of income received:Education
By highest 20 percent of households54.0Adult literacy rate (1999)85.2
By lowest 20 percent of households4.0Gross enrollment rates, in percent
Gini coefficient0.51Primary education (1997)76.0
Secondary education (1997)15.2
Distribution of urban labor force, in percent (2000)Tertiary education
Agriculture2.5
Industry and mining28.5GDP (2000)
Services69.1Millions of bolivianos52,511
Millions of U.S. dollars8,457
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, Central Bank, National Bureau of Statistics, UDAPE, and Fund staff estimates and projections.

Figures correspond to 1998.

As a percentage of the labor force, including underemployed.

Based on information provided by the Unidad de Programacion Fiscal (UPF) of the Ministry of Finance.

Flows in foreign currency are valued at the accounting exchange rate for the corresponding period. The financial system comprises the central bank, commercial banks, and the National Financial Institution of Bolivia, a state-owned second-tier bank.

M3 includes special certificates of deposits (CDD) held by the depositors of the two banks closed in November 1994, and credit to the private sector includes that of two liquidated banks. Since 1998. M3 includes CDDs and loan portfolio from the bank liquidated in December 1997.

Excluding reserves from the Fonda Latino Americano de Reservas (FLAR).

II. Economic Indicators, 1996-2000
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
(In percent of GDP)
Origin of GDP
Agriculture and mining24.827.225.925.427.3
Manufacturing and construction20.622.122.721.921.4
Services46.050.851.452.651.3
(Annual percentage changes, unless otherwise indicated)
National accounts and prices
Real GDP4.45.05.20.42.4
Real GDP per capita2.02.52.8-1.90.0
GDP deflator11.65.77.33.05.5
Consumer price index (period average)12.44.77.72.24.6
Consumer price index (end of period)8.06.74.43.13.4
Unemployment rate 2/36.031.140.3
(In percent of GDP)
Gross domestic investment16.219.623.118.918.8
Of which: public sector 3/8.27.27.07.17.0
Gross national savings11.712.615.313.013.3
External savings4.57.07.85.95.5
Private consumption76.174.772.774.373.8
Public consumption13.313.914.114.614.4
Public finances
General government
Total revenue23.423.624.925.524.8
Total expenditure27.228.329.629.129.0
Of which: interest2.72.32.12.02.3
Of which: HIPC interest relief0.00.00.0-0.1-0.1
Savings4.11.61.62.72.3
Primary balance-1.0-2.4-2.6-1.6-1.9
Overall balance-3.8-4.6-4.7-3.5-4.2
Consolidated public sector0.00.00.00.00.0
Primary balance0.8-1.0-2.5-1.5-1.4
Overall balance-1.9-3.3-4.6-3.4-3.7
(In percent of broad money at the beginning of the period) 4/
Money and credit
Broad money (M3) 5/20.114.19.0-0.7-2.0
Currency and boliviano deposits18.113.59.3-1.4-1.5
Foreign currency deposits2.00.6-0.30.6-0.5
Net domestic assets of the banking system7.413.09.9-6.6-8.6
Of which:
Credit to the public sector (net)-2.4-0.4-3.5-3.51.7
Credit to the private sector10.017.019.9-1.9-10.7
Liabilities to private sector (average stock in percent of GDP)38.241.542.444.742.8
Average interest rate for open-market operations7.608.218.578.648.78
Current account-333-553-667-488-464
Merchandise trade balance-404-684-879-704-600
Exports1,1321,1671,1041,0511,230
Imports-1,536-1,851-1,983-1,755-1,830
Income, services, and transfers (net)72131212216136
Of which: interest-154-155-144-126-129
Capital and financial account6741,0631,106752509
Foreign direct investment4268769551,014731
Portfolio investment0-53-75-6155
Other capital (net)248240226-201-278
Errors and omissions0-407-314-237-84
Exceptional financing0031616
Change in net international reserves-342-103-128-4223
Exports (in percent of GDP)15.414.713.012.614.5
Imports (in percent of GDP)20.823.423.321.121.6
Current account (in percent of GDP)-4.5-7.0-7.8-5.9-5.5
Merchandise exports (in USS, annual percentage change)3.14.34.1-1.811.4
Merchandise imports (in USS, annual percentage change)28.225.516.0-8.8-0.1
Terms of trade (annual percentage change)4.32.9-1.6-0.20.6
Real effective exchange rate (12-month percentage change)5.61.33.81.4-1.5
International reserve position and external debt (as of December 31)
Gross official reserves 6/1,0181,4031,1891,2111,164
(in months of imports of goods and services)5.97.67.27.06.6
Net official reserves9511,2491,0521,0891,066
Net reserves of the financial system6448728571,0741,318
Outstanding external debt, in percent of GDP3.71.51.1-2.1-2.0
Public3.42.61.21.41.3
Private0.3-1.0-0.2-3.4-3.3
Total debt service ratio (in percent of exports of goods and services)25.025.228.619.018.3
Of which: interest13.614.810.68.97.8
Gross reserves/short-term debt (in percent)
IMF data (as of April 30, 2001)
Membership status:Article VIII
Intervention currency and rateBs 6.50 per U.S. dollar
QuotaSDR 171.5 million
Fund holdings of bolivianosSDR 162.6 million
(as percent of quota)94.8 percent
Outstanding purchases and loans
PRGFSDR 165.13 million
SDR department
Net cumulative allocationSDR 26.7 million
HoldingsSDR 27.3 million
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, Central Bank, National Bureau of Statistics, UDAPE, and Fund staff estimates and projections.

Figures correspond to 1998.

As a percentage of the labor force, including underemployed.

Based on information provided by the Unidad de Programacion Fiscal (UPF) of the Ministry of Finance.

Flows in foreign currency are valued at the accounting exchange rate for the corresponding period. The financial system comprises the central bank, commercial banks, and the National Financial Institution of Bolivia, a state-owned second-tier bank.

M3 includes special certificates of deposits (CDD) held by the depositors of the two banks closed in November 1994, and credit to the private sector includes that of two liquidated banks. Since 1998. M3 includes CDDs and loan portfolio from the bank liquidated in December 1997.

Excluding reserves from the Fonda Latino Americano de Reservas (FLAR).

Sources: Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, Central Bank, National Bureau of Statistics, UDAPE, and Fund staff estimates and projections.

Figures correspond to 1998.

As a percentage of the labor force, including underemployed.

Based on information provided by the Unidad de Programacion Fiscal (UPF) of the Ministry of Finance.

Flows in foreign currency are valued at the accounting exchange rate for the corresponding period. The financial system comprises the central bank, commercial banks, and the National Financial Institution of Bolivia, a state-owned second-tier bank.

M3 includes special certificates of deposits (CDD) held by the depositors of the two banks closed in November 1994, and credit to the private sector includes that of two liquidated banks. Since 1998. M3 includes CDDs and loan portfolio from the bank liquidated in December 1997.

Excluding reserves from the Fonda Latino Americano de Reservas (FLAR).

Table 1.Bolivia: Macroeconomic Flows
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
(Annual percentage growth, at constant 1990 prices)
Real GDP growth4.45.05.20.42.4
Private consumption per capita4.71.2-0.81.3-0.6
GDP deflator11.65.77.33.05.5
Consumer prices (end-of-period)8.06.74.43.13.4
Consumer prices (period average)12.44.77.72.24.6
(Percent of GDP)
I. Balance of Payments
Current account 1/-4.5-7.0-7.8-5.9-5.5
Net exports of goods and services-5.7-8.2-9.9-8.1-7.4
Net income-2.2-2.5-1.9-2.4-2.7
Transfers3.43.74.04.64.6
Capital and financial account9.18.39.36.25.0
Net disbursement nonfinancial public sector3.42.61.21.41.3
Foreign direct investment5.811.111.212.28.6
Commercial banks0.20.81.8-1.7-3.2
Other-0.2-6.2-5.0-5.7-1.7
Change in net international reserve (increase -)-4.6-1.3-1.5-0.5-0.3
II. Combined Public Sector
Public sector savings before grants3.71.50.31.00.6
Of which: general government1.80.20.20.90.1
Of which: pension balance-1.2-2.5-4.0-4.1-4.4
Of which: public enterprises1.30.7-0.6-0.30.0
Official grants2.41.41.41.82.2
Capital expenditures 2/8.27.27.07.17.0
Overall deficit1.93.34.63.43.7
Net foreign financing2.52.72.71.91.9
Net domestic financing-0.70.51.91.51.7
III. Savings and Investments
Investments16.219.623.118.918.8
Nonfinancial public sector8.27.27.07.17.0
General government6.56.66.76.96.8
Public enterprises1.70.70.30.20.2
Private sector8.011.715.812.411.5
Of which: capitalized enterprises3.53.96.8
Of which: oil pipeline0.01.61.1
Inventory change0.10.70.3-0.60.3
Savings16.219.623.118.918.8
External savings4.57.07.85.95.5
National savings11.712.615.313.013.3
Combined public sector6.13.01.72.82.7
Private sector5.69.713.610.210.6
Sources: Central Bank of Bolivia; Ministry of Finance; National Bureau of Statistics; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes assistance under HIPC Initiative, previously treated as exceptional financing.

Net of capital revenue.

Sources: Central Bank of Bolivia; Ministry of Finance; National Bureau of Statistics; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes assistance under HIPC Initiative, previously treated as exceptional financing.

Net of capital revenue.

Table 2.Bolivia: Aggregate Supply and Demand
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
I. Annual percentage change
(At current prices)
Aggregate supply18.713.212.62.18.6
GDP at market prices16.410.912.93.48.0
Imports 1/29.022.711.3-3.111.1
Domestic demand19.713.614.61.57.2
Consumption19.09.910.66.07.2
Fixed capital formation21.330.136.2-12.32.8
Change in inventories 2/0.40.7-0.3-0.90.9
Exports 1/12.610.80.06.318.0
Implicit GDP deflator11.65.77.33.05.5
(At 1990 prices)
Aggregate supply6.97.25.5-1.12.2
GDP at market prices4.45.05.20.42.4
Imports 1/19.216.66.7-6.81.4
Domestic demand8.37.76.6-1.81.6
Consumption6.63.51.83.51.7
Fixed capital formation11.726.829.7-15.0-3.2
Change in inventories 2/0.90.6-0.3-1.30.9
Exports 1/0.54.60.32.85.3
II. Percent of Nominal GDP
Aggregate supply123.5126.0125.7124.1124.8
Imports 1/23.526.025.724.124.8
Domestic demand105.7108.2109.9107.8107.0
Consumption89.488.686.888.988.2
Fixed capital formation16.219.022.919.418.5
Change in inventories0.10.70.2-0.50.3
Exports 1/17.917.915.816.317.8
Sources: National Bureau of Statistics; Central Bank of Bolivia; and Fund staff estimates.

Goods and services. Based on balance of payments data from the Bolivian Central Bank.

Change in percent of GDP in the preceding year.

Sources: National Bureau of Statistics; Central Bank of Bolivia; and Fund staff estimates.

Goods and services. Based on balance of payments data from the Bolivian Central Bank.

Change in percent of GDP in the preceding year.

Table 3.Bolivia: Growth Rates of Selected Economic Aggregate(Annual Percentage change)
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
Real GDP (at market prices)4.45.05.20.42.4
Real GDP (at producer prices)4.44.94.61.32.1
Primary sector3.25.1-0.4-0.49.6
Mining production 1/-2.06.16.1-4.919.6
Agricultural production6.74.6-4.52.93.0
Secondary sector 2/5.52.57.7-2.1-0.4
Tertiary sector4.75.86.03.7-0.5
Consumer prices (annual average)12.44.77.72.24.6
GDP deflator (annual average)11.65.77.33.05.5
Sources: National Bureau of Statistics (INE); and Fund staff estimates.

Includes petroleum and natural gas.

Manufacturing and construction.

Sources: National Bureau of Statistics (INE); and Fund staff estimates.

Includes petroleum and natural gas.

Manufacturing and construction.

Table 4.Bolivia: Gross Domestic Product by Expenditure
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
(In millions of bolivianos at 1990 prices)
Total domestic demand20,12221,67023,09922,68223,039
Consumption expenditures16,98117,58017,89618,52518,832
General government2,2512,3262,4152,4772,500
Private sector14,73115,25315,48216,04816,332
Gross domestic investment3,1414,0905,2024,1574,207
Fixed capital formation3,1063,9375,1074,3394,200
Public sector1,5661,5041,5451,5861,584
Private sector1,5412,4333,5622,7532,616
Change in inventories3515395-1827
External balance-422-903-1,340-828-668
Exports of goods and services4,1574,3474,3594,4824,719
Imports of goods and services4,5795,3415,6995,3105,386
GDP at market prices19,70120,67721,75921,85422,372
(In millions of bolivianos at current prices)
Total domestic demand39,66745,05551,68452,38256,187
Consumption expenditures33,57236,88040,77843,22646,318
General government5,0035,7906,6247,0887,566
Private sector28,57031,09034,15436,13738,752
Gross domestic investment6,0958,17610,9059,1579,869
Fixed capital formation6,0727,89910,7629,4359,702
Public sector3,0613,0183,2843,4383,677
Private sector3,0124,8827,4785,9976,025
Change in inventories23276143-278167
External balance-2,131-3,411-4,642-3,794-3,676
Exports of goods and services6,7097,4347,4347,9049,325
Imports of goods and services8,84010,84512,07611,69813,001
GDP at market prices37,53741,64447,04248,58852,511
(In percent of nominal GDP)
Total domestic demand105.7108.2109.9107.8107.0
Consumption expenditures89.488.686.789.088.2
General government13.313.914.114.614.4
Private sector76.174.772.674.473.8
Gross domestic investment16.219.623.218.818.8
Fixed capital formation16.219.022.919.418.5
Public sector8.27.27.07.17.0
Private sector8.011.715.912.311.5
Change in inventories0.10.70.3-0.60.3
External balance-5.7-8.2-9.9-7.8-7.0
Exports of goods and services17.917.915.816.317.8
Imports of goods and services23.526.025.724.124.8
GDP at market prices100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Sources: National Bureau of Statistics (INE); and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: National Bureau of Statistics (INE); and Fund staff estimates.
Table 5.Bolivia: Gross Domestic Product by Sector of Origin
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
(In millions of bolivianos at 1990 prices)
GDP at producer prices18,02018,89819,77720,04320,459
Primary sector4,8865,1375,1175,0985,586
Agriculture, forestry and fishing2,9993,1352,9943,0803,172
Mining and hydrocarbons1,8872,0022,1232,0182,414
Minerals1,0951,0971,1011,0411,061
Petroleum and gas7939051,0229771,352
Secondary sector4,0674,1704,4894,3954,378
Manufacturing3,3763,4453,5043,5883,647
Construction691725986807731
Services sector9,0679,59210,17110,55010,495
Transport and communication2,0092,1942,3942,3922,456
Commerce1,7101,7941,8201,8161,871
Finance2,2022,4802,7953,1552,903
General government1,7931,8781,9481,9781,996
Other1,3531,2451,2141,2091,270
(Annual percentage change)
GDP at producer prices4.44.94.61.32.1
Primary sector3.25.1-0.4-0.49.6
Agriculture, forestry and fishing6.74.6-4.52.93.0
Mining and hydrocarbons-2.06.16.1-4.919.6
Minerals-4.80.20.3-5.41.9
Petroleum and gas2.214.113.0-4.538.5
Secondary sector5.52.57.7-2.1-0.4
Manufacturing4.92.01.72.41.7
Construction9.05.035.9-18.1-9.4
Services sector4.75.86.03.7-0.5
Transport and communication6.99.29.1-0.12.7
Commerce5.44.91.4-0.23.0
Finance8.512.612.712.9-8.0
General government1.54.73.71.50.9
Other-1.0-7.9-2.5-0.45.0
(In percent of GDP)
GDP at producer prices100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Primary sector27.127.225.925.427.3
Agriculture, forestry and fishing16.616.615.115.415.5
Mining and hydrocarbons10.510.610.710.111.8
Minerals6.15.85.65.25.2
Petroleum and gas4.44.85.24.96.6
Secondary sector22.622.122.721.921.4
Manufacturing18.718.217.717.917.8
Construction3.83.85.04.03.6
Services sector50.350.851.452.651.3
Transport and communication11.111.612.111.912.0
Commerce9.59.59.29.19.1
Finance12.213.114.115.714.2
General government10.09.99.89.99.8
Other7.56.66.16.06.2
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).
Table 6.Bolivia: Indices of Output of Major Agricultural Crops(Annual percentage change)
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
Total10.95.3-2.30.9-11.2
Coffee9.72.70.16.82.7
Wheat100.719.1-18.6-28.2-14.6
Soybeans25.617.59.1-8.413.3
Corn4.4-3.3-45.877.22.2
Sugar cane10.13.1-5.1-9.02.7
Rice1.0-4.4-3.74.416.5
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).
Table 7.Bolivia: Volume of Mining Production
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
(Index 1990=100)
Total135.3137.2136.6127.2129.1
COMIBOL35.633.631.641.4
Medium-sized private mines191.0198.9209.6190.0
Small private mines 1/140.3138.3125.6114.9
(Percentage change)
Total-4.71.5-0.5-6.81.4
COMIBOL-4.7-5.8-5.930.9
Medium-sized private mines-6.54.25.4-9.4
Small private mines 1/-1.9-1.4-9.1-8.5
Memorandum items:
Value of mining production
In millions of U.S. dollars456.4425.6399.0352.3350.7
Percent change3.7-6.8-6.3-11.7-0.4
Sources: Secretariat of Mining and Metallurgy; and National Bureau of Statistics (IN

Includes cooperatives.

Sources: Secretariat of Mining and Metallurgy; and National Bureau of Statistics (IN

Includes cooperatives.

Table 8.Bolivia: Mining Reserves and Production
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
(In metric tons of fine metal content)
All mines
Tin14,80212,89811,30812,41712,503
Lead16,53818,60813,84810,1539,523
Antimony6,4875,9994,7352,7901,907
Tungsten733647627421495
Zinc147,092154,491152,110146,144149,134
Copper9218248250110
Silver386387404423434
Gold 1/12,63413,29114,44511,78212,000
COMIBOL
Tin3,9263,1983,4554,585
(In percent)
COMIBOL’s share
Tin26.524.830.636.9
Sources: Secretariat of Mining and Metallurgy; and National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

Production in kilograms.

Sources: Secretariat of Mining and Metallurgy; and National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

Production in kilograms.

Table 9.Bolivia: Production, Consumption, and Exports of Petroleum and Natural Gas
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
(In thousands of barrels)
Petroleum 1/10,68211,02112,62810,68010,106
Production6,6482,0673700
YPFB4,0344,2125,5145,1475,057
Private companies04,7427,0775,5335,049
Consumption 2/9,2369,54410,3828,9968,911
Exports 3/1,4461,4772,2461,6841,195
(In millions of cubic feet)
Natural gas
Net production 4/117,573106,496109,67492,232127,044
YPFB74,48916,152500
Private companies43,08437,49536,51428,47351,133
Capitalized companies052,84973,15563,75975,911
Consumption44,99749,92053,34453,92854,533
Domestic sales6,8828,4735,1014,2605,868
Other 4/38,11541,44748,24349,66848,665
Exports72,57256,57656,32938,30472,511
(In thousands of barrels) 5/
Total31,62129,98832,16127,10732,733
Production17,25018,43519,88318,60118,623
Consumption 6/14,37111,55312,2788,50614,109
Exports
(Percentage change)
Total production1.8-5.27.2-15.720.8
Petroleum3.23.214.6-15.4-5.4
Natural gas1.0-9.43.0-15.937.7
Total consumption13.66.97.9-6.40.1
Petroleum25.33.38.8-13.4-0.9
Natural gas2.510.96.91.11.1
(In percent of total production of petroleum and natural gas)
Production100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Petroleum33.836.839.339.430.9
Natural gas66.263.260.760.669.1
Consumption54.661.561.868.656.9
Petroleum29.231.832.333.227.2
Natural gas25.329.629.535.429.7
Exports45.438.538.231.443.1
Petroleum4.64.97.06.23.7
Natural gas40.933.631.225.239.5
Sources: Bolivian Petroleum Corporation (YPFB); and National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

Excludes liquid petroleum gas.

Partly reflects improved reporting of imports.

Export data do not include exports of liquids produced from gas and also differ from trade statistics in timing.

Excludes gas injected into wells, gas flared, and other losses.

Gas converted into barrels of oil equivalent at 1,000 cubic feet = 0.178100 barrels.

Includes gas used in the production of liquid petroleum gas and internal consumption.

Sources: Bolivian Petroleum Corporation (YPFB); and National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

Excludes liquid petroleum gas.

Partly reflects improved reporting of imports.

Export data do not include exports of liquids produced from gas and also differ from trade statistics in timing.

Excludes gas injected into wells, gas flared, and other losses.

Gas converted into barrels of oil equivalent at 1,000 cubic feet = 0.178100 barrels.

Includes gas used in the production of liquid petroleum gas and internal consumption.

Table 10.Bolivia: Investment in Petroleum Exploratic(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1996199719981999
YPFB3884
Prospecting1323
Drilling 1/2561
Foreign contractors11845
Total investment156129374372
Memorandum items:
Number of foreign firms involved in exploration16192116
Number of wells 2/1852
Source: Bolivian Petroleum Corporation (YPFB).

Including drilling of production wells.

Prospecting and production, YPFB only.

Source: Bolivian Petroleum Corporation (YPFB).

Including drilling of production wells.

Prospecting and production, YPFB only.

Table 11.Bolivia: Nominal and Real Retail Prices of Petroleum Products
GasolineDiesel OilFuel OilKeroseneJet Fuel
(In current bolivianos per liter)
December
19901.100.900.850.600.96
19911.481.191.150.801.28
19921.701.411.330.881.47
19931.851.541.450.951.48
19941.851.541.450.951.48
19951.851.541.450.951.48
19962.002.001.291.101.48
19972.472.401.591.271.30
19982.382.291.521.091.14
19992.912.981.981.601.66
20003.313.122.562.402.47
2000
March1.541.451.191.121.15
June1.541.461.191.121.15
September1.501.411.161.091.12
December1.521.431.171.101.13
(In constant 1990 bolivianos per liter) 1/
December
19901.100.900.850.600.96
19911.281.031.000.691.11
19921.331.111.040.691.15
19931.331.101.040.681.06
19941.221.020.960.630.98
19951.090.900.850.560.87
19961.091.090.700.600.81
19971.261.220.810.650.66
19981.161.120.740.530.56
19991.381.410.940.760.79
20000.720.680.560.520.54
March0.720.680.560.520.54
June0.680.640.530.490.51
September0.690.650.540.500.52
December
Source: Bolivian Petroleum Corporation (YPFB).

Current price deflated by CPI index.

Source: Bolivian Petroleum Corporation (YPFB).

Current price deflated by CPI index.

Table 12.Bolivia: Indices of Manufacturing Output
Weights1996199719981999Prel.

2000
(Index 1990=100)
Overall index100.0133.2138.8143.2146.2148.1
By product
Food33.7127.6127.1129.7137.1150.6
Beverages9.3168.1173.3199.9192.1174.8
Tobacco0.5140.7149.5142.9137.6137.3
Textiles2.1132.9131.8123.9107.6112.0
Garments4.0218.5252.3253.6239.3244.6
Leather products1.198.7107.1124.7132.5132.7
Footwear1.9195.3216.3214.9191.1178.7
Wood products5.6105.0105.6103.497.5114.4
Printing and publishing3.088.5106.8129.4184.5225.2
Industrial chemicals0.3196.1264.9269.9293.5263.5
Other chemicals1.6236.7
Petroleum and coal derivations24.4112.0119.0120.9121.2109.0
Plastic products1.3221.4236.4237.4279.6272.8
Glass products0.8145.1150.9166.1137.6152.2
Nonmetallic minerals4.3147.1158.4169.8177.0151.9
Nonferrous metals2.395.7111.186.889.392.8
Metallic products3.6121.3122.6125.2116.4116.2
Other0.21,307.0952.4774.6811.8829.1
By use133.2138.8143.2146.2148.1
Nondurable consumer goods135.1142.3148.7151.7152.8
Intermediate goods124.2121.1114.8119.5126.0
Consumer durables121.3122.6125.2116.4116.2
(Annual percentage change)
Overall index4.14.23.22.11.3
By product
Food4.8-0.42.05.79.8
Beverages11.43.115.3-3.6-9.0
Tobacco-16.16.3-4.4-3.7-0.2
Textiles-7.3-0.8-6.0-13.24.1
Garments2.315.50.5-5.62.2
Leather products9.88.516.46.30.1
Footwear9.310.8-0.6-11.1-6.5
Wood products-7.10.6-2.1-5.717.2
Printing and publishing-16.520.721.242.622.1
Industrial chemicals26.435.11.98.8-10.2
Other chemicals51.8
Petroleum and coal derivations10.16.31.60.3-10.1
Plastic products15.76.80.417.8-2.4
Glass products31.34.010.1-17.210.7
Nonmetallic minerals-3.47.77.24.3-14.2
Nonferrous metals-6.516.1-21.92.94.0
Metallic products-8.01.12.1-7.1-0.1
Other-18.7-27.1-18.74.82.1
By use4.14.23.22.11.3
Nondurable consumer goods5.45.34.42.10.7
Intermediate goods-1.0-2.5-5.24.05.5
Consumer durables-8.01.12.1-7.1-0.1
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).
Table 13.Bolivia: Generation and Consumption of Electricity(In gigawatt hours, GWH)
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
Generation
Total3,239.03,471.03,711.03,881.03,498.0
Hydroelectric plants1,452.01,593.01,530.01,751.01,898.0
Thermoelectric plants1,787.01,878.02,181.02,130.01,160.0
Consumption
Total2,719.12,924.53,106.63,263.72,904.9
Mining415.0331.6338.2362.9337.0
Industry691.4823.3889.3913.7715.8
Residential1,082.81,171.21,251.01,320.71,330.1
Commercial429.3523.4575.5612.9496.0
Other60.675.052.653.526.0
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).
Table 14.Bolivia: Consumer prices 1/(Annual percentage change)
199619971998199920002001 2/
(Period average)
Total12.44.77.72.24.6
Food and beverages14.33.45.5-1.11.6
Clothing and footwear6.24.66.64.15.4
Housing11.84.56.46.18.7
Household appliances9.97.18.65.34.0
Health10.112.08.27.97.3
Transport and communications16.03.620.64.211.2
Education10.411.88.26.86.5
Culture and entertainment5.75.67.45.73.5
Other8.64.45.94.16.8
(End of period)
Total8.06.74.43.13.40.2
Food and beverages6.83.33.5-1.11.6-0.4
Clothing and footwear5.65.36.04.83.51.0
Housing8.48.72.89.25.40.1
Household appliances8.87.47.84.13.4-0.1
Health9.710.99.26.06.10.8
Transport and communications14.518.73.211.26.2-0.3
Education9.813.16.87.06.53.4
Culture and entertainment3.77.86.84.42.31.1
Other9.04.94.35.55.21.9
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

Index for La Paz, Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, and El Alto.

Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

Index for La Paz, Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, and El Alto.

Table 15.Bolivia: National Monthly Minimum Wages
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
(In bolivianos at current prices)
Nominal minimum wage
January223.0240.0300.0330.0355.0
February223.0240.0300.0330.0355.0
March223.0240.0300.0330.0355.0
April223.0240.0300.0330.0355.0
May223.0240.0300.0330.0355.0
June223.0240.0300.0330.0355.0
July223.0240.0300.0330.0355.0
August223.0240.0300.0330.0355.0
September223.0240.0300.0330.0355.0
October223.0240.0300.0330.0355.0
November223.0240.0300.0330.0355.0
December223.0240.0300.0330.0355.0
(In bolivianos at 1995 prices)
Leal minimum wage
January206.1208.7241.0257.2267.2
February200.6208.3239.1256.2266.1
March201.0208.8238.6257.3264.5
April201.5207.7237.9257.7262.0
May200.7206.2237.2257.4265.3
June199.7204.3236.6256.5264.8
July197.4201.7236.1256.0262.9
August195.4200.4236.0254.7261.8
September195.1202.5236.1253.2257.1
October195.2201.7233.8251.4253.7
November194.2201.5233.8251.2260.3
December193.9195.5234.1249.7259.8
(Index 1995=100)
Real minimum wage index
January100.5101.7117.5125.3130.2
February97.8101.5116.5124.8129.7
March98.0101.8116.3125.4128.9
April98.2101.2115.9125.6127.7
May97.8100.5115.6125.4129.3
June97.399.5115.3125.0129.0
July96.298.3115.0124.7128.1
August95.297.6115.0124.1127.6
September95.198.7115.1123.4125.3
October95.198.3113.9122.5123.6
November94.698.2113.9122.4126.9
December94.595.3114.1121.7126.6
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).
Table 16.Bolivia: Private Sector Wages
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
(In bolivianos at current prices)
National average1,5511,7561,9662,1472,259
Mining2,8213,0763,3573,5963,561
Manufacturing 1/1,4661,6601,8682,0062,122
Construction9791,0581,2861,2811,308
Commerce1,2541,4341,6111,7441,812
Finance3,5173,8383,7984,5464,819
Other services 2/1,1241,2461,4151,4711,531
(In bolivianos at 1995 prices)
National average1,4621,5791,6491,7611,772
Mining2,6602,7702,8172,9492,793
Manufacturing 1/1,3821,4941,5671,6461,665
Construction9329521,0791,0501,026
Commerce1,1821,2901,3521,4311,422
Finance3,3093,4433,1863,7263,779
Other services 2/1,2721,3451,4251,4481,442
(Index 1995=100)
National average101.6109.7114.6122.4123.2
Mining103.9110.8112.9115.9111.4
Manufacturing 1/101.4110.5118.1124.4125.8
Construction103.6106.8121.1117.9115.2
Commerce100.7109.3116.1125.4124.9
Finance114.9119.5110.6129.4131.2
Other services 2/100.4106.4112.7115.3114.5
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

Includes production and distribution of electricity, gas and water.

Includes real estate, education, health and entertainment services.

Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

Includes production and distribution of electricity, gas and water.

Includes real estate, education, health and entertainment services.

Table 17.Bolivia: Urban Labor Force and Employment 1/
19961997199819992000
(In thousands)
Urban population3,4083,4544,0524,302
Labor force1,4591,4021,8011,870
Employed 2/9349661,076
Unemployed 3/525436725
(Annual percentage change)
Urban population6.91.31.1
Labor force11.9-3.91.0
Employed13.43.5
Unemployed9.3-17.1
(In percent)
Memorandum items:
Labor force participation rate42.840.644.543.5
Unemployment rate 4/36.031.140.3
Public sector employment 5/16.810.710.3
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

Data are derived from national employment surveys, covering urban centers with 10,000 or more inhabitan No survey was conducted in 1998.

Excludes underemployed persons working fewer than a minimum number of hours weekly (40) and/or who earn income lower than the cost of a basic basket of goods and services.

Includes the underemployed.

As a percentage of the labor force, including the underemployed.

As a percentage of total employment.

Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

Data are derived from national employment surveys, covering urban centers with 10,000 or more inhabitan No survey was conducted in 1998.

Excludes underemployed persons working fewer than a minimum number of hours weekly (40) and/or who earn income lower than the cost of a basic basket of goods and services.

Includes the underemployed.

As a percentage of the labor force, including the underemployed.

As a percentage of total employment.

Table 18.Bolivia: Urban Private Sector Employment by Sector 1/2/
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
(In thousands)
Total employment1,3981,3401,4361,728
Agriculture39252643
Mining16172020
Manufacturing267265250269
Utilities78813
Construction111119112189
Commerce375326406450
Transport and communications97116123116
Finance16172119
Other services468445470608
(In Percent of total)
Total employment100.0100.0100.0100.0
Agriculture2.81.91.82.5
Mining1.21.31.41.2
Manufacturing19.119.817.415.6
Utilities0.50.60.50.8
Construction8.08.97.811.0
Commerce26.824.428.326.1
Transport and communications7.08.78.66.7
Finance1.11.31.51.1
Other services33.533.232.835.2
Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

Includes urban centers with 10,000 or more inhabitants.

No survey was conducted in 1998.

Source: National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

Includes urban centers with 10,000 or more inhabitants.

No survey was conducted in 1998.

Table 19.Bolivia: Public Sector Employment
199619971998 1/1999Prel.

2000
Public sector200,918217,733219,937209,515205,354
General government188,233209,521211,658202,261204,898
Central administration 2/160,782180,470182,296178,070178,413
Decentralized institutions737743751654803
Regional administration 3/16,89018,46718,67115,56616,007
Social security9,8149,8419,9417,9719,675
Public enterprises12,0787,7477,8106,777
COMIBOL1,4711,231658
Other10,6076,5166,119
Financial public sector617465469477456
Source: System of Financial Administration and Control (SAFCO).

1998 data calculated from the public employment index elaborated by INE.

For 1997, includes changes in the coverage of the central administration.

Includes development corporations, municipalities, and departmental governments.

Source: System of Financial Administration and Control (SAFCO).

1998 data calculated from the public employment index elaborated by INE.

For 1997, includes changes in the coverage of the central administration.

Includes development corporations, municipalities, and departmental governments.

Table 20.Bolivia: Consolidated Operations of the Combined Public Sector(In millions of bolivianos)
19961997199819992000
Revenue and grants9,66710,32211,75312,46813,282
Current revenue8,7209,31310,78211,19511,832
Tax revenue 1/6,6337,3269,2308,9679,695
Nontax revenue7897771,1621,7441,471
Transfers 2/577734372460428
Operating surplus of public enterprises 3/484190-302-176-5
Central bank operating balance (loss -)238286321199243
Capital revenue 4/50414313389298
Foreign grants 5/8975956578841.152
Expenditure10,38311,68613,93114,14115,217
Current expenditure7,1658,63610,60610.69211,533
Wages and salaries 6/3,3813,7574,2804,4304,653
Goods and services8849941,3961,4091,387
Interest 7/1.0378579859601,182
Transfers 8/1,2812,0362,8322,5912,938
Other5829931,1141,3011,374
Capital expenditure3,2183,0503,3253,4493,684
Fixed capital formation3,0613,0183,2843,4383,677
Other1583241117
Overall balance (deficit -)-716-1,364-2,178-1,673-1,936
Financing7161,3642,1781,6731,936
External financing9611,1591,2789241,019
Disbursements1,5801,6841,7191,5111,709
Amortization-620-524-433-645-756
Interest not paid10000
HIPC relief from refinancing00149299
Deposits abroad (increase -)00-22-34-33
Domestic financing-245205900749917
Central bank-727-403-280-678205
Unofficial deposits-15-361926717
Bond financing261127-202292204
Other2365181,364867491
Floating debt-21-3851091-252
Documents36155159-108-2
Other221400695883745
Memorandum items:
GDP37,53741,86047,00148,60552,511
Current account balance before grants (deficit -)1,555677177503298
Current account balance after grants (deficit -)2,4531,2728341,3871,450
Total HIPC relief00148494493
Education expenditure1,6651,9422,1052,2742,496
Health expenditure1,0321,1741,3641,4331,678
Military expenditure 9/7639361,072937999
Sources: Ministry of Finance; Central Bank; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes taxes paid by state enterprises.

Comprises social security contributions paid by the private sector and state enterprises.

Operating expenditures exclude interest for 1998-2000.

Following program accounting conventions, loan repayments are excluded.

Includes HIPC relief in the form of grants.

Includes payments to war veterans and severance payments.

Includes HIPC relief from stock of debt reductions and interest of public enterprises for 1998-2000.

Includes pension payments.

Includes military spending not recorded in the public sector accounts.

Sources: Ministry of Finance; Central Bank; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes taxes paid by state enterprises.

Comprises social security contributions paid by the private sector and state enterprises.

Operating expenditures exclude interest for 1998-2000.

Following program accounting conventions, loan repayments are excluded.

Includes HIPC relief in the form of grants.

Includes payments to war veterans and severance payments.

Includes HIPC relief from stock of debt reductions and interest of public enterprises for 1998-2000.

Includes pension payments.

Includes military spending not recorded in the public sector accounts.

Table 21.Bolivia: Operations of the General Government(In million of bolivianos)
19961997199819992000
Revenue and grants8,9389,88411,75712,49913,049
Current revenue7,1467,99010,27610,67111,115
Tax revenue 1/6,6337,3269,2308,9679,695
Domestic taxes6,1586,7368,1508,3349,041
Custom duties475590720633654
Nontax revenue5136631,0461,7041,420
Current transfers 2/681809409545451
Public enterprises10475378422
Private sector577734372460428
Capital revenue302507413400331
Capital transfers from public enterprises12200
Foreign grants8095776578841,152
Expenditure9,90411,66913,96114,33015,327
Current expenditures7,2978,85310,74910,97111,708
Wages and salaries 3/3,3813,7574,2804,4304,653
Good and services8849941,3961,4091,387
Interest 4/1,0378579599361,138
Transfers1,4132,2443,0032,8953,156
Public enterprises132209171304218
Private sector1,2812,0362,8322,5912,938
Other5821,0011,1121,3011,374
Capital expenditure2,6072,8163,2123,3593,619
Fixed capital formation2,4262,7423,1293,3303,590
Other1582541117
Transfers to public enterprises2349411822
Current account balance after grants530-54-64244-142
Overall balance-965-1,784-2,203-1,831-2,277
Financing9651,7842,2031,8312,277
External financing9831,1991,2458901,002
Disbursements1,3741,6201,6751,4651,672
Amortization-392-421-423-633-736
HIPC relief from refinancing00149299
Deposits abroad (increase-)00-22-34-33
Domestic financing-185859599421,276
Central bank-810-280-410-46571
Bond financing261127-202292204
Unofficial deposits-15-36-213944
Other5477741,572976957
Floating debt-63-6939822-79
Documents36155159-108-2
Other5746881,0161,0611,039
Sources: Ministry of Finance; Central Bank; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes taxes paid by state enterprises.

Comprises social security contributions paid by the private sector and state enterprises.

Includes payments to war veterans and severance payments.

Interest on external debt on a payment-due basis.

Sources: Ministry of Finance; Central Bank; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes taxes paid by state enterprises.

Comprises social security contributions paid by the private sector and state enterprises.

Includes payments to war veterans and severance payments.

Interest on external debt on a payment-due basis.

Table 22.Bolivia: General Government Revenue and Grants
19961997199819992000
(In millions of bolivianos)
Revenue and grants8,9389,88411,75712,49913,049
Tax revenue6,6337,3269,2308,9679,695
Hydrocarbon revenue 1/2,1381,8332,5422,5302,595
Nonhydrocarbon4,0204,9036,6886,4377,100
Domestic taxes3,5454,3125,9685,8046,446
Direct taxes9971,2331,6471,7631,919
Corporate income tax5007129709771,091
Complementary value added166182210194244
Property tax331339467592585
Personal (IRPB)285331424560573
Corporate (IRPB)478433212
Mining royalties2558484351
Indirect taxes3,5174,3734,2733,9984,476
Value added1,9032,3312,8132,6432,968
Domestic 2/8889951,1821,1481,306
Imports1,0151,3361,6321,4951,662
Excise taxes395478624485547
Beer161195254162186
Automobiles6984109170209
Other165198261153153
Transaction tax 3/663636775827926
Other557928614234
Custom duties475590720633654
Nontax revenues5136631,0461,7041,420
Current taxes 4/681809409545451
Public enterprises10575378422
Private sector 5/577734372460428
Capital revenue 4/302507413400331
Capital transfers from public enterprises12200
Foreign grants8095776578841,152
(In percent of GDP)
Revenue and grants23.823.725.025.724.9
Tax revenue17.717.619.618.418.5
Hydrocarbon revenues 1/5.74.45.45.24.9
Nonhydrocarbon10.711.814.213.213.5
Domestic taxes9.410.412.711.912.3
Direct taxes2.73.03.53.63.7
Corporate income tax1.31.72.12.02.1
Complementary value added0.40.40.40.40.5
Property tax0.90.81.01.21.1
Personal (IRPB)0.80.80.91.21.1
Corporate (IRPB)0.10.00.10.10.0
Mining royalties0.10.10.10.10.1
Indirect taxes9.410.59.18.28.5
Value added5.15.66.05.45.7
Domestic 2/2.42.42.52.42.5
Imports2.73.23.53.13.2
Excise taxes1.11.11.31.01.0
Beer0.40.50.50.30.4
Automobiles0.20.20.20.40.4
Other0.40.50.60.30.3
Transactions tax 3/1.81.51.61.71.8
Other1.52.20.10.10.1
Custom duties1.31.41.51.31.2
Nontax revenues1.41.62.23.52.7
Current taxes 4/1.81.90.91.10.9
Public enterprises0.30.20.10.20.0
Private sector 5/1.51.80.80.90.8
Capital revenue 4/0.81.20.90.80.6
Capital transfers from public enterprises0.00.00.00.00.0
Foreign grants2.21.41.41.82.2
Sources: Ministry of Finance; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes value added and transaction taxes paid by state oil compaines (YPEB).

Includes all value-added tax paid by public enterprises (except YPEB).

Includes all transactions tax paid by public enterprises (except YPEB).

Comprises social security contributions paid by the private sector and public enterprises.

Comprises social security contributions paid by the private sector and public enterprises.

Sources: Ministry of Finance; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes value added and transaction taxes paid by state oil compaines (YPEB).

Includes all value-added tax paid by public enterprises (except YPEB).

Includes all transactions tax paid by public enterprises (except YPEB).

Comprises social security contributions paid by the private sector and public enterprises.

Comprises social security contributions paid by the private sector and public enterprises.

Table 23.Bolivia: Operations of THE General Government
19961997199819992000
(In millions of bolivianos)
Revenue and grants7,5518,67110,31710,56211,274
Current revenue6,3217,0479,3879,73710,070
Tax revenue6,0976,7798,8248,4179,048
Domestic taxes 1/5,6226,1888,1047,7848,395
Custom duties475590720633654
Nontax revenue2242685621,3201,022
Current transfers2145154311188
Rest of general government134104224058
Public enterprises8065216923
Private sector0346028
Capital transfers12114811278135
Capital revenue172448326217316
Foreign grants723514450420664
Expenditure8,25810,10811,57012,17913,338
Current expenditure6,9648,88410,27410,42611,378
Wages and salaries2,6823,1143,5134,3134,551
Goods and services552612774914923
Interest991784540473628
Transfers2,2573,5804,6374,3954,964
Rest of general government1,7251,4251,7301,5671,835
Public enterprises132209159304219
Private sector4001,9462,7472,5242,911
Other484793811331311
Capital expenditure1,2941,2241,2951,7531,961
Fixed capital formation1,0101,0389591,3751,607
Other7119482918
Transfers214168288349336
Current account balance after grants-429-1,322-844-579-1,219
Overall balance-707-1,438-1,253-1,617-2,064
(In percent of GDP)
Memorandum items:
Revenue and grants20.120.822.021.721.5
Expenditure22.024.324.625.125.4
Current18.621.321.921.521.7
Capital3.42.92.83.63.7
Overall balance-1.9-3.5-2.7-3.3-3.9
Sources: Ministry of Finance; Central Bank; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes payments of value-added taxes and transactions taxes by YPEB.

Sources: Ministry of Finance; Central Bank; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes payments of value-added taxes and transactions taxes by YPEB.

Table 24.Bolivia: Operations of the Central Administration(In millions of bolivianos)
19961997199819992000
Revenue and grants6,9618,3169,5399,3359,875
Current revenue6,2217,0178,9669,0319,327
Tax revenue6,1236,8568,5858,1898,787
Domestic taxes 1/5,6486,2657,8657,5568,133
Custom duties475590720633654
Nontax revenue98161381842540
Current transfers31964975559
Rest of central government1201646822
Rest of general government12392785
Public enterprises75470443
Private sector0346000
Capital transfers02400
Rest of central government00400
Public enterprises02000
Capital revenue98356278190273
Foreign grants32329321559266
Expenditure6,9729,11310,24110,19411,531
Current expenditure6,7968,77110,0009,90910,950
Wages and salaries 2/2,6063,0663,4563,6993,898
Goods and services506585727706680
Interest 3/960754492445600
Transfers2,7594,2545,1954.9795,629
Rest of central government669851758667761
Of which: Revenue sharing210242271257289
Rest of general government1,6361,3611,7061,5331,793
Of which: Revenue sharing9821,1671,3851,3081,444
Public enterprises7811416304219
Private sector3751,9292,7152,4762,857
Other-3511213080143
Capital expenditure176342241284581
Fixed capital formation2529224681
Other00000
Transfers150313219238500
Rest of central government10822974106369
Rest of general government2556114116112
Public enterprises1728311718
Current account balance after grants-256-1,105-958-823-1,614
Overall balance-11-796-702-858-1,656
Sources: Ministry of Finance; Central Bank; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes taxes paid by public enterprises.

Includes payments to war veterans and severance payments.

Interest on external debt on a payment-due basis.

Sources: Ministry of Finance; Central Bank; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes taxes paid by public enterprises.

Includes payments to war veterans and severance payments.

Interest on external debt on a payment-due basis.

Table 25.Bolivia: Central Administration Expenditure
19961997199819992000
(In million of bolivianos)
Expenditure6,9729,11310,24110,19411,531
Current expenditure6,7968,77110,0009,90910,950
Wages and salaries 1/2,6063,0663,4563,6993,898
Goods and services506585727706680
Interest 2/960754492445600
Transfers2,7594,2545,1954,9795,629
Rest of central government669851758667761
Of which: revenue sharing210242271257289
Rest of general government1,6361,3611,7061,5331,793
Of which: revenue sharing9821,1671,3851,3081,444
Public enterprises7811416304219
Private sector3751,9292,7152,4762,857
Other-3511213080143
Capital expenditure176342241284581
Fixed capital formation2529224681
Transfers150313219238500
Rest of central government10822974106369
Rest of general government2556114116112
Public enterprises1728311718
(In percent of GDP)
Expenditure18.621.921.821.022.0
Current expenditure18.121.121.320.420.9
Wages and salaries 1/6.97.47.47.67.4
Goods and services1.31.41.51.51.3
Interest 2/2.61.81.00.91.1
Transfers7.310.211.110.210.7
Rest of central government1.82.01.61.41.4
Of which: revenue sharing0.60.60.60.50.6
Rest of general government4.43.33.63.23.4
Of which: revenue sharing2.62.82.92.72.7
Public enterprises0.20.30.00.60.4
Private sector1.14.65.85.15.4
Other-0.10.30.30.20.3
Capital expenditure0.50.80.50.61.1
Fixed capital formation0.10.10.00.10.2
Transfers0.40.80.50.51.0
Rest of central government0.30.50.20.20.7
Rest of general government0.10.10.20.20.2
Public enterprises0.00.10.10.00.0
Sources: Ministry of Finance; Central Bank; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes payments to war veterans and severance payments.

Interest on external debt on a payment-due basis.

Sources: Ministry of Finance; Central Bank; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes payments to war veterans and severance payments.

Interest on external debt on a payment-due basis.

Table 26.Bolivia: Operations of the Rest of Central Government 1/(In millions of bolivianos)
19961997199819992000
Revenue and grants1,5151,6751,2961,4631,781
Current revenue337350415590635
Tax revenue-sharing210242271257289
Nontax revenue126107144333346
Current Transfers474638506417534
Central administration459608469359354
Rest of central government1112153153
Public enterprises518212419
Private sector00028
Capital transfers22937510887181
Central administration1082297355141
Rest of central government121146353240
Public enterprises00000
Capital revenues7592462744
Foreign grants400221221341387
Expenditure2,2112,3171,5591,9391,927
Current expenditure9841,2051,0261,0451,036
Wages and salaries764826569616
Goods and services452831114125
Interest3031292728
Tax payments2777191418
Transfers2873412618395
Central administrations1201646822
Rest of general government8865233341
Public enterprises549514300
Private sector2517264753
Other519681660237154
Capital expenditure1,2271,112533894891
Fixed capital formation9851,009339688709
Others7119482918
Transfers17284147177164
Central administrations00400
Rest of general government17262133177164
Public enterprises021900
Current account balance after grants-173-217-105-38133
Overall balance-696-641-263-476-146
Sources: Ministry of Finance; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes the operations of the national road authority; the social emergency fund/social investment fund; and other decentralized agencies of the central government.

Sources: Ministry of Finance; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes the operations of the national road authority; the social emergency fund/social investment fund; and other decentralized agencies of the central government.

Table 27.Bolivia: Operations of the Rest of General Government 1/(in millions of bolivianos)
19961997199819992000
Revenue and grants3,6473,0253,8113,8604,152
Current revenue1,8152,1412,5342,4892,832
Tax revenue1,4951,7312,0032,0642,399
Of which
Revenue sharing1,2671,4981,8641,9522,287
Sales of goods and services731423640
Others313378489388394
Current Transfers1,343605776738812
Central administration654193345259391
Rest of central government8865423637
Public enterprises2429424214
Private sector577319346400370
Capital revenue206958718327
Capital transfers196119265350336
Central administration2556247332317
Rest of central government17262161819
Public enterprises00200
Foreign grants8664149100144
Expenditure3,8283,3693,9203,8724,057
Current expenditure2,2101,5181,9241,7601,860
Wages and salaries700728943837873
Goods and services332381622572551
Interest46737883112
Tax payments9165885
Transfers1,015135122141138
Central administrations12392224058
Rest of Central government1112423637
Public enterprises001200
Private sector88031456643
Other109185154119100
Capital expenditure1,6191,8511,9962,1122,197
Fixed capital formation1,4161,7041,8581,9932,019
Others7617913
Transfers126146131110165
Central administrations0011278135
Rest of Central government121146161819
Public enterprises6041311
Current account balance after grants9491,2281,3861,4671,785
Overall balance-181-346-109-1295
Sources: Ministry of Finance; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes the operations of the regional development corporations/prefectures: municipalities and social security institutions.

Sources: Ministry of Finance; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes the operations of the regional development corporations/prefectures: municipalities and social security institutions.

Table 28.Bolivia: Operations of the Nonfinancial public Enterprises(In millions of bolivianos)
19961997199819992000
Operating revenue4,7513,6903,4673,7334,476
Sales of hydrocarbons3,3372,3462,3512,6054,012
Domestic2,8491,9551,9142,2623,448
Exports488391438343564
Sales of other enterprises1,258982768798290
Domestic733499411361123
Exports525482356437167
Transfers from private sector116261721
Other155346322312153
Operating expenditures4,2673,5003,7963,9334,542
Wages and salaries618626537376241
Goods and services1,2301,9062,6532,8914,168
Interest13790262444
Tax payments2,25279752044712
Social security payments9252262714
Transfers to private sector1425272513
Other-753814234
Operating surplus484190-328-200-49
Current transfers
From general government132209171304219
To general government10475378422
Current account surplus512324-19419148
Capital transfers
From general government2349411822
To general government12200
Capital revenue2728143017
Foreign grants8818000
Capital expenditures63528315510887
Fixed capital formation63527515510887
Other07000
Overall balance (deficit-)15134-296-4099
Financing-15-13429640-99
External financing (net)-22-40333417
Disbursements20763444637
Amortization-228-103-11-12-20
Domestic financing7-942626-116
Central bank83-124130-212134
Other-7630133219-251
Contractors00000
Floating debt423211269-173
Other-118-221149-78
Sources: Ministry of Finance; Central Bank; and Fund Staff Estimates.
Sources: Ministry of Finance; Central Bank; and Fund Staff Estimates.
Table 29.Bolivia: Monetary Survey 1/
19961997199819992000
I. Central Bank
(In percent of currency issue at beginning of period)
Net international reserves101.028.9-53.910.2-6.0
(Flow in millions of U.S. dollars)342.1102.7-211.542.3-23.4
Net domestic assets-92.4-14.366.0-10.26.2
Net credit of nonfinancial public sector-41.9-20.1-13.0-28.08.5
Net credit of financial intermediaries-51.7-2.359.06.4-20.6
Of which: open market operations-17.519.4-3.0-2.116.0
Medium and long-term net foreign liabilities2.32.427.18.18.4
(Flow in millions of U.S. dollars, increase-)7.88.7106.133.332.7
Other-1.15.7-7.13.49.9
Currency issue8.514.612.10.00.2
II. Banking System
(In percent of broad money at beginning of period)
Net short-term foreign assets12.71.1-0.85.96.6
(Flow in millions of U.S. dollars)329.733.3-29.7221.5244.4
Net domestic assets7.413.09.9-6.6-8.6
Net credit to the public sector-2.4-0.4-3.5-3.51.7
Credit to the private sector10.017.019.9-1.9-10.7
Medium and long-term net foreign liabilities0.7-2.60.10.73.4
(Flow in millions of U.S. dollars, increase-)17.4-79.03.027.1126.1
Other-0.9-1.0-6.6-1.9-3.0
Broad money20.114.19.0-0.7-2.0
(12-month percentage change)
Currency in circulation6.414.46.4-0.90.8
Broad money 2/20.114.19.0-0.7-2.0
Liabilities in bolivianos (M2)16.316.98.0-2.53.8
Foreign currency deposits 3/21.913.58.3-0.9-2.6
Credit to private sector8.315.517.8-1.6-8.8
Credit in bolivianos5.139.829.6-3.4-2.3
Foreign currency credit 3/8.414.717.3-1.5-9.0
Memorandum item:
(Average stock in percent of GDP)
Currency issue4.04.34.44.23.8
Broad money 2/38.241.542.444.742.8
Credit to private sector44.045.849.448.451.8
(In percent of total deposits for credit at current exchanges rates)
Dollarization (end-period stocks)
Foreign currency deposits 3/92.191.992.292.992.6
Foreign currency credit 3/96.896.296.096.396.3
(12-month percentage change at current exchange rates)
Broad money 2/25.017.313.74.23.4
Credit to private sector13.619.223.84.1-2.6
(12-month percentage change in U.S. dollars at current exchange rates)
Broad money 2/18.913.47.9-1.8-3.0
Credit to private sector8.115.217.5-2.0-8.7
Source: Central Bank of Bolivia;and Fund Staff estimates.

Flows in foreign currency are values at accounting exchange rates at corresponding period. The banking system comprises the central bank, commercial bank, and National Financing Institution of Bolivia, a stated-owned second-tier bank.

Includes special certificates of deposits (CDDs) issued by central bank during liquidation of failed banks.

Include deposits and credits in bolivianos that are indexed to U.S. dollars.

Source: Central Bank of Bolivia;and Fund Staff estimates.

Flows in foreign currency are values at accounting exchange rates at corresponding period. The banking system comprises the central bank, commercial bank, and National Financing Institution of Bolivia, a stated-owned second-tier bank.

Includes special certificates of deposits (CDDs) issued by central bank during liquidation of failed banks.

Include deposits and credits in bolivianos that are indexed to U.S. dollars.

Table 30.Bolivia: Selected Interest Rates 1/(In percent per annum)
Bank Lending RatesTime Deposit RatesYield on Treasury Notes 2/Margin over LIBOR 3/
Local CurrencyForeign CurrencyLocal CurrencyForeign CurrencyLocal CurrencyForeign CurrencyDeposit RatesYield on T-notes
1996
March25.1217.9820.6310.5321.8611.445.045.95
June27.8817.7519.3610.1720.109.544.613.98
September28.4217.5117.069.7619.218.424.152.81
December28.9617.1916.848.9611.396.653.411.10
1997
March24.8016.5316.228.4314.766.232.810.61
June25.7116.1514.178.2014.727.892.422.11
September20.6716.3113.218.1012.006.912.321.13
December16.8916.2113.568.3212.037.652.511.84
1998
March16.4216.1713.848.0612.097.192.371.50
June20.8715.6012.748.0112.447.102.321.41
September16.4515.3011.017.7612.387.332.462.03
December20.2415.5512.068.3213.177.333.222.23
1999
March20.8515.4312.028.5815.319.413.584.41
June18.5616.0512.849.1615.287.513.812.16
September17.2515.5911.468.5913.056.332.510.25
December15.4116.2611.318.7712.557.862.771.86
2000
January17.8316.3211.318.658.436.292.600.24
February24.0616.3410.868.3610.066.632.260.53
March17.9515.7410.958.259.236.221.96-0.07
April19.8615.9211.168.078.566.491.680.10
May23.3315.729.977.9310.256.941.090.10
June20.3915.7411.557.7912.007.101.010.32
July21.7015.6511.557.7911.677.231.080.52
August21.1715.7210.727.6511.446.980.970.30
September20.5615.6811.677.4011.656.730.740.07
October16.4315.2110.737.4511.897.450.690.69
November18.5715.1510.897.3311.898.110.591.37
December18.0315.2910.437.4514.537.821.051.42
2001
January17.5015.4710.926.8512.706.351.330.82
February17.4513.9310.756.7212.445.301.420.00
March20.3014.8010.406.5711.254.831.64-0.10
Sources; Central Bank of Bolivia; and Fund staff estimates.

Monthly averages; foreign currency rates are in terms of U.S. dollars.

With maturity of 91 days.

Margin over 3-month LIBOR in U.S. dollars, in percentage points.

Sources; Central Bank of Bolivia; and Fund staff estimates.

Monthly averages; foreign currency rates are in terms of U.S. dollars.

With maturity of 91 days.

Margin over 3-month LIBOR in U.S. dollars, in percentage points.

Table 31.Bolivia: Legal Reserves Requirements and Interest Rates(In percent)
From may 3, 1995From July 1, 1995From October 19, 1998 1/
Minimum Reserve Requirement 2/Additional Reserve Requirements 2/Interest Rate 4/Minimum Reserve Requirement 2/Additional Reserve Requirements 3/Interest Rate 4/Minimum Reserve Requirement 2/Additional Reserve Requirements 2/Interest Rate 5/
Demand deposits in local currency10109.451000120Market rates
Savings deposits in local currency10109.451000120Market rates
Time deposits in local currency 6/469.45400120Market rates
Other deposits in local currency 7/10000100001000
Demand and savings deposits in foreign currency10102.4510102.45120Market rates
Time deposits in foreign currency462.45462.45120Market rates
Indexed time deposit 8/462.45462.45120Market rates
Sources: Central Bank of Bolivianos.

Required reserves for deposits in local currency are constituted in cash and tradable official papers held at the central bank (2 percent and 10 percent, respectively) and, for deposits in foreign currency and indexed time deposits, foreign currency deposited in the central bank and tradable foreign papers held abroad f2 percent and 10 percent, respectively). These reserve requirements were phased-in, beginning May 4, 1998. For nonbank financial institutions, the phasing-in period was extended to February 8, 1999.

Legal minimum, not remunerated.

Constituted in tradable central bank paper with maturity of 28 days.

Paid monthly on average of daily balances.

For those required reserves constituted in tradable papers.

Applies to deposits with maturity up to one year; since May 4, 1994, there has been no legal reserve requirement on deposits over one year.

Deposits made in compliance with legal rulings.

Deposits and loans with a “maintenance of value” clause. (The index is the official exchange rate.)

Sources: Central Bank of Bolivianos.

Required reserves for deposits in local currency are constituted in cash and tradable official papers held at the central bank (2 percent and 10 percent, respectively) and, for deposits in foreign currency and indexed time deposits, foreign currency deposited in the central bank and tradable foreign papers held abroad f2 percent and 10 percent, respectively). These reserve requirements were phased-in, beginning May 4, 1998. For nonbank financial institutions, the phasing-in period was extended to February 8, 1999.

Legal minimum, not remunerated.

Constituted in tradable central bank paper with maturity of 28 days.

Paid monthly on average of daily balances.

For those required reserves constituted in tradable papers.

Applies to deposits with maturity up to one year; since May 4, 1994, there has been no legal reserve requirement on deposits over one year.

Deposits made in compliance with legal rulings.

Deposits and loans with a “maintenance of value” clause. (The index is the official exchange rate.)

Table 32.Bolivia: Open market bills 1/(In Million of Bolivianos at end of period)
By HolderBy CurrencyBy MaturityMemorandum Items
TotalBanksNonbank Financial InstitutionsOther 2/Local CurrencyForeign Currency 3/4 weeks13 weeks26-52 weeksMore than 52 weeksTotal USS millionsNet Monthly Bs millionsPlacement US$ millions
1996
March2,1731,2261537943501,82322975197621843510018
June2,2981,2231679083191,9781826811,1542814548717
September2,4331.3421928983602,0732115891,10153347313024
December2,2731,591865965891.684243901,144715439-102-21
1997
March2,2171,6711084384871,731352471,020915425-40-9
June2,1271,5811134334611,66673295910849408325
September2,2541,8591292675841,670452451,114850427396
December2,0551,601434115141,541-1421,023891383-66-14
1998
March2.2671,838463835561,711-1781,12896141716427
June2.3061,707755244371,868270631,04892441817130
September2.0521,533704493351,717--341,120898368-192-37
December1,8741,336634752991,575--281,053793332-83-17
1999
March1,6781,160534643041,37429261718670294416
June2,2861,414718012921,9941452998201,022395584100
September2,2501.092401,1191592,0912881,22373938129348
December2,1341,5172054121122.022186941,22762635723238
2000
January2,3021,6501774741582,1441591551,35963038316826
February2,2031,6431604001642,0391351551,279633365-99-18
March2,2061,5811075181422,064821691,3566003633-2
April2,0031,6071082881421,861831521,177591328-203-35
May1,9361,506803511381,798541211,179582315-67-13
June1,8291,396523811301,698271071,110585296-107-19
July1.6871,294573361061,5819103999575272-142-24
August1.4751,0621212931081,3679111964391237-211-35
September1,4319151353811111,3219106954362228-44-8
October1,4689471443771081,36010109985364233365
November1,4338851364121011,3331095962366226-35-7
December1,384800146438951,2892112901369217-49-9
2001
January1.454817180456981,35621579253702277010
February1.6589092095401101,5483197--25820531
March1,7619112296211041,656214--27210314
Source: Central Bank of Bolivia.

Comprises central bank certificates of deposit and treasury bills.

Private sector and nonfinancial public entities.

Bills in U.S. dollars and bills in bolivianos indexed to the U.S. dollar exchange rate.

Source: Central Bank of Bolivia.

Comprises central bank certificates of deposit and treasury bills.

Private sector and nonfinancial public entities.

Bills in U.S. dollars and bills in bolivianos indexed to the U.S. dollar exchange rate.

Table 33.Bolivia: Distribution of Bank Credits to Private Sector 1/
Prel.March
1996199719981999200020002001
(In million of bolivianos at end of period)
Total17,41920,87825,90026,96126,17626,85825,246
Agricultural2,1532,3402,9672,9502,9373,0022,734
Mining386375433404477546504
Industry3,2403,8254,3045,1184,8614,7144,707
Construction8058021,2543,5513,9634,0192,393
Commerce4,0034,3916,0455,6415,1925,6744,898
Other 2/6,8329,14510,8979,2988,7468,90410,010
(In percent of total credits)
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Agricultural12.411.211.510.911.211.210.8
Mining2.21.81.71.51.82.02.0
Industry18.618.316.619.018.617.618.6
Construction4.63.84.813.215.115.09.5
Commerce23.021.023.320.919.821.119.4
Other 2/39.243.842.134.533.433.239.6
(Real growth) 3/
Total4.612.318.80.9-6.1-1.1-7.7
Agricultural1.01.821.4-3.6-3.7-5.5-10.5
Mining-6.1-8.910.7-9.714.324.4-9.2
Industry-4.110.67.815.3-8.2-4.2-1.9
Construction-14.0-6.749.8174.67.9131.3-41.5
Commerce7.12.831.9-9.5-11.0-12.7-15.2
Other 2/12.725.414.1-17.3-9.0-14.110.4
Source: Central Bank of Bolivia.

Excludes banks’ investments which comprise part of bank claims on the private sector in Tables 36 and 38; U.S. dollar-denominated credits valued at end-of-period exchange rates.

Includes loans to the service sector, mortgages, and consumer loans.

Twelve-month rate of change in stock of credit deflated by the change in prices during the same period.

Source: Central Bank of Bolivia.

Excludes banks’ investments which comprise part of bank claims on the private sector in Tables 36 and 38; U.S. dollar-denominated credits valued at end-of-period exchange rates.

Includes loans to the service sector, mortgages, and consumer loans.

Twelve-month rate of change in stock of credit deflated by the change in prices during the same period.

Table 34.Bolivia: Commercial Bank Performance Indicators(In percent)
Prel.QI
1996199719981999200020002001
Profitability
Ratios to total assets (period average)1/
Operating income4.84.55.34.84.04.24.2
Profit before tax1.30.91.51.20.30.60.5
Profit after tax0.70.41.10.7-0.10.20.1
Noninterest income0.90.90.90.70.60.90.7
Overhead expenses4.14.14.14.03.04.04.1
Ratios to equity capital (period average)1/
Profit before tax19.013.320.913.03.46.54.6
Profit after tax10.76.414.58.3-1.11.90.5
Assets quality
Ratios to total loans (end-of-period)
Nonperforming loans 2/3.83.63.75.310.37.412.7
Nonperforming loans net of provisions 2/2.01.61.11.65.24.78.7
Liquidity
Ratios to total deposits (end-of-period)
Total loans99.1110.9119.4112.7102.4109.198.9
Total liquid assets29.733.525.529.727.228.626.9
Capital adequacy
Ratio of qualifying capital to total risk-adjusted assets (end-of-period)10.610.911.612.213.512.7
Sources: Superintendency of Banks; and Fund staff estimates.

Averages in 2000 and 2001 are cumulative from January of each year.

Adjusted to exclude the estimated share of loans overdue by less than one month, which were included in official statistics of nonperforming loans prior to January 2000.

Sources: Superintendency of Banks; and Fund staff estimates.

Averages in 2000 and 2001 are cumulative from January of each year.

Adjusted to exclude the estimated share of loans overdue by less than one month, which were included in official statistics of nonperforming loans prior to January 2000.

Table 35.Bolivia: Summary Account of the Financial Systems 1/(End-of-period stocks; in millions of bolivianos)
December 1997December 1998December 1999December 2000March 2000March 2001
Domestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotalDomestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotalDomestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotalDomestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotalDomestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotalDomestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotal
Net international Reserves03,6293,62904,8344,83406,4506,45008,4118,41106,7616,76108,5618,561
Assets07,0877,08708,8598,85909,9379,937010,82610,82609,9949,994010,18110,181
Liabilities0-3,458-3,4580-4,025-4,0250-3,487-3,4870-2,415-2,4150-3,233-3,2330-1,621-1,621
Net domestic assets3,60915,99819,6074,07016,85320,9244,75915,29120,0504,94813,39218,3404,00115,58819,5894,16314,18318,347
Nonfinancial public sector-1,2452,2951,050-1,3472,165823-1,5292,146617-1,7323,1341,402-1,7442,449704-2,0643,7791,716
Central government-7492,5421,794-8392,3611,522-1,0922,5881,496-1,1153,2902,175-1,2242,6641,440-1,4213,9632,542
State government-192-139-331-335-127-462-225-244-469-403-83-486-324-87-410-421-99-519
Public enterprises-305-108-413-168-69-237-213-198-410-213-73-286-197-129-325-222-85-307
Private sector79720,26121,0591,03325,01326,04699826,11527,11283025,49626,3261,00626,01027,01579024,60225,392
International Financial Institutions-1561560-12578566-17609592-12640628-17611594-9640631
Allocation of SDRs0-247-2470-268-2680-279-2790-286-2860-279-2790-284-284
Capital and surplus-2,473-1,813-4,286-3,189-2,167-5,356-3,678-3,385-7,063-4,167-4,073-8,240-3,775-3,538-7,313-4,268-4,090-8,359
Net interbank float43413456-28154125-110-340-450-195-1,056-1,251-219-438-658-121-929-1,050
Valuation account6,084-4,9671,1177,027-7,033-67,837-7,822158,509-8,575-667,402-7,464-627,990-8,059-69
Net unclassified assets403-505-102581-1,588-1,0081,259-1,753-4941,714-1,887-1731,350-1,762-4131,846-1,477369
Medium- and long-term foreign liabilities0-4,404-4,4040-4,437-4,4370-4,378-4,3780-3,768-3,7680-4,369-4,3690-3,752-3,752
Liabilities to private sector (M3)3,36015,47218,8323,70117,62021,3213,60918,51422,1233,74419,23822,9823,11818,86321,9813,32819,82823,155
Currency in circulation2,06102,0612,19302,1932,17302,1731,18901,1891,68801,6881,77701,777
Deposits1,29915,47216,7721,50817,62019,1281,43618,51419,9501,55519,23820,7931,43018,86320,2931,55019,82821,378
Demand deposits91872,7133,6311,0923,0664,1589952,7403,7351,1123,1194,2319972,7833,7801,1183,3004,417
Savings deposits2292,8093,0382503,3293,5782823,5233,8052854,2314,5162603,7373,9972584,2934,551
Time deposits1229,7949,91613411,00711,14112312,06712,19012011,73611,85613512,12812,26313312,05212,183
Other deposits311571873221925136183220381531913921525442183225
Memorandum Items:
Demand deposit in local currency9181,0929951,1129971,118
Boliviano M12,9793,2853,1683,3012,6842,895
Other deposit in local currency381415441443433433
Boliviano M23,3603,7013,6093,7443,1183,328
Dollar-denominated deposits15,47217,62018,51419,23818,86319,828
M318,83221,32122,12322,98221,98123,155
Exchange rate, end of period, Bs/US$5.365.645.986.386.086.47
Sources: Central Bank of Bolivia

Foreign currency items are valued at end-of-period exchange rates.

Sources: Central Bank of Bolivia

Foreign currency items are valued at end-of-period exchange rates.

Table 36.Bolivia: Summary Account of the Central Bank 1/(End-of-period stocks; in millions of bolivianos)
December 1997December 1998December 1999December 2000March 2000March 2001
Domestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotalDomestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotalDomestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotalDomestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotalDomestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotalDomestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotal
Net international Reserves05,6475,64705,9325,93206,5426,54206,8006,80006,1696,16906,1606,160
Assets06,3886,38806,5936,59307,1617,16107,3467,34606,8976,89706,6196,619
Liabilities0-741-7410-661-6610-619-6190-547-5470-728-7280-459-459
Net domestic assets2,157-2,397-2402,419-3,950-6312,419-3,707-1,2882,424-4,058-1,6341,899-3,337-1,4381,938-3,455-1,517
Nonfinancial public sector-1,6621,236-426-1,0151,206-409-1,7191,474-245-1,8532,252399-1,919-1,711-208-2,1252,617493
General government-1,1651,483318-1,1121,402290-1,2821,916635-1,2372,4081,172-1,3991,926528-1,4822,801493
State government-192-139-331-335-127-462-225-244-469-403-83-487-324-87-410-421-99-519
Public enterprises-305-108-413-168-69-237-213-198-410-213-73-286-197-129-325-222-85-307
Financial intermediaries-3571,265908-4922,8412,349-7052,6181,913-8431,9071,064-5242,3901,866-4601,7091,250
Commercial banks-335-640-975-453724271-680395-285-799-386-1,185-49190-401-407-545-952
Credits271,2861,312431,2181,261271,2061,23331607638271,1371,16431523553
Deposits-362-1,926-2,288-496-494-991-707-811-1,518-830-992-1,822-518-1,047-1,565-437-1,068-1,505
Bank in liquidation301,2731,302401,4241,46481,5511,55861,5781,58481,5571,56561,6011,607
Other financial institutions-51632581-79694615-32672640-50714665-41743702-59653694
International Financial Institutions-1561560-12578566-17609592-12640628-17611594-9640631
Allocation of SDRs0-247-2470-268-2680-279-2790-286-2860-279-2790-284-284
Official Capital and surplus-2,067-257-2,324-2,647-2,167-299-2,946-3,109-377-3,486-3,554-369-3,923-3,177-383-3,560-3,627-4041
Valuation account6,084-4,9671,1177,027-7,033-67,837-7,822158,509-8,575-667,402-7,464-627,990-8,059-69
Net unclassified assets16012172157-74831327020217637455013477211169334503
Medium and long-term foreign liabilities (-) 2/0-3,250-3,2500-2,882-2,8820-2,835-2,8350-2,742-2,7420-2,832-2,8320-2,706-2,706
currency issued2,15702,1572,41902,4192,41902,4192,42402,4241,90001,9001,93801,938
Memorandum Items:
Exchange rate, end of period, Bs/US$5.365.645.986.386.086.47
Source: Central Bank of Bolivia.

Foreign currency items are valued at end-of-period exchange rates.

Includes foreign liabilities of the general government which are administrated by central bank as trust funds.

Source: Central Bank of Bolivia.

Foreign currency items are valued at end-of-period exchange rates.

Includes foreign liabilities of the general government which are administrated by central bank as trust funds.

Table 37.Bolivia: Summary Account of the Rest of Financial System 1/(End-of-period stocks; in millions of bolivianos)
December 1997December 1998December 1999December 2000March 2000March 2001
Domestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotalDomestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotalDomestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotalDomestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotalDomestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotalDomestic CurrencyForeign CurrencyTotal
Net international Reserves0-2,018-2,0180-1,098-1,0980-92-9201,6111,611059259202,4002,400
Assets069969902,2662,26602,7762,77603,4293,42903,0973,09703,5623,562
Liabilities0-2,717-2,7170-3,364-3,3640-2,868-2,8680-1,869-1,8690-2,505-2,5050-1,161-1,161
Monetary reserves4751,8672,3426825591,2418875721,4599807521,7315876371,2245516441,194
Currency9609622602262470247235023521202121610161
Reserve deposits3791,8672,2464575591,0156415721,2127457521,4963756371,0123906441,034
Net domestic assets1,07419,48820,5621,19622,10823,3041,70021,62023,3201,70420,03021,8241,72821,44023,1681,84020,21822,058
Nonfinancial public sector4171,0591,4262749591,2321906718611218811,003174737912611,1621,223
Net interbank float232412648-483-475-45-336-381-92-384-475-70-313-382-46-59-103
Credit to private sector79720,26121,0591,03325,01326,04699826,11527,11283025,49626,3261,00626,01027,01579024,60225,392
Capital and surplus-406-1,556-1,962-542-1,868-2,409-569-3,008-3,577-614-3,704-4,317-599-3,155-3,754-641-3,677-4,318
Net unclassified assets243-517-273423-1,514-1,0911,127-1,823-6961,538-2,261-7231,216-1,839-6231,677-1,811-134
Medium- and long-term foreign liabilities01,1541,15401,5551,55501,5431,54301,0261,02601,5371,53701,0471,047
Liabilities to the central bank12,9602,96112,7632,76413,1933,19453,3313,33613,1533,15453,2233,228
Liabilities to the private sector1,29915,47216,7721,50817,62019,1281,43618,51419,9501,55519,23820,7931,43018,86320,2931,55019,82821,378
Deposits1,29915,47216,7721,50817,62019,1281,43618,51419,9501,55519,23820,7931,43018,86320,2931,55019,82821,378
Demand deposits9182,7133,6311,0923,0664,1589952,7403,7351,1123,1194,2319972,7833,7801,1183,3004,417
Savings deposits2292,8093,0382503,3293,5782823,5233,8052854,2314,5162603,7373,9972584,2934,551
Time deposits1229,7949,91613411,00711,14112312,06712,19012011,73611,85613512,12812,26313312,05212,185
Other deposits311571873221925136183220381531913921525442183225
Memorandum Items:
Exchange rate, end of period, Bs/US$5.365.645.986.386.086.47
Source: Central Bank of Bolivia.

Foreign currency items are valued at end-of-period exchange rates.

Source: Central Bank of Bolivia.

Foreign currency items are valued at end-of-period exchange rates.

Table 38.Bolivia: Balance of Payments 1/(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
Current account-333-553-667-488-464
Trade balance-404-684-879-704-600
Exports f.o.b1,1321,1671,1041,0511,230
Of which: gas94695736122
Imports-1,536-1,851-1,968-1,755-1,830
Services-14363426-24
Credits186247251259224
Debits-200-211-217-234-248
Income-164-196-162-196-225
Credit4669866165
Debit-210-265-249-257-290
Of which: interest due on external public sector debt 2/-154-155-144-126-129
Of which: investment income (net)-20-56-44-52-80
Official transfers230187209242240
Of which: HIPC assistance from grants00116255
Private and financial transfers20104132144145
Capital accounts 3/674656792515425
Capital transfers40251000
Direct investment4268769551,014731
Of which: capitalization200570638506297
Portfolio investment0-53-75-6155
Public sector, medium- and long-term debt248205104113112
Disbursements397371320280290
Nonfinancial public sector311320293259275
Financial public sector8651272115
Amortization due 2/-149-166-216-167-178
Nonfinancial public sector-121-98-80-111-122
Amortization by capitalized enterprises0-20-59-20-19
Financial public sector-28-48-77-36-37
Private sector loans (net, medium- and long-term)992125-30-113
Other23-83-13-284-277
Errors and omissions-73-407-314-237-84
Overall balance34210312526-39
Exceptional financing0031616
HIPC assistance from rescheduling0031616
Net change in official reserves (increase -)-342-103-128-4223
memorandum item:
Total assistance under the HIPC Initiative278578
of which: assistance from debt reduction1377
Sources: Central Bank of Bolivia; and Fund staff estimates.

Compiled according to the fifth edition of the balance of payments manual.

Reflects lower scheduled debt service, starting in 1998, owing to original HIPC assistance in the form of stock-of-debt reduction.

Includes errors and omissions.

Sources: Central Bank of Bolivia; and Fund staff estimates.

Compiled according to the fifth edition of the balance of payments manual.

Reflects lower scheduled debt service, starting in 1998, owing to original HIPC assistance in the form of stock-of-debt reduction.

Includes errors and omissions.

Table 39.Bolivia: Exports by Principal Products
199519961997199819992000
Metals total value479.8455.0480.7435.6400.8425.1
Public sector142.6134.876.063.976.080.6
Of which: Comibol64.661.176.063.976.080.6
Private Sector337.2320.2404.7371.7324.8344.5
Tin (concentrate)
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)8.212.710.97.55.310.3
Volume (1,000 metric tons)1.32.11.91.41.01.9
Unit price (cents per pound)282.4278.7256.4245.7244.3245.0
Tin (metallic)
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)80.472.870.156.663.965.7
Volume (1,000 metric tons)12.912.012.510.011.912.0
Unit price (cents per pound)282.4276.2255.3255.7243.9247.0
Antimony
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)11.79.38.56.23.61.6
Volume (1,000 metric tons)6.55.85.85.73.02.2
Unit price (cents per pound)81.072.366.448.355.333.2
Lead
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)12.510.911.39.54.89.4
Volume (1,000 metric tons)20.314.415.216.44.59.8
Unit price (cents per pound)28.134.328.026.423.121.0
Zinc
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)151.3153.4200.0156.1154.0170.6
Volume (1,000 metric tons)146.6151.1153.8153.1144.9150.6
Unit price (cents per pound)46.846.059.046.348.251.4
Silver
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)70.864.259.573.967.774.0
Volume (metric tons)424.0380.0384.0426.2432.1463.0
Unit price (U.S. dollar per troy ounce)5.45.44.85.44.95.0
Gold
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)130.8121.1110.5111.789.188.0
Volume (fine grams)10,593.79,570.710,298.711,823.29,948.59,778.8
Unit price (U.S. dollar per fine grams)12.312.210.79.19.09.0
Other metals
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)14.010.69.914.112.410.4
Volume (1,000 metric tons)69.853.219.936.438.159.1
Unit price (cents per pound)0.10.10.20.20.20.2
Hydrocarbons1/141.8133.297.887.764.8165.8
Petroleum
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)48.138.628.230.226.136.3
Volume (1,000 barrels)2,973.21,446.01,444.02,225.71,682.01,195.0
Unit price (U.S. dollar/bbl)16.226.719.613.615.530.3
Natural gas
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)92.494.569.357.435.7121.8
Volume (millions cubic feet)72,488.472,572.057,487.057,659.042,829.374,739.0
Unit price (USS per 1,000 cubic feet)1.31.31.21.00.91.6
Others
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)1.30.00.20.13.07.8
Volume (1,000 metric tons)5.60.01.26.719.429.0
Unit price (000 U.S. dollar per metric0.20.00.30.00.20.3
Nontraditional exports
Sugar
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)17.929.422.124.78.87.2
Volume (1,000 metric tons)43.873.865.168.226.923.0
Unit price (cents per pound)18.518.115.416.414.914.2
Soybeans
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)115.5162.3184.7150.8163.0185.8
Volume (1,000 metric tons)524.0647.0680.2685.4801.1831.0
Unit price (U.S. dollar per metric ton)220.4250.8271.5220.0209.1223.6
Coffee
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)16.936.426.514.913.810.4
Volume (1,000 metric tons)12.916.314.812.114.413.6
Unit price (Cents per pound)130.8101.1179.4120.0100.075.8
Timber
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)72.078.973.451.432.028.2
Volume (1,000 metric tons)95.9104.495.860.233.141.5
Unit price (U.S. dollar per metric tons)750.5755.5765.5853.4967.2679.4
Jewelry
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)78.339.919.33.716.131.1
Volume (1,000 Kilograms)9.75.43.20.73.05.9
Unit price (1,000 U.S. dollar per kilog8.17.46.15.45.95.3
Oils
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)37.441.560.064.388.844.0
Volume (1,000 metric tons)51.362.387.290.6136.297.9
Unit price (U.S. dollar per metric tons)729.3665.7688.0710.0651.9449.1
Other nontraditional products
Value (millions of U.S. dollars)141.2180.4209.0198.0199.0237.2
Volume (1,000 metric tons)108.6140.2169.0159.4204.2230.4
Unit price (U.S. dollar per metric tons)1.31.31.31.20.91.0
All nontraditional exports479.1550.4594.9507.8521.6543.9
Public sector6.77.70.00.00.00.0
Private sector472.442.7584.9500.7521.6543.9
Other goods 2/82.194.9101.7165.7151.8192.9
Total exports, c.i.f.1,182.81,251.81,275.11,196.91,138.91,327.8
Public sector
Private sector
Balance of payments adjustments 3/-107.9-119.9-108.6-92.8-87.8-98.2
Total exports, f.o.b.1,074.91,131.91,166.51,104.11,051.11,229.5
Sources: Central Bank of Bolivia; and National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

All hydrocarbons exports are made by the public sector before the capitalization.

Includes re-exports, and other items according to the definition of the fifth edition of the balance of payments manual.

Net adjustment for costs (freight, insurance, refinery, and smelting charges) that are not included in the f.o.b. value of exports.

Sources: Central Bank of Bolivia; and National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

All hydrocarbons exports are made by the public sector before the capitalization.

Includes re-exports, and other items according to the definition of the fifth edition of the balance of payments manual.

Net adjustment for costs (freight, insurance, refinery, and smelting charges) that are not included in the f.o.b. value of exports.

Table 40.Bolivia: Contract Prices for Natural Gas Exports 1/(Period averages)
YearDry Gas (US$ per million BTU)Liquid Gas (US$ per metric ton)Natural Gasoline (US$ per gallon)Average Price (US$ per thousand Cubic feet)
19961.2345.790.171.22
19971.1843.820.161.17
19980.9535.300.130.94
19990.8732.210.120.86
20001.5356.800.211.51
1996
Q-I1.2546.350.171.24
Q-II1.2847.600.181.27
Q-III1.2546.270.171.23
Q-IV1.1642.940.161.14
1997
Q-I1.2947.750.181.27
Q-II1.2245.370.171.21
Q-III1.1040.900.141.09
Q-IV1.1141.260.151.10
1998
Q-I1.1141.160.151.10
Q-II0.9836.190.130.96
Q-III0.9033.360.120.89
Q-IV0.8230.470.110.81
1999
Q-I0.7327.180.100.72
Q-II0.7527.750.100.74
Q-III0.8832.470.120.87
Q-IV1.1241.430.151.10
2000
Q-I1.3248.930.181.30
Q-II1.5055.690.211.48
Q-III1.5758.150.211.55
Q-IV1.7464.420.241.72
Source: Ministry of Energy and Hydrocarbons.

For the period to 1999 Q-II, the price refers to exports of gas to Argentina. For 1999 Q-III, the price corresponds to a weighted average of the export prices to Argentina and Brazil. Starting in the last quarter of 1999, the price refers to exports to Brazil.

Source: Ministry of Energy and Hydrocarbons.

For the period to 1999 Q-II, the price refers to exports of gas to Argentina. For 1999 Q-III, the price corresponds to a weighted average of the export prices to Argentina and Brazil. Starting in the last quarter of 1999, the price refers to exports to Brazil.

Table 41.Bolivia: Imports by Economic Category
1996199719981999Prel.

2000
(In million of U.S. dollars)
Consumer goods340387475412466
Nondurables173183202223293
Durables166203272189173
Raw materials and intermediate products616730836720930
Fuel52135745995
Agricultural inputs3244404353
Industrial inputs445467616482621
Construction material49527010182
Transport3732353453
Capital goods6597341,030693594
Agricultural equipment1916191313
Industrial equipment369455554532406
Transport equipment271262458149176
Other4245462913
Balance payments adjustment-119-44-404-99-147
Total c.i.f1,5371,8511,9831,7551,830
Freight and insurance-172-206-224-216-220
Total f.o.b1,3651,6451,7591,5391,610
(In percent of total imports)
Total100100100100100
Consumer goods2020202224
Raw material and intermediate products3739353946
Capital goods4039433730
Other32221
Sources: Central Bank of Bolivia; and National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

1/ Includes staff estimates for unrecorded imports, and an adjustment to offset changes in the value of exports when reported according to fifth edition of the balance of payments manual.

Sources: Central Bank of Bolivia; and National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

1/ Includes staff estimates for unrecorded imports, and an adjustment to offset changes in the value of exports when reported according to fifth edition of the balance of payments manual.

Table 42.Bolivia: Direction of Trade 1/(In percent of total Imports and Exports)
Imports 2/Exports
1996199719981999200019961997199819992000
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Industrial countries55.050.359.044.438.349.445.239.136.841.9
of which:
United states27.723.225.623.621.824.520.315.315.824.2
Japan12.012.420.08.45.20.30.30.20.50.2
EEC15.314.713.512.411.324.724.623.520.617.5
Of which:
France0.70.80.91.00.70.30.20.10.10.1
Germany3.73.12.42.62.04.54.51.61.10.9
Netherlands and Belgium1.10.70.70.60.84.36.25.45.53.3
United Kingdom0.71.20.70.80.511.112.214.912.811.6
Developing countries34.830.732.843.046.237.141.538.129.538.2
Of which:
Argentina8.313.69.613.115.310.714.29.23.73.4
Brazil11.111.910.314.514.12.82.92.32.911.4
Chile6.86.45.87.08.23.34.72.62.02.0
CIS, Eastern Europe, China and others10.19.08.212.615.513.413.322.833.719.9
Sources: Central Bank of Bolivia; and National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

On a customs basis. Subtotals may not add to totals due to rounding.

Distribution by country of origin pertains to merchandise imports excluding balance-of-payments adjustment.

Sources: Central Bank of Bolivia; and National Bureau of Statistics (INE).

On a customs basis. Subtotals may not add to totals due to rounding.

Distribution by country of origin pertains to merchandise imports excluding balance-of-payments adjustment.

Table 43.Bolivia: International Reserve of Banking System
Jan.-Mar.
1996199719981999200020002001
(End-period, in millions of U.S. dollars)
Central bank9511,0541,0371,0941,0661,015952
Assets1,1071,1921,1721,1981,1511,1341,023
Foreign exchange 1/1,0081,104888915869852743
Gold 2/4040235236235235235
Special drawing rights40393837373736
Other20101010101010
Liabilities-156-138-135-104-86-120-71
International Monetary Fund-276-251-257-229-219-245-204
Other 3/67113122126134125133
Deposit money banks-315-376-195-1525297371
Assets106130402464545509551
Liabilities-421-507-596-479-293-412-180
Banking system6356788421,0791,3181,1121,323
Assets1,2131,3231,5731,6621,6971,6441,574
Liabilities-578-645-731-583-379-532-250
Source: Central Bank of Bolivia.

Foreign currency holdings and demand deposits net of overdrafts.

Valued at US$42.22 per troy ounce until 1998, since QI 1999 at US$250 per troy ounce.

Includes net position in the Andean Reserve Fund.

Source: Central Bank of Bolivia.

Foreign currency holdings and demand deposits net of overdrafts.

Valued at US$42.22 per troy ounce until 1998, since QI 1999 at US$250 per troy ounce.

Includes net position in the Andean Reserve Fund.

Table 44.Bolivia: External Public Debt by Creditor 1/(In million of U.S. Dollars)
1995Outstanding End-19951996Outstanding End-1996
DisbursementsAmortizationInterest PaymentsAdjustmentDisbursementsAmortizationInterest PaymentsAdjustment
Total medium- and long-term2/4041861491064,782447191158-3974,641
International organizations362142115922,934372178119-1133,014
Andean Development Corporation64281452259964122-29284
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development01820-49501915-1461
International Development Association11426777010036-21847
Inter-American Development Bank1346068191,4391126467-571,430
International Monetary Fund2526318259514249276
Other258501121496-1115
Official bilateral creditors434033151,816761139-2911,591
Brazil0200022000022
Of which: debt cancellation0800000000
United States530098913-5056
Of which: debt refinanced03000007800
Other381733151,697671036-2411,513
Suppliers credits 3/0411202000
Foreign banks 4/000-313000720
Of which: consortium banks0000900009
Bonds 4/5/000017000017
Total medium- and long-term 2/393200156-3534,482366270146764,655
International organizations361189107-1793,00929225199-263,023
Andean Development Corporation735521-55247338020-2198
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development0159-9370106-621
International Development Association13646-549268867391,047
Inter-American Development Bank1166862-431,43611810159-711,381
International Monetary Fund23351-162484641111264
Other13126-311481364112
Official bilateral creditors29949-1651,4465614461021,590
Brazil000022000022
Of which: debt cancellation0000000000
United States5130601113071
Of which: debt refinanced0000000000
Other24946-1651,3644514431021,497
Suppliers credits 3/0000000000
Foreign 4/321-219641020
Of which: consortium banks00009000-90
Bonds 5/000-891200021
Total medium- and long-term 2/303202132-1824,574305210136-2084,461
International organizations27017493-473,07426517391-893,077
Andean Development Corporation654516-102098346209255
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development0115110010300
International Development Association8288-251,09663108-531,096
Inter-American Development Bank896358-101,397966454-361,393
International Monetary Fund23331-724715301-12220
Other12135411571354113
Official bilateral creditors312238-1261,473392943-1201,364
Brazil000022000022
Of which: debt cancellation0000000000
United Stales013-1061013060
Of which: debt refinanced0000000000
Other312135-1161,390392840-1201,282
Suppliers credits 3/0000000000
Foreign banks 4/252017151012
Of which: consortium banks0000000000
Bonds 4/5/021-91004107
Sources: Central Bank of Bolivia; and Fund staff estimates.

Figures do not include HIPC debt relief. Amortization and interest payments include payments on arrears.

Excludes arrears on interest.

Nonguaranteed only.

For 1995 and 1996, before comparable debt relief on Naples terms.

Disbursements represent new bond issues.

Sources: Central Bank of Bolivia; and Fund staff estimates.

Figures do not include HIPC debt relief. Amortization and interest payments include payments on arrears.

Excludes arrears on interest.

Nonguaranteed only.

For 1995 and 1996, before comparable debt relief on Naples terms.

Disbursements represent new bond issues.

Table 45.Bolivia: Effective Exchanges Rates 1/2/(Indices: 1990=100)
Real Effective Exchange RateNominal Effective Exchange RateExchange Rate in Terms of U.S. DollarsConsumer Price Index
199691.2282.5101.9201.9
199795.5287.2103.1215.5
199894.3279.1100.9225.0
199996.4284.095.4232.0
200094.9278.589.5239.9
1996
I92.2286.1103.9194.7
II91.7286.0102.6196.1
III91.5282.0102.7200.7
IV91.2282.5101.9201.9
1997
I91.6286.6100.2201.8
II92.4285.5102.2206.3
III93.0287.7101.5208.1
IV95.5287.2103.1215.5
1998
I96.6286.3103.9220.8
II96.8287.1102.8222.6
III95.9284.8101.6223.1
IV94.3279.1100.9225.0
1999
I99.0294.499.2225.2
II97.8291.697.4225.9
III97.2287.995.8228.0
IV96.4284.095.4232.0
2000
January96.1282.295.4233.2
February96.5283.595.0234.2
March95.4279.794.0235.6
April96.1279.494.4237.9
May96.0282.692.6234.9
June94.9279.791.8235.4
July95.2279.991.9237.1
August95.6280.391.7238.0
September97.4281.392.6242.4
October98.5281.193.2245.6
November95.7281.190.1239.4
December94.9278.589.5239.9
200194.2276.888.8240.5
January94.3276.988.5240.4
February
Sources: IMF Information Notice System.

End of Period.

Increase denotes appreciation.

Sources: IMF Information Notice System.

End of Period.

Increase denotes appreciation.

APPENDIX 1
Bolivia: Summary of the Tax System as of March 30, 2001
TaxNature of TaxExemptions and DeductionsRates
1.Taxes on income and profits
1.1Complementary VAT
RC-IVA (Régimen Complementario al IVA). Laws 843 (May 20, 1986), 1314 (Feb. 27, 1992), and 1606 (Dec. 22, 1995); and Supreme Decrees 21531 (Feb. 27, 1987), 24050 (July 29, 1995), 24433 (Dec. 12, 1997), 24062 (May 6, 1997), and 24852 (Sept. 20, 1997).A tax on the Bolivian-source gross income of individuals and undivided estates, not subjected to the tax on enterprise profits. The tax is withheld monthly by employers (retention agents) and self-assessed quarterly by direct contributors on fees, remuneration of partners, directors and shareholders’ representatives, rents, interest, and other recurrent income. The tax applies also to royalties for the use of patents and brand names, payments for technical assistance, and other income of parent companies or related entities.Deductions: the 0.5 percent paid as commission to private pension plans.13 percent.
Exemptions: two minimum wages: social benefits paid to workers, including prenatal, nuptial, and other allowances; Christmas bonus; life annuities paid by the Treasury; per diem and representation expenses; retirement benefits and pensions; birth, sickness, burial, and professional risk allowances; capital shares derived from reinvestment of profits and dividends; profits and dividends distributed by payers of the profits tax (1.2).Tax credit: The amount of withholding is reduced by (a) the VAT paid by the taxpayer on the purchase of goods and services, building contracts, or on services and inputs of any kind; and (b) 13 percent of two minimum wages-to compensate for the VAT paid on purchases under the Simplified Tax System (4.1) for which invoice is not required.
1.2Tax on enterprise profits
IUE (Impuesto a las Utilidades lie las Empresas). Laws 1606 (Dec. 22, 1994) and 1834 (March 31, 1998) and Supreme Decrees 24051 (June 29, 1995) and 24062 (May 6, 1997)A tax on the annual net profits of public and private enterprises, national and foreign, regardless of their legal organization, including sole proprietorships and individuals exercising liberal and regulated professions. Net profits from the self-employed are presumed at 50 percent of gross income.Exemptions: retained profits of authorized nonprofit associations, foundations, institutions, and organizations.25 percent.
Tax credits: The tax paid is creditable against the transaction tax liabilities (3.3). In the hydrocarbons sector, the 13 percent complementary royalty on old oil (3.5) applies against this tax.
1.3Tax on transfers abroad
IUE (Impuesto a las Utilidades de las Empresas). Laws 1606 (Dec. 22, 1994) and 1834 (March 31, 1998) and Supreme Decrees 24051 (June 29, 1995) and 24062 (May 6, 1997)A withholding tax on income derived from Bolivian sources by nonresidents, including profits, dividends, rents, interest, royalties, and technology transfers.Exemptions: interest paid to international credit organizations and authorized foreign official institutions.
Withholding standard rate25 percent
On profits from specified activities conducted partly in Bolivia:
Foreign enterprises4 percent (=25 percent of 16 percent)
Remittances by residents1.5 percent
Net profits of foreign enterprises that conduct part of their activities in the country is presumed equal to 16 percent of gross receipts.
1.4Income surtax on the extraction of nonrenewable resources
Laws 1731 (Nov. 25, 1996) and 1777 (March 17, 1997) and Supreme Decrees 24062 (May 6, 1997), 24764 (July 31, 1997), and 24780 (July 31, 1997).A surtax to the IUE (1.2) levied on annual net profits derived from the extraction nonrenewable resources (primarily in the mining and hydrocarbons sectors).The tax base is reduced by the recovery, up to 33 percent in each year, of investment in exploration, development, exploration, and environmental protection, plus 45 percent of the year’s value of production, up to Bs 250 million per site (adjusted annually in line with the exchange rate).25 percent
2.Taxes on income and profits
2.1Real estate property tax
IPBI (Impuesto a la Propiedad de Bienes Inmuebles). Laws 1606 (Dec. 22, 1994) and 1715 (Oct. 18, 1996), Supreme Decrees 24204 (Dec. 23, 1995) and 24062 (May 5, 1997), and Supreme Resolutions 218493 (Sep. 11, 1998) and 218852 (Aug. 5, 1999).An annual, municipal tax on owners (individuals, enterprises, and undivided estates) of any type of real estate property, including rural land, regardless of how acquired.Enterprises; diplomatic and consular missions; real estate of nonprofit organizations, war veterans and their widows, and autoctone rural communities, if not used for commercial or industrial purpose; peasant homestead; and small rural property used for fanning or cattle raising.Schedule for fiscal year 1998:

Value overMarginalFixed
Bs00.35%+Bs0
Bs249,6820.50%+Bs874
Bs499,3631.00%+Bs2,122
Bs749,0761.50%+Bs4,619
Rates reduced by half on rural land.
Brackets adjusted annually in line w/exch. rate.
2.2Motorvehicles tax
IPBVA (Impuesto a la Propiedad de Vehiculos y Automotores).An annual, municipal tax on owners (individuals, enterprises, and undivided estates) of motorvehicles.Exemptions: vehicles belonging to: the state except its enterprises; diplomatic and consular missions and their staff; foreign employees of international organizations.Schedule for fiscal year 1998:
Laws 1606 (Dec. 22. 1994) and 1715 (Oct. 18, 1996, Supreme Decrees 24204 (Dec. 23, 1995) and 24062 (May 6, 1997), and Supreme Resolutions 218359 (May 15, 1998) and 218728 (Apr. 15, 1999).
Value overMarginalFixed
Bs01.5%+Bs0
Bs30,0392.0%+Bs601
Bs90,1173.0%+Bs2,102
Bs180,2334.0%+Bs5,257
Bs360,4655.0%+Bs13,367
Rates reduced by half on urban transportation.
Brackets adjusted annually in line w/exch. rate.
2.3Gift and inheritance tax
TGB (Impuesto a la las Suceciones y Transmisiones Gratuitas de Bienes).A tax on the net value of unrequited transfer, by inheritance or gift, to individuals, enterprises, and undivided estates, of personal and real estate property, stocks, capital shares, and rights subject to registration.Exemptions: central, departmental, and municipal governments and public institutions; nonprofit associations, foundations, or institutions; and national heroes.
Ascendants, descendants, spouses1%
Siblings and their descendants10%
Other beneficiaries20%
Law 926 (Mar. 25, 1987) and Supreme Decrees 21789 (7 Dec87) and 24062 (May 6, 1997).
3.Taxes on goods and services
3.1Value-added tax
IVA (Impuesto al Valor Agregado). Laws 843 (May 20, 1986), 1314 (Feb. 27, 1987), 1606 (Dec. 22, 1994), and 1834 (March 31, 1998) and Supreme Decrees 21530 (Feb. 27, 1987), 24049 (July 29, 1995), 24438 (Dec. 13, 1996), 24062 (May 6, 1997), 24488 (Jan. 31, 1997), and 24852 (Sept. 20, 1997).A tax on recurrent sales or leasing of movable goods, final imports, building contracts, rentals, and other services provided in Bolivia.Exemptions: imports by diplomatic corps; bona fide imports up to US$1,000; real estate property; interest payments; most capital market transactions; and the sale or transfer of assets resulting from capital already invested or from the firm’s restructuring.13 percent, applied to the tax-inclusive price. Therefore, the effective rate is approximately 14.9 percent.
Customs duties are included in the base, but not so the excises.Tax credit: The VAT paid on purchases.
Under special tax regimes (3.4 and 4.1–4.3) the VAT liability is lumped into global tax payments.Zero-rating: exports (except of hydrocarbon products and some minerals and metals) qualify for VAT negotiable refund certificates (Certificado de Devolución impositiva-CEDEIM).
3.2Excise tax
ICE (Impuesto a los Consumos Especificos).A tax on specified goods and services imported or sold by their domestic producers.The ICE paid on inputs incorporated into exported goods is refunded to exporters of nontraditional and mining/metal goods in proportion to the amounts exported.
Cigarettes, other tobacco products50%
Motorvehiclesused 10%, other 18%
Soft drinks ex waters and juicesBs 0.15/liter
Beer, wines, brandy, whisky, aguardientes, singanis, other spiritsBs 1.20/liter
Corn liquor (chicha)Bs 0.30/liter
Other alcoholic beveragesBs 0.60/liter
Premium gasolineBs 1.35/liter
Special gasolineBs 0.92/liter
Diesel oilBs 0.10/liter
Jet fuelBs 0.14/liter
Oils and lubricantsBs 0.56/liter
Ad rem rates are adjusted annually w/exch. rate
Laws 843 (May 20, 1986), 1001 (June 29, 1988), 1052 (Feb. 8, 1989), 1232 (Feb. 7, 1990), 1141 (Feb. 13, 1990), 1314 (Feb. 17, 1992), 1606 (Dec. 22, 1994), and 1656 (July 31, 1995) and Supreme Decrees 21492 (Dec. 29, 1986), 21191 (Aug. 19, 1988), 24053 (June 29, 1995), and 24062 (May 6, 1997).Customs duties are included in the base, but not so the VAT.
3.3Tax on transactions
IT (Impuesto a las Transacciones).A tax on the gross income of individuals and state and private enterprises derived from trade, industry, professions, businesses, rents, construction, and other services. Payable monthly.Exemptions: wages of public and private employees; export proceeds; services rendered by the government (except state enterprises); interest on banking accounts; private education institutions officially recognized; printing and imports of books, newspapers, and informational publications; sales in the stock market; diplomatic services; domestic sales of minerals, metals, petroleum and natural gas.3 percent.
Laws 843 (May 20, 1986), 1141 (Feb. 13, 1990), and 1606 (Dec. 22, 1994) and Supreme Decrees 24052 (July 19, 1995), 24438 (Dec. 13, 1996), 24062 (May 5, 1997), 24692 (July 2, 1997), and 24849 (Sept. 20, 1997).Tax credit: The profits tax (1.2) paid is creditable against this tax.
The IT paid on inputs is not refunded to exporters.
3.4Tax on hydrocarbon products
IEHD (Impuesto Especial a los Hidrocarburos y sus Derivados).A tax, which is a component of the price ex terminal and varies with the reference price established in petroleum pricing regulations, on imports and domestic production of gasoline and diesel oil.None
Gasoline: RegularBs 1.18/liter
Gasoline: PremiumBs 1.63/liter
Diesel oil: DomesticBs 0.107/liter
Diesel oil: ImportedBs 0.73/liter
Laws 1606 (Dec. 22, 1994) and 1981 (May 27, 1999) and Supreme Decrees 25498 (Aug. 27, 1999), 25510 (Sep. 14, 1999), 25521 (Sep. 27, 1999), and 25540 (Oct. 14, 1999).
3.5Tax on hydrocarbon production (national royalties)
Law 1698 of April 30, 1996; Law 1731 of November 25, 1996.A royalty on the gross production by privatized None. (capitalized) units of the state oil company (YPFB).None
Old oil38%
of which: National royalty19%
Complementary royalty13%
Payment to residual YPFB6%
New oil:Payment to residual YPFB6%
YPFB will transfer to the Treasury the 6 percent royalty less the cost of administering contracts
3.6Tax on hydrocarbon production (departmental royalty)
IPPH (Impuesto sobre la Producción de Hidrocarburos). Law 1194 (Nov. 1, 1990); Law 1698 (Apr. 30, 1996); Law 1731 (Nov. 25, 1996).A departmental tax on the gross value of wellhead production of old and new hydrocarbons and on their products.None.
Rate12%
of which:Basic rate11%
Compensatory duty 1/1%
1/ Earmarked for Beni and Pando departments.
3.7Royalty on mining (departmental mining royalty)
ICM (Impuesto Complementario de la Mineria). Laws 1606 (Dec. 22, 1994), 1731 (Nov. 25, 1996), and 1777 (March 17, 1997); Supreme Decree 24780 (July 31, 1997).A royalty, fully transferred to departments, on the gross sales of extracted minerals, valued at ore’s official price. This tax is treated as a minimum income tax for the mining sector.None
Sales abroad: cold 4-7 percent, silver 3-6 percent, zinc 1-5 percent, lead 1-5 percent, tin 1-5 percent, precious metals and stones 1-5 percent, other minerals 3-6 percent.
Domestic sales: Rates 60 percent lower.
Tax credit: advance payments of IUE (1.21 can be set off against this tax.
3.8Tax on transfers of real estate property and motorvehicles
IMT (Impuesto Municipal a las Transferencias de Inmuebles y Vehiculos Automotores). Laws 1606 (Dec. 22, 1994) and 1731 (Nov. 25, 1996) and Supreme Decrees 24054 (July 29, 1995) and 24062 (May 6, 1997).A municipal tax on the value of the transfer of real estate property and vehicles. On leasing, the base is the price of the at which the purchase option was exercised. An exchange of goods is deemed two transfers.Exemptions: gifts and inheritances (2.31: purchases and sales of shares and securities; assets brought into companies being created or reorganized; imports; recurrent sales by traders and importers.3 percent.
3.9Tax on travel abroad
ISAE (Impuesto a las Salidas Aéreas al Exterior). Laws 1141 (Feb. 23, 1990) and 1731 (Nov. 25, 1996) and Supreme Decrees 22556 (July 28, 1990) and 24062 (May 6, 1997).A tax on airflights to foreign destinations.Exemptions: diplomats: children less than 2 years old; war veterans.
Trip to neighboring countriesBs 100
Trip to other countriesBs 150
4Special taxes on small-scale activities
4.1Simplified tax system
RTS (Régimen Tributario Simplificado). Supreme Decrees 21521 of Feb. 13, 1987; 22555 of July 25, 1990; Law 1606 of Dec. 22, 1994; Supreme Decree 24484 (rate schedule)A tax payable every other month by small retailers (comerciantes minoristas, with capital Bs 18,800), canteen operators (vivnderos), and craftsmen (artesanos), in lieu of VAT, complementary VAT, profits tax, and the transactions tax.Exemption: businesses with capital not exceeding Bs 2,000.
CapitalTax
Bs 2,001-Bs 3,600Bs 11
Bs 3,601-Bs 6,640Bs 45
Bs 6,641-Bs 9,680Bs 99
Bs 9,681-Bs 12,700Bs 148
Bs 12,701-Bs 15,760Bs 351
Bs 15,761-Bs 18,800Bs 438
4.2Integrated tax system
RT1 (Régimen Tributario Integrado). Supreme Decrees 21642 of June 30, 19S7; 21963 of June 30, 1988; 22835 of June 14, 1991: 23027 of Jan. 10, 1991; 23346 of Dec. 2, 1992.A tax on owners of one or two vehicles used for urban, interprovincial, and interdepartmental transport, in lieu of VAT, complementary VAT. profits tax, and the transactions tax. Payable in four quarterly installments.Urban, interprovincial, and international carriers are excluded from this system and are subject to the general tax system.Payment determined by the service provided and the district where registered.
CategoryQuarterly IncomeTax
BBs 1,000Bs 100
1Bs 1,500Bs 150
2Bs 2,750Bs 275
3Bs 4,000Bs 400
3ABs 7,000Bs 700
4.3Unified agriculture tax system
RAU (Régimen Agropecuario Unificado). Laws 843 (May 20, 1986), 1606 (Dec. 22, 1994), and 1715 (Oct. 18, 1996) and Supreme Decrees 24463 (Dec. 26, 1996), 25100 (July 15, 1998). 25302 (Feb. 12, 1999), 25322 (March 5, 1999), and 25333 (March 17, 1999).An annual tax paid in lieu of VAT, complementary VAT, transactions lax, and the profits tax on the owners (individuals or undivided estates) of medium-sized rural properties, cooperatives in agriculture and cattle raising, and properties used for poultry, fishing, beehiving, flower glowing, and rabbit raising.The regime does not apply to: cooperatives and sole-ownership properties classified as enterprises; rural properties smaller than the exemption threshold; rural properties larger than the upper threshold (which are subject to the general tax regime).Rates are expressed in Bs per hectare and vary with location, type of activity (agriculture and cattle raising), and size of property.
5.Tax on international transactions
5.1Consolidated customs duty
GAC (Gravamen Aduanero Consolidado). Supreme Decrees 21060 (Aug. 29, 1985), 21367 (Aug. 13, 1986), 21660 (July 10, 1987), 21910 (Apr. 6, 1988), 22407 (Jan. 11, 1990), 22585 (Aug. 20, 1990), 23766 (Apr. 21, 1994), 22459 (Nov. 6, 1995), 24422 (Nov. 29, 1996), 24488 (Jan. 31, 1997), and 25465 (July 23, 1999).A customs tariff system applied to the c.i.f. value of imports at the port of entry.Exemptions: imports of wheat, wheat flour, sugar, and yellow corn.
Consumption goods10%
Capital goods5%
Books and magazines2%
Refunds: Exporters may request a refund of the GAC under the CEDEIM modality (3.1).
Treaties for avoiding double taxation: Andean Group (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela) (Supreme Decree 10343 of July 7, 1972), Argentina (Decree 21780), France (Law 1655 of June 30, 1995), Germany (Law 1462 of Feb. 18, 1993), Sweden (Law 1645 of July 13, 1995), and the United Kingdom (Law 1643 of July 11, 1995).
Treaties for avoiding double taxation: Andean Group (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela) (Supreme Decree 10343 of July 7, 1972), Argentina (Decree 21780), France (Law 1655 of June 30, 1995), Germany (Law 1462 of Feb. 18, 1993), Sweden (Law 1645 of July 13, 1995), and the United Kingdom (Law 1643 of July 11, 1995).

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